Sample records for range soils principal

  1. The Use of Principal Components in Long-Range Forecasting (United States)

    Chern, Jonq-Gong

    Large-scale modes of the global sea surface temperatures and the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation are described by principal component analysis. The first and the second SST components well describe the El Nino episodes, and the El Nino index (ENI), suggested in this study, is consistent with the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI), where this ENI is a composite component of the weighted first and second SST components. The large-scale interactive modes of the coupling ocean-atmosphere system are identified by cross-correlation analysis The result shows that the first SST component is strongly correlated with the first component of geopotential height in lead time of 6 months. In the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution, the El Nino mode strongly influences the winter tropospheric circulation in the mid -latitudes for up to three leading seasons. The regional long-range variation of climate is investigated with these major components of the SST and the tropospheric circulation. In the mid-latitude, the climate of the central United States shows a weak linkage with these large-scale circulations, and the climate of the western United States appears to be consistently associated with the ENSO modes. These El Nino modes also show a dominant influence on Eastern Asia as evidenced in Taiwan Mei-Yu patterns. Possible regional long-range forecasting schemes, utilizing the complementary characteristics of the winter El Nino mode and SST anomalies, are examined with the Taiwan Mei-Yu.

  2. Characterization of soil chemical properties of strawberry fields using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Oliveira Islabão


    Full Text Available One of the largest strawberry-producing municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is Turuçu, in the South of the State. The strawberry production system adopted by farmers is similar to that used in other regions in Brazil and in the world. The main difference is related to the soil management, which can change the soil chemical properties during the strawberry cycle. This study had the objective of assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil fertility parameters using principal component analysis (PCA. Soil sampling was based on topography, dividing the field in three thirds: upper, middle and lower. From each of these thirds, five soil samples were randomly collected in the 0-0.20 m layer, to form a composite sample for each third. Four samples were taken during the strawberry cycle and the following properties were determined: soil organic matter (OM, soil total nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P and potassium (K, exchangeable calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg, soil pH (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7.0, soil base (V% and soil aluminum saturation(m%. No spatial variation was observed for any of the studied soil fertility parameters in the strawberry fields and temporal variation was only detected for available K. Phosphorus and K contents were always high or very high from the beginning of the strawberry cycle, while pH values ranged from very low to very high. Principal component analysis allowed the clustering of all strawberry fields based on variables related to soil acidity and organic matter content.

  3. Principal methods for isolation and identification of soil microbial communities. (United States)

    Stefanis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Athanasios; Voidarou, Chrissa; Vavias, Stavros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia


    Soil microbial populations play crucial role in soil properties and influence below-ground ecosystem processes. Microbial composition and functioning changes the soil quality through decomposition of organic matter, recycling of nutrients, and biological control of parasites of plants. Moreover, the discovery that soil microbes may translate into benefits for biotechnology, management of agricultural, forest, and natural ecosystems, biodegradation of pollutants, and waste treatment systems maximized the need of scientists for the isolation and their characterization. Operations such as the production of antibiotics and enzymic activities from microorganisms of soil constitute objectives of industry in her effort to cope with the increase of population of earth and disturbance of environment and may ameliorate the effects of global climate change. In the past decades, new biochemical and molecular techniques have been developed in our effort to identify and classify soil bacteria. The goal of measuring the soil microbial diversity is difficult because of the limited knowledge about bacteria species and classification through families and orders. Molecular techniques extend our knowledge about microbial diversity and help the taxonomy of species. Measuring and monitoring soil microbial communities can lead us to better understanding of their composition and function in many ecosystem processes.

  4. Soil Classification based on their Chemical Composition using Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamolchanok Panishkan


    Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA, was used to group of 54 soil samples collected from different agricultural locations in the western part of Thailand. Soil chemical compositions were measured by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX. The basic result indicated decreased amount of O, Si, Al, Fe, C, K, Mg, Ca, Ti and Na. The first three principal components were used and accounted for 44.0%, 19.5% and 15.0% of total variation of the data, respectively. Score plots of first three principal components were used to map with soil textures classified as clay, clay loam and medium loam. The results showed some relationships between chemical contents and soil textures. PCA was shown to be a useful tool for soil texture classification based on their chemical compositions.

  5. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo


    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  6. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan


    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  7. Immobilization of lead in shooting range soil using biochar from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... treatment with SMSB, the soil pH and CEC were increased and the concentration of exchangeable Pb decreased. Conclusively, this study found that there is potential in using SMSB for remediating Pb contamination in the shooting range soil. Keywords: Spent mushroom compost; charcoal; black carbon; immobilization ...

  8. Analysis of heavy metal sources in soil using kriging interpolation on principal components. (United States)

    Ha, Hoehun; Olson, James R; Bian, Ling; Rogerson, Peter A


    Anniston, Alabama has a long history of operation of foundries and other heavy industry. We assessed the extent of heavy metal contamination in soils by determining the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, V, and Zn) based on 2046 soil samples collected from 595 industrial and residential sites. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was adopted to characterize the distribution of heavy metals in soil in this region. In addition, a geostatistical technique (kriging) was used to create regional distribution maps for the interpolation of nonpoint sources of heavy metal contamination using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. There were significant differences found between sampling zones in the concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the levels of Ni. Three main components explaining the heavy metal variability in soils were identified. The results suggest that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were associated with anthropogenic activities, such as the operations of some foundries and major railroads, which released these heavy metals, whereas the presence of Co, Mn, and V were controlled by natural sources, such as soil texture, pedogenesis, and soil hydrology. In general terms, the soil levels of heavy metals analyzed in this study were higher than those reported in previous studies in other industrial and residential communities.

  9. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  10. Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song-Hun


    Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low and high stress levels; all updated models involve four parameters. Compiled consolidation data for remolded and natural clays are used to test the models and to develop correlations between model parameters and index properties. Models can adequately fit soil compression data for a wide range of stresses and soil types; in particular, models that involve the power of the stress σ\\'β display higher flexibility to capture the brittle response of some natural soils. The use of a single continuous function avoids numerical discontinuities or the need for ad hoc procedures to determine the yield stress. The tangent stiffness-readily computed for all models-should not be mistaken for the small-strain constant-fabric stiffness. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  11. Spectral estimation of soil water content in visible and near infra-red range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Nagy


    Full Text Available Soils can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using such methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds small spectral channel (some nm. Based on the spectral characteristics of the soils, or the different index numbers calculated from hyperspectral data water content of soils can be well characterized. The examined soil samples were coming from different apple orchards of which soils had different physical characteristics (sandy loamy and clay. The goals of my experiments were the evaluation of spectral measurement method for soil content detection, and to carry out algorithms for fast field scale spectral evaluation of different soil water content. The spectral measuring was carried out by laboratory scale AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer at 400 – 1000 nm wavelength interval with 0.6 nm spectral resolutions and by ASD FieldSpec Junior at 350 – 2500 nm. After drying, dry soil samples were watered by 2.5 m/m% till maximal saturation, and each wetting was measured spectrally. Based on spectral properties, reflectances were decreased in the whole spectral range within the continuous wetting due to the high absorption characteristics of water. The most water sensitive spectral ranges were selected by principal component, and such algorithms were created, with which the water content can be detectable in the certain soil. The algorithms can facilitate farmers for irrigation scheduling of their orchards. These results can also be utilizable in precision water management, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time water status assessment of orchards.

  12. Spectral reflectance and soil morphology characteristics of Santa Rita Experimental Range soils (United States)

    A. Karim Batchily; Donald F. Post; R. B. Bryant; Donald J. Breckenfeld


    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) soils are mostly transported alluvial sediments that occur on the piedmont slope flanking the Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona. The major geomorphic land forms are alluvial fans or fan terraces, but there are also areas of residual soils formed on granite and limestone bedrock, basin floor, stream terraces, and flood plains. The...

  13. Detecting 3-D rotational motion and extracting target information from the principal component analysis of scatterer range histories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, W


    Full Text Available to estimate the 3-D position of scatterers as a by-product of the analysis. The technique is based on principal component analysis of accurate scatterer range histories and is shown only in simulation. Future research should focus on practical application....

  14. Evaluation of Soil Loss and Erosion Control Measures on Ranges and Range Structures at Installations in Temperate Climates (United States)


    classified as discontinu- ous loess on bedrock and are finely textured silty clays and silty loams (Noble et al. 1990). The first visit to Camp...challenge as vegetation reestablishment is diffi- cult on the remaining eroded nutrient -poor soil. Investigations of newly constructed embankments as in...concentrations through range monitoring. Camp Atterbury Soils The soils in this area are classified as discontinuous loess on bedrock. Soil surveys completed

  15. Shifts in soil microorganisms in response to warming are consistent across a range of Antarctic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Bokhorst, S.F.; Kang, S.; Zhou, J.; Greer, C.W.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.


    Because of severe abiotic limitations, Antarctic soils represent simplified systems, where microorganisms are the principal drivers of nutrient cycling. This relative simplicity makes these ecosystems particularly vulnerable to perturbations, like global warming, and the Antarctic Peninsula is among

  16. Range of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for Pistacia atlantica forest development and rehabilitation (case study: Fars province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejabat Masoud


    Full Text Available Investigation of ranges of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for the tolerant species: Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica according to field study was the main objective of this research. This study was carried out based on random sampling across 20×20 km wild pistachio forests of Fars province (Iran. Results showed that mountainous and hilly lands are the main land types that pistachio species have evolved on. Statistical analysis of physical and chemical soil characteristics based on principal component analysis (PCA method showed that wide ranges in soil characteristics, even up to about 40% differentiation in some measured properties, did not restricts this subspecies natural growth. The main growth limiting factors were shallow soil depth and light soil texture that decreased storage capacity of soil moisture, necessary for wild pistachios survival during drought and long dry periods. Climatic elements were analysed through the same approach and showed that temperature, precipitation and wind with overall variability of 85.9% were the most effectual factors. Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica is one of the species refractory to various soil conditions and adapted to weak soils for the establishment and rehabilitation of forests in semi-arid regions.

  17. Predictive soil mapping in southern Arizona's basin and range (United States)

    Levi, Matthew Robert

    A fundamental knowledge gap in understanding land-atmosphere interactions is accurate, high-resolution soil properties. Remote sensing and spatial modeling techniques can bridge the gap between site-specific soil properties and landscape variability, thereby improving predictions of soil attributes. Three studies were completed to advance soil prediction models in semiarid areas. The first study developed a soil pre-mapping technique using automated image segmentation that utilized soil-landscape relationships and surface reflectance to produce an effective map unit design in a 160,000 ha soil survey area. Overall classification accuracy of soil taxonomic units at the suborder was 58 % after including soil temperature regime. Physical soil properties were not significantly different for individual transects; however, properties were significantly different between soil pre-map units when soils from the entire study area were compared. Other studies used a raster approach to predict physical soil properties at a 5 m spatial resolution for a 6,265 ha area using digital soil mapping. The second study utilized remotely-sensed auxiliary data to develop a sampling design and compared three geostatistical techniques for predicting surface soil properties. Ordinary kriging had the smallest prediction error; however, regression kriging preserved landscape features present in the study area and demonstrated the potential of this technique for quantifying variability of soil components within soil map units. The third study applied quantitative data from soil prediction models in study 2 and additional models of subsurface properties to a pedotransfer function for predicting hydraulic soil parameters at the landscape scale. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters were used to predict water residence times for loss to gravity and evapotranspiration across the landscape. High water residence time for gravitational water corresponded to both low drainage

  18. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braida, Washington [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail:; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); O' Connor, Gregory [US Army, Environmental Technology Division, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States)


    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu.

  19. The effect of bullet removal and vegetation on mobility of Pb in shooting range soils. (United States)

    Fayiga, Abioye O; Saha, Uttam


    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting ranges is a public health concern because Pb is a toxic metal. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two best management practices; bullet removal and vegetation, on bioavailability and leachability of Pb in three shooting range (SR) soils. St. Augustine grass was grown in sieved (2 mm) and un-sieved SR soils for 8 weeks after which leachates, soil and plant samples were analyzed. Bullet removal reduced total soil Pb, increased Mehlich-3 Pb in unvegetated soils and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all soils. Bullet removal increased leaching in two SR soils while grasses reduced leaching but increased water soluble Pb in two SR soils. The roots of the grasses were able to accumulate more Pb in the root (1893-5021 mg kg(-1)) than the aboveground biomass (252-880 mg kg(-1)) due to mobilization of Pb in the rhizosphere. Grasses had a higher plant biomass in unsieved soils suggesting tolerance to the presence of bullets in the unsieved soils. Results suggest that bullet removal probably increased microbial activity and Pb bioavailability in the soil. The leaching and bioavailability of Pb in shooting range soils depends on biological activities and chemical processes in the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A simplified close range photogrammetry method for soil erosion assessment (United States)

    With the increased affordability of consumer grade cameras and the development of powerful image processing software, digital photogrammetry offers a competitive advantage as a tool for soil erosion estimation compared to other technologies. One bottleneck of digital photogrammetry is its dependency...

  1. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.


    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can “homogenize” soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  2. Analysis of factors controlling soil phosphorus loss with surface runoff in Huihe National Nature Reserve by principal component and path analysis methods. (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Bu, He; Wo, Qiang


    Phosphorus (P) loss with surface runoff accounts for the P input to and acceleration of eutrophication of the freshwater. Many studies have focused on factors affecting P loss with surface runoff from soils, but rarely on the relationship among these factors. In the present study, rainfall simulation on P loss with surface runoff was conducted in Huihe National Nature Reserve, in Hulunbeier grassland, China, and the relationships between P loss with surface runoff, soil properties, and rainfall conditions were examined. Principal component analysis and path analysis were used to analyze the direct and indirect effects on P loss with surface runoff. The results showed that P loss with surface runoff was closely correlated with soil electrical conductivity, soil pH, soil Olsen P, soil total nitrogen (TN), soil total phosphorus (TP), and soil organic carbon (SOC). The main driving factors which influenced P loss with surface runoff were soil TN, soil pH, soil Olsen P, and soil water content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated that the standard multiple regression equation for P loss with surface runoff and each main factor was Y = 7.429 - 0.439 soil TN - 6.834 soil pH + 1.721 soil Olsen-P + 0.183 soil water content (r = 0.487, p < 0.01, n = 180). Soil TN, soil pH, soil Olsen P, and soil water content and the interactions between them were the main factors affecting P loss with surface runoff. The effect of physical and chemical properties of undisturbed soils on P loss with surface runoff was discussed, and the soil water content and soil Olsen P were strongly positive influences on the P loss with surface runoff.

  3. Componentes principais como preditores no mapeamento digital de classes de solos Principal components as predictor variables in digital mapping of soil classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten


    Full Text Available Tecnologias disponíveis para a observação da Terra oferecem uma grande gama de informações sobre componentes ambientais que, por estarem relacionadas com a formação dos solos, podem ser usadas como variáveis preditoras no Mapeamento Digital de Solos (MDS. No entanto, modelos com um grande número de preditores, bem como a existência de multicolinearidade entre os dados, podem ser ineficazes no mapeamento de classes e propriedades do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi empregar a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP visando a selecionar e diminuir o número de preditores na regressão logística múltipla multinomial (RLMM utilizada no mapeamento de classes de solos. Nove covariáveis ambientais, ligadas ao fator de formação relevo, foram derivadas de um Modelo Digital de Elevação e denominadas variáveis originais, estas foram submetidas à ACP e transformadas em Componentes Principais (CP. As RLMM foram desenvolvidas utilizando-se atributos de terreno e as CP como variáveis explicativas. O mapa de solos gerado a partir de três CP (65,6% da variância original obteve um índice kappa de 37,3%, inferior aos 48,5% alcançado pelo mapa de solos gerado a partir de todas as nove variáveis originais.Available technologies for Earth observation offer a wide range of predictors relevant to Digital Soil Mapping (DSM. However, models with a large number of predictors, as well as, the existence of multicollinearity among the data, may be ineffective in the mapping of classes and soil properties. The aim of this study was to use the Principal Component Analysis (PCA to reduce the number of predictors in the multinomial logistic regression (MLR used in soil mapping. Nine environmental covariates, related to the relief factor of soil formation, were derived from a digital elevation model and named the original variables, which were submitted to PCA and transformed into principal components (PC. The MLR were developed using the terrain

  4. Soil functional operating range linked to microbial biodiversity and community composition using denitrifiers as model guild. (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Welsh, Allana; Stenström, John; Hallet, Stephanie; Enwall, Karin; Bru, David; Philippot, Laurent


    Soil microorganisms are key players in biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is no consistent view on the significance of microbial biodiversity for soil ecosystem functioning. According to the insurance hypothesis, declines in ecosystem functioning due to reduced biodiversity are more likely to occur under fluctuating, extreme or rapidly changing environmental conditions. Here, we compare the functional operating range, a new concept defined as the complete range of environmental conditions under which soil microbial communities are able to maintain their functions, between four naturally assembled soil communities from a long-term fertilization experiment. A functional trait approach was adopted with denitrifiers involved in nitrogen cycling as our model soil community. Using short-term temperature and salt gradients, we show that the functional operating range was broader and process rates were higher when the soil community was phylogenetically more diverse. However, key bacterial genotypes played an important role for maintaining denitrification as an ecosystem functioning under certain conditions.

  5. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    . Plasmids are implicated in the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria, making it crucial to be able to quantify, understand, and, ideally, control plasmid transfer in mixed microbial communities. The fate of plasmids in microbial communities...... for plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes is increasingly suspected to majorly contribute to the emergence of multi-resistant pathogens. More specifically, I examined what fraction of a soil microbial community is permissive to plasmids, identified the phylogenetic identity of this fraction and studied......Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements facilitates adaptive and evolutionary processes in bacteria. Among the known mobile genetic elements, plasmids can confer their hosts with accessory adaptive traits, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances, or additional metabolic pathways...

  6. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay


    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  7. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hockmann, K.; Tandy, S.; Lenz, M.; Reiser, R.; Conesa, H.; Keller, M.; Studer, B.; Schulin, R.


    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions

  8. Soil microbial community structure of range-expanding plant species differs from co-occurring natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morriën, W.E.; Putten, van der W.H.


    1. Due to global warming and other changes in the environment, many native and exotic plant species show range expansion from lower to higher latitudes. In the new range, the (in)ability of range-expanding plants to establish associations with local soil microbes can have important consequences for

  9. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS (United States)

    Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob


    Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data. PMID:26090852

  10. Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Range Data from MODIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Cai Wang

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface temperature is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface temperature product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day temperature, night temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm, clay (< 0.001 mm and physical clay (< 0.01 mm contents. The models for each day were used to estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data.

  11. Role of soil organic carbon and colloids in sorption and transport of TNT, RDX and HMX in training range soils. (United States)

    Sharma, Prasesh; Mayes, Melanie A; Tang, Guoping


    Contamination of soils and groundwater by munitions compounds (MCs) is of significant concern at many U.S. Department of Defense sites. Soils were collected from operational training ranges in Maryland (APG), Massachusetts (MMR-B and MMR-E) and Washington (JBLM) and sorption and transport studies were conducted to investigate the effects of soil organic carbon (OC) and textural clay content on fate of dissolved MCs (TNT, RDX, HMX). Sorption experiments showed higher distribution coefficients [TNT:42-68 L kg(-1), RDX:6.9-8.7 L kg(-1) and HMX:2.6-3.1 L kg(-1)] in OC rich soils (JBLM, MMR-E) compared to clay rich soils (MMR-B and APG) [TNT:19-21 L kg(-1), RDX:2.5-3.4 L kg(-1), HMX:0.9-1.2 L kg(-1)]. In column experiments, breakthrough of MCs was faster in MMR-B and APG compared to MMR-E and JBLM soils. Among TNT, RDX and HMX, breakthrough was fastest for RDX followed by HMX and TNT for all columns. Defining the colloidal fraction as the difference between unfiltered samples and samples filtered with a 3 kDa filter, ~36%, ~15% and ~9% of TNT, RDX and HMX were found in the colloidal fraction in the solutions from sorption experiments, and around 20% of TNT in the effluent from the transport experiments. Results demonstrate that OC rich soils may enhance sorption and delay transport of TNT, RDX and HMX compared to clay-rich soils. Further, transport of TNT may be associated with soil colloid mobilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices. (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K


    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A network of experimental forests and ranges: Providing soil solutions for a changing world (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams


    The network of experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service represents significant opportunities to provide soil solutions to critical issues of a changing world. This network of 81 experimental forests and ranges encompasses broad geographic, biological, climatic and physical scales, and includes long-term data sets, and long-term experimental...

  14. Evaluation of canola chlorophyll index and leaf nitrogen under wide range of soil moisture (United States)

    Meskini-Vishkaee, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hosein; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza; Shekari, Farid


    The paper presents a study on the effect of soil matric suction on the variation of leaf chlorophyll index and nitrogen concentration of canola. Results showed that chlorophyll index increases exponentially with soil matric suction, especially at the late season of canola growing time. At moderate matric suction (200 and 300 kPa soil suction heads), chlorophyll index remains nearly constant, but in drier soil (matric suction >300 kPa), chlorophyll index increases gradually with time. Despite the variation of the total leaf nitrogen with the soil matric suction, it is similar to the variation of the chlorophyll index, but the results showed that the chlorophyll index - nitrogen concentration curve has a demarcated bi-modal shape. We suggest that 2.7% of nitrogen and 69.8 of the chlorophyll index value represent the upper limit of the chlorophyll meter reliability for estimation of canola nitrogen under a wide range of soil moisture levels. These results confirm that the chlorophyll meter can be used as an effective tool for rapid and non-destructive estimation of the relative chlorophyll and nitrogen content in canola leaves at a wide range of soil moisture content, except for nearly wilting coefficient or extremely high drought stress

  15. Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil. (United States)

    Yan, Yubo; Qi, Fangjie; Seshadri, Balaji; Xu, Yilu; Hou, Jiexi; Ok, Yong Sik; Dong, Xiaoli; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun; Bolan, Nanthi


    The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lead retention by broiler litter biochars in small arms range soil: impact of pyrolysis temperature. (United States)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M; Klasson, K Thomas


    Phosphorus-rich manure biochar has a potential for stabilizing Pb and other heavy metal contaminants, as well as serving as a sterile fertilizer. In this study, broiler litter biochars produced at 350 and 650 °C were employed to understand how biochar's elemental composition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn) affects the extent of heavy metal stabilization. Soil incubation experiments were conducted using a sandy, slightly acidic (pH 6.11) Pb-contaminated (19906 mg kg(-1) total Pb primarily as PbCO(3)) small arms range (SAR) soil fraction (soils) and releasing P, K, Ca, and other plant nutrients in a sandy acidic soil.

  17. Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera) from the invasive range outperform those from the native range with an active soil community or phosphorus fertilization. (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan


    Two mechanisms that have been proposed to explain success of invasive plants are unusual biotic interactions, such as enemy release or enhanced mutualisms, and increased resource availability. However, while these mechanisms are usually considered separately, both may be involved in successful invasions. Biotic interactions may be positive or negative and may interact with nutritional resources in determining invasion success. In addition, the effects of different nutrients on invasions may vary. Finally, genetic variation in traits between populations located in introduced versus native ranges may be important for biotic interactions and/or resource use. Here, we investigated the roles of soil biota, resource availability, and plant genetic variation using seedlings of Triadica sebifera in an experiment in the native range (China). We manipulated nitrogen (control or 4 g/m(2)), phosphorus (control or 0.5 g/m(2)), soil biota (untreated or sterilized field soil), and plant origin (4 populations from the invasive range, 4 populations from the native range) in a full factorial experiment. Phosphorus addition increased root, stem, and leaf masses. Leaf mass and height growth depended on population origin and soil sterilization. Invasive populations had higher leaf mass and growth rates than native populations did in fresh soil but they had lower, comparable leaf mass and growth rates in sterilized soil. Invasive populations had higher growth rates with phosphorus addition but native ones did not. Soil sterilization decreased specific leaf area in both native and exotic populations. Negative effects of soil sterilization suggest that soil pathogens may not be as important as soil mutualists for T. sebifera performance. Moreover, interactive effects of sterilization and origin suggest that invasive T. sebifera may have evolved more beneficial relationships with the soil biota. Overall, seedlings from the invasive range outperformed those from the native range, however

  18. Laboratory Column Evaluation of High Explosives Attenuation in Grenade Range Soils. (United States)

    Won, Jongho; Borden, Robert C


    High explosives (HEs) deposited on military ranges can leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater. We examined the transport and fate of HEs in laboratory columns containing soils from two hand grenade bays (Bays C and T) and the impact of organic amendments on biodegradation. Soil characteristics were similar; however, Bay C had somewhat higher clay and organic C. Experimental treatments included addition of crude glycerin and lignosulfonate, and parallel control columns. Experimental results showed extensive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) degradation with minimal leaching, consistent with prior batch microcosm results. Amendment addition enhanced TNT degradation in both Bays C and T compared with controls. Although hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, or RDX) did not biodegrade in prior aerobic batch microcosms, 64 to 77% of RDX biodegraded in untreated soil columns with O present in the mobile soil gas. The RDX biodegradation was likely associated with short-term anoxic conditions or anoxic micro-niches. In nearly saturated Bay C columns, RDX removal increased to >92%. Amendment addition to unsaturated Bay T columns increased RDX removal to >86%. In one column, the soil remained anoxic (O < 5% by volume) for about a year after amendment addition, significantly reducing RDX leaching. Nitroso degradation products were produced equivalent to 9 to 39% of the RDX degraded, with most retained in the soil (9-37%) and 0 to 3% in the effluent. These results demonstrate that RDX biodegradation can occur in soils with measurable O, and that amendment addition can reduce RDX leaching by stimulating anaerobic biodegradation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Stabilizing lead bullets in shooting range soil by phosphate-based surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua


    Full Text Available Soil lead (Pb is well known as a threat to human health and ecosystem. Although relatively insoluble, lead bullets in shooting range soil can be readily released into soluble forms through natural weathering processes and thus pose significant human and environmental risks. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate if the Pb bullets in shooting range soil can be stabilized through surface coating of phosphate-based materials. Results indicated that FePO4 or AlPO4 coatings, insoluble metal phosphates, have been successfully formed on the surface of the Pb bullets. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test showed that FePO4 or AlPO4 surface coating would effectively reduce the Pb solubility or leachability of the bullets. The surface coating under pH of <5.5 for 7 days could achieve 92–100% reduction, with 85–98% by FePO4 coating and 77–98% by AlPO4 coating as compared with the non-coating. Leachable Pb concentration in the contaminated shooting range soil was reduced by 85–98% or 77–98% as a result of the FePO4 or AlPO4 solution treatment. This study demonstrated that the FePO4 or AlPO4–based surface coating on lead bullets can effectively inhibit the Pb weathering and significantly reduce the Pb release from soil through in situ chemical stabilization, which could be potentially applicable as a cost-effective and environmental-sound technology for the remediation of Pb-contaminated shooting range soil.

  20. Least limiting water range of Udox soil under degraded pastures on different sun-exposed faces (United States)

    Passos, Renato Ribeiro; Marciano da Costa, Liovando; Rodrigues de Assis, Igor; Santos, Danilo Andrade; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Guimarães, Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata; Andrade, Felipe Vaz


    The efficient use of water is increasingly important and proper soil management, within the specificities of each region of the country, allows achieving greater efficiency. The South and Caparaó regions of Espírito Santo, Brazil are characterized by relief of `hill seas' with differences in the degree of pasture degradation due to sun exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the least limiting water range in Udox soil under degraded pastures with two faces of exposure to the sun and three pedoenvironments. In each pedoenvironment, namely Alegre, Celina, and Café, two areas were selected, one with exposure on the North/West face and the other on the South/East face. In each of these areas, undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth to determine the least limiting water range. The exposed face of the pasture that received the highest solar incidence (North/West) presented the lowest values in least limiting water range. The least limiting water range proved to be a physical quality indicator for Udox soil under degraded pastures.

  1. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.


    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  2. Plant host range of Verticillium longisporum and microsclerotia density in Swedisch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.; Goud, J.C.; Dixelius, C.


    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne fungal pathogen causing vascular wilt of Brassica crops. This study was conducted to enhance our knowledge on the host range of V. longisporum. Seven crop species (barley, oat, oilseed rape, pea, red clover, sugar beet and wheat) and five weed species (barren

  3. Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Peter [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, University Parade, 5095 Mawson Lakes (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, University Parade, 5095 Mawson Lakes (Australia); Bolan, Nanthi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, University Parade, 5095 Mawson Lakes (Australia); Lim, Jung Eun; Ok, Yong Sik [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Quantitative speciation of Pb by XAS as a result of Phosphate and MgO treatment revealed Pb converted to pyromorphite was limited. • Subsequent MgO addition increased pyromorphite formation. • Pb was precipitated on the surface of MgO as PbO. • Bioaccessibility of Pb decreased with P treatments, but not with MgO only. - Abstract: Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO. Soil pH, (5.3–9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants.

  4. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado (United States)

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.


    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  5. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress (United States)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.


    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  6. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise; Dechesne, Arnaud


    range of IncP- and IncPromA-type broad host range plasmids from three proteobacterial donors to a soil bacterial community. We identified transfer to many different recipients belonging to 11 different bacterial phyla. The prevalence of transconjugants belonging to diverse Gram-positive Firmicutes...... and Actinobacteria suggests that inter-Gram plasmid transfer of IncP-1 and IncPromA-type plasmids is a frequent phenomenon. While the plasmid receiving fractions of the community were both plasmid- and donor- dependent, we identified a core super-permissive fraction that could take up different plasmids from diverse...... donor strains. This fraction, comprising 80% of the identified transconjugants, thus has the potential to dominate IncP- and IncPromA-type plasmid transfer in soil. Our results demonstrate that these broad host range plasmids have a hitherto unrecognized potential to transfer readily to very diverse...

  7. Tree range expansion may be enhanced by escape from negative plant-soil feedbacks. (United States)

    McCarthy-Neumann, Sarah; Ibáñez, Inés


    Many plant species are expected to shift their distributional ranges in response to global warming. As they arrive at new sites, migrant plant species may be released from their natural soil pathogens and/or deprived of key symbiotic organisms. Under such scenarios plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) will likely have an impact on plant species' ability to establish in new areas. In this study we evaluated the role that PSF may play on the migratory potential of dominant temperate tree species at the northern limit of their distributional range in the Great Lakes region of North America. To test their ability to expand their current range, we assessed seedling establishment, i.e., survival, of local and potential migrant tree species in a field transplant experiment. To test for the presence and strength of PSF, we also assessed seedling survival during establishment in a greenhouse experiment, where the potential migrant species were grown in soils collected within and beyond their distributional ranges. The combination of experiments provided us with a comprehensive understanding of the role of PSF in seedling establishment in new areas. In the field, we found that survival for most migrant species was similar to those of the local community, ensuring that these species could establish in areas beyond their current range. In the greenhouse, we found that the majority of species experienced strong negative conspecific feedbacks mediated by soil biota, but these responses occurred for most species only in low light conditions. Lastly, our combined results indicate that migrant tree species can colonize and may even have enhanced short-term recruitment beyond their ranges due to a lack of conspecific adults (and the resulting negative PSF from these adults).

  8. A simplified Excel® algorithm for estimating the least limiting water range of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Tairone Paiva


    Full Text Available The least limiting water range (LLWR of soils has been employed as a methodological approach for evaluation of soil physical quality in different agricultural systems, including forestry, grasslands and major crops. However, the absence of a simplified methodology for the quantification of LLWR has hampered the popularization of its use among researchers and soil managers. Taking this into account this work has the objective of proposing and describing a simplified algorithm developed in Excel® software for quantification of the LLWR, including the calculation of the critical bulk density, at which the LLWR becomes zero. Despite the simplicity of the procedures and numerical techniques of optimization used, the nonlinear regression produced reliable results when compared to those found in the literature.

  9. Effect of heavy metal contaminated shooting range soils on mycorrhizal colonization of roots and metal uptake by leek. (United States)

    Mozafar, A; Ruh, R; Klingel, P; Gamper, H; Egli, S; Frossard, E


    We grew leek (Allium porrum) in soils of two shooting ranges heavily contaminated with heavy metals in the towns of Zuchwil and Oberuzwil in Switzerland as a bioassay to test the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in these soils. Soil samples were taken from (1) front of the shooting house (HOUSE), (2) the area between house and target (FIELD) and (3) the berm (BACKSTOP). Samples of Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) growing naturally within the shooting ranges were also collected and the colonization of its roots by mycorrhizal fungi was measured. The number of AM spores in the soils was significantly reduced concomitant with the increase in the degree of soil contamination with metals. In Zuchwil, mycorrhizal fungi equally colonized roots of Ribwort plantain sampled from BACKSTOP and HOUSE. In Oberuzwil, however, plants from BACKSTOP had lower colonization when compared with those sampled from HOUSE. Colonization of leek was strongly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Zuchwil and slightly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Oberuzwil when compared with plants grown in respective HOUSE soil. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the leaves of leek grown in the BACKSTOP soil was within the range considered toxic for human consumption. This points to the high degree of bioavailability of these metal in these soils. Significant decrease in the number of mycorrhizal spores in the BACKSTOP soils in Zuchwil and the low colonization of leek roots grown in these soils point to possible changes in the species diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in these soils.

  10. Effects of Microbial and Phosphate Amendments on the Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin; Wilson, Christina; Knox, Anna; Seaman, John; Smith, Garriet


    Heavy metals including lead (Pb) are released continually into the environment as a result of industrial, recreational, and military activities. Lead ranked number two on the CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances and was identified as a major hazardous chemical found on 47% of USEPA's National Priorities List sites (Hettiarachchi and Pierzynski 2004). In-situ remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils may be accomplished by changing the soil chemistry and structure with the application of microbial and phosphate amendments. Soil contaminated with lead bullets was collected from the surface of the berm at Savannah River Site (SRS) Small Arms Training Academy (SATA) in Aiken, SC. While uncontaminated soils typically have Pb levels ranging from 2 to 200 mg/kg (Berti et al. 1998), previous analysis show Pb levels of the SATA berm to reach 8,673 mg/kg. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds naturally produced by soil bacteria that can bind metals. Biosurfactants have a wide variety of chemical structures that reduce interfacial surface tensions (Jennings and Tanner 2000) and have demonstrated efficient metal complexion (Lin 1996). Biosurfactants also have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (Strong-Gunderson 1995). Two types of bacteria, Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida, were employed as amendments based on their ability to produce biosurfactants and survive in metal-contaminated soils. Apatites (calcium phosphate compounds) are important in the formation of Pb phosphates. Pb phosphates form rapidly when phosphate is available and are the most stable environmental form of lead in soil (Ruby et al.1998). Pyromorphites in particular remain insoluble under a wide range of environmental conditions (Zhang et al. 1998). The three apatites evaluated in the current study were North Carolina apatite (NCA), Florida apatite (FA), and biological apatite (BA). BA is ground fish bone that has few impurities such as As, Cr

  11. Mapping soil texture targeting predefined depth range or synthetizing from standard layers? (United States)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Dezső Kaposi, András; Szatmári, Gábor; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László


    There are increasing demands nowadays on spatial soil information in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. Physical soil properties, especially particle size distribution play important role in this context. A few of the requirements can be satisfied by the sand-, silt-, and clay content maps compiled according to global standards such as GlobalSoilMap (GSM) or Soil Grids. Soil texture classes (e. g. according to USDA classification) can be derived from these three fraction data, in this way texture map can be compiled based on the proper separate maps. Soil texture class as well as fraction information represent direct input of crop-, meteorological- and hydrological models. The model inputs frequently require maps representing soil features of 0-30 cm depth, which is covered by three consecutive depth intervals according to standard specifications: 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm. Becoming GSM and SoilGrids the most detailed freely available spatial soil data sources, the common model users (e. g. meteorologists, agronomists, or hydrologists) would produce input map from (the weighted mean of) these three layers. However, if the basic soil data and proper knowledge is obtainable, a soil texture map targeting directly the 0-30 cm layer could be independently compiled. In our work we compared Hungary's soil texture maps compiled using the same reference and auxiliary data and inference methods but for differing layer distribution. We produced the 0-30 cm clay, silt and sand map as well as the maps for the three standard layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm). Maps of sand, silt and clay percentage were computed through regression kriging (RK) applying Additive Log-Ratio (alr) transformation. In addition to the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System as reference soil data, digital elevation model and its derived components, soil physical property maps, remotely sensed images, land use -, geological-, as well as meteorological data

  12. Extreme soil acidity from biodegradable trap and skeet targets increases severity of pollution at shooting ranges. (United States)

    McTee, Michael R; Mummey, Daniel L; Ramsey, Philip W; Hinman, Nancy W


    Lead pollution at shooting ranges overshadows the potential for contamination issues from trap and skeet targets. We studied the environmental influence of targets sold as biodegradable by determining the components of the targets and sampling soils at a former sporting clay range. Targets comprised approximately 53% CaCO3, 41% S(0), and 6% modifiers, and on a molar basis, there was 2.3 times more S(0) than CaCO3. We observed a positive correlation between target cover and SO4(2-) (ρ=0.82, Psoil pH (ρ=0.62, P=0.006). For sites that had pH values below 3, 24tons of lime per 1000tons of soil would be required to raise soil pH to 6.5. Lime-facilitated pH increases would be transitory because S(0) would continue to oxidize to H2SO4 until the S(0) is depleted. This study demonstrates that biodegradable trap and skeet targets can acidify soil, which has implications for increasing the mobility of Pb from shotgun pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Can the soil fauna of boreal forests recover from lead-derived stress in a shooting range area? (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Setälä, Heikki


    The responses of soil faunal communities to lead (Pb) contamination in a shooting range area and the recovery of these fauna after range abandonment were studied by comparing the communities at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a control site, locating in the same forest. Despite the similar overall Pb pellet load at the shooting ranges, reaching up to 4 kg m(-2), Pb concentrations in the top soil of the abandoned range has decreased due to the accumulation of detritus on the soil surface. As a consequence, soil animal communities were shown to recover from Pb-related disturbances by utilizing the less contaminated soil layer. Microarthropods showed the clearest signs of recovery, their numbers and community composition being close to those detected at the control site. However, in the deepest organic soil layer, the negative effects of Pb were more pronounced at the abandoned than at the active shooting range, which was detected as altered microarthropod and nematode community structures, reduced abundances of several microarthropod taxa, and the total absence of enchytraeid worms. Thus, although the accumulation of fresh litter on soil surface can promote the recovery of decomposer communities in the top soil, the gradual release of Pb from corroding pellets may pose a long-lasting risk for decomposer taxa deeper in the soil.

  14. A Tree Species Effect on Soil That Is Consistent Across the Species’ Range: The Case of Aspen and Soil Carbon in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Laganière


    Full Text Available Trembling aspen covers a large geographic range in North America, and previous studies reported that a better understanding of its singular influence on soil properties and processes is of high relevance for global change questions. Here we investigate the potential impact of a shift in aspen abundance on soil carbon sequestration and soil carbon stability at the continental scale by conducting a systematic literature review using 23 published studies. Our review shows that aspen’s effect on soil carbon is relatively consistent throughout the species range. Aspen stores less C in the forest floor but similar amounts in the mineral soil relative to conifers. However, a robust set of indicators of soil C stability, for example, degree of organo-mineral associations, proportion of readily-available or labile C estimated during long-term soil incubations or using hot-water extraction, pattern of soil C distribution, and temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration, reveals that the soil organic carbon (SOC stock under aspen is more stable, rendering it more protected against environmental changes and soil disturbances. Therefore, our continental-scale analysis highlights that an increase in the abundance of trembling aspen in North American forests may increase the resistance and resilience of soil C stocks against global changes.

  15. Determination of the water retention of peat soils in the range of the permanent wilting point. (United States)

    Nünning, Lena; Bechtold, Michel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Durner, Wolfgang


    Global coverage of peatlands decreases due to the use of peat for horticulture and to the drainage of peatlands for agriculture and forestry. While alternatives for peat in horticulture exist, profitable agriculture on peatlands and climate protection are far more difficult to combine. A controlled water management that is optimized to stabilize yields while reducing peat degradation provides a promising path in this direction. For this goal, profound knowledge of hydraulic properties of organic soil is essential, for which, however, literature is scarce. This study aimed to compare different methods to determine the water retention of organic soils in the dry range (pF 3 to 4.5). Three common methods were compared: two pressure based apparatus (ceramic plate vs. membrane, Eijkelkamp) and a dew point potentiameter (WP4C, Decagon Devices), which is based on the equilibrium of soil water potential and air humidity. Two different types of organic soil samples were analyzed: i) samples wet from the field and ii) samples that were rewetted after oven-drying. Additional WP4C measurements were performed at samples from standard evaporation experiments directly after they have been finished. Results were: 1) no systematic differences between pressure apparatus and WP4C measurements, 2) however, high moisture variability of the samples from the pressure apparatus as well as high variability of the WP4C measurements at these samples when they were removed from these devices which indicated that applied pressure did not establish well in all samples, 3) rewetted oven-dried samples resulted in up to three times lower soil moistures even after long equilibrium times, i.e. there was a strong and long-lasting hysteresis effect that was highest for less degraded peat samples, 4) and highly consistent WP4C measurements at samples from the end of the evaporation experiment. Results provide useful information for deriving reliable water retention characteristics for organic soils.

  16. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects. (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia


    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  17. Sorption-desorption behavior of pesticides and their degradation products in volcanic and nonvolcanic soils: interpretation of interactions through two-way principal component analysis. (United States)

    Báez, María E; Espinoza, Jeannette; Silva, Ricardo; Fuentes, Edwar


    Sorption-desorption behavior of six pesticides and some degradation products was assessed on seven agricultural volcanic and nonvolcanic soils belonging to Andisol, Ultisol, Mollisol, and Alfisol orders. The global interpretation of sorption data was performed by principal component analysis. Results showed exceptionally high sorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) (the breakdown product) on volcanic soils (K f > 1500 μg(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)) related mainly to contents of amorphous aluminum oxides (Andisols) and crystalline minerals (Ultisols). The lower sorption on nonvolcanic soils was associated to low organic matter contents and lack of significant minerals. Metsulfuron-methyl and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (metabolite of chlorpyrifos) were weakly to substantially sorbed on Andisols and Ultisols, but the first one was not sorbed at pH > 6.4, including nonvolcanic soils. The metabolite of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine, was weakly sorbed on all soils (K f = 0.4 to 3.6 μg(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)). Acidic compounds would be lixiviated in Mollisols and Alfisols, but they could leach also in Andisols and Ultisols if they reach greater depths. Atrazine and deethylatrazine sorption was related to organic carbon content; therefore, they were weakly retained on nonvolcanic soils (K f = 0.7 to 2.2 μg(1 - 1 / n) mL(1 / n) g(-1)). Chlorpyrifos was highly sorbed on all soils reaching K OC values of >8000. Finally, the significant retention of chlorothalonil and diazinon on Mollisols and Alfisols in spite of their low OC contents showed the contribution of clay minerals in the sorption process.

  18. Measurement of soil water potential over an extended range by polymer tensiometers: comparison with other instruments (United States)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Gooren, H. P.; Hoogendam, R. C.; Bakker, G.; Huiskes, C.; Koopal, L. K.; Kruidhof, H.; de Rooij, G. H.


    In water scarce areas, plant growth and productivity can be severely hampered by irregular precipitation and overall water shortage. Root water uptake is mainly driven by matric potential gradients, but measurement of soil water matric potential is limited by the measurement range of water-filled tensiometers (-0.085 MPa). Other measurement techniques indirectly measure soil water potential by converting soil water content with the use of the water retention curve. In dry soils, the water content measurements may become insensitive to small variations, and consequently this conversion may lead to large errors. We developed a polymer tensiometer (POT) that is able to measure matric potentials down to -2.0 MPa. The POT consists of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Hence, the water in the polymer tensiometer will cavitate at a much lower matric potential than the nearly pure water in a conventional tensiometer. Direct observation of the potential of soil water at different locations in the root-system will yield knowledge about the ability of a plant to take up the water under conditions of water shortage or salinity stress. With this knowledge it will be possible to adjust existing unsaturated flow models accounting for root water uptake. We tested 8 POTs in an experimental setup, where we compared matric potential measurements to TDR water content measurements, matric potentials derived from measured water contents, and matric potentials measured by water-filled tensiometers. The experimental setup consisted of two evaporation boxes, one filled with sand (97.6% sand, 1

  19. A critical assessment of soil amendments (slaked lime/acidic fertilizer) for the phytomanagement of moderately contaminated shooting range soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa, Hector M.; Gonzalez-Alcaraz, Maria N. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agraria; Wieser, Mirjam; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. of Terrestrial Ecosystems


    Purpose: The effects of the addition of an acidic fertilizer solution and/or slaked lime (5.5 g Ca(OH){sub 2}kg{sup -1}) on a slightly acidic shooting range soil (pH 6.1, % organic carbon 5.4) with moderate metal (e.g., 620 mg kg{sup -1} Pb) and metalloid (17 mg kg{sup -1} Sb) concentrations on metal and Sb solubility and plant accumulation were investigated. Materials and methods: In a pot experiment, we grew Plantago lanceolata, Lolium perenne and Triticum aestivum. The pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and metal and Sb concentrations in the leachate were monitored. Results and discussion: The addition of slaked lime increased the soil pH from 6.1 to 7.2 and the DOC from 100 to 300 mg l{sup -1}. In contrast to Sb, we found a correlation between DOC and soluble Cu concentrations. The addition of the acidic fertilizer significantly increased Mn- and Pb-NaNO{sub 3} extractable concentrations. Slaked lime decreased at first, Pb-, Mn- Ni- and Zn-NaNO{sub 3} extractable concentrations, but with time, these concentrations increased. Metal accumulation in shoots was in general low. The highest concentrations were obtained in shoots of L. perenne for Mn (135 mg kg{sup -1} DW). Spikes of T. aestivum accumulated more Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn than shoots. Grains of T. aestivum had higher Zn concentrations (up to 37 mg kg{sup -1}) than spikes and shoots (up to 22 and 19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). Antimony concentrations were always below 2 mg kg{sup -1} for the three species studied. Conclusions: Under these growing conditions, these three plant species showed to be suitable for the phytomanagement of moderately contaminated shooting range areas. (orig.)

  20. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area. (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki


    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  1. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions. (United States)

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer


    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heavy metal removal from shooting range soil by hybrid electrokinetics with bacteria and enhancing agents. (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong


    This study presents a method for heavy metal removal from a shooting range soil by a newly suggested hybrid technology. Active bioaugmentation was performed using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in the bioleaching step, and each test was sequentially combined with acid-enhanced and EDTA-enhanced electrokinetics. The results of the bioleaching processes indicated that S-oxidizing bacteria enhanced the mobility of heavy metals in the soil, based on their chemical forms. This process improved the final removal efficiencies of Cu and Zn in the hybrid electrokinetics. In the case of Pb, however, anglesite (PbSO(4)) has been easily formed in the bioleaching step from sulfate, a byproduct of S oxidation. Despite the potential negative effect on combining acid-enhanced electrokinetics, this problem was overcome by the application of an electrokinetic EDTA injection. Moreover, this method showed enhanced removal efficiency for Pb (92.7%) that was superior to that of an abiotic process. This hybrid method of EDTA-enhanced bioelectrokinetics demonstrated an adequate removal efficiency of heavy metals, especially Pb, with lower power consumption and eco-friendly soil conditions.

  3. Identification of factors most important for ammonia emission from fertilized soils for potato production using principal component analysis (United States)

    Guodoong Liu; Yuncong Li; Kati W. Migliaccio; Ying Ouyang; Ashok K. Alva


    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from fertilized soils are a costly problem that is undermining agricultural and ecological sustainability worldwide. Ammonia emissions from crop production have been reliably documented in recent years. However, insufficient efforts have been made to determine the factors most influential in facilitating NH3 emissions. The goal of this study was...

  4. Development of Soil Bacterial Communities in Volcanic Ash Microcosms in a Range of Climates. (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tateno, Ryunosuke; Takahashi, Koichi; Cho, HyunJun; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M


    There is considerable interest in understanding the processes of microbial development in volcanic ash. We tested the predictions that there would be (1) a distinctive bacterial community associated with soil development on volcanic ash, including groups previously implicated in weathering studies; (2) a slower increase in bacterial abundance and soil C and N accumulation in cooler climates; and (3) a distinct communities developing on the same substrate in different climates. We set up an experiment, taking freshly fallen, sterilized volcanic ash from Sakurajima volcano, Japan. Pots of ash were positioned in multiple locations, with mean annual temperature (MAT) ranging from 18.6 to -3 °C. Within 12 months, bacteria were detectable by qPCR in all pots. By 24 months, bacterial copy numbers had increased by 10-100 times relative to a year before. C and N content approximately doubled between 12 and 24 months. HiSeq and MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a distinctive bacterial community, different from developed vegetated soils in the same areas, for example in containing an abundance of unclassified bacterial groups. Community composition also differed between the ash pots at different sites, while showing no pattern in relation to MAT. Contrary to our predictions, the bacterial abundance did not show any relation to MAT. It also did not correlate to pH or N, and only C was statistically significant. It appears that bacterial community development on volcanic ash can be a rapid process not closely sensitive to temperature, involving distinct communities from developed soils.

  5. Zinc and mercury in soils and plants of technogenic pollution territories (on example yavoriv military range and the factory "radical"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко


    Full Text Available The results of geochemical studies of anthropogenic heavy metal pollution of surface sediments and vegetation from a variety of sources: zinc - for example Yavorоv military range Lviv region and mercury - the former plant "Radical" Kyiv. Geochemical anomalies identified elements in soils are installed depending on their behavior in the system "soil-plant".

  6. Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash. (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Hyun, Seunghun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Ok, Yong Sik


    A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM-EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS-FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS-FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil.

  7. The effect of environmental conditions and soil physicochemistry on phosphate stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils. (United States)

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi


    The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied. Stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined in four soils under different environmental conditions. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined by measurement of water extractable and bioaccessible Pb, sequential fractionation and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The addition of humic acid, ammonium nitrate and chloride was also examined for inhibition or improvement of Pb stability with phosphate treatment. The effect of moisture level varied between soils. In soil MB and DA a soil moisture level of 50% water holding capacity was sufficient to maximise stabilisation of Pb, but in soil TV and PE reduction in bioaccessible Pb was inhibited at this moisture level. Providing moisture at twice the soil water holding capacity did not enhance the effect of phosphate on Pb stabilisation. The difference of Pb stability as a result of incubating phosphate treated soils at 18 °C and 37 °C was relatively small. However wet-dry cycles decreased the effectiveness of phosphate treatment. The reduction in bioaccessible Pb obtained was between 20 and 40% with the most optimal treatment conditions. The reduction in water extractable Pb by phosphate was substantial regardless of incubation conditions and the effect of different temperature and soil moisture regimes was not significant. Selective sequential extraction showed phosphate treatment converted Pb in fraction 1 (exchangeable, acid and water soluble) to fraction 2 (reducible). There were small difference in fraction 4 (residual) Pb and fraction 1 as a result of treatment conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of stabilised PE soil revealed small differences in Pb speciation under varying soil moisture and temperature treatments. The addition of humic acid and chloride produced the greatest effect on Pb speciation in

  8. Additive effects of aboveground polyphagous herbivores and soil feedback in native and range-expanding exotic plants. (United States)

    Morriën, Elly; Engelkes, Tim; van der Putten, Wim H


    Plant biomass and plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground natural enemies. However, little is known about how the aboveground and belowground enemy effects may add up. We exposed 15 plant species to aboveground polyphagous insect herbivores and feedback effects from the soil community alone, as well as in combination. We envisaged three possibilities: additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of the aboveground and belowground enemies on plant biomass. In our analysis, we included native and phylogenetically related range-expanding exotic plant species, because exotic plants on average are less sensitive to aboveground herbivores and soil feedback than related natives. Thus, we examined if lower sensitivity of exotic plant species to enemies also alters aboveground-belowground interactions. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed six exotic and nine native plant species to feedback from their own soil communities, aboveground herbivory by polyphagous insects, or a combination of soil feedback and aboveground insects and compared shoot and root biomass to control plants without aboveground and belowground enemies. We observed that for both native and range-expanding exotic plant species effects of insect herbivory aboveground and soil feedback added up linearly, instead of enforcing or counteracting each other. However, there was no correlation between the strength of aboveground herbivory and soil feedback. We conclude that effects of polyphagous aboveground herbivorous insects and soil feedback add up both in the case of native and related range-expanding exotic plant species, but that aboveground herbivory effects may not necessarily predict the strengths of soil feedback effects.

  9. Accumulation of Sb, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd by various plants species on two different relocated military shooting range soils. (United States)

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Hockmann, Kerstin; Pokharel, Rasesh; Jakob, Alfred; Schulin, Rainer


    Annually, more than 400 t Pb and 10 t Sb enter Swiss soils at some 2000 military shooting ranges. After the decommission of military shooting ranges, heavily contaminated soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) Pb) are landfilled or processed by soil washing, whereas for soils with less contamination, alternate strategies are sought. Although the use of military shooting ranges for grazing in Switzerland is common practice, no assessment has been done about the uptake of Sb in plants and its subsequent potential intake by grazing animals. We determined the uptake of Sb, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in the aboveground biomass of nine plant species growing on a calcareous (Chur) and a weakly acidic (Losone) military shooting range soil in order to assess if grazing would be safe to employ on decommissioned military shooting ranges. The two soils did not differ in their total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sb and Cd, they differed however in the total concentration of Pb. Additionally, their physical and chemical properties were significantly different. The accumulation of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the shoots of all nine plant species remained below the Swiss tolerance values for fodder plants (150 mg kg(-1) Zn, 15-35 mg kg(-1) Cu, 40 mg kg(-1) Pb, and 1 mg kg(-1) Cd DW), with the only exception of Pb in Chenopodium album shoots which reached a concentration of 62 mg kg(-1) DW. Antimony concentrations were 1.5-2.6-fold higher in plants growing on the calcareous soil than on the weakly acidic soil. Considering Cu, Zn, Pb, Sb and Cd, all plants, with the exception C. album, would be suitable for grazing on similar shooting range soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil thermal regime and geomorphogenesis at Fuentes Carrionas massif (Cantabrian Range, NW Iberian Peninsula). (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramon; Serrano Cañadas, Enrique


    Fuentes Carrionas is a massif within the Cantabrian Range, in NW Iberian Peninsula. Its altitude ranges between 1400 and 2500 meters and its climate is an oceanic/Mediterranean transition one, with cold temperatures and heavy snowfall in the winter/early spring season, and a warm and dry summer season. Due to its outstanding altitude and lithological variety in the Cantabrian Range context, Fuentes Carrionas holds some periglacial activity (gelifluction, frost shattering) which is absent elsewhere in NW Iberian Peninsula. This work is relates the soil thermal regime across the mountain gradient to landforms formation. 14 thermometers (11 i-button, protected in a plastic can, and three UTL data loggers) were buried at a shallow depth (10 cm.) between autumn 2009 and summer 2012. 12 thermometers were placed between 1900 and 2400 m.a.s.l. at 250 meters altitude interval at the four main aspects. Two additional thermometers were place in the Curavacas N face for permafrost identification. Thermometers were calibrated to yield a measurement every 6 hours starting from 8 AM during one year's time. Data was collected annually in the summer season. Some additional soil temperature data was obtained from an external project in the same area for the 2007-2009 interval. In this case thermometers were "Hobbo" model, and they were also buried to a shallow depth. Results show a permafrost free mountain range. Annual average soil temperatures range between 1 and 8 degrees Celsius. Snow pack appears as a decisive factor in winter temperatures, as the zero curtain effect can be tracked in many cases. Snow cover patterns show a distinctive behavior between S and N aspects, with a 3 months snow cover on the southern faces and between 6 and 9 at the northern analogues. This cover has a relevant impact on geomorphological processes. There is a clear relation between spring snow melt and solifluction or channelized erosion. Also, snow cover prevents the occurrence of freeze/thaw cycles

  11. Soil processes and tree growth at shooting ranges in a boreal forest reflect contamination history and lead-induced changes in soil food webs. (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki


    The effects of shooting-derived lead (Pb) on the structure and functioning of a forest ecosystem, and the recovery of the ecosystem after range abandonment were studied at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range where shooting ceased 20 years earlier and an uncontaminated control site. Despite numerous lead-induced changes in the soil food web, soil processes were only weakly related to soil food web composition. However, decomposition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needle litter was retarded at the active shooting range, and microbial activity, microbial biomass and the rate of decomposition of Pb-contaminated grass litter decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tree (P. sylvestris) radial growth was suppressed at the active shooting range right after shooting activities started. In contrast, the growth of pines improved at the abandoned shooting range after the cessation of shooting, despite reduced nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the needles. Higher litter degradation rates and lower Pb concentrations in the topmost soil layer at the abandoned shooting range suggest gradual recovery after range abandonment. Our findings suggest that functions in lead-contaminated coniferous forest ecosystems depend on the successional stage of the forest as well as the time since the contamination source has been eliminated, which affects, e.g., the vertical distribution of the contaminant in the soil. However, despite multiple lead-induced changes throughout the ecosystem, the effects were rather weak, indicating high resistance of coniferous forest ecosystems to this type of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Principal Ports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Principal Ports are defined by port limits or US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects, these exclude non-USACE projects not authorized for publication. The...

  13. Ex-situ field application of electrokinetics for remediation of shooting-range soil. (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Woo-Chun; Kim, Soon-Oh; Lee, Jong-Un; Kwon, Young-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong


    Electrokinetic process for remediation of a shooting-range site was evaluated in this study. By field operation for 100 days, the newly designed electrokinetic system was evaluated for process stability, performance, and efficiency. The field site of this study was an abandoned military shooting range located in the Civilian Control Line of South Korea. The target area, only, was heavily contaminated by Pb and Cu to a depth of 0.5 m. After dry-sieving of the field soil to separate particulate Pb, two cells in a hexagonal (two-dimensional) arrangement, including ten anodes outside the cell and two cathodes in the middle, were prepared. The pH of each electrolyte was adjusted by use of concentrated HNO(3), resulting in acid-enhanced electrokinetics. The monitoring results indicated that overall removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu) was achieved, and that both heavy metals were removed from outside the cell. The average final efficiency of removal of Pb and Cu was 39.5 ± 35 and 63.8 ± 12%, respectively. Although the feasibility of this system was confirmed, for commercialization of the process confirmed drawbacks must be improved by further study.

  14. A Range-Wide Experiment to Investigate Nutrient and Soil Moisture Interactions in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney E. Will


    Full Text Available The future climate of the southeastern USA is predicted to be warmer, drier and more variable in rainfall, which may increase drought frequency and intensity. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda is the most important commercial tree species in the world and is planted on ~11 million ha within its native range in the southeastern USA. A regional study was installed to evaluate effects of decreased rainfall and nutrient additions on loblolly pine plantation productivity and physiology. Four locations were established to capture the range-wide variability of soil and climate. Treatments were initiated in 2012 and consisted of a factorial combination of throughfall reduction (approximate 30% reduction and fertilization (complete suite of nutrients. Tree and stand growth were measured at each site. Results after two growing seasons indicate a positive but variable response of fertilization on stand volume increment at all four sites and a negative effect of throughfall reduction at two sites. Data will be used to produce robust process model parameterizations useful for simulating loblolly pine growth and function under future, novel climate and management scenarios. The resulting improved models will provide support for developing management strategies to increase pine plantation productivity and carbon sequestration under a changing climate.

  15. Comparing soil functions for a wide range of agriculture soils focusing on production for bioenergy using a combined isotope-based observation and modelling approach (United States)

    Leistert, Hannes; Herbstritt, Barbara; Weiler, Markus


    Increase crop production for bioenergy will result in changes in land use and the resulting soil functions and may generate new chances and risks. However, detailed data and information are still missing how soil function may be altered under changing crop productions for bioenergy, in particular for a wide range of agricultural soils since most data are currently derived from individual experimental sites studying different bioenergy crops at one location. We developed a new, rapid measurement approach to investigate the influence of bioenergy plants on the water cycle and different soil functions (filter and buffer of water and N-cycling). For this approach, we drilled 89 soil cores (1-3 m deep) in spring and fall at 11 sites with different soil properties and climatic conditions comparing different crops (grass, corn, willow, poplar, and other less common bioenergy crops) and analyzing 1150 soil samples for water content, nitrate concentration and stable water isotopes. We benchmarked a soil hydrological model (1-D numerical Richards equation, ADE, water isotope fractionation including liquid and vapor composition of isotopes) using longer-term climate variables and water isotopes in precipitation to derive crop specific parameterization and to specifically validate the differences in water transport and water partitioning into evaporation, transpiration and groundwater recharge among the sites and crops using the water isotopes in particular. The model simulation were in good agreement with the observed isotope profiles and allowed us to differentiate among the different crops. We defined different indicators for the soil functions considered in this study. These indicators included the proportion of groundwater recharge, transit time of water (different percentiles) though the upper 2m and nutrient leaching potential (e.g. nitrate) during the dormant season from the rooting zone. The parameterized model was first used to calculate the indicators for the

  16. Lead Determination and Heterogeneity Analysis in Soil from a Former Firing Range (United States)

    Urrutia-Goyes, Ricardo; Argyraki, Ariadne; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy


    Public places can have an unknown past of pollutants deposition. The exposition to such contaminants can create environmental and health issues. The characterization of a former firing range in Athens, Greece will allow its monitoring and encourage its remediation. This study is focused on Pb contamination in the site due to its presence in ammunition. A dense sampling design with 91 location (10 m apart) was used to determine the spatial distribution of the element in the surface soil of the study area. Duplicates samples were also collected one meter apart from 8 random locations to estimate the heterogeneity of the site. Elemental concentrations were measured using a portable XRF device after simple sample homogenization in the field. Robust Analysis of Variance showed that the contributions to the total variance were 11% from sampling, 1% analytical, and 88% geochemical; reflecting the suitability of the technique. Moreover, the extended random uncertainty relative to the mean concentration was 91.5%; confirming the high heterogeneity of the site. Statistical analysis defined a very high contamination in the area yielding to suggest the need for more in-depth analysis of other contaminants and possible health risks.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of throughfall and soil moisture in a deciduous forest in the low mountain ranges (Hesse, Germany) (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Weishaupt, Philipp; Reiss, Martin


    Spatial and temporal patterns of throughfall can affect the heterogeneity of ecological, biogeochemical and hydrological processes at a forest floor and further the underlying soil. Previous research suggests different factors controlling the spatial and temporal patterns of throughfall, but most studies focus on coniferous forest, where the vegetation coverage is more or less constant over time. In deciduous forests the leaf area index varies due to the leaf fall in autumn which implicates a specific spatial and temporal variability of throughfall and furthermore of the soil moisture. Therefore, in the present study, the measurements of throughfall and soil moisture in a deciduous forest in the low mountain ranges focused especially on the period of leaf fall. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect the spatial and temporal variability of both the throughfall and the soil moisture, 2) to examine the temporal stability of the spatial patterns of the throughfall and soil moisture and 3) relate the soil moisture patterns to the throughfall patterns and further to the canopy characteristics. The study was carried out in a small catchment on middle Hesse (Germany) which is covered by beech forest. Annual mean air temperature is 9.4°C (48.9˚F) and annual mean precipitation is 650 mm. Base materials for soil genesis is greywacke and clay shale from Devonian deposits. The soil type at the study plot is a shallow cambisol. The study plot covers an area of about 150 m2 where 77 throughfall samplers where installed. The throughfall and the soil moisture (FDR-method, 20 cm depth) was measured immediately after every rainfall event at the 77 measurement points. During the period of October to December 2015 altogether 7 events were investigated. The geostatistical method kriging was used to interpolate between the measurements points to visualize the spatial patterns of each investigated parameter. Time-stability-plots were applied to examine temporal scatters of each

  18. Aging of zinc added to soils with a wide range of different properties: Factors and modeling. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Bao; Ma, Yibing


    The aging of metals added to soil is significant in ecological risk assessment and the derivation of soil environmental quality criteria. Semimechanistic aging models have been developed for some metals, but not for zinc (Zn). In the present study, a published dataset detailing the changes in isotopic exchangeability with time, after water-soluble Zn was added to 23 soils and incubated for 813 d, was used to analyze the effect of soil properties on aging and develop empirical and mechanistic models. Aging was mainly controlled by soil pH, probably because of precipitation, and was linearly correlated with the square root of incubation time, probably as a result of diffusion. Based on precipitation, diffusion, and/or occlusion, semimechanistic aging models were developed using a Zn hydrolysis constant of 6.52 to 6.61, apparent diffusion rate coefficient (D/r2 ) of 1.41 × 10-5 /d, and a root mean square error of less than 15%. The optimized models were accurately validated by 4 independent field-incubated soils, with different doses of Zn under different conditions (the differences between measured and predicted isotopically exchangeable Zn were less than 10%). This enabled an understanding of the long-term behavior of Zn added to soils, and the results can be used for environmental risk assessments and the normalization of ecotoxicity datasets in the derivation of soil environmental quality criteria. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2925-2933. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Field studies to assess the workable range of soils in the tropical zone of Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadena Zapata, M.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.


    In the tropical area of Veracruz (Mexico) the decision of when and how to carry out tillage operations is based on qualitative criteria. It often results in excessive and unnecessary work, energy waste, operational delay, soil exposure to water erosion and soil structural damage. Objective criteria

  20. Soil chemical properties under kauri (Agathis australis) in The Waitakere Ranges, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, A.G.; Velthorst, E.J.; Buurman, P.


    Kauri is known to cause low soil pH and loss of Al from the Al-hydroxy-interlayers from interlayered vermiculite. Kauri is also associated with intense podzolisation and therefore we studied the Al and Fe phases in soil under kauri and under adjacent broadleaf/treefern vegetation for comparison.

  1. A Simple Close Range Photogrammetry Technique to Assess Soil Erosion in the Field (United States)

    Evaluating the performance of a soil erosion prediction model depends on the ability to accurately measure the gain or loss of sediment in an area. Recent development in acquiring detailed surface elevation data (DEM) makes it feasible to assess soil erosion and deposition spatially. Digital photogr...

  2. Capacities of Candidate Herbaceous Plants for Phytoremediation of Soil-based TNT and RDX on Ranges (United States)


    perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) by 20 percent as required for a LOEC (Best et al. 2006). A screening bench- mark...for aged soil in cucumber (Cucumis sativa ; Simini et al. 1995). However, a concentration of >1,540 mg RDX kg-1 soil failed to reduce the biomass of

  3. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.


    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  4. Concentrations and distributions of Al, Fe, Ba and Zn in soils of Pre-Littoral Range, Sector Sentmenat (Catalonia, Spain). (United States)

    Tume, Pedro; Bech, Jaume; Longan, Lluis; Roca, Nuria; Reverter, Ferrán; Sanchez, Pedro


    The Pre-Littoral Range is one of the six morphological units of the Barcelona province parallel to the coast, formed to the SW of the Lobregat fault by conglomerates, sandstones, and limestones. This Mesozoic-Paleogene range covers Paleozoic sediments with outcrops showing mainly Silurian schists and also granites. The main soils are Alfisols, Inceptisols and Entisols. Concentrations and distributions of five elements - Al, Fe, Ba and Zn - in 28 Sentmenat soil profiles (117 soil samples) were investigated. Background data ranges were estimated with the box plot [median ±2 median absolute deviation (MAD)] procedure as follows: Al: 6115 - 13731 mg kg-1, Fe: 7322 - 15106 mg kg-1, Ba: 17.6 - 90.8 mg kg-1 and Zn: 16.3 - 40.7 mg kg-1. Median concentrations of Ba and Zn are lower than the concentration in other European countries. Al concentrations were correlated with clay content, and Ba and Zn were negative correlated with CaCO3. Element distributions in soils reflected parent materials and pedogenic factor determining variation between and within soil profiles. Generally, metal contents decreased in the order of Alfisols> Entisols > Inceptisols and A > B >C horizons.

  5. Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range and the phytoremediation ability of Agrostis capillaris L. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Seijo, Andrés; Lago-Vila, Manoel; Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A


    Pb pollution caused by shooting sport activities is a serious environmental problem that has increased considerably in recent decades. The aims of this study were firstly to analyze Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range abandoned in 1999, secondly to study the effectiveness of different extractants [CaCl2, DTPA, NH4OAc, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), and bidistilled water (BDW)] in order to determine Pb bioavailability in these soils, and finally to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of spontaneous vegetation (Agrostis capillaris L.). To this end, 13 soils from an old trap shooting range (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied. It was found that Pb levels in the soils were higher than 100 mg kg(-1), exceeding the generic reference levels, and three of these samples even exceeded the USEPA threshold level (400 mg kg(-1)). In general, the reagent that best represents Pb bioavailability and has the greatest extraction efficiency was CaCl2, followed by DTPA, NH4OAc, LMWOA, and BDW. A. capillaris Pb contents ranged between 9.82 and 1107.42 mg kg(-1) (root) and between 6.43 and 135.23 mg kg(-1) (shoot). Pb accumulation in roots, as well as the presence of secondary mineral phases of metallic Pb in the adjacent soil, showed the phytostabilization properties of A. capillaris.

  6. Modeling Short-Range Soil Variability and its Potential Use in Variable-Rate Treatment of Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moameni


    Full Text Available Abstract In Iran, the experimental plots under fertilizer trials are managed in such a way that the whole plot area uniformly receives agricultural inputs. This could lead to biased research results and hence to suppressing of the efforts made by the researchers. This research was conducted in a selected site belonging to the Gonbad Agricultural Research Station, located in the semiarid region, northeastern Iran. The aim was to characterize the short-range spatial variability of the inherent and management-depended soil properties and to determine if this variation is large and can be managed at practical scales. The soils were sampled using a grid 55 m apart. In total, 100 composite soil samples were collected from topsoil (0-30 cm and were analyzed for calcium carbonate equivalent, organic carbon, clay, available phosphorus, available potassium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese. Descriptive statistics were applied to check data trends. Geostatistical analysis was applied to variography, model fitting and contour mapping. Sampling at 55 m made it possible to split the area of the selected experimental plot into relatively uniform areas that allow application of agricultural inputs with variable rates. Keywords: Short-range soil variability, Within-field soil variability, Interpolation, Precision agriculture, Geostatistics

  7. Bacterial diversity of soil in the vicinity of Pindari glacier, Himalayan mountain ranges, India, using culturable bacteria and soil 16S rRNA gene clones. (United States)

    Shivaji, S; Pratibha, M S; Sailaja, B; Hara Kishore, K; Singh, Ashish K; Begum, Z; Anarasi, Uttam; Prabagaran, S R; Reddy, G S N; Srinivas, T N R


    Three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (P1L, P4L and P8L) were constructed using three soil samples (P1S, P4S and P8S) collected near Pindari glacier, Himalayas. The three libraries yielded a total of 703 clones. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were common to the three libraries. In addition to the above P1L and P8L shared the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes. Phyla Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Dictyoglomi, Fibrobacteres, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, candidate division SPAM and candidate TM7s TM7a phylum were present only in P1L. Rarefaction analysis indicated that the bacterial diversity in P4S and P8S soil samples was representative of the sample. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that P1S and P8S were different from P4S soil sample. PCA also indicated that arsenic content, pH, Cr and altitude influence the observed differences in the percentage of specific OTUs in the three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The observed bacterial diversity was similar to that observed for other Himalayan and non-polar cold habitats. A total of 40 strains of bacteria were isolated from the above three soil samples and based on the morphology 20 bacterial strains were selected for further characterization. The 20 bacteria belonged to 12 different genera. All the isolates were psychro-, halo- and alkalitolerant. Amylase and urease activities were detected in majority of the strains but lipase and protease activities were not detected. Long chain, saturated, unsaturated and branched fatty acids were predominant in the psychrotolerant bacteria.

  8. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils (United States)

    Pollacco, Joseph Alexander Paul; Webb, Trevor; McNeill, Stephen; Hu, Wei; Carrick, Sam; Hewitt, Allan; Lilburne, Linda


    Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013) developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1) the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map) and (2) further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h) for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal model provides an

  9. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Pollacco


    Full Text Available Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h, and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013 developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h. This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen–Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1 the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map and (2 further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal

  10. Simultaneous lead and antimony immobilization in shooting range soil by a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite. (United States)

    Ogawa, Shouhei; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi


    This study investigated whether a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite could immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil in which the level of lead contamination is markedly higher than that of antimony. In addition, we evaluated the stability of lead and antimony immobilized by the combined application with varying soil pH. The levels of water-soluble lead and antimony for the combined application were lower than those of single applications of hydroxyapatite or ferrihydrite, indicating that the combined application could suppress the levels of water-soluble lead and antimony by 99.9% and 95.5%, respectively, as compared with the levels in shooting range soil without immobilization material. The amounts of residual lead and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound antimony fractions in sequential extraction increased with a decrease in the exchangeable and carbonate lead fractions as well as in non-specifically bound and specifically bound antimony fractions. The alteration of lead and antimony phases to chemically more stable ones as a result of the combined application would result in the suppression of their mobility. The stability of immobilized lead and antimony in the combined application was equal to that of lead with a single application of hydroxyapatite and that of antimony with a single application of ferrihydrite within neutral to alkaline pH conditions, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite can simultaneously immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil with neutral to alkaline pH.

  11. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel


    curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... combined with the Kelvin equation (CS-K) produced better fits to dry-end SWRCs of soils dominated by 2:1 clays but provided poor fits for soils dominated by 1:1 clays. The shape parameter α of the Oswin model was dependent on clay mineral type, and approximate values of 0.29 and 0.57 were obtained...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  12. The effect of Cs-137 short-range spatial variability on soil after the Chernobyl disaster (United States)

    Martynenko, Vladimir; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Linnik, Vitaly


    After the Chernobyl accident of 1986, large areas of Russia were contaminated by 137Cs. Post-depositional redistribution of 137Cs fallout across the land surface resulting from mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological processes operating in the soil system and the grain size selectivity associated with soil erosion and sediment transport processes. Therefore of uppermost importance are data on evaluating 137Cs variability at short distances, obtained at the early period after the accident. Measurements of 137Cs deposit at the territory of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination were mainly conducted with the help of air-gamma survey, and were verified by soil sampling on test plots with size 10x10 m with control soil sampling using "envelope" method of fivefold soil sampling (1 sampling at the centre and 4 along the edges of the plot under study). Presented here are evaluation data of 137Cs contamination, obtained in the Bryansk, Yaroslav and Rostov regions in 1991. Test plots were selected at the distance of 50-100 m away from a road on matted areas with undisturbed soil structure. Test routes of sampling were made perpendicularly to directions crossing basic traces of radioactive contamination. Sampling measurements were carried out at Canberra and Ortec gamma spectrometers. Each of the 5 samples of the "envelope" was measured separately, soil mixing was not applied. 137Cs value for the Bryansk Region varied from 2,6 kBq/m2 to 2294 kBq/m2, at the territories of the Yaroslav and Rostov regions 137Cs value varied from 0,44 kBq/m2 to 5,1 kBq/m2 and 0,56 kBq/m2 to 22,2 kBq/m2, respectively. Statistical analysis of 137Cs deposit at different plots is a solid argumentation in favour of nonuniform distribution in various landscapes and at a different distance from the Chernobyl NPP. Such nonuniformity of 137Cs soil contamination in the limits of 10 m of the plot is most likely to be related to initial aerosol contamination nonuniformity at the moment of

  13. Distinct N2O yields of AOB and AOA driven ammonia oxidation across a range of Oregon forest soils (United States)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Dörsch, Peter; Taylor, Anne E.; Giguere, Andrew T.; Bakken, Lars R.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Myrold, David D.


    Ammonia oxidation, as the first and limiting step of nitrification, is a critical process in global N cycling and an important source of nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous studies reported strong contrasts in potential nitrification rates and niche separation of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in three acid Oregon forest soils depending on tree stands. In the present study we were interested in the potential contribution of AOB and AOA to nitrification-derived N2O in these soils. We performed soil slurry incubations amended with NH4+ and determined the specific N2O yields of AOB and AOA using inhibitor techniques. Despite large differences in edaphic factors, potential nitrification rates, and niche partitioning, AOB- and AOA-mediated nitrification displayed fairly stable and distinct N2O yields. The N2O yields ranged from 0.11 to 0.17% for AOB and from 0.03 to 0.08% for AOA, which is in agreement with findings of previous pure culture and soil studies. Nitrite accumulation was observed in only one soil, upon NH4+ stimulation of AOB growth, without showing any effect on the apparent N2O yield. The partitioning between AOB and AOA activity was strongly affected by soil pH and nitrogen status, but there was no effect of these variables on the group-specific N2O yield. Together, this suggests that N2O yields of different ammonia oxidizing microorganisms are under tight biochemical control and that the potential contribution of nitrification to N2O emission in acid forest soils can be predicted from AOB - AOA partitioning.

  14. Microbial changes linked to the accelerated degradation of the herbicide atrazine in a range of temperate soils. (United States)

    Yale, R L; Sapp, M; Sinclair, C J; Moir, J W B


    Accelerated degradation is the increased breakdown of a pesticide upon its repeated application, which has consequences for the environmental fate of pesticides. The herbicide atrazine was repeatedly applied to soils previously untreated with s-triazines for >5 years. A single application of atrazine, at an agriculturally relevant concentration, was sufficient to induce its rapid dissipation. Soils, with a range of physico-chemical properties and agricultural histories, showed similar degradation kinetics, with the half-life of atrazine decreasing from an average of 25 days after the first application to degrading kinetics, which incorporated the exponential growth of atrazine-degrading organisms. Despite the similar rates of degradation, the repertoire of atrazine-degrading genes varied between soils. Only a small portion of the bacterial community had the capacity for atrazine degradation. Overall, the microbial community was not significantly affected by atrazine treatment. One soil, characterised by low pH, did not exhibit accelerated degradation, and atrazine-degrading genes were not detected. Neutralisation of this soil restored accelerated degradation and the atrazine-degrading genes became detectable. This illustrates the potential for accelerated degradation to manifest when conditions become favourable. Additionally, the occurrence of accelerated degradation under agriculturally relevant concentrations supports the consideration of the phenomena in environmental risk assessments.

  15. Conceptual Model for the Transport of Energetic Residues from Surface Soil to Groundwater by Range Activities (United States)


    with 1 to 2 mg/L of an explosive was used to irrigate a variety of plants, includ- ing food plants such as radish and tomato. Results demonstrated...soils treated with Chilean caliche fertilizers accumulated perchlorate in its leaves (Ellington et al. 2001). In some instances, perchlorate can be

  16. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil (United States)

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar’s sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam activated biochar having low O/C ratio...

  17. Biogeochemistry of a soil catena in the eastern Sierra Nevada Range, NV (United States)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized five pedons at Little Valley, NV, at the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada. Developed largely from granite, the catena encompassed five pedons, which from high to low elev...

  18. Symbiotic effectiveness and host ranges of indigenous rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soyabean varieties in Zimbabwean soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musiyiwa, K.; Mpepereki, S.; Giller, K.E.


    Presence of indigenous rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soyabean was determined in 92, mainly sandy soils, from wetter agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe suited to soyabean production. A total of 129 isolates were obtained from nodules of promiscuous soyabean varieties, Magoye and Hernon 147, and a

  19. Plant-soil feedback of native and range expanding plant species is insensitive to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.


    Temperature change affects many aboveground and belowground ecosystem processes. Here we investigate the effect of a 5°C temperature increase on plant–soil feedback. We compare plant species from a temperate climate region with immigrant plants that originate from warmer regions and have recently

  20. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain) (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.


    to determine the physical and chemical soil properties. The parent material is gneiss andassociated deposits and, as a result, soils are acid. The soils have a low to medium organic matter content and are non-saline. They are moderately to well drained soils and have no or slight evidence of erosion. The soil within the high mountain area has clear evidence of frost heave that has a vertical displacement of the surface in the centimeter range. The stations within the lowland and mid mountain areas represent the most degraded sites as a result of the livestock keeping, whereas the high mountain area is mainly influenced by natural environmental conditions. These soil and geomorphological parameters will constitute a basis for site characterization in future studies regarding soil degradation; determining the interaction between soil, vegetation and atmosphere with respect to human induced activities (e.g. atmospheric contamination and effects of fires); determining the nitrogen and carbon cycles; and the influence of heavy metal contaminants in the soils.

  1. PHYLIS: A Low-Cost Portable Visible Range Spectrometer for Soil and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt J. Aitkenhead


    Full Text Available Monitoring soil and crop condition is vital for the sustainable management of agricultural systems. Often, land management decision-making requires rapid assessment of conditions, which is difficult if samples need to be taken and sent elsewhere for analysis. In recent years, advances in field-based spectroscopy have led to improvements in real-time monitoring; however, the cost of equipment and user training still makes it inaccessible for most land managers. At the James Hutton Institute, we have developed a low-cost visible wavelength hyperspectral device intended to provide rapid field-based assessment of soil and plant conditions. This device has been tested at the Institute’s research farm at Balruddery, linking field observations with existing sample analysis and crop type information. We show that it is possible to rapidly and easily acquire spectral information that enables site characteristics to be estimated. Improvements to the sensor and its potential uses are discussed.

  2. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Full Range of Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.


    Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to capillary forces only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified with six datasets from the literature. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but under-estimate the conductivity while the extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

  3. Coccidioides immitis identified in soil outside of its known range - Washington, 2013. (United States)

    Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Hill, Heather; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Engelthaler, David M; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Roe, Chandler C; Ralston, Cindy; Hurst, Steven; Goldoft, Marcia; Gade, Lalitha; Wohrle, Ron; Thompson, George R; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom


    Coccidioidomycosis ("valley fever") is caused by inhaling spores of the soil-dwelling fungi Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Most infections are subclinical. When clinical manifestations do occur (typically 1-4 weeks after exposure), they are similar to those associated with influenza or community-acquired pneumonia. Disseminated disease is rare. Residual pulmonary nodules can lead to chronic lung disease. Fluconazole or other triazoles often are used for treatment, but mild cases often resolve without specific therapy. A total of 17,802 cases were reported in the United States in 2012.

  4. Mercury porosimetry for comparing piece-wise hydraulic properties with full range pore characteristics of soil aggregates and porous rocks (United States)

    Turturro, Antonietta Celeste; Caputo, Maria C.; Gerke, Horst H.


    Unsaturated hydraulic properties are essential in the modeling of water and solute movement in the vadose zone. Since standard hydraulic techniques are limited to specific moisture ranges, maybe affected by air entrapment, wettability problems, limitations due to water vapor pressure, and are depending on the initial saturation, the continuous maximal drying curves of the complete hydraulic functions can mostly not reflect the basic pore size distribution. The aim of this work was to compare the water retention curves of soil aggregates and porous rocks with their porosity characteristics. Soil aggregates of Haplic Luvisols from Loess L (Hneveceves, Czech Republic) and glacial Till T (Holzendorf, Germany) and two lithotypes of porous rock C (Canosa) and M (Massafra), Italy, were analyzed using, suction table, evaporation, psychrometry methods, and the adopted Quasi-Steady Centrifuge method for determination of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. These various water-based techniques were applied to determine the piece-wise retention and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions in the range of pore water saturations. The pore-size distribution was determined with the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). MIP results allowed assessing the volumetric mercury content at applied pressures up to 420000 kPa. Greater intrusion and porosity values were found for the porous rocks than for the soil aggregates. Except for the aggregate samples from glacial till, maximum liquid contents were always smaller than porosity. Multimodal porosities and retention curves were observed for both porous rocks and aggregate soils. Two pore-size peaks with pore diameters of 0.135 and 27.5 µm, 1.847 and 19.7 µm, and 0.75 and 232 µm were found for C, M and T, respectively, while three peaks of 0.005, 0.392 and 222 µm were identified for L. The MIP data allowed describing the retention curve in the entire mercury saturation range as compared to water retention curves that required

  5. Efficiency of liming in controlling the mobility of lead in shooting range soils as assessed by different experimental approaches. (United States)

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H


    Shooting range soils contaminated by lead (Pb) are a great environmental risk. Reducing mobility and leaching of Pb by liming, for example, has produced contradictory results. This laboratory study compares the efficiency of two liming agents differing in their reactivity, CaCO(3) and blast furnace slag (BFS), in diminishing the mobility of Pb. In a batch test, contaminated humic soil samples were incubated in closed vessels without and with liming materials added in quantities to correspond additions of 5 t ha(-1). Water soluble Pb (Pb(w)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and substrate induced respiration (SIR) in soils were monitored for 21 days. In the experiment carried out with freely drained vessels, contaminated humic soil treated without and with liming agents was leached five times during the experimental period of 141 days. Leachates were analyzed for pH, DOC and Pb. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were analyzed for pH, DOC, Pb(w), and SIR. In both systems, CaCO(3) raised pH and DOC more than BFS. The liming agents did not significantly differ in their effect on Pb chemistry. Neither had any effect on SIR: however, liming agents markedly reduced the leaching of Pb in the open system, while in the closed system they increased rather than reduced the extractability of Pb. Incubation in a closed vessel proved not to be a suitable experimental system for Pb mobility estimation, since the ionic strength may be raised to abnormal levels, resulting from accumulated reaction products of liming agents.

  6. Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil. (United States)

    Seshadri, B; Bolan, N S; Choppala, G; Kunhikrishnan, A; Sanderson, P; Wang, H; Currie, L D; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Y S; Kim, G


    Shooting range soils contain mixed heavy metal contaminants including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn). Phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize these metals, particularly Pb, thereby reducing their bioavailability. However, research on immobilization of Pb's co-contaminants showed the relative importance of soluble and insoluble P compounds, which is critical in evaluating the overall success of in situ stabilization practice in the sustainable remediation of mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Soluble synthetic P fertilizer (diammonium phosphate; DAP) and reactive (Sechura; SPR) and unreactive (Christmas Island; CPR) natural phosphate rocks (PR) were tested for Cd, Pb and Zn immobilization and later their mobility and bioavailability in a shooting range soil. The addition of P compounds resulted in the immobilization of Cd, Pb and Zn by 1.56-76.2%, 3.21-83.56%, and 2.31-74.6%, respectively. The reactive SPR significantly reduced Cd, Pb and Zn leaching while soluble DAP increased their leachate concentrations. The SPR reduced the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in earthworms by 7.13-23.4% and 14.3-54.6% in comparison with earthworms in the DAP and control treatment, respectively. Bioaccessible Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations as determined using a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test showed higher long-term stability of P-immobilized Pb and Zn than Cd. The differential effect of P-induced immobilization between P compounds and metals is due to the variation in the solubility characteristics of P compounds and nature of metal phosphate compounds formed. Therefore, Pb and Zn immobilization by P compounds is an effective long-term remediation strategy for mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of soil thickness in a zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range using a soil probe and electrical resistivity tomography (United States)

    Morse, Michael S.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.; Revil, André; Coe, Jeffrey A.


    Accurate estimation of the soil thickness distribution in steepland drainage basins is essential for understanding ecosystem and subsurface response to infiltration. One important aspect of this characterization is assessing the heavy and antecedent rainfall conditions that lead to shallow landsliding. In this paper, we investigate the direct current (DC) resistivity method as a tool for quickly estimating soil thickness over a steep (33–40°) zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range, a landslide prone region. Point measurements throughout the basin showed bedrock depths between 0.55 and 3.2 m. Resistivity of soil and bedrock samples collected from the site was measured for degrees of saturation between 40 and 92%. Resistivity of the soil was typically higher than that of the bedrock for degrees of saturation lower than 70%. Results from the laboratory measurements and point-depth measurements were used in a numerical model to evaluate the resistivity contrast at the soil-bedrock interface. A decreasing-with-depth resistivity contrast was apparent at the interface in the modeling results. At the field site, three transects were surveyed where coincident ground truth measurements of bedrock depth were available, to test the accuracy of the method. The same decreasing-with-depth resistivity trend that was apparent in the model was also present in the survey data. The resistivity contour of between 1,000 and 2,000 Ωm that marked the top of the contrast was our interpreted bedrock depth in the survey data. Kriged depth-to-bedrock maps were created from both the field-measured ground truth obtained with a soil probe and interpreted depths from the resistivity tomography, and these were compared for accuracy graphically. Depths were interpolated as far as 16.5 m laterally from the resistivity survey lines with root mean squared error (RMSE) = 27 cm between the measured and interpreted depth at those locations. Using several transects and analysis of the subsurface

  8. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils. (United States)

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S


    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sr isotope characterization of atmospheric inputs to soils along a climate gradient of the Chilean Coastal Range (United States)

    Oeser, Ralf; Schuessler, Jan A.; Floor, Geerke H.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm


    The rate and degree of rock weathering controls the release, distribution, and cycling of mineral nutrients at the Earth's surface, being essential for developing and sustaining of ecosystems. Climate plays an important role as water flow and temperature determine both the biological community and activity, and also set the speed of weathering. Because of this double control by climate, the impact of biological activity on rock weathering and the feedbacks between the geosphere and the biosphere under different climatic conditions are not well understood. We explore the impact of biota on rock weathering in the four EarthShape primary study areas which are situated along the Chilean Coastal Range, featuring an outstanding vegetation gradient controlled by climate, ranging over 2000 km from hyper-arid, to temperate, to humid conditions. The study sites are within 80 km of the Pacific coast and are located in granitic lithology. Moreover, the sites were unglaciated during the last glacial maximum. However, as substrates get depleted in mineral nutrients, ecosystems are increasingly nourished by atmospheric inputs, sources, such as solutes contained in rain, dust, and volcanic ash. We aim to quantify the primary nutrient inputs to the ecosystem from these different potential sources. Radiogenic strontium (Sr) isotope ratios are a powerful tool to trace chemical weathering, soil formation, as well as cation provenance and mobility [1]. We determined 87Sr/86Sr ratios on bulk bedrock, saprolite, and soil and performed sequential extractions of the the easily bioavailable soil phases up to 2 m depth on two soil depth profiles in each of the four study sites. Our first results from the La Campana study site indicate that the radiogenic Sr isotope ratios of saprolite samples decrease from 0.70571 (n = 4) at the base of the profile to lower values of 0.70520 (n = 4) at the top of the immobile saprolite, indicating increasing biotite weathering. 87Sr/86Sr increases in the

  10. Soils (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert


    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  11. Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risk. Part I. Variation of concentration ranges according to different soil uses and locations. (United States)

    Holoubek, Ivan; Dusek, Ladislav; Sánka, Milan; Hofman, Jakub; Cupr, Pavel; Jarkovský, Jirí; Zbíral, Jirí; Klánová, Jana


    Detailed soil screening data from the Czech Republic as a typical Central European country are presented here. Determination of a wide selection of organic and inorganic pollutants as well as an assessment of specific soil parameters allowed us to study the soil contamination in relation to the land use and soil properties. While HCHs and HCB were found at highest levels in arable soils, the higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs, PAHs and DDTs were observed in high altitude forest soils. Concentrations of these compounds strongly correlated with the soil organic carbon content. Several possible reasons have been suggested for the observed higher concentrations in mountain forest soils but the impact of each of these influencing factors remains to be identified. An inventory of the soil contamination is needed as a first step in our effort to estimate an extent to which the secondary sources contribute to the enhanced atmospheric levels of POPs.

  12. Influence of bioenergy waste biochar on proton- and ligand-promoted release of Pb and Cu in a shooting range soil. (United States)

    Kumarathilaka, Prasanna; Ahmad, Mahtab; Herath, Indika; Mahatantila, Kushani; Athapattu, B C L; Rinklebe, Jörg; Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Abduljabbar, Adel; Vithanage, Meththika


    Presence of organic and inorganic acids influences the release rates of trace metals (TMs) bound in contaminated soil systems. This study aimed to investigate the influence of bioenergy waste biochar, derived from Gliricidia sepium (GBC), on the proton and ligand-induced bioavailability of Pb and Cu in a shooting range soil (17,066mg Pb and 1134mg Cu per kg soil) in the presence of inorganic (sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric) and organic acids (acetic, citric, and oxalic). Release rates of Pb and Cu in the shooting range soil were determined under different acid concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10mM) and in the presence/absence of GBC (10% by weight of soil). The dissolution rates of Pb and Cu increased with increasing acid concentrations. Lead was preferentially released (2.79×10 -13 to 8.86×10 -13 molm -2 s -1 ) than Cu (1.07×10 -13 to 1.02×10 -13 molm -2 s -1 ) which could be due to the excessive Pb concentrations in soil. However, the addition of GBC to soil reduced Pb and Cu dissolution rates to a greater extent of 10.0 to 99.5% and 15.6 to 99.5%, respectively, under various acid concentrations. The increased pH in the medium and different adsorption mechanisms, including electrostatic attractions, surface diffusion, ion exchange, precipitation, and complexation could immobilize Pb and Cu released by the proton and ligands in GBC amended soil. Overall, GBC could be utilized as an effective soil amendment to immobilize Pb and Cu in shooting range soil even under the influence of soil acidity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer


    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  14. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahtab [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung [Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Han [Division of Plant Environment Research, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service, Jinju 660-360 (Korea, Republic of); Al-Wabel, Mohammad I [Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Lee, Sung-Eun, E-mail: [School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Soo, E-mail: [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Biochar immobilizes Pb and Cu in a contaminated shooting range soil. • Soybean stover-biochar is an efficient metal immobilizer than pine needle-biochar. • Biochar produced at 700 °C showed significant potential of sequestering C in soil. • Biochar showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass. - Abstract: Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700 °C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals’ (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  15. Least Limiting Water Range and Load Bearing Capacity of Soil under Types of Tractor-Trailers for Mechanical Harvesting of Green Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higino Frederico Pereira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of the sugarcane industry in Brazil has intensified the mechanization of agriculture and caused effects on the soil physical quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting water range and soil bearing capacity of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox under the influence of different tractor-trailers used in mechanical sugarcane harvesting. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of green sugarcane harvesting with: harvester without trailer (T1; harvester with two trailers with a capacity of 10 Mg each (T2; harvester with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (T3 and harvester and truck with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (10 Mg per compartment (T4. The least limiting water range and soil bearing capacity were evaluated. The transport equipment to remove the harvested sugarcane from the field (trailer at harvest decreased the least limiting water range, reducing the structural soil quality. The truck trailer caused the greatest impact on the soil physical properties studied. The soil load bearing capacity was unaffected by the treatments, since the pressure of the harvester (T1 exceeded the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil.

  16. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution (United States)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.


    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  17. Evaluation of soil metal bioavailability estimates using two plant species (L. perenne and T. aestivum) grown in a range of agricultural soils treated with biosolids and metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Amanda, E-mail: [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, PO Box 84, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand); McLaren, Ronald G. [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, PO Box 84, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand); Reichman, Suzanne M. [School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Speir, Thomas W. [Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd (ESR), PO Box 50348, Porirua 5240 (New Zealand); Condron, Leo M. [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, PO Box 84, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand)


    Few studies have quantified the accuracy of soil metal bioavailability assays using large datasets. A meta-analysis from experiments spanning 6 months to 13 years on 12 soil types, compared bioavailability estimate efficiencies for wheat and ryegrass. Treatments included biosolids {+-} metals, comparing total metal, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, EDTA, soil solution, DGT and free ion activity. The best correlations between soil metal bioavailability and shoot concentrations were for Ni using Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (r{sup 2} = 0.72) which also provided the best estimate of Zn bioavailability (r{sup 2} = 0.64). DGT provided the best estimate of Cd bioavailability, accounting for 49% of shoot Cd concentrations. There was no reliable descriptor of Cu bioavailability, with less than 35% of shoot Cu concentrations defined. Thus interpretation of data obtained from many soil metal bioavailability assays is unreliable and probably flawed, and there is little justification to look beyond Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for Ni and Zn, and DGT for Cd. - Highlights: > A meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of soil metal bioavailability assays. > DGT could explain 49% of shoot Cd concentration. > There is little justification to look beyond Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for Ni and Zn. - A meta-analysis of soil metal bioavailability estimates for 12 soil types concluded that there is little justification to look beyond Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for Ni and Zn, and DGT for Cd.

  18. Growing up green on serpentine soils: Biogeochemistry of serpentine vegetation in the Central Coast Range of California (United States)

    Oze, C.; Skinner, C.; Schroth, A.W.; Coleman, R.G.


    Serpentine soils derived from the weathering of ultramafic rocks and their metamorphic derivatives (serpentinites) are chemically prohibitive for vegetative growth. Evaluating how serpentine vegetation is able to persist under these chemical conditions is difficult to ascertain due to the numerous factors (climate, relief, time, water availability, etc.) controlling and affecting plant growth. Here, the uptake, incorporation, and distribution of a wide variety of elements into the biomass of serpentine vegetation has been investigated relative to vegetation growing on an adjacent chert-derived soil. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, soil extractable elements, total soil elemental compositions and plant digestions in conjunction with spider diagrams are utilized to determine the chemical relationships of these soil and plant systems. Plant available Mg and Ca in serpentine soils exceed values assessed in chert soils. Magnesium is nearly 3 times more abundant than Ca in the serpentine soils; however, the serpentine soils are not Ca deficient with Ca concentrations as high as 2235 mg kg-1. Calcium to Mg ratios (Ca:Mg) in both serpentine and chert vegetation are greater than one in both below and above ground tissues. Soil and plant chemistry analyses support that Ca is not a limiting factor for plant growth and that serpentine vegetation is actively moderating Mg uptake as well as tolerating elevated concentrations of bioavailable Mg. Additionally, results demonstrate that serpentine vegetation suppresses the uptake of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and Co into its biomass. The suppressed uptake of these metals mainly occurs in the plants' roots as evident by the comparatively lower metal concentrations present in above ground tissues (twigs, leaves and shoots). This research supports earlier studies that have suggested that ion uptake discrimination and ion suppression in the roots are major mechanisms for serpentine vegetation to tolerate the chemistry of

  19. How will organic carbon stocks in mineral soils evolve under future climate? Global projections using RothC for a range of climate change scenarios


    Gottschalk, P.; Smith, J.U.; Wattenbach, M.; Bellarby, J.; Stehfest, E.; Arnell, N.; Osborn, T. J.; Jones, C.; Smith, P.


    We use a soil carbon (C) model (RothC), driven by a range of climate models for a range of climate scenarios to examine the impacts of future climate on global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. The results suggest an overall global increase in SOC stocks by 2100 under all scenarios, but with a different extent of increase among the climate model and emissions scenarios. The impacts of projected land use changes are also simulated, but have relatively minor impacts at the global scale. Whether...

  20. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range. (United States)

    Tognella, M M P; Soares, M L G; Cuevas, E; Medina, E


    Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that sites sampled were comparatively

  1. Determination of the saturated film conductivity to improve the EMFX model in describing the soil hydraulic properties over the entire moisture range (United States)

    Wang, Yunquan; Ma, Jinzhu; Guan, Huade; Zhu, Gaofeng


    Difficulty in measuring hydraulic conductivity, particularly under dry conditions, calls for methods of predicting the conductivity from easily obtained soil properties. As a complement to the recently published EMFX model, a method based on two specific suction conditions is proposed to estimate saturated film conductivity from the soil water retention curve. This method reduces one fitting parameter in the previous EMFX model, making it possible to predict the hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve over the complete moisture range. Model performance is evaluated with published data of soils in a broad texture range from sand to clay. The testing results indicate that 1) the modified EMFX model (namely the EMFX-K model), incorporating both capillary and adsorption forces, provides good agreement with the conductivity data over the entire moisture range; 2) a value of 0.5 for the tortuosity factor in the EMFX-K model as that in the Mualem's model gives comparable estimation of the relative conductivity associated with the capillary force; and 3) a value of -1.0 × 10-20 J for the Hamaker constant, rather than the commonly used value of -6.0 × 10-20 J, appears to be more appropriate to represent solely the effect of the van der Waals forces and to predict the film conductivity. In comparison with the commonly used van Genuchten-Mualem model, the EMFX-K model significantly improves the prediction of hydraulic conductivity under dry conditions. The sensitivity analysis result suggests that the uncertainty in the film thickness estimation is important in explaining the model underestimation of hydraulic conductivity for the soils with fine texture, in addition to the uncertainties from the measurements and the model structure. High quality data that cover the complete moisture range for a variety of soil textures are required to further test the method.

  2. The effect of kauri (Agathis australis) on grain size distribution and clay mineralogy of andesitic soils in the Waitakere Ranges, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, A.G.; Buurman, P.


    Kauri (Agathis australis) is generally associated with intense podzolisation, but little research has been carried out to substantiate this. We studied soil profiles, grain size distribution patterns and clay mineralogy under kauri and broadleaf/tree fern vegetation in the Waitakere Ranges, North

  3. Fractionation of metals by sequential extraction procedures (BCR and Tessier) in soil exposed to fire of wide temperature range (United States)

    Fajkovic, Hana; Rončević, Sanda; Nemet, Ivan; Prohić, Esad; Leontić-Vazdar, Dana


    Forest fire presents serious problem, especially in Mediterranean Region. Effects of fire are numerous, from climate change and deforestation to loss of soil organic matter and changes in soil properties. One of the effects, not well documented, is possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of pollutants previously deposited in the soil, due to the new physical and chemical soil properties and changes in equilibrium conditions. For understanding and predicting possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of potential pollutants from soil, affected by fire different in temperature, several laboratory investigations were carried out. To evaluate the influence of organic matter on soil under fire, three soil samples were analysed and compared: (a) the one with added coniferous organic matter; (b) deciduous organic matter (b) and (c) soil without additional organic matter. Type of organic matter is closely related to pH of soil, as pH is influencing the mobility of some pollutants, e.g. metals. For that reason pH was also measured through all experimental steps. Each of mentioned soil samples (a, b and c) were heated at 1+3 different temperatures (25°C, 200°C, 500°C and 850°C). After heating, whereby fire effect on soil was simulated, samples were analysed by BCR protocol with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia. Element fractionation of heavy metals by this procedure was used to determine the amounts of selected elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Selected metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Further on, loss of organic matter was calculated after each heating procedure as well as the mineral composition. The mineral composition was determined using an X-ray diffraction. From obtained results, it can be concluded that temperature has an influence on concentration of elements in specific step of

  4. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza


    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  5. Comparison of bacterial diversity in proglacial soil from Kafni Glacier, Himalayan Mountain ranges, India, with the bacterial diversity of other glaciers in the world. (United States)

    Srinivas, T N R; Singh, S M; Pradhan, Suman; Pratibha, M S; Kishore, K Hara; Singh, Ashish K; Begum, Z; Prabagaran, S R; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S


    Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (KF and KS) were constructed using two soil samples (K7s and K8s) collected near Kafni Glacier, Himalayas. The two libraries yielded a total of 648 clones. Phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetae, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia were common to the two libraries. Phyla Acidobacteria, Chlamydiae and Nitrospirae were present only in KF library, whereas Lentisphaerae and TM7 were detected only in KS. In the two libraries, clones belonging to phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most predominant. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that KF and KS were different and arsenic content influenced the differences in the percentage of OTUs. PCA indicated that high water content in the K8s sample results in high total bacterial count. PCA also indicated that bacterial diversity of KF and KS was similar to soils from the Pindari Glacier, Himalayas; Samoylov Island, Siberia; Schrimacher Oasis, Antarctica and Siberian tundra. The eleven bacterial strains isolated from the above two soil samples were phylogenetically related to six different genera. All the isolates were psychro-, halo- and alkalitolerant. Amylase, lipase and urease activities were detected in the majority of the strains. Long chain, saturated, unsaturated and branched fatty acids were predominant in the psychrotolerant bacteria.

  6. The Provident Principal. (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  7. Elementary School Principal Effectiveness. (United States)

    Cross, Ray

    A review of research linking elementary principal "antecedents" (defined as traits), behaviors, school conditions, and student outcomes furnishes few supportable generalizations. The studies relating principal antecedents with behavior and principal antecedents with organizational variables reveals that the trait theory of leadership has…

  8. Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study. (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Grasshorn Gebhardt, Karl-Alexander; Amstaetter, Katja; Bue, Helga Lassen; Herzel, Hannes; Mariussen, Espen; Rossebø Almås, Åsgeir; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Rasmussen, Grete; Mulder, Jan


    Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349μgL(-1)) and Pb (7-1495μgPbL(-1)) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures. Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe°) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannah Grass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses II: Root Zone Physical Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer


    Full Text Available The root zone physical condition influences root development and function, which affects turfgrass growth, quality and performance. The temporal variability of root zone properties was investigated in a factorial experiment combining sand layering compaction and moisture stress on the performance of Savannahgrass (SG (Axonopus compressus, Bermudagrass (BG (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. (cv. Tifway 419 and Zoysiagrass (ZG (Zoysia spp. grown in four contrasting soils. Four stresses—drought (D, waterlogging (WL, high compaction (HC and low compaction (LC—were applied either with or without a surface sand layer. Root zone properties, including root weight (RW, bulk density (BD, surface hardness (SH, redox potential (Eh and non-capillary pore space (NCPS, were monitored over a four-month growth period. Surface hardness values were greater for the high compaction effort in treatments without sand, but were highest under drought. Sand addition resulted in lower SH for all grass × soil combinations. The soil texture influenced root zone BD for all turfgrasses, with the clay soils recording significantly lower bulk densities (<1.00 g/cm3 than those with coarser fractions. Compaction had a minimal influence on BD, the effect being further modified by grass type. Low BD was associated with high RW. RW was also significantly higher in the sand-amended treatments. Waterlogging reduced Eh for all soils, with higher values recorded in the sand treatments. The redox potential was lowest in River Estate soil and in pots planted with ZG. Across turfgrasses, Princes Town and Talparo soils had significantly lower NCPS for the sand treatment. NCPS was highest for ZG across stress treatments, but values were similar to SG under compaction treatments. Sand layering improved the root zone aeration status, particularly with SG, resulting in a better physical condition.

  10. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH (United States)

    In situ application of heavy metal stabilizing agents has in some cases increased the mobility of target metal contaminants. Mechanistic understandings are necessary to better predict (1) the dynamic short- and long-term response to soil amendments, and (2) the utility of biochars in nonremoval and...

  11. Short-range variability of soil pH in a regional geochemical survey, communicating uncertainty to the data user (United States)

    Ander, Louise; Knights, Kate; Lark, Murray


    The north of Ireland is well-furnished with geochemical data after completion of the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and the Tellus Border survey of six northern counties of the Republic of Ireland. These data are of considerable interest to the agricultural sector, in particular the data on soil pH. However, a geochemical survey at regional scale cannot resolve significant variation of soil pH, in particular effects of soil management and fine-scale variation of superficial material. This leads to uncertainties in the mapped soil pH which must be accounted for when making decisions about management interventions, including more detailed local sampling. In this poster we show how uncertainty of predicted soil pH, relative to established threshold values, can be quantified by disjunctive kriging. The uncertainty is expressed in terms of probabilities. We show how this can be communicated to the data user by means of the calibrated phrases of the IPCC, using results from recent research on its efficacy to modify its presentation.

  12. Aspect-dependent soil saturation and insight into debris-flow initiation during extreme rainfall in the Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Rengers, Francis K.; Tucker, Gregory E.


    Hydrologic processes during extreme rainfall events are poorly characterized because of the rarity of measurements. Improved understanding of hydrologic controls on natural hazards is needed because of the potential for substantial risk during extreme precipitation events. We present field measurements of the degree of soil saturation and estimates of available soil-water storage during the September 2013 Colorado extreme rainfall event at burned (wildfire in 2010) and unburned hillslopes with north- and south-facing slope aspects. Soil saturation was more strongly correlated with slope aspect than with recent fire history; south-facing hillslopes became fully saturated while north-facing hillslopes did not. Our results suggest multiple explanations for why aspect-dependent hydrologic controls favor saturation development on south-facing slopes, causing reductions in effective stress and triggering of slope failures during extreme rainfall. Aspect-dependent hydrologic behavior may result from (1) a larger gravel and stone fraction, and hence lower soil-water storage capacity, on south-facing slopes, and (2) lower weathered-bedrock permeability on south-facing slopes, because of lower tree density and associated deep roots penetrating bedrock as well as less intense weathering, inhibiting soil drainage.

  13. How will organic carbon stocks in mineral soils evolve under future climate? Global projections using RothC for a range of climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gottschalk


    Full Text Available We use a soil carbon (C model (RothC, driven by a range of climate models for a range of climate scenarios to examine the impacts of future climate on global soil organic carbon (SOC stocks. The results suggest an overall global increase in SOC stocks by 2100 under all scenarios, but with a different extent of increase among the climate model and emissions scenarios. The impacts of projected land use changes are also simulated, but have relatively minor impacts at the global scale. Whether soils gain or lose SOC depends upon the balance between C inputs and decomposition. Changes in net primary production (NPP change C inputs to the soil, whilst decomposition usually increases under warmer temperatures, but can also be slowed by decreased soil moisture. Underlying the global trend of increasing SOC under future climate is a complex pattern of regional SOC change. SOC losses are projected to occur in northern latitudes where higher SOC decomposition rates due to higher temperatures are not balanced by increased NPP, whereas in tropical regions, NPP increases override losses due to higher SOC decomposition. The spatial heterogeneity in the response of SOC to changing climate shows how delicately balanced the competing gain and loss processes are, with subtle changes in temperature, moisture, soil type and land use, interacting to determine whether SOC increases or decreases in the future. Our results suggest that we should stop looking for a single answer regarding whether SOC stocks will increase or decrease under future climate, since there is no single answer. Instead, we should focus on improving our prediction of the factors that determine the size and direction of change, and the land management practices that can be implemented to protect and enhance SOC stocks.

  14. Additive effects of aboveground polyphagous herbivores and soil feedback in native and range-expanding exotic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrien, E.; Engelkes, T.; Van der Putten, W.H.


    Plant biomass and plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground natural enemies. However, little is known about how the aboveground and belowground enemy effects may add up. We exposed 15 plant species to aboveground polyphagous insect herbivores and feedback effects from the soil

  15. A terrain-attribute based approach to assessing soil carbon sequestration in the Oregon Coast range mountains (United States)

    Determining how to best mitigate Global Climate Change through the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 requires developing an understanding of potential ecosystem C sinks and the rates at which C can be sequestered in soils and vegetation under a variety of land uses. The largest g...

  16. Altitudinal gradients of soil and vegetation carbon and nitrogen in a high altitude nature reserve of Karakoram ranges. (United States)

    Shedayi, Arshad Ali; Xu, Ming; Naseer, Iqnaa; Khan, Babar


    This study aimed to investigate the correlation of carbon and nitrogen in soil and leaves with the altitude, vegetation type, herbaceous biomass (HB), litter mass (LM) and with each other. Soil and leaf samples collected from different forest types along altitudinal gradients in the Karakoram Mountains. Dry and gas law methods were used for the chemical analysis. Regression models used for correlation analysis and T test for comparison. The correlation of soil total carbon (STC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) along altitudinal gradients and correlation between soil organic carbon (SOC) and STN was significantly positive with the values R(2) = 0.1684, p = 0.01, R(2) = 0.1537, p = 0.009 and R(2) = 0.856, p = 7.31E-10 respectively, while it was non-significant between soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and altitude and also between SIC and STN. The concentration of SOC and STN was highest in the broad leaved Betula utilis forest (22.31, 1.6 %) and least in the mixed (Pinus, Juniper, Betula) forest soil (0.85, 0.09 %) respectively. In the tree species leaf total carbon (LTC) and leaf total nitrogen (LTN) were highest in the Pinus wallichiana (PW) (632.54, 19.77), and least in the Populus alba (87.59, 4.06). In the shrub species LTC and LTN nitrogen were highest in the Rosa webiana (235.64, 7.45) and least in the Astragalus gilgitensis (43.45, 1.60) respectively. Total carbon and total nitrogen showed a slightly decreasing and increasing trend with altitude in the leaf and soil samples, respectively. The mean nitrogen and carbon was higher in the leaves of trees (3, 97.95) than in the shrubs (2.725, 74.24) and conifers (2.26, 76.46) than in the leaves of the deciduous (2, 46.36) trees. The correlation between LTC and STN was non-significant. Strong significant (R(2) = 0.608, p = 0.003) and weak non-significant (R(2) = 0.04, p = 0.32) relationships were found in STN and STC with LM and HB respectively. SOC (75.15 %) was found to be the main contributor to

  17. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. P. Tognella

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that

  18. Principal Ports and Facilities (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  19. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frozen Soil Impacts on Agricultural, Range, and Forest Lands Held at Spokane, Washington on March 21-22, 1990 (United States)


    Thoms-Hjirpe (1986) Simulated and measured soil water dynamics of unfertilized and fertilized barley. Acta Agricultura Scendinavica, Vol. 36, pp. 162...27, No. 2-3, pp. 89-109. Steen, E., P.-E. Jansson and J. Persson (1984) Experimental site of the ’Ecology of Arable Land’ project. Acta Agricultura ...the 38 degree North Latitude line but the high mountain ranges of New Mexico , Arizona, and California. Therefore, knowledge of the complex phenomena

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a new class of stabilized apatite nanoparticles and applying the particles to in situ Pb immobilization in a fire-range soil. (United States)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Zhao, Dongye


    Phosphate compounds and the related materials are effective agents for in situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Problems associated with using these phosphate materials include difficulties in delivering the solid phosphate minerals to the deep contaminated zones or risks of eutrophication with applying soluble phosphates. Therefore, a new class of apatite nanoparticles was synthesized using carboxymethyl cellulose as a stabilizer in order to increase the dispersion rate of phosphate in soils but without introducing significant amount of soluble phosphate into the environment. The product was confirmed by XRD as chlorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3Cl) with poor crystallinity. TEM and SEM revealed that the particles were spherical or irregular in shape with sizes spanning from a few nm to around 200 nm. FTIR spectra suggested that Ca(II) cations formed outer-sphere bonds with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in cellulose molecules, thus inhibiting further agglomeration of the particles. Dry combustion data supported a formula of [C6H7O2(OH)2OCH2COOCa5(PO4)3Cl]n for the nano-apatite composite. Laboratory tests showed that the nanoparticles could effectively decrease the TCLP-leachable Pb fraction in a Pb-contaminated soil from 66% to 10% after one-month amendment with a ratio of 2 mL solution to 1g soil and the resultant Pb content in the TCLP solution was reduced to 12 from 94 mg L(-1). When the amendment ratio was increased by 5 times, the leachable Pb was further reduced to 3.8 mg L(-1) with only about 3% of the soil Pb leachable. The soil sample, containing an average of 2.7×10(3)mg Pb kg(-1), was taken from a shooting-range in Southern USA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrimination between long-range transport and local pollution sources and precise delineation of polluted soil layers using integrated geophysical-geochemical methods. (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewisz, Marcin; Szuszkiewicz, Maria; Żogała, Bogdan


    The primary goal of this work was to distinguish between soil pollution from long-range and local transport of atmospheric pollutants using soil magnetometry in combination with geochemical analyses and precise delineation of polluted soil layers by using integrated magnetic (surface susceptibility, gradiometric measurement) and other geophysical techniques (conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography). The study area was located in the Izery region of Poland (within the "Black Triangle" region, which is the nickname for one of Europe's most polluted areas, where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic meet). The study area was located in the Forest Glade where the historical local pollution source (glass factory) was active since and of 18th until the end of 19th century. The magnetic signal here was the combination of long-range transport of magnetic particles, local deposition and anthropogenic layers containing ashes and slags and partly comprising the subsoil of modern soil. Application of the set of different geophysical techniques enabled the precise location of these layers. The effect of the long-range pollution transport was observed on a neighboring hill (Granicznik) of which the western, northwestern and southwestern parts of the slope were exposed to the transport of atmospheric pollutants from the Czech Republic and Germany and Poland. Using soil magnetometry, it was possible to discriminate between long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and anthropogenic pollution related to the former glasswork located in the Forest Glade. The magnetic susceptibility values (κ) as well as the number of "hot-spots" of volume magnetic susceptibility is significantly larger in the Forest Glade than on the Granicznik Hill where the κ is pollution originating from lignite power plants along the Polish border, while the southeastern part of the hill was shielded by crag and tail formation. Also the set of chemical elements connected with magnetic particles

  2. Should Principals Know More about Law? (United States)

    Doctor, Tyrus L.


    Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.

  3. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis


    de Leeuw, Jan


    Two quite different forms of nonlinear principal component analysis have been proposed in the literature. The first one is associated with the names of Guttman, Burt, Hayashi, Benzécri, McDonald, De Leeuw, Hill, Nishisato. We call it multiple correspondence analysis. The second form has been discussed by Kruskal, Shepard, Roskam, Takane, Young, De Leeuw, Winsberg, Ramsay. We call it nonmetric principal component analysis. The two forms have been related and combined, both geometricall...

  4. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roller Coaster. According to field records, a hardened layer of livestock feces ranging from 2.54 centimeters (cm) (1 inch [in.]) to 10.2 cm (4 in.) thick is present in each of the main sheds. IT personnel conducted a field visit on December 3, 1997, and noted that the only visible feces were located within the east shed, the previously fenced area near the east shed, and a small area southwest of the west shed. Other historical records indicate that other areas may still be covered with animal feces, but heavy vegetation now covers it. It is possible that radionuclides are present in this layer, given the history of operations in this area. Chemicals of concern may include plutonium and depleted uranium. Surface soil sampling was conducted on February 18, 1998. An evaluation of historical documentation indicated that plutonium should not be and depleted uranium could not be present at levels significantly above background as the result of test animals being penned at the site. The samples were analyzed for isotopic plutonium using method NAS-NS-3058. The results of the analysis indicated that plutonium levels of the feces and surface soil were not significantly elevated above background.

  5. Influence of long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) on mono-to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs levels and distributions in soil around Qinghai Lake, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun


    Long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) of persistent organic pollutants followed by their deposition in cold, arid regions is of wide concern. This problem occurs at Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a sparsely populated area with extreme weather conditions and little current...... or historical anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the mono-to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) congeners in surface soil samples collected from around Qinghai Lake were quantified. Concentration differences between low-(mono-to tri-) chlorinated...

  6. Response of forest soil Acari to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range.Can (United States)

    Michael A. Camann; Nancy E. Gillette; Karen L. Lamoncha; Sylvia R. Mori


    We studied responses of Acari, especially oribatid mites, to prescribed low-intensity fire in an east side pine site in the southern Cascade Range in California. We compared oribatid population and assemblage responses to prescribed fire in stands that had been selectively logged to enhance old growth characteristics, in logged stands to minimize old growth...

  7. Soil warming alters seed-bank responses across the geographic range of freshwater Taxodium distichum (Cupressaceae) swamps (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen L.


    Premise of the Study: Climate warming is predicted to have far-reaching effects on the distribution of species, but those effects may depend on the flexibility of regenerating species in responding to climate gradients. We conducted a study to determine whether the variation in the response of seed banks to temperature varied across the latitudinal range of Taxodium distichum swamps in North America.

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Parts of Dona Ana, Lincoln, Otero, Sierra and Socorro Counties (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Wireless network of stand-alone end effect probes for soil in situ permittivity measurements over the 100MHZ-6GHz frequency range (United States)

    Demontoux, François; Bircher, Simone; Ruffié, Gilles; Bonnaudiin, Fabrice; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann


    Microwave remote sensing and non-destructive analysis are a powerful way to provide properties estimation of materials. Numerous applications using microwave frequency behavior of materials (remote sensing above land surfaces, non-destructive analysis…) are strongly dependent on the material's permittivity (i.e. dielectric properties). This permittivity depends on numerous parameters such as moisture, texture, temperature, frequency or bulk density. Permittivity measurements are generally carried out in the laboratory. Additionally, dielectric mixing models allow, over a restricted range of conditions, the assessment of a material's permittivity. in-situ measurements are more difficult to obtain. Some in situ measurement probes based on permittivity properties of soil exist (e.g. Time Domain Reflectometers and Transmissometers, capacitance and impedance sensors). They are dedicated to the acquisition of soil moisture data based on permittivity (mainly the real part) estimations over a range of frequencies from around 50 MHz to 1 or 2 GHz. Other Dielectric Assessment Kits exist but they are expensive and they are rather dedicated to laboratory measurements. Furthermore, the user can't address specific issues related to particular materials (e.g. organic soils) or specific measurement conditions (in situ long time records). At the IMS Laboratory we develop probes for in situ soil permittivity measurements (real and imaginary parts) in the 0.5 - 6 GHz frequency range. They are based on the end effect phenomenon of a coaxial waveguide and so are called end effect probes in this paper. The probes can be connected to a portable Vector Network Analyzer (VNA, ANRITSU MS2026A) for the S11 coefficient measurements needed to compute permittivity. It is connected to a PC to record data using an USB connection. This measurement set-up is already used for in situ measurement of soil properties in the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) SMOS space mission. However

  10. Impact of vegetation removal and soil aridation on diurnal temperature range in a semiarid region: Application to the Sahel


    Zhou, Liming; Robert E. Dickinson; Tian, Yuhong; Vose, Russell S.; Dai, YongJiu


    Increased clouds and precipitation normally decrease the diurnal temperature range (DTR) and thus have commonly been offered as explanation for the trend of reduced DTR observed for many land areas over the last several decades. Observations show, however, that the DTR was reduced most in dry regions and especially in the West African Sahel during a period of unprecedented drought. Furthermore, the negative trend of DTR in the Sahel appears to have stopped and may have reversed after the rain...

  11. Strategic Principal Communication (United States)

    Henry, Jake; Woody, Aaron


    As communities become increasingly diverse and criticism of traditional public schools intensifies, some states, such as North Carolina, have enacted legislation that encourages alternative forms of schooling. This condition has resulted in new challenges for principals to communicate broadly and often with stakeholders in an effort to build…

  12. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  13. Study 3: Energy, alimentation and competition for soils use: problematic and safety principles; Etude 3: energie, alimentation et concurrence d'usage des sols: problematique et principes de prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monot, C. [Solagral (France)


    For long-dated, the development of energies resulting from the biomass should aggravate the risks of soils use competition. On one hand the energy crops increase on fertile soils will limit the surfaces devoted to the alimentation and on the other hand intensive energy crops will risk to degrade the soils (erosion, pollution). The energy policies have to preserve from now onwards, the fossil energies resources, to limit the greenhouse effect and the nuclear wastes proliferation, but also to manage the soils resources to produce the bio-energies. This study tries to answer the following questions: Is there enough soils to produce the bio-energies in substitution to the fossil energies and food the humanity? Which is the policy that will participate to a good soils management, in order to preserve the alimentary potential? (A.L.B.)

  14. Influence of soil properties on crop yield: a multivariate statistical approach (United States)

    Juhos, Katalin; Szabó, Szilárd; Ladányi, Márta


    The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between soil properties and grain yields in an East Hungarian region in regard to weather conditions. Soil pH, EC, carbonate content, soluble and exchangeable Na+, texture, organic carbon, and nutrient contents were analyzed. Yield data (maize, winter wheat, sunflower) from 10 years were standardized using calculated relative yield and yield variability. Weather conditions were characterized by the Pálfai Drought Index. Hydrological and topographical conditions were characterized by the mean altitude of plots. The ranged pedological variables were analyzed using principal component analysis with Varimax rotation. The principal component analysis showed that three principal components with eigenvalues greater than one explained more than 84% of the variability of soil properties. The multiple stepwise principal regression analysis showed that the mean relative yield was linearly correlated with all the three principal component factors (R2 = 0.49, p linear combinations.

  15. Short-range spatial variability of soil δ15N natural abundance – effects on symbiotic N2-fixation estimates in pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdensen, Lars; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen


    abundance in spring barley and N2-fixing pea was measured within the 0.15-4 m scale at flowering and at maturity. The short-range spatial variability of soil δ15N natural abundance and symbiotic nitrogen fixation were high at both growth stages. Along a 4-m row, the δ15N natural abundance in barley......-abundance are that estimates of symbiotic N2-fixation can be obtained from the natural abundance method if at least half a square meter of crop and reference plants is sampled for the isotopic analysis. In fields with small amounts of representative reference crops (weeds) it might be necessary to sow in reference crop...

  16. Genetic Diversity and Host Range of Rhizobia Nodulating Lotus tenuis in Typical Soils of the Salado River Basin (Argentina)▿ † (United States)

    Estrella, María Julia; Muñoz, Socorro; Soto, María José; Ruiz, Oscar; Sanjuán, Juan


    A total of 103 root nodule isolates were used to estimate the diversity of bacteria nodulating Lotus tenuis in typical soils of the Salado River Basin. A high level of genetic diversity was revealed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, and 77 isolates with unique genomic fingerprints were further differentiated into two clusters, clusters A and B, after 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Cluster A strains appeared to be related to the genus Mesorhizobium, whereas cluster B was related to the genus Rhizobium. 16S rRNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis further supported the distribution of most of the symbiotic isolates in either Rhizobium or Mesorhizobium: the only exception was isolate BA135, whose 16S rRNA gene was closely related to the 16S rRNA gene of the genus Aminobacter. Most Mesorhizobium-like isolates were closely related to Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, or the broad-host-range strain NZP2037, but surprisingly few isolates grouped with Mesorhizobium loti type strain NZP2213. Rhizobium-like strains were related to Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium etli, or Rhizobium tropici, for which Phaseolus vulgaris is a common host. However, no nodC or nifH genes could be amplified from the L. tenuis isolates, suggesting that they have rather divergent symbiosis genes. In contrast, nodC genes from the Mesorhizobium and Aminobacter strains were closely related to nodC genes from narrow-host-range M. loti strains. Likewise, nifH gene sequences were very highly conserved among the Argentinian isolates and reference Lotus rhizobia. The high levels of conservation of the nodC and nifH genes suggest that there was a common origin of the symbiosis genes in narrow-host-range Lotus symbionts, supporting the hypothesis that both intrageneric horizontal gene transfer and intergeneric horizontal gene transfer are important mechanisms for the spread of symbiotic capacity in the Salado River Basin. PMID

  17. Teacher and Principal Beliefs about Principal Leadership Behavior (United States)

    Morris, Mary Beth


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there is a difference between teacher and principal beliefs about principal leadership behavior using a 360-degree evaluation tool. The study also examined whether the difference between teacher and principal beliefs was related to the status of a school relative to the state growth target…

  18. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  19. Administrative Dilemmas of the Principal. (United States)

    Sackney, Larry E.


    After examining dilemmas that principals face in conducting their jobs, the author offers fresh perspectives on the role of the principal as a system analyst, an adapter, and an instructional leader. (IRT)

  20. Principals' Relationship with Computer Technology (United States)

    Brockmeier, Lantry L.; Sermon, Janet M.; Hope, Warren C.


    This investigation sought information about principals and their relationship with computer technology. Several questions were fundamental to the inquiry. Are principals prepared to facilitate the attainment of technology's promise through the integration of computer technology into the teaching and learning process? Are principals prepared to use…

  1. RE Rooted in Principal's Biography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, Ina; Bakker, C.


    Critical incidents in the biography of principals appear to be steering in their innovative way of constructing InterReligious Education in their schools. In this contribution, the authors present the biographical narratives of 4 principals: 1 principal introducing interreligious education in a

  2. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric


    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  3. A survey of the occurrence of Bacillus anthracis in North American soils over two long-range transects and within post-Katrina New Orleans (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Petrosky, Terry; Morman, Suzette A.; Luna, Vicki A.


    Soil samples were collected along a north-south transect extending from Manitoba, Canada, to the US-Mexico border near El Paso, Texas in 2004 (104 samples), a group of sites within New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (19 samples), and a Gulf Coast transect extending from Sulphur, Louisiana, to DeFuniak Springs, Florida, in 2007 (38 samples). Samples were collected from the top 40 cm of soil and were screened for the presence of total Bacillus species and Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), specifically using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using an assay with a sensitivity of ~170 equivalent colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 field moist soil, the prevalence rate of Bacillus sp./B. anthracis in the north-south transect and the 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina sample set were 20/5% and 26/26%, respectively. Prevalence in the 2007 Gulf Coast sample set using an assay with a sensitivity of ~4 CFU g-1 of soil was 63/0%. Individual transect-set data indicate a positive relation between occurrences of species and soil moisture or soil constituents (i.e., Zn and Cu content). The 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina data indicated that B. anthracis is readily detectable in Gulf Coast soils following flood events. The data also indicated that occurrence, as it relates to soil chemistry, may be confounded by flood-induced dissemination of germinated cells and the mixing of soil constituents for short temporal periods following an event.

  4. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  5. Influence of triethyl phosphate on phosphatase activity in shooting range soil: Isolation of a zinc-resistant bacterium with an acid phosphatase. (United States)

    Story, Sandra; Brigmon, Robin L


    Phosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of organic phosphate may be a viable means of stabilizing heavy metals via precipitation as a metal phosphate in bioremediation applications. We investigated the effect of triethyl phosphate (TEP) on soil microbial-phosphatase activity in a heavy-metal contaminated soil. Gaseous TEP has been used at subsurface sites for bioremediation of organic contaminants but not applied in heavy-metal contaminated areas. Little is known about how TEP affects microbial activity in soils and it is postulated that TEP can serve as a phosphate source in nutrient-poor groundwater and soil/sediments. Over a 3-week period, TEP amendment to microcosms containing heavy-metal contaminated soil resulted in increased activity of soil acid-phosphatase and repression of alkaline phosphatase, indicating a stimulatory effect on the microbial population. A soil-free enrichment of microorganisms adapted to heavy-metal and acidic conditions was derived from the TEP-amended soil microcosms using TEP as the sole phosphate source and the selected microbial consortium maintained a high acid-phosphatase activity with repression of alkaline phosphatase. Addition of 5mM zinc to soil-free microcosms had little effect on acid phosphatase but inhibited alkaline phosphatase. One bacterial member from the consortium, identified as Burkholderia cepacia sp., expressed an acid-phosphatase activity uninhibited by high concentrations of zinc and produced a soluble, indigo pigment under phosphate limitation. The pigment was produced in a phosphate-free medium and was not produced in the presence of TEP or phosphate ion, indicative of purple acid-phosphatase types that are pressed by bioavailable phosphate. These results demonstrate that TEP amendment was bioavailable and increased overall phosphatase activity in both soil and soil-free microcosms supporting the possibility of positive outcomes in bioremediation applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Le principe roman

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Jérôme


    Fasciné par la figure du physicien allemand Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), fondateur de la mécanique quantique, inventeur du célèbre "principe d'incertitude" et Prix Nobel de physique en 1932, un jeune aspirant-philosophe désenchanté s'efforce, à l'aube du XXIe siècle, de considérer l'incomplétude de sa propre existence à l'aune des travaux et de la destinée de cet exceptionnel homme de sciences qui incarne pour lui la rencontre du langage scientifique et de la poésie, lesquels, chacun à leur manière, en ouvrant la voie au scandale de l'inédit, dessillent les yeux sur le monde pour en révéler la mystérieuse beauté que ne cessent de confisquer le matérialisme à l'œuvre dans l'Histoire des hommes.

  7. Principals' Perceptions Regarding Their Supervision and Evaluation (United States)

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann


    This study examined the perceptions of principals concerning principal evaluation and supervisory feedback. Principals were asked two open-ended questions. Respondents included 82 principals in the Rocky Mountain region. The emerging themes were "Superintendent Performance," "Principal Evaluation Components," "Specific…

  8. Intervalo hídrico óptimo en suelos argiudoles plantados con Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Least limiting water range in argiudoll soils under eucalyptus dunnii maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Damiano


    Full Text Available El Intervalo Hídrico Óptimo (IHO es el rango de agua del suelo dentro del cual el crecimiento de la planta está menos limitado por el potencial de agua, la aireación y la resistencia del suelo a la penetración de raíces. El IHO es a menudo determinado en cultivos, pero su aplicación en estudios de plantaciones forestales son escasos. Los objetivos fueron: a estimar el IHO del suelo en plantaciones de Eucalyptus dunnii joven y adulto usando funciones de edafo-transferencia; b relacionar funcionalmente la frecuencia de humedad observada localizada fuera del IHO (p fuera con el IHO y determinar si la relación es influenciada por el tipo de suelo y las condiciones meteorológicas del período de crecimiento. Se estimó el IHO en suelos Argiudoles Típico y Abrúptico, usando funciones de edafo-transferencia (FT de retención hídrica y resistencia del suelo. La frecuencia de humedad observada fuera del rango del IHO (p fuera fue evaluada estadísticamente usando el modelo PROC CATMOD. El IHO aumentó de 0,009 cm³ cm-³ (horizonte Bt arcillo limoso a 0,207 cm³ cm-3 (horizonte C franco limoso. El modelo de regresión logística muestra que pfuera se relacionó negativamente con el IHO (R² = 0,83***. La pendiente del modelo (b1 = -30,5475 no varió por condiciones climáticas pero la ordenada al origen resultó influenciada por este parámetro (b o seco = 5,0083; b o húmedo = 3,5207. El modelo fundamental-empírico sostuvo al IHO como un indicador de calidad física del suelo apto para evaluar factores climáticos que inciden sobre el consumo de agua en eucaliptos.The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR integrates water potential, aeration and mechanical resistance conditions that can be limiting to plant growth. The LLWR was often determined in field crops, but studies performed under tree plantations are scarce. In this study, soil LLWR was determined in young and mature Eucalyptus dunnii plantations using pedo-transfer functions. Frequency

  9. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl


    for optimal friability. There is a strong need to get more detailed knowledge about effects of soil water content on soil friability and especially to be able to quantify the least limiting water range for soil friability and therefore soil tillage. A strong relationship between organic matter and friability...... has been found but it is not possible to identify a specific lower critical level of organic matter across soil types. Sustainable management of soil requires continuous and adequate inputs of organic matter to sustain or improve soil friability. Intensive tillage and traffic in unfavorable conditions...... threatens soil friability and may initiate a vicious cycle where increasingly higher intensity of tillage is needed to produce a proper seedbed....

  10. Análise de componentes principais de atributos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos de solos do bioma cerrado Principal component analysis of physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes of the cerrado biome soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. V. Gomes


    evaluated by physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterizations, and principal component analyses. According to their sub-region and geomorphic surfaces, the soils were separated in three groups: 1. clayey to very clayey texture, low- and mesoferric; 2. medium to sandy texture, lowferric; 3. clayey to very clayey texture, ferric. Water retention in the surface horizons of the studied soils was positively correlated with the clay and organic carbon contents. Soils of Group 3 showed the greatest amount of exchangeable bases in the surface horizons, which is mainly a consequence of the greater recycling efficiency imposed by the local forest formation when compared to the Cerrado formation (verified in 31 of the 33 soil profiles of Groups 1 and 2. Soils of Group 3, formed from mafic rocks, were the most homogeneous in mineralogical terms, since all profiles were hematitic. In averages, Groups 1 and 2 presented an overlapping mineralogical composition, though Group 1 is more gibbsitic than Group 2. In comparison to the US Soil Taxonomy, the efficacy of the Brazilian Soil Classification System at discriminating the studied soils is higher owing to the use of the ferric character in conjunction with the other attributes both systems have in common. The principal component analysis supported the understanding of the pedologic environment differences and similarities identified in the field.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yorkina N.V


    .... Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises...

  12. Assessment of heavy metals in soils of a vineyard region with the use of principal component analysis Avaliação de metais pesados em solos de região de vinhedos com o uso da análise dos componentes principais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Souza Valladares


    Full Text Available Agricultural management with chemicals may contaminate the soil with heavy metals. The objective of this study was to apply Principal Component Analysis and geoprocessing techniques to identify the origin of the metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd as potential contaminants of agricultural soils. The study was developed in an area of vineyard cultivation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected and GPS located under different uses and coverings. The metal concentrations in the soils were determined using the DTPA method. The Cu and Zn content was considered high in most of the samples, and was larger in the areas cultivated with vineyards that had been under the application of fungicides for several decades. The concentrations of Cu and Zn were correlated. The geoprocessing techniques and the Principal Component Analysis confirmed the enrichment of the soil with Cu and Zn because of the use and management of the vineyards with chemicals in the preceding decades.O manejo agrícola com agroquímicos pode levar a contaminação dos solos por metais pesados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aplicar a Análise dos Componentes Principais e técnicas de geoprocessamento para identificar a origem dos metais pesados Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr e Cd como contaminantes potenciais em solos agrícolas. O estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área cultivada com vinhedos no Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Amostras de solos foram coletadas e georeferenciadas por GPS sob diferentes usos e coberturas. As concentrações dos metais nos solos foram obtidas pelo método de extração com DTPA. As concentrações de Cu e Zn foram consideradas altas na maioria das amostras pesquisadas, sendo maiores nas áreas cultivadas com vinhedos sob aplicações de fungicidas por décadas. As concentrações de Cu e Zn apresentaram correlação. As técnicas de geoprocessamento e a Análise dos Componentes Principais indicaram enriquecimento do solo com Cu e Zn

  13. Bacterial biodiversity from Roopkund Glacier, Himalayan mountain ranges, India. (United States)

    Pradhan, Suman; Srinivas, T N R; Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Kishore, K Hara; Begum, Z; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Pratibha, M S; Yasala, Arun K; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S


    The bacterial diversity of two soil samples collected from the periphery of the Roopkund glacial lake and one soil sample from the surface of the Roopkund Glacier in the Himalayan ranges was determined by constructing three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The three clone libraries yielded a total of 798 clones belonging to 25 classes. Actinobacteria was the most predominant class (>10% of the clones) in the three libraries. In the library from the glacial soil, class Betaproteobacteria (24.2%) was the most predominant. The rarefaction analysis indicated coverage of 43.4 and 41.2% in the samples collected from the periphery of the lake thus indicating a limited bacterial diversity covered; at the same time, the coverage of 98.4% in the glacier sample indicated most of the diversity was covered. Further, the bacterial diversity in the Roopkund glacier soil was low, but was comparable with the bacterial diversity of a few other glaciers. The results of principal component analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene clone library data, percentages of OTUs and biogeochemical data revealed that the lake soil samples were different from the glacier soil sample and the biogeochemical properties affected the diversity of microbial communities in the soil samples.

  14. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren


    from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  15. What Do Effective Principals Do? (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy


    Much has been written during the past decade about the changing role of the principal and the shift in emphasis from manager to instructional leader. Anyone in education, and especially principals themselves, could develop a mental list of responsibilities that fit within each of these realms. But research makes it clear that both those aspects of…

  16. Restructuring the Assistant Principal's Role. (United States)

    Williams, Fredonia B.


    Assistant principals should be expected, encouraged, and empowered to work beyond their disciplines, outside their cultures, and above their traditional roles. The assistant principal's role in team management is to become an advocate for excellence, a visionary leader, a change agent, a communicator, a motivator, and a determinant of school…

  17. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals (United States)

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu


    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  18. Burnout among Elementary School Principals (United States)

    Combs, Julie; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Jackson, Sherion H.


    As the understanding of burnout continues to be refined, studies that examine school principals and burnout will be helpful to those who provide support to school leaders and are concerned about principal attrition and pending shortages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and gender, age, and years experience…

  19. The Principal as Curriculum Leader (United States)

    Jenkins, Judy; Pfeifer, R. Scott


    Today's reform landscape transcends instructional leadership and data-based decision-making skills. This is not to say that those behaviors are not essential to a principal's success, but they no longer suffice. Principals do not need to be curriculum experts, but they do need to lead their schools with full knowledge of the Common Core State…

  20. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI; Cablk, Mary [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Legacy Management


    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil

  1. Evapotranspiration and soil water relationships in a range of disturbed and undisturbed ecosystems in the semi-arid Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Nan Lu; Shiping Chen; Burkhard Wilske; Ge Sun; Jiquan Chen


    Aims: Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of water balance and is closely linked to ecosystem productivity. In arid regions, large proportion of precipitation (PPT) is returned to the atmosphere through ET, with only a small amount available to plants. Our objective was to examine the variability in ET–soil water relationship based on a set of ecosystems that...

  2. A Preliminary Examination of the Impact of a Structured Principal Network on Principal Burnout (United States)

    Tillery, Denise Artus


    This study examined the extent to which participation in a formal network has on a principal's personal perception of burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators (MBI-E). The MBI-E consists of 22 questions with responses indicated on a 7 point Likert scale ranging from 0-6. It measures three constructs of emotional…

  3. An investigation of inorganic antimony species and antimony associated with soil humic acid molar mass fractions in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steely, Sarah [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869, West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869, West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail:; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)


    The presence of antimony compounds is often suspected in the soil of apple orchards contaminated with lead arsenate pesticide and in the soil of shooting ranges. Nitric acid (1 M) extractable Sb from the shooting range (8300 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) and the apple orchard (69 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) had considerably higher surface Sb levels than the control site (<1.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and Sb was confined to the top {approx}30 cm soil layer. Sb(V) was the principal species in the shooting range and the apple orchard surface soils. Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) analysis of humic acids isolated from the two contaminated soils demonstrated that Sb has complexed to humic acid molar mass fractions. The results also indicate that humic acids have the ability to arrest the mobility of Sb through soils and would be beneficial in converting Sb(III) to a less toxic species, Sb(V), in contaminated areas. - The soil surface and depth distribution Sb(V) and Sb(III) species in a contaminated apple orchard and a shooting range, and the effect soil humic acids on inorganic antimony species is reported.

  4. Virginia Principals and School Law


    Brabrand, Scott Sorensen


    Virginia Principals and School Law Scott S. Brabrand (ABSTRACT) This study sought to determine Virginia Public School principalsâ knowledge of school law as it related to the type, length/quantity, and recency of law preparation they received. Other variables measured included how their level of knowledge was associated with their length of administrative experience and with their description of the school community in which they worked. An on-line survey instrument wa...

  5. Geochemical Background and Baseline Values Determination and Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of the Andes Mountain Range (Cajamarca-Huancavelica, Peru) (United States)

    Santos-Francés, Fernando; Alonso Rojo, Pilar; García Sánchez, Antonio


    Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and one metalloid (As) as well as various parameters (pH, organic carbon, granulometric analysis and cation exchange capacity) were analyzed in 77 soil samples collected in the mining areas of La Zanja and Colquirrumi (Department of Cajamarca) and Julcani (Department of Huancavelica). Our study proposed geochemical baseline values for heavy metals in a natural region (La Zanja) from samples collected during the period of the environmental impact study (2006), that is, from an earlier period which occurred at the beginning of the exploitation of the current gold mine. The baseline values obtained were as follows: 8.26 mg·kg−1 for Cr; 56.97 mg·kg−1 for Ni; 22, 20 mg·kg−1 for the Cu; 47.42 mg·kg−1 for Zn; 27.50 mg·kg−1 for As; 4.36 mg·kg−1 for Cd; 4.89 mg·kg−1 for Hg, and 44.87 mg·kg−1 for Pb. Through the use of different indices of heavy metal contamination (geo-accumulation index (Igeo), improved Nemerow index (IIN) and potential ecological risk index (RI)), the degree of pollution caused by mining activities in two areas, Colquirrumi and Julcani, which have a high density of mining sites in operation, was determined. The values obtained from these indices indicated that the Colquirrumi region was the most contaminated, followed by Julcani. The area of La Zanja, despite being free of mining operations, presented slight diffuse pollution. Several positive correlations were obtained, with a high level of significance, between pH, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, and the Cr, Pb and Ni concentrations of the soils. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals was realized by means of the interpolation method of ordinary kriging. The results obtained and the experience gained in this work were necessary to facilitate the identification of soil contamination processes in high altitude areas of the Andes Western Cordillera (Peru) as a basis for taking appropriate

  6. Geochemical Background and Baseline Values Determination and Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of the Andes Mountain Range (Cajamarca-Huancavelica, Peru). (United States)

    Santos-Francés, Fernando; Martinez-Graña, Antonio; Alonso Rojo, Pilar; García Sánchez, Antonio


    Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and one metalloid (As) as well as various parameters (pH, organic carbon, granulometric analysis and cation exchange capacity) were analyzed in 77 soil samples collected in the mining areas of La Zanja and Colquirrumi (Department of Cajamarca) and Julcani (Department of Huancavelica). Our study proposed geochemical baseline values for heavy metals in a natural region (La Zanja) from samples collected during the period of the environmental impact study (2006), that is, from an earlier period which occurred at the beginning of the exploitation of the current gold mine. The baseline values obtained were as follows: 8.26 mg kg-1 for Cr; 56.97 mg kg-1 for Ni; 22, 20 mg kg-1 for the Cu; 47.42 mg kg-1 for Zn; 27.50 mg kg-1 for As; 4.36 mg kg-1 for Cd; 4.89 mg kg-1 for Hg, and 44.87 mg kg-1 for Pb. Through the use of different indices of heavy metal contamination (geo-accumulation index (Igeo), improved Nemerow index (IIN) and potential ecological risk index (RI)), the degree of pollution caused by mining activities in two areas, Colquirrumi and Julcani, which have a high density of mining sites in operation, was determined. The values obtained from these indices indicated that the Colquirrumi region was the most contaminated, followed by Julcani. The area of La Zanja, despite being free of mining operations, presented slight diffuse pollution. Several positive correlations were obtained, with a high level of significance, between pH, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, and the Cr, Pb and Ni concentrations of the soils. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals was realized by means of the interpolation method of ordinary kriging. The results obtained and the experience gained in this work were necessary to facilitate the identification of soil contamination processes in high altitude areas of the Andes Western Cordillera (Peru) as a basis for taking appropriate measures when restoring

  7. C principal pools and fluxes in the field agroecosystems of Juriev-Polskiy Opolie (United States)

    Atenbekov, Ramiz; Yashin, Ivan; Vasenev, Ivan


    There are results of 7-year (2010-2016) investigation of the Podzols and Podzoluvisols genesis, dynamics and soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in the representative agrolandscapes of the Yuryev-Polish plain (Yaroslavl region) with estimated environmental risks, including topsoil CO2 emission and the water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) profile and lateral fluxes in conditions of different land-use practice and microclimate conditions. A set of regional stationary plots has been investigated in 5 soil-ecological catenas with different level of erosion and hydromorphic processes. Soil organic matter is poorly fixed to the mineral matrix and has high migration ability, as shown by the sorption lysimeter and model experiments with weak solutions of oxalic acid and water. The total content of soil organic carbon varies in the range of 1.4% to 2.8% in topsoil of the investigated arable Podzols and Podzoluvisols. SOC fractional-group average composition indicates the presence of 37% of fulvic acids and 41% of gumins. The most available for soil microorganisms, enhancing CO2 emission, principal water-soluble organic substances accumulate in the topsoil A1 horizon, whereas the eluvial horizon E serves as a transit barrier to their profile migration and layer of active lateral migration. Modern climate and land-use changes play important role in the spatial-temporal variability of dominant soil GHG fluxes in these landscapes that determines the rising interest in the agroecological monitoring here to develop basic elements of the climate-smart farming systems with sustainable grass, winter wheat and barley production.

  8. Recently deglaciated high-altitude soils of the Himalaya: diverse environments, heterogenous bacterial communities and long-range dust inputs from the upper troposphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaz Stres

    Full Text Available The Himalaya with its altitude and geographical position forms a barrier to atmospheric transport, which produces much aqueous-particle monsoon precipitation and makes it the largest continuous ice-covered area outside polar regions. There is a paucity of data on high-altitude microbial communities, their native environments and responses to environmental-spatial variables relative to seasonal and deglaciation events.Soils were sampled along altitude transects from 5000 m to 6000 m to determine environmental, spatial and seasonal factors structuring bacterial communities characterized by 16 S rRNA gene deep sequencing. Dust traps and fresh-snow samples were used to assess dust abundance and viability, community structure and abundance of dust associated microbial communities. Significantly different habitats among the altitude-transect samples corresponded to both phylogenetically distant and closely-related communities at distances as short as 50 m showing high community spatial divergence. High within-group variability that was related to an order of magnitude higher dust deposition obscured seasonal and temporal rearrangements in microbial communities. Although dust particle and associated cell deposition rates were highly correlated, seasonal dust communities of bacteria were distinct and differed significantly from recipient soil communities. Analysis of closest relatives to dust OTUs, HYSPLIT back-calculation of airmass trajectories and small dust particle size (4-12 µm suggested that the deposited dust and microbes came from distant continental, lacustrine and marine sources, e.g. Sahara, India, Caspian Sea and Tibetan plateau. Cyanobacteria represented less than 0.5% of microbial communities suggesting that the microbial communities benefitted from (codeposited carbon which was reflected in the psychrotolerant nature of dust-particle associated bacteria.The spatial, environmental and temporal complexity of the high-altitude soils of the

  9. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia (United States)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.


    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  10. Principal component proxy tracer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter


    We introduce a powerful method for dynamical reconstruction of long-lived tracers such as ozone. It works by correlating the principal components of a matrix representation of the tracer dynamics with a series of sparse measurements. The method is tested on the 500 K isentropic surface using a simulated tracer and with ozone measurements from the Polar Aerosol and Ozone Measurement (POAM) III satellite instrument. The Lyapunov spectrum is measured and used to quantify the lifetime of each principal component. Using a 60 day lead time and five (5) principal components, cross validation of the reconstructed ozone and comparison with ozone sondes return root-mean-square errors of 0.20 ppmv and 0.47 ppmv, respectively.

  11. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce


    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  12. Warming and the dependence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) establishment on summer soil moisture within and above its current elevation range (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.


    Continued changes in climate are projected to alter the geographic distributions of plant species, in part by affecting where individuals can establish from seed. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes uphill redistribution of subalpine tree populations by reducing cold limitation at high elevation and enhancing drought stress at low elevation. We seeded limber pine (Pinus flexilis) into plots with combinations of infrared heating and water addition treatments, at sites positioned in lower subalpine forest, the treeline ecotone, and alpine tundra. In 2010, first-year seedlings were assessed for physiological performance and survival over the snow-free growing season. Seedlings emerged in midsummer, about 5–8 weeks after snowmelt. Low temperature was not observed to limit seedling photosynthesis or respiration between emergence and October, and thus experimental warming did not appear to reduce cold limitation at high elevation. Instead, gas exchange and water potential from all sites indicated a prevailing effect of summer moisture stress on photosynthesis and carbon balance. Infrared heaters raised soil growing degree days (base 5 °C, p p 3 m-3 consistently corresponded with moderate and severe indications of drought stress in midday stem water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and respiration. Seedling survival was greater in watered plots than in heated plots (p = 0.01), and negatively related to soil growing degree days and duration of exposure to θ 3 m-3 in a stepwise linear regression model (p treeline, and that these limitations are likely to be enhanced by further climate warming.

  13. Multivariate soft-modeling to predict radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer. (United States)

    Rigol, Anna; Camps, Marta; De Juan, Anna; Rauret, Gemma; Vidal, Miquel


    A multivariate soft-modeling approach based on an exploratory principal component analysis (PCA) followed by a partial least squares regression (PLS) was developed, tested, and validated to estimate radiocesium transfer to grass from readily measurable soil characteristics. A data set with 145 soil samples and 21 soil and plant parameters was used. Samples were soils from various field plots contaminated by the Chernobyl accident (soddy-podzolic and peaty soils), submitted to several agricultural treatments (disking, ploughing, fertilization, and liming). Parameters included soil characteristics and the corresponding radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer factors. PCA of data showed that soil samples were grouped according to the field plots and that they covered a wide range of possible soil-to-plant transfer scenarios. PLS was used to design and build the multivariate prediction model. The soil database was split in two parts: (i) a representative calibration set for training purposes and model building and (ii) a prediction set for external validation and model testing. The regression coefficients of the model confirmed the relevant parametersto describe radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer variation (e.g., phyllosilicate content and NH4+ status), which agreed with previous knowledge on the interaction mechanisms of this radionuclide in soils. The prediction of soil-to-plant transfer was satisfactory with an error of the same order of magnitude as the variability of field replicates.

  14. Fractal scaling of particle size distribution and relationships with topsoil properties affected by biological soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Lei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological soil crusts are common components of desert ecosystem; they cover ground surface and interact with topsoil that contribute to desertification control and degraded land restoration in arid and semiarid regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To distinguish the changes in topsoil affected by biological soil crusts, we compared topsoil properties across three types of successional biological soil crusts (algae, lichens, and mosses crust, as well as the referenced sandland in the Mu Us Desert, Northern China. Relationships between fractal dimensions of soil particle size distribution and selected soil properties were discussed as well. The results indicated that biological soil crusts had significant positive effects on soil physical structure (P<0.05; and soil organic carbon and nutrients showed an upward trend across the successional stages of biological soil crusts. Fractal dimensions ranged from 2.1477 to 2.3032, and significantly linear correlated with selected soil properties (R(2 = 0.494∼0.955, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biological soil crusts cause an important increase in soil fertility, and are beneficial to sand fixation, although the process is rather slow. Fractal dimension proves to be a sensitive and useful index for quantifying changes in soil properties that additionally implies desertification. This study will be essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on optimal solutions regarding desertification control and assessment, as well as degraded ecosystem restoration in arid and semiarid regions.

  15. Organic and inorganic carbon in paddy soil as evaluated by mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Changwen

    Full Text Available Paddy soils are classified as wetlands which play a vital role in climatic change and food production. Soil carbon (C, especially soil organic C (SOC, in paddy soils has been received considerable attention as of recent. However, considerably less attention has been given to soil inorganic carbon (SIC in paddy soils and the relationship between SOC and SIC at interface between soil and the atmosphere. The objective of this research was to investigate the utility of applying Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS to explore SOC and SIC present near the surface (0-10 µm of paddy soils. The FTIR-PAS spectra revealed an unique absorption region in the wavenumber range of 1,350-1,500 cm(-1 that was dominated by C-O (carbonate and C-H bending vibrations (organic materials, and these vibrations were used to represented SIC and SOC, respectively. A circular distribution between SIC and SOC on the surface of paddy soils was determined using principal component analysis (PCA, and the distribution showed no significant relationship with the age of paddy soil. However, SIC and SOC were negatively correlated, and higher SIC content was observed near the soil surface. This relationship suggests that SIC in soil surface plays important roles in the soil C dynamics.

  16. Accumulation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in indigenous and agricultural plants grown in HMX-contaminated anti-tank firing-range soil. (United States)

    Groom, Carl A; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Morris, Neil; Olivier, Lucie; Dubois, Charles; Hawari, Jalal


    To investigate their potential for phytoremediation, selected agricultural and indigenous terrestrial plants were examined fortheir capacity to accumulate and degrade the explosive octahydro-1 ,3,5,7-tetra nitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Plant tissue and soil extracts were analyzed for the presence of HMX and possible degradative metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode-array UV detection (MEKC-UV), and HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pattern of HMX accumulation for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), canola (Brassica rapa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and perennial ryegrass (Loliumperenne) grown in a controlled environment on contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range was similar to that observed for plants (wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), western wheat grass (Agropyron smithii), brome grass (Bromus sitchensis), koeleria (Koeleria gracilis), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), anemone (Anemone sp.), common thistle (Circium vulgare), wax-berry (Symphoricarpos albus), western sage (Artemisia gnaphalodes), and Drummond's milk vetch (Astragalus drummondii)) collected from the range. No direct evidence of plant-mediated HMX (bio)chemical transformation was provided by the available analytical methods. Traces of mononitroso-HMX were found in contaminated soil extracts and were also observed in leaf extracts. The dominant mechanism for HMX translocation and accumulation in foliar tissue was concluded to be aqueous transpirational flux and evaporation. The accumulation of HMX in the leaves of most of the selected species to levels significantly above soil concentration is relevant to the assessment of both phytoremediation potential and environmental risks.

  17. Solving the Assistant Principal's Puzzle (United States)

    Hartley, Douglas


    How does an assistant principal complete the large number of managerial duties and, at the same time, serve as a credible instructional leader? This book provides practical recommendations for successfully filling the dual role as manager and instructional leader, building effective relationships, using power appropriately, and productively…

  18. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals. (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.


    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  19. Do Principals Engineer the Job? (United States)

    Faulkner, Raymond T. B.; O'Reilly, Robert R.

    Based on Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness and Leader-Match program, this study's hypothesis is that experienced school principals increase their effectiveness by changing key organizational variables to suit their personal leadership styles. Following V. D. McNamara's application of Fiedler's contingency model in a study of…

  20. Soil Quality Evaluation Using the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF in Brazilian Oxisols with Contrasting Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Roberto Cherubin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF was developed in the U.S.A. and has been used as a tool for assessing and quantifying changes in soil quality/health (SQ induced by land uses and agricultural practices in that region and elsewhere throughout the world. An initial study using SMAF in Brazil was recently published, but additional research for a variety of soils and management systems is still needed. Our objective was to use data from five studies in southern Brazil to evaluate the potential of SMAF for assessing diverse land-use and management practices on SQ. The studies examined were: (i horizontal and vertical distribution of soil properties in a long-term orange orchard; (ii impacts of long-term land-use change from native vegetation to agricultural crops on soil properties; (iii effects of short-term tillage on soil properties in a cassava production area; (iv changes in soil properties due to mineral fertilizer and pig slurry application coupled with soil tillage practices; and (v row and inter-row sowing effects on soil properties in a long-term no-tillage area. The soils were classified as Oxisols, with clay content ranging from 180 to 800 g kg-1. Six SQ indicators [pH(H2O, P, K, bulk density, organic C, and microbial biomass] were individually scored using SMAF curves and integrated into an overall Soil Quality Index (SQI focusing on chemical, physical, and biological sectors. The SMAF was sensitive for detecting SQ changes induced by different land uses and management practices within this wide textural range of Brazilian Oxisols. The SMAF scoring curve algorithms properly transformed the indicator values expressed in different units into unitless scores ranging from 0-1, thus enabling the individual indicators to be combined into an overall index for evaluating land-use and management effects on soil functions. Soil sector scores (i.e., chemical, physical, and biological identify the principal soil limitations

  1. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  2. Soil steaming effects on weed seedling emergence under the influence of soil type, soil moisture, soil structure and heat duration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melander, B; Kristensen, J.K


    .... This temperature range has a particular agronomic interest, and the present study aimed at investigating the influence of soil factors and heat duration on weed seed mortality of soil steaming targeting 60–80°C. Two soil types...

  3. Study on Hyperspectral Estimation Model of Total Nitrogen Content in Soil of Shaanxi Province (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Dong, Zhenyu; Chen, Xi


    The development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology has been widely used in soil nutrient prediction. The soil is the representative soil type in Shaanxi Province. In this study, the soil total nitrogen content in Shaanxi soil was used as the research target, and the soil samples were measured by reflectance spectroscopy using ASD method. Pre-treatment, the first order differential, second order differential and reflectance logarithmic transformation of the reflected spectrum after pre-treatment, and the hyperspectral estimation model is established by using the least squares regression method and the principal component regression method. The results show that the correlation between the reflectance spectrum and the total nitrogen content of the soil is significantly improved. The correlation coefficient between the original reflectance and soil total nitrogen content is in the range of 350 ~ 2500nm. The correlation coefficient of soil total nitrogen content and first deviation of reflectance is more than 0.5 at 142nm, 1963nm, 2204nm and 2307nm, the second deviation has a significant positive correlation at 1114nm, 1470nm, 1967nm, 2372nm and 2402nm, respectively. After the reciprocal logarithmic transformation of the reflectance with the total nitrogen content of the correlation analysis found that the effect is not obvious. Rc2 = 0.7102, RMSEC = 0.0788; Rv2 = 0.8480, RMSEP = 0.0663, which can achieve the rapid prediction of the total nitrogen content in the region. The results show that the principal component regression model is the best.

  4. Comparison of soil quality index using three methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Assessment of management-induced changes in soil quality is important to sustaining high crop yield. A large diversity of cultivated soils necessitate identification development of an appropriate soil quality index (SQI based on relative soil properties and crop yield. Whereas numerous attempts have been made to estimate SQI for major soils across the World, there is no standard method established and thus, a strong need exists for developing a user-friendly and credible SQI through comparison of various available methods. Therefore, the objective of this article is to compare three widely used methods to estimate SQI using the data collected from 72 soil samples from three on-farm study sites in Ohio. Additionally, challenge lies in establishing a correlation between crop yield versus SQI calculated either depth wise or in combination of soil layers as standard methodology is not yet available and was not given much attention to date. Predominant soils of the study included one organic (Mc, and two mineral (CrB, Ko soils. Three methods used to estimate SQI were: (i simple additive SQI (SQI-1, (ii weighted additive SQI (SQI-2, and (iii statistically modeled SQI (SQI-3 based on principal component analysis (PCA. The SQI varied between treatments and soil types and ranged between 0-0.9 (1 being the maximum SQI. In general, SQIs did not significantly differ at depths under any method suggesting that soil quality did not significantly differ for different depths at the studied sites. Additionally, data indicate that SQI-3 was most strongly correlated with crop yield, the correlation coefficient ranged between 0.74-0.78. All three SQIs were significantly correlated (r = 0.92-0.97 to each other and with crop yield (r = 0.65-0.79. Separate analyses by crop variety revealed that correlation was low indicating that some key aspects of soil quality related to crop response are important requirements for estimating SQI.

  5. Comparison of soil quality index using three methods. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Atanu; Lal, Rattan


    Assessment of management-induced changes in soil quality is important to sustaining high crop yield. A large diversity of cultivated soils necessitate identification development of an appropriate soil quality index (SQI) based on relative soil properties and crop yield. Whereas numerous attempts have been made to estimate SQI for major soils across the World, there is no standard method established and thus, a strong need exists for developing a user-friendly and credible SQI through comparison of various available methods. Therefore, the objective of this article is to compare three widely used methods to estimate SQI using the data collected from 72 soil samples from three on-farm study sites in Ohio. Additionally, challenge lies in establishing a correlation between crop yield versus SQI calculated either depth wise or in combination of soil layers as standard methodology is not yet available and was not given much attention to date. Predominant soils of the study included one organic (Mc), and two mineral (CrB, Ko) soils. Three methods used to estimate SQI were: (i) simple additive SQI (SQI-1), (ii) weighted additive SQI (SQI-2), and (iii) statistically modeled SQI (SQI-3) based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SQI varied between treatments and soil types and ranged between 0-0.9 (1 being the maximum SQI). In general, SQIs did not significantly differ at depths under any method suggesting that soil quality did not significantly differ for different depths at the studied sites. Additionally, data indicate that SQI-3 was most strongly correlated with crop yield, the correlation coefficient ranged between 0.74-0.78. All three SQIs were significantly correlated (r = 0.92-0.97) to each other and with crop yield (r = 0.65-0.79). Separate analyses by crop variety revealed that correlation was low indicating that some key aspects of soil quality related to crop response are important requirements for estimating SQI.

  6. Warming and the dependence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) establishment on summer soil moisture within and above its current elevation range. (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M


    Continued changes in climate are projected to alter the geographic distributions of plant species, in part by affecting where individuals can establish from seed. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes uphill redistribution of subalpine tree populations by reducing cold limitation at high elevation and enhancing drought stress at low elevation. We seeded limber pine (Pinus flexilis) into plots with combinations of infrared heating and water addition treatments, at sites positioned in lower subalpine forest, the treeline ecotone, and alpine tundra. In 2010, first-year seedlings were assessed for physiological performance and survival over the snow-free growing season. Seedlings emerged in midsummer, about 5-8 weeks after snowmelt. Low temperature was not observed to limit seedling photosynthesis or respiration between emergence and October, and thus experimental warming did not appear to reduce cold limitation at high elevation. Instead, gas exchange and water potential from all sites indicated a prevailing effect of summer moisture stress on photosynthesis and carbon balance. Infrared heaters raised soil growing degree days (base 5 °C, p treeline, and that these limitations are likely to be enhanced by further climate warming.

  7. Principal's Time Use and School Effectiveness (United States)

    Horng, Eileen Lai; Klasik, Daniel; Loeb, Susanna


    School principals have complex jobs. To better understand the work lives of principals, this study uses observational time use data for all high school principals in one district. This article examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes, including student achievement, teacher and…

  8. How Teachers Perceive a Principal's Power. (United States)

    Porter, Ann W.; Lemon, Donald K.


    Discusses the use of power by principals and teachers' perceptions of the principal's power. A study of elementary principals in North Dakota and Minnesota identifies seven power strategies used by principals: assertiveness, ingratiation, rationality, sanctions, exchange, upward appeal, and coalitions. Includes nine references. (MD)

  9. Three Principals Who Make a Difference. (United States)

    Sagor, Richard D.


    Principals who are transformative leaders consistently use three building blocks to promote school success: a clear, unified purpose; a common cultural perspective; and a constant push for improvement. In one study, an opinionated, assertive middle school principal; a nurturing, supportive principal; and a high-energy, charismatic principal all…

  10. Think twice before going for incentives : Social norms and the principal's decision on compensation contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, Eddy; Yin, Huaxiang


    Principals make decisions on various issues, ranging from contract design to control system implementation. Few studies examine the principal's active role in these decisions. We experimentally investigate this role by studying how a principal's choice for a truth-telling incentive contract,

  11. Parametric functional principal component analysis. (United States)

    Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo


    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Principal Metabolic Flux Mode Analysis. (United States)

    Bhadra, Sahely; Blomberg, Peter; Castillo, Sandra; Rousu, Juho; Wren, Jonathan


    In the analysis of metabolism, two distinct and complementary approaches are frequently used: Principal component analysis (PCA) and stoichiometric flux analysis. PCA is able to capture the main modes of variability in a set of experiments and does not make many prior assumptions about the data, but does not inherently take into account the flux mode structure of metabolism. Stoichiometric flux analysis methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Elementary Mode Analysis, on the other hand, are able to capture the metabolic flux modes, however, they are primarily designed for the analysis of single samples at a time, and not best suited for exploratory analysis on a large sets of samples. We propose a new methodology for the analysis of metabolism, called Principal Metabolic Flux Mode Analysis (PMFA), which marries the PCA and stoichiometric flux analysis approaches in an elegant regularized optimization framework. In short, the method incorporates a variance maximization objective form PCA coupled with a stoichiometric regularizer, which penalizes projections that are far from any flux modes of the network. For interpretability, we also introduce a sparse variant of PMFA that favours flux modes that contain a small number of reactions. Our experiments demonstrate the versatility and capabilities of our methodology. The proposed method can be applied to genome-scale metabolic network in efficient way as PMFA does not enumerate elementary modes. In addition, the method is more robust on out-of-steady steady-state experimental data than competing flux mode analysis approaches. Matlab software for PMFA and SPMFA and data set used for experiments are available in,,, Detailed results are in Supplementary files. Supplementary data are available at

  13. Fractal Scaling of Particle Size Distribution and Relationships with Topsoil Properties Affected by Biological Soil Crusts: e88559

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guang-Lei Gao; Guo-Dong Ding; Bin Wu; Yu-Qing Zhang; Shu-Gao Qin; Yuan-Yuan Zhao; Yan-Feng Bao; Yun-Dong Liu; Li Wan; Ji-Feng Deng


    .... Methodology/Principal Findings To distinguish the changes in topsoil affected by biological soil crusts, we compared topsoil properties across three types of successional biological soil crusts...

  14. Principal components analysis of Jupiter VIMS spectra (United States)

    Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.


    During Cassini - Jupiter flyby occurred in December 2000, Visual-Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument took several image cubes of Jupiter at different phase angles and distances. We have analysed the spectral images acquired by the VIMS visual channel by means of a principal component analysis technique (PCA). The original data set consists of 96 spectral images in the 0.35-1.05 ??m wavelength range. The product of the analysis are new PC bands, which contain all the spectral variance of the original data. These new components have been used to produce a map of Jupiter made of seven coherent spectral classes. The map confirms previously published work done on the Great Red Spot by using NIMS data. Some other new findings, presently under investigation, are presented. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  15. Continuidade e distribuição espacial da umidade do solo em bacia hidrográfica da Serra da Mantiqueira Spatial continuity and distribution of soil moisture in a watershed of the Mantiqueira Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo F. Ávila


    Full Text Available O entendimento associado à continuidade espacial da umidade do solo é imprescindível para compreensão e predição de fenômenos relacionados aos processos hidrológicos. A metodologia geoestatística tem sido empregada muitas vezes, para estudos desta natureza. Neste contexto, o semivariograma é utilizado para modelar a continuidade espacial de uma variável para, seu posterior mapeamento. O objetivo no presente estudo foi modelar a continuidade espacial da umidade do solo em uma bacia hidrográfica experimental na região da Serra da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais, e posteriormente o mapeamento da umidade do solo ao longo do tempo. Os modelos de semivariograma exponencial, esférico e gaussiano, foram ajustados por Mínimos Quadrados Ordinários, Mínimos Quadrados Ponderados e Máxima Verossimilhança, testando sua aderência pelo grau de dependência espacial e validação cruzada. O modelo exponencial apresentou melhor ajuste em 59% dos casos. O grau de dependência espacial médio foi de 88%, conferindo forte grau de dependência à estrutura de continuidade espacial. O mapeamento da umidade do solo mostrou comportamento fortemente associado ao uso do solo e condições topográficas.The knowledge related to the spatial continuity of the soil moisture is essential for understanding and prediction of the hydrological processes. The geostatistical methodology has often been applied in such studies. In this context, the semi-variogram is used to model the spatial continuity of a specific variable for its mapping. This work aimed to model the spatial continuity of soil moisture in an experimental watershed located in Mantiqueira Range, MG, and then to generate map of soil moisture through the year. Exponential, spherical and gaussian semi-variogram models were fitted applying the Ordinary Least Square, Weighted Minimum Square and Maximum Likelihood methodologies, testing their adherence based on the Spatial Dependence Degree and database from

  16. Mapping ash properties using principal components analysis (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Ubeda, Xavier; Novara, Agata; Francos, Marcos; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesus; Bogunovic, Igor; Khaledian, Yones


    In post-fire environments ash has important benefits for soils, such as protection and source of nutrients, crucial for vegetation recuperation (Jordan et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2015a; 2016a,b). The thickness and distribution of ash are fundamental aspects for soil protection (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015b) and the severity at which was produced is important for the type and amount of elements that is released in soil solution (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash is very mobile material, and it is important were it will be deposited. Until the first rainfalls are is very mobile. After it, bind in the soil surface and is harder to erode. Mapping ash properties in the immediate period after fire is complex, since it is constantly moving (Pereira et al., 2015b). However, is an important task, since according the amount and type of ash produced we can identify the degree of soil protection and the nutrients that will be dissolved. The objective of this work is to apply to map ash properties (CaCO3, pH, and select extractable elements) using a principal component analysis (PCA) in the immediate period after the fire. Four days after the fire we established a grid in a 9x27 m area and took ash samples every 3 meters for a total of 40 sampling points (Pereira et al., 2017). The PCA identified 5 different factors. Factor 1 identified high loadings in electrical conductivity, calcium, and magnesium and negative with aluminum and iron, while Factor 3 had high positive loadings in total phosphorous and silica. Factor 3 showed high positive loadings in sodium and potassium, factor 4 high negative loadings in CaCO3 and pH, and factor 5 high loadings in sodium and potassium. The experimental variograms of the extracted factors showed that the Gaussian model was the most precise to model factor 1, the linear to model factor 2 and the wave hole effect to model factor 3, 4 and 5. The maps produced confirm the patternd observed in the experimental variograms. Factor 1 and 2

  17. Teacher Supervision Practices and Principals' Characteristics (United States)

    April, Daniel; Bouchamma, Yamina


    A questionnaire was used to determine the individual and collective teacher supervision practices of school principals and vice-principals in Québec (n = 39) who participated in a research-action study on pedagogical supervision. These practices were then analyzed in terms of the principals' sociodemographic and socioprofessional characteristics…

  18. Principal Perceptions of New Teacher Effectiveness (United States)

    Shepherd, Dan; Devers, Christopher


    Relatively little research has been conducted on the professional satisfaction of principals with recently hired beginning teachers. This study surveyed principals to learn their perspectives on these new teachers in relation to National Board Standards. Data were gathered using an online survey of 423 principals throughout the state of Indiana…

  19. Who Teaches, Who Principals, Who Learns? (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gabrielle; Latimer, Milree

    An alternative framework that supports the collaboration of principals and teachers, with a focus on the changing roles of teachers and principals as learners and leaders, is presented. A conclusion is that as teachers' belief systems change to respect the image of the learner, principals' belief systems also change to reflect a new image of the…

  20. New Principal Coaching as a Safety Net (United States)

    Celoria, Davide; Roberson, Ingrid


    This study examines new principal coaching as an induction process and explores the emotional dimensions of educational leadership. Twelve principal coaches and new principals--six of each--participated in this qualitative study that employed emergent coding (Creswell, 2008; Denzin, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1998; Spradley, 1979). The major…

  1. Leadership Coaching for Principals: A National Study (United States)

    Wise, Donald; Cavazos, Blanca


    Surveys were sent to a large representative sample of public school principals in the United States asking if they had received leadership coaching. Comparison of responses to actual numbers of principals indicates that the sample represents the first national study of principal leadership coaching. Results indicate that approximately 50% of all…

  2. Gender and Perceptions: Females as Secondary Principals (United States)

    Nogay, Kathleen; Beebe, Robert J.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers and supervisors toward the principal leadership behaviors of female secondary principals in Ohio. Principal self-perceptions were also included to complete the study. The literature shows that women continue to be underrepresented in a field in which the majority of…

  3. An Investigation of Principals' Leadership Orientations. (United States)

    Reed, Patricia; Smith, Michael; Beekley, Cynthia

    Effective school leadership requires an understanding of the tension between the technical and symbolic aspects of leadership. This paper presents findings of a study that examined principals' self-reported leadership orientations. A survey (the Principal Behavior Inventory) mailed to 865 secondary principals at Ohio public and private schools…

  4. 12 CFR 561.39 - Principal office. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal office. 561.39 Section 561.39 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.39 Principal office. The term principal office means the home...

  5. Principal component regression analysis with SPSS. (United States)

    Liu, R X; Kuang, J; Gong, Q; Hou, X L


    The paper introduces all indices of multicollinearity diagnoses, the basic principle of principal component regression and determination of 'best' equation method. The paper uses an example to describe how to do principal component regression analysis with SPSS 10.0: including all calculating processes of the principal component regression and all operations of linear regression, factor analysis, descriptives, compute variable and bivariate correlations procedures in SPSS 10.0. The principal component regression analysis can be used to overcome disturbance of the multicollinearity. The simplified, speeded up and accurate statistical effect is reached through the principal component regression analysis with SPSS.

  6. Groundwater studies: principal aquifer surveys (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth


    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop nationally consistent long-term datasets and provide information about the quality of the Nation’s streams and groundwater. The USGS uses objective and reliable data, water-quality models, and systematic scientific studies to assess current water-quality conditions, to identify changes in water quality over time, and to determine how natural factors and human activities affect the quality of streams and groundwater. NAWQA is the only non-regulatory Federal program to perform these types of studies; participation is voluntary. In the third decade (Cycle 3) of the NAWQA program (2013–2023), the USGS will evaluate the quality and availability of groundwater for drinking supply, improve our understanding of where and why water quality is degraded, and assess how groundwater quality could respond to changes in climate and land use. These goals will be addressed through the implementation of a new monitoring component in Cycle 3: Principal Aquifer Surveys.

  7. Perspectives on Principal Instructional Leadership in Vietnam: A Preliminary Model (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan; Nguyen, Dao Thi Hong; Truong, Thang; Nguyen, Thi Thinh


    Purpose: Worldwide interest in principal instructional leadership has led to global dissemination of related research findings despite their concentration in a limited set of western cultural contexts. An urgent challenge in educational leadership and management lies in expanding the range of national settings for investigations of instructional…

  8. Iron and silicon isotope behaviour accompanying weathering in Icelandic soils, and the implications for iron export from peatlands (United States)

    Opfergelt, S.; Williams, H. M.; Cornelis, J. T.; Guicharnaud, R. A.; Georg, R. B.; Siebert, C.; Gislason, S. R.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.


    Incipient warming of peatlands at high latitudes is expected to modify soil drainage and hence the redox conditions, which has implications for Fe export from soils. This study uses Fe isotopes to assess the processes controlling Fe export in a range of Icelandic soils including peat soils derived from the same parent basalt, where Fe isotope variations principally reflect differences in weathering and drainage. In poorly weathered, well-drained soils (non-peat soils), the limited Fe isotope fractionation in soil solutions relative to the bulk soil (Δ57Fesolution-soil = -0.11 ± 0.12‰) is attributed to proton-promoted mineral dissolution. In the more weathered poorly drained soils (peat soils), the soil solutions are usually lighter than the bulk soil (Δ57Fesolution-soil = -0.41 ± 0.32‰), which indicates that Fe has been mobilised by reductive mineral dissolution and/or ligand-controlled dissolution. The results highlight the presence of Fe-organic complexes in solution in anoxic conditions. An additional constraint on soil weathering is provided by Si isotopes. The Si isotope composition of the soil solutions relative to the soil (Δ30Sisolution-soil = 0.92 ± 0.26‰) generally reflects the incorporation of light Si isotopes in secondary aluminosilicates. Under anoxic conditions in peat soils, the largest Si isotope fractionation in soil solutions relative to the bulk soil is observed (Δ30Sisolution-soil = 1.63 ± 0.40‰) and attributed to the cumulative contribution of secondary clay minerals and amorphous silica precipitation. Si supersaturation in solution with respect to amorphous silica is reached upon freezing when Al availability to form aluminosilicates is limited by the affinity of Al for metal-organic complexes. Therefore, the precipitation of amorphous silica in peat soils indirectly supports the formation of metal-organic complexes in poorly drained soils. These observations highlight that in a scenario of decreasing soil drainage with

  9. Soil Quality Assessment Strategies for Evaluating Soil Degradation in Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreyesus Brhane Tesfahunegn


    Full Text Available Soil quality (SQ degradation continues to challenge sustainable development throughout the world. One reason is that degradation indicators such as soil quality index (SQI are neither well documented nor used to evaluate current land use and soil management systems (LUSMS. The objective was to assess and identify an effective SQ indicator dataset from among 25 soil measurements, appropriate scoring functions for each indicator and an efficient SQ indexing method to evaluate soil degradation across the LUSMS in the Mai-Negus catchment of northern Ethiopia. Eight LUSMS selected for soil sampling and analysis included (i natural forest (LS1, (ii plantation of protected area, (iii grazed land, (iv teff (Eragrostis tef-faba bean (Vicia faba rotation, (v teff-wheat (Triticum vulgare/barley (Hordeum vulgare rotation, (vi teff monocropping, (vii maize (Zea mays monocropping, and (viii uncultivated marginal land (LS8. Four principal components explained almost 88% of the variability among the LUSMS. LS1 had the highest mean SQI (0.931 using the scoring functions and principal component analysis (PCA dataset selection, while the lowest SQI (0.458 was measured for LS8. Mean SQI values for LS1 and LS8 using expert opinion dataset selection method were 0.874 and 0.406, respectively. Finally, a sensitivity analysis (S used to compare PCA and expert opinion dataset selection procedures for various scoring functions ranged from 1.70 for unscreened-SQI to 2.63 for PCA-SQI. Therefore, this study concludes that a PCA-based SQI would be the best way to distinguish among LUSMS since it appears more sensitive to disturbances and management practices and could thus help prevent further SQ degradation.

  10. Variation of the stability of complexes of Al(III) with a fulvic acid extracted from a humic cambisol soil in the pH range three to five

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves da Silva, J.C.G.; Machado, A.A.S.C. [LAQUIPAI, Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias; Ramos, M.A.; Arce, F. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica; Rey, F. [Univ. de Vigo (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica


    The interaction of the aluminum ion [Al(III)] with the major constituent of soil organic matter, fulvic acids (FA), was investigated in the acid pH range. The complexation of a FA extracted from a humic cambisol soil (at a concentration of 80 mg/L) when titrated with Al(III) were monitored directly by synchronous fluorescence (SyF) spectroscopy at five pH values (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0), at 25 C and with 0.1 N KNO{sub 3}. Inverted second derivative SyF data were preprocessed by a self-modeling mixture analysis method to obtain fluorescence enhancement profiles as a function of the increasing Al(III) concentration. Assuming that the concentration of complexes formed between Al(III) and FA is proportional to the fluorescence intensity, these profiles were adjusted to a 1:1 complexation model and the following conditional stability constants (log K{sub c}) were calculated (standard deviation in parenthesis), pH = 3.0, 4.3 (1); pH = 3.5, 4.3 (1); pH = 4.0, 5.0 (1); pH = 4.5, 5.1 (3); and pH = 5.0, 5.3 (2). These constants show that the stability of the complexes decreases markedly at pH < 4. The environmental implication of this result is that an increase in the extent of the dissociation of the Al(III) + FA complexes is expected at pH < 4, increasing the free Al(III) concentration and probably its ecotoxicity.

  11. Retention of silver nano-particles and silver ions in calcareous soils: Influence of soil properties. (United States)

    Rahmatpour, Samaneh; Shirvani, Mehran; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad R; Bazarganipour, Mehdi


    The rapid production and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have led to significant release of AgNPs into the terrestrial environments. Once released into the soil, AgNPs could enter into different interactions with soil particles which play key roles in controlling the fate and transport of these nanoparticles. In spite of that, experimental studies on the retention of AgNPs in soils are very scarce. Hence, the key objective of this research was to find out the retention behavior of AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in a range of calcareous soils. A second objective was to determine the extent to which the physico-chemical properties of the soils influence the Ag retention parameters. To this end, isothermal batch experiments were used to determine the retention of Poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-capped AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and Ag(I) ions by nine calcareous soils with a diversity of physico-chemical properties. The results revealed that the retention data for both PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions were well described by the classical Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal equations. The retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions was positively correlated to clay and organic carbon (OC) contents as well as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils. Due to multicolinearity among the soil properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group the soil properties which affect the retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions. Accordingly, we identified two groups of soil properties controlling retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in the calcareous soils. The first group comprised soil solid phase parameters like clay, OC, and CEC, which generally control hetero-aggregation and adsorption reactions and the second group included soil solution variables such as EC and pH as well as Cl - and Ca 2+ concentrations, which are supposed to mainly affect homo-aggregation and precipitation reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Monitoring of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil nitrogen (SN) are the principal components in soil quality assessment, and in mitigation the global greenhouse effect. In Iran, little information exists on the stocks of SOC and SN. SOC and SN stocks are a function of the SOC and SN concentrations and the bulk density of the soil that are ...

  13. Relationships between soil fertility indicators and toposequence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 25, 2016 ... different soil properties and toposequence in a 173.3 km²-watershed. Stratified soil sampling strategy associated with principal component analysis (PCA) and Chi-square (÷2) test, have emphasized the variability of soil properties at the watershed scale. Soil physical and chemical properties analysis using.

  14. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe (United States)

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina


    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  15. State-Space Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon Stock (United States)

    Ogunwole, Joshua O.; Timm, Luis C.; Obidike-Ugwu, Evelyn O.; Gabriels, Donald M.


    Understanding soil spatial variability and identifying soil parameters most determinant to soil organic carbon stock is pivotal to precision in ecological modelling, prediction, estimation and management of soil within a landscape. This study investigates and describes field soil variability and its structural pattern for agricultural management decisions. The main aim was to relate variation in soil organic carbon stock to soil properties and to estimate soil organic carbon stock from the soil properties. A transect sampling of 100 points at 3 m intervals was carried out. Soils were sampled and analyzed for soil organic carbon and other selected soil properties along with determination of dry aggregate and water-stable aggregate fractions. Principal component analysis, geostatistics, and state-space analysis were conducted on the analyzed soil properties. The first three principal components explained 53.2% of the total variation; Principal Component 1 was dominated by soil exchange complex and dry sieved macroaggregates clusters. Exponential semivariogram model described the structure of soil organic carbon stock with a strong dependence indicating that soil organic carbon values were correlated up to 10.8m.Neighbouring values of soil organic carbon stock, all waterstable aggregate fractions, and dithionite and pyrophosphate iron gave reliable estimate of soil organic carbon stock by state-space.

  16. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  17. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong


    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  18. Social Media Strategies for School Principals (United States)

    Cox, Dan; McLeod, Scott


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals who use multiple social media tools with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications practices. Additionally, it examined why school principals have chosen to communicate with their stakeholders through social media.…

  19. Principal Leadership: Factors Sustaining Successful School Innovation (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristina Candelaria


    The study examines how urban school principals lead schools that make a difference for children in challenging settings. This research delves deeply into the experiences of three urban public school principals in the School District of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, who used technology as an avenue to improve educational options for their students.…

  20. Principals as Maverick Leaders: Rethinking Democratic Schools (United States)

    Walker, Sharron Goldman; Chirichello, Michael


    After her school wins the coveted United States National Secondary Education Award, a school principal embarks upon an educational odyssey. The principal discovers that the reasons for winning the award are a sham! As her school falls apart, she begins to reflect on the stagnant school organization and the ineffective prescriptions for…

  1. Bennett Public Schools Principal Induction Program (United States)

    Wilson, Ross; Beaudoin, Colleen; Carmona, Ruben; Delahanty, Michael; Gartside, William; Oyedele, Abidemi; Teta, Lynne Mooney


    Ensuring equity in education and academic success for all students requires a highly skilled principal engages others in continually improving the instructional program in order to meet the needs of students. Over the past few years, a number of reports have indicated that the role of principal is becoming more challenging. School districts are…

  2. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.


    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  3. Comparative Analysis of Principals' Management Strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... management strategies adopted by principals of schools in public and private secondary schools in Anambra State showed no significant differences. It was recommended among others that principals of secondary schools should adopt all the management strategies in this study as this will improve school administration ...

  4. A Latina Principal Leading for Social Justice (United States)

    Hernandez, Frank; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Cerecer, Patricia Quijada


    In this study, the role that racial identity plays among Latina school principals is examined through a case study of a principal in a K-3 elementary school. Based on a Latina/o critical race framework and a phenomenological research approach, the study explores the degree to which having a strong understanding of one's racial identity formation…

  5. Principals' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Inclusion. (United States)

    Barnett, Carol; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.


    A survey of 65 elementary, junior, and high school principals investigated attitudes toward and knowledge of inclusion. No clear definition of inclusion emerged, but principals generally viewed inclusion as most appropriate for students with mild disabilities. Also, results indicated that teachers were not adequately prepared to implement…

  6. Assistant Principals: Their Readiness as Instructional Leaders (United States)

    Searby, Linda; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Wang, Chih-hsuan


    This article reports findings from a study investigating the capacity of assistant principals to be instructional leaders. Analyses of survey responses yielded four interesting findings: (a) years of experience as a teacher and age had no significance on assistant principals' perceived readiness as an instructional leader; (b) those completing…

  7. The Awesome Power of the Principal (United States)

    Fullan, Michael


    After more than 20 years of vague reference to the principal as instructional leader, progress is finally being made, and the specificity and results are truly awesome. In 1989, William Smith and Richard Andrews wrote a monograph titled "Instructional Leadership: How Principals Make a Difference." In their study of 1,200 school…

  8. Principals: Human Capital Managers at Every School (United States)

    Kimball, Steven M.


    Being a principal is more than just being an instructional leader. Principals also must manage their schools' teaching talent in a strategic way so that it is linked to school instructional improvement strategies, to the competencies needed to enact the strategies, and to success in boosting student learning. Teacher acquisition and performance…

  9. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals (United States)

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim


    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  10. Principal G-bundles on nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    If Y is reducible these notions depend on parameters a = (a1,...,aI ). The study of G-bundles on Y is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles [U1] to generalized parabolic principal G-bundles (called GPGs in short) on the curve C and using the correspondence between them and principal ...

  11. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect (United States)

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung


    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  12. Professional Development: Perceptions of Benefits for Principals (United States)

    Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia


    Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through change and reform. Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated professional development for principals to facilitate change and school improvement. This paper explores principals' perception on the benefits of professional development received in light of managing school change and reforms.…

  13. Framing Research on School Principals' Identities (United States)

    Crow, Gary; Day, Christopher; Møller, Jorunn


    This paper provides a basis for a tentative framework for guiding future research into principals' identity construction and development. It is situated in the context of persisting emphases placed by government policies on the need for technocratic competencies in principals as a means of demonstrating success defined largely as compliance with…

  14. Building Leadership Capacity to Support Principal Succession (United States)

    Escalante, Karen Elizabeth


    This study applies transformational leadership theory practices, specifically inspiring a shared vision, modeling the way and enabling others to act to examine the purposeful ways in which principals work to build the next generation of teacher leaders in response to the dearth of K-12 principals. The purpose of this study was to discover how one…

  15. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46 Section 2.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All...

  16. Primary School Principals' Self-Monitoring Skills (United States)

    Konan, Necdet


    The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its population comprised primary school principals serving in the city of Diyarbakir, Turkey, while 292 of these constituted the sample. Self-Monitoring Scale was used as the data collection instrument. In…

  17. Evaluation Priorities of Students, Teachers, and Principals. (United States)

    Nevo, David; Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the evaluation needs of students, teachers, and principals, and to develop recommendations for an evaluation system within the school building. Students, teachers, and principals were surveyed to depict the availability and importance of eight different categories of evaluative information derived…

  18. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge" (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.


    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  19. Relationship Between Secondary School Principals' Leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in order to enhance better job performance among teachers. As such, principals could use the democratic style of leadership in some occasions. They should be autocratic in certain situations in order to increase productivity among teachers. Keywords: Academic Performance, Job Performance, Leadership and Principals ...

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals Affect Collaborative Efforts. (United States)

    Kirby, Peggy C.; Blase, Joseph J.


    If teachers perceive their principals as "closed"--inaccessible, unsupportive, and insecure--they are wary of efforts toward increased collaboration. With closed principals, teachers resort to micropolitical strategies, including avoidance, excessive rationality, ingratiation, confrontation, coalition-building, and deliberate noncompliance.…

  1. Professional Development for Rural School Assistant Principals (United States)

    Enomoto, Ernestine K.


    Given rural school administrators' challenges and the need to support their leadership development, this qualitative study describes how one rural school district delivered professional development through a university-school partnership to prepare its assistant principals for their work. Methods: Eight assistant principals from nine schools…

  2. Perceptions of Online Credentials for School Principals (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; McLeod, Scott; Dikkers, Amy Garrett


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of human resource directors in the USA about online credentials earned by K-12 school principals and principal candidates. Design/methodology/approach: In this mixed methods study, a survey was sent to a random sample of 500 human resource directors in K-12 school districts…

  3. The Relationship between Principals' Managerial Approaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    It is therefore expected that principals who involve teachers and parents in discipline management are likely to benefit higher student discipline levels compared to those who do not. Statement of the Problem: This study investigated the relationship between the principals discipline management approaches and the levels ...

  4. New Principals' Perspectives of Their Multifaceted Roles (United States)

    Gentilucci, James L.; Denti, Lou; Guaglianone, Curtis L.


    This study utilizes Symbolic Interactionism to explore perspectives of neophyte principals. Findings explain how these perspectives are modified through complex interactions throughout the school year, and they also suggest preparation programs can help new principals most effectively by teaching "soft" skills such as active listening…

  5. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations (United States)

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith


    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  6. Special Topic/The Principal's Priority 1 (United States)

    Johnson, Jean


    Five Public Agenda surveys--A Mission of the Heart (2008); Lessons Learned (2008); Reality Check 2006; Rolling Up Their Sleeves (2003); and Stand by Me (2003)--provide snapshots of how instructional leadership is working in schools. Most principals see instructional leadership as a key mission. "Transformer" principals are able to focus squarely…

  7. Elementary school principals' perceptions of childhood obesity. (United States)

    Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Stelzer, C M


    This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. A randomly selected group of 300 school principals was obtained from the National Association of Elementary School Principals; 227 (76%) administrators returned the questionnaire. Fifty-one percent of the principals believed normal weight was important to child health. Although 35% believed schools were not doing enough to alleviate childhood obesity, responses suggested principals oppose schools becoming obesity treatment centers. They do not believe teachers or parents would support such programs. They perceived the school's role to be educational and referral in nature. However, they supported elimination of "junk food" machines (71%) and provision of low calorie lunches (60%). They believed school nurses play the most important role in treating childhood obesity at school.

  8. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal


    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  9. The Changing Model of Soil (United States)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.


    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  10. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in surface soil from a background area in China: occurrence, distribution, and congener profiles. (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhang, Yuan; Miao, Yi; Ma, Ling-Ling; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Wu, Ming-Hong


    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are extremely complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with carbon chain lengths from C10 to C13 and chlorine content between 49 and 70%. SCCPs are under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCPs have been used extensively in industrial production, but little is known about the pollution level in soil environment in China. In this study, levels and distribution of SCCPs in soil samples from Chongming Island were analyzed. Concentrations of total SCCPs in soil samples ranged from 0.42 to 420 ng g(-1), with a median of 9.6 ng g(-1). The ubiquitous occurrence of SCCPs in Chongming Island implied that long-range atmospheric transport and soil-air exchange may be the most important pathways for SCCP contamination in the background area. The localized SCCP contamination could be derived from an unidentified source. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that C13- and C11-congeners were predominant in most soils and C10- and C12-congeners dominated in the remaining soils. Cl7- and Cl8-congeners were on the average the most dominant chlorine congeners in nearly all soils. Principal component analysis suggested that the separation of even and odd carbon chain congeners occurred during long-range atmospheric transport and aging in soil in the study area.

  11. Wildfire effects on lipid composition and hydrophobicity of bulk soil and soil size fractions under Quercus suber cover (SW-Spain). (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Miller, Ana Z; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M; González-Vila, Francisco J; González-Pérez, José A


    Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) prevents water from wetting or infiltrating soils, triggering changes in the ecosystems. Fire may develop, enhance or destroy hydrophobicity in previously wettable or water-repellent soils. Soil water repellency is mostly influenced by the quality and quantity of soil organic matter, particularly the lipid fraction. Here we report the results of a study on the effect of fire on the distribution of soil lipids and their role in the hydrophobicity grade of six particle size fractions (2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, 0.25-0.1, 0.1-0.05 and fractions. Soil lipids were Soxhlet extracted with a dichloromethane-methanol mixture. Fatty acids (FAs) and neutral lipids were separated, derivatized, identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The hydrophobicity values of soil samples and fractions were statistically different (P fractions. All samples displayed a similar distribution of FAs, straight-chain saturated acids in the C14-C32 range, and neutral lipids (n-alkan-1-ols, n-alkanes), only differing in their relative abundances. Among possible biogeochemical mechanisms responsible for the changes in soil lipids, the observed depletion of long chain FAs (C≥24) in the coarse fraction is best explained by thermal cracking caused by the heat of the fire. The enrichment of long chain FAs observed in other fractions suggests possible exogenous additions of charred, lipid-rich, material, like cork suberin or other plant-derived macromolecules (cutins). Principal component analysis was used to study the relationships between hydrophobicity with soil organic matter and its different components. Extractable organic matter (EOM) and specifically long chain FAs content were positively correlated to soil hydrophobicity. Therefore, the latter could be used as biomarkers surrogated to hydrophobicity in sandy soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal dynamics of the compositions and activities of soil microbial communities post-application of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in paddy soils. (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liu, Jia; Li, Weitao; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei


    Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is a newly developed insecticide widely used in rice fields in China. There has been few studies evaluating the toxicological effects of CAP on soil-associated microbes. An 85-day microcosm experiment was performed to reveal the dissipation dynamics of CAP in three types of paddy soils in subtropical China. The effects of CAP on microbial activities (microbial biomass carbon-MBC, basal soil respiration-BSR, microbial metabolic quotient-qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities) in the soils were periodically evaluated. Microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used to evaluate the change of soil microbial community composition on day 14 and 50 of the experiment. CAP residues were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuChERS) method and quantification was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The half-lives (DT 50 ) of CAP were in the range of 41.0-53.0 days in the three soils. The results showed that CAP did not impart negative effects on MBC during the incubation. CAP inhibited BSR, qCO 2 , acid phosphatase and sucrose invertase activities in the first 14 days of incubation in all the soils. After day 14, the soil microbial parameters of CAP-treated soils became statistically at par with their controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) determining abundance of biomarker PLFAs indicated that the application of CAP significantly changed the compositions of microbial communities in all three paddy soils on day 14 but the compositions of soil microbial communities recovered by day 50. This study indicates that CAP does not ultimately impair microbial activities and microbial compositions of these three paddy soil types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genesis and properties of wetland soils by VIS-NIR-SWIR as a technique for environmental monitoring. (United States)

    Demattê, José Alexandre Melo; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Beirigo, Raphael Moreira; Terra, Fabrício da Silva; Marques, Karina Patrícia Prazeres; Fongaro, Caio Troula; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo


    Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators. Nine soil profiles from the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso State, Brazil) and one from the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) were investigated. Spectral morphology interpretation allowed identifying horizon differences regarding shape, absorption features and reflectance intensity. Some pedogenetic processes of wetland soils related to organic carbon accumulation and oxide iron variation were identified by spectra. Principal Component Analysis allowed discriminating soils from wetland and outside this area (oxidic environment). Quantification of organic carbon was possible with R 2 of 0.90 and low error. Quantification of clay content was masked by soils with organic carbon content over 2% where it was not possible to quantify with high R 2 and low error both properties when dataset has soil samples with high organic carbon content. By reflectance spectroscopy, important

  14. The Principals and Practice of Distributed High Throughput Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The potential of Distributed Processing Systems to deliver computing capabilities with qualities ranging from high availability and reliability to easy expansion in functionality and capacity were recognized and formalized in the 1970’s. For more three decade these principals Distributed Computing guided the development of the HTCondor resource and job management system. The widely adopted suite of software tools offered by HTCondor are based on novel distributed computing technologies and are driven by the evolving needs of High Throughput scientific applications. We will review the principals that underpin our work, the distributed computing frameworks and technologies we developed and the lessons we learned from delivering effective and dependable software tools in an ever changing landscape computing technologies and needs that range today from a desktop computer to tens of thousands of cores offered by commercial clouds. About the speaker Miron Livny received a B.Sc. degree in Physics and Mat...

  15. Principal Time Management Skills: Explaining Patterns in Principals' Time Use, Job Stress, and Perceived Effectiveness (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna; Mitani, Hajime


    Purpose: Time demands faced by school principals make principals' work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Relationship between Principals' Sense of Achievement and Teachers' Perceptions of Their Principals' Leadership Behaviors (United States)

    Siddiqi, Javaid Edward


    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between principals' sense of achievement and teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership behaviors. This was determined by examining job satisfaction of principals and leadership style using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the School District's Climate Survey.…

  17. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.


    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  18. Why Do Principals Change Schools? A Multivariate Analysis of Principal Retention (United States)

    Papa, Frank, Jr.


    This study uses multivariate analysis of a large panel dataset to examine the determinants of principal retention (and, thus, the determinants of attracting a principal away from her current position). The empirical model incorporates measures of a principal's traits and of the organizational structure, culture, and situational context within a…

  19. Applying Krumboltz's Theory of Career Decision Making (CDM) to the Longevity of Principals in the North American Division of Seventh-Day Adventists (United States)

    Saint-Ulysse, Sadrail


    Problem: Ledesma (2011) reports that principals' average tenure in Adventist schools in North America "ranges from 2.5-4.0 years. Elementary principals remain in leadership for 2.5 years, day academy principals stay for 3.6 years, and boarding academy principals leave after 4.0 years" (p, 8). Ledesma also noted that the length of tenure…

  20. Planning for Principal Succession: A Conceptual Framework for Research and Practice (United States)

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Sabina, Lou L.


    Many school districts struggle to recruit sufficient high-quality principals for their schools. A variety of conditions contribute to this challenge, including the retirement of the baby boom cohort and diminishing interest in administrative careers due to the expanded responsibilities of school principals. In response, districts enact a range of…

  1. Immorally obtained principal increases investors' risk preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqian Chen

    Full Text Available Capital derived from immoral sources is increasingly circulated in today's financial markets. The moral associations of capital are important, although their impact on investment remains unknown. This research aims to explore the influence of principal source morality on investors' risk preferences. Three studies were conducted in this regard. Study 1 finds that investors are more risk-seeking when their principal is earned immorally (through lying, whereas their risk preferences do not change when they invest money earned from neutral sources after engaging in immoral behavior. Study 2 reveals that guilt fully mediates the relationship between principal source morality and investors' risk preferences. Studies 3a and 3b introduce a new immoral principal source and a new manipulation method to improve external validity. Guilt is shown to the decrease the subjective value of morally flawed principal, leading to higher risk preference. The findings show the influence of morality-related features of principal on people's investment behavior and further support mental account theory. The results also predict the potential threats of "grey principal" to market stability.

  2. Coberturas do solo sobre a amplitude térmica e a produtividade de pimentão The effect of soil covers on temperature range and yield of sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.H. Coelho


    conventional systems, weed management strategies on soil temperature variation, and yield of sweet pepper, a field experiment was arranged in a randomized block split-plot design with four replications. Tillage systems (no-tillage and conventional were evaluated in the plots, and three weed management strategies in the split-plots (soil cover with black polyethylene film, with weeding, and without weeding. At 60 and 147 days after transplanting (DAT, density and dry mass of the weeds were assessed in the treatments without weeding. In each split-plot, thermocouple type sensors were installed at 5 cm depth to measure soil temperature. Based on the data obtained, temperature variation along the day was determined from 20 to 30 days after planting the sweet pepper seedlings, while the mean maximum and minimum temperatures and temperature range were evaluated every five days. The treatments with polyethylene film and clean weeding under the conventional tillage system showed an increase in maximum daily soil temperature at 6.7 and 5.0 ºC, respectively, compared to no-tillage and weeding. The temperature range was 11 ºC in the treatments using polyethylene film and clean weeding under the conventional system, 6.3 ºC under no-tillage with weeding, 4.5 ºC in the treatments without weeding, and 4.0 ºC under no-tillage with polyethylene film. The no-tillage system proved to be a good technique for the cultivation of sweet peppers under high temperature conditions. Weed interference in the treatments without weeding resulted in a reduction of 94.95% and 92.10% of marketable yield under no-tillage and conventional systems, respectively

  3. Home range and travels (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    . Peromyscus generally used and maintained several or many different home sites and refuges in various parts of their home ranges, and frequently shifted about so that their principal activities centered on different sets of holes at different times. Once established, many Peromyscus remained in the same general area for a long time, perhaps for the duration of their lives. Extent of their travels in different directions and intensity of use of different portions of their home ranges varied within a general area in response to habitat changes, loss of neighbors, or other factors. Various authors have obtained both direct and indirect evidence of territoriality, in some degree, among certain species of Peromyscus. Young mice dispersed from their birth sites to establish home ranges of their own. Adults also sometimes left their home areas; some re-established elsewhere; others returned after exploratory travels. Most populations contained a certain proportion of transients; these may have been wanderers or individuals exploring out from established home ranges or seeking new ones. When areas were depopulated by removal trapping, other Peromyscus invaded. Invasion rates generally followed seasonal trends of reproduction and population density. Peromyscus removed from their home areas and released elsewhere returned home from various distances, but fewer returned from greater distances than from nearby; speed of return increased with successive trials. The consensus from present evidence is that ho-ming is made possible by a combination of random wandering and familiarity with a larger area than the day-to-day range. Records of juvenile wanderings during the dispersal phase and of adult explorations very nearly encompassed the distances over which any substantial amount of successful homing occurred. Methods of measuring sizes of home ranges and the limitations of these measurements were discussed in brief synopsis. It was co

  4. Environmental concentration and atmospheric deposition of halogenated flame retardants in soil from Nepal: Source apportionment and soil-air partitioning. (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan


    While various investigations have been driven on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants (FRs) in different framework around the world, information about contamination and fate of PBDEs and other FRs in developing countries especially in the Indian subcontinent is uncommon. Nepal being located in the Indian subcontinent, very little is known about contamination level of semi-volatile organic pollutants discharged into the environment. This motivated us to investigate the environmental fate of halogenated flame retardant (HFRs) in Nepalese condition. In this study, we investigated the concentration, fate, and sources of 9 PBDEs, 2 dechlorane plus isomers (DPs), and 6 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). Moreover, air-soil exchange and soil-air partitioning were also evaluated to characterize the pattern of air-soil exchange and environmental fate. In general, the concentrations of NBFRs in soil were more prevalent than PBDEs and DPs, and accounted 95% of ∑HFRs. By and large, the concentrations of NBFRs and DPs were measured high in Kathmandu, while PBDEs level exceeded in Pokhara. Principal component analysis (PCA) study suggested contributions from commercial penta-, octa-, and deca-BDEs products and de-bromination of highly brominated PBDEs as the significant source of PBDEs. Likewise, low fanti ratio suggested DPs in soil might have originated from long-range atmospheric transport from remote areas, while high levels of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in soil were linked with the use of wide varieties of consumer products. The estimated fugacity fraction (ff) for individual HFR was quite lower (air to the soil is overwhelming. Soil-air partitioning study revealed neither octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) nor black carbon partition coefficient (KBC-A) is an appropriate surrogate for soil organic matter (SOM), subsequently, absorption by SOM has no or little role in the partitioning of HFRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Forest soils (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher


    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  6. A Principal's Guide to Reading Terminology. (United States)

    Dowhower, Sarah L.


    To enlarge principals' professional vocabulary, this article defines general reading terms and terms pertaining to reading approaches and instructional reading strategies. Includes 20 references and an extensive "further information" bibliography classified according to 18 specialized topics. (MLH)

  7. Female Principals and Gender Equity: Dreams Deferred

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbara Polnick; Dianne Reed; Sylvia Taube; Carrie Butler


    ...). One would suspect that there would be an increase in the number of gender equity practices and strategies incorporated in female led schools and that female principals would feel a responsibility...

  8. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  9. It's the Principal of the Thing (United States)

    Landers, Thomas J.; Silverman, Robert S.


    No matter what variables of personal leadership style may exist, certain constant qualities mark the effective principal. Since accountability presupposes effectiveness, you may wish to check your leadership traits against those discussed here. (Editor)

  10. Paranoia: Perceptions of Public School Principals. (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A.


    Examines forces which are undermining the principal's leadership role and ability to effectively administer the school: teachers and unions; the competency movement; political and community interest groups; and media pundits. (SJL)

  11. Principal components analysis in clinical studies


    Zhang, Zhongheng; Castelló, Adela


    In multivariate analysis, independent variables are usually correlated to each other which can introduce multicollinearity in the regression models. One approach to solve this problem is to apply principal components analysis (PCA) over these variables. This method uses orthogonal transformation to represent sets of potentially correlated variables with principal components (PC) that are linearly uncorrelated. PCs are ordered so that the first PC has the largest possible variance and only som...

  12. Unsupervised Bump Hunting Using Principal Components


    Díaz-Pachón, Daniel A; Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Rao, J. Sunil


    Principal Components Analysis is a widely used technique for dimension reduction and characterization of variability in multivariate populations. Our interest lies in studying when and why the rotation to principal components can be used effectively within a response-predictor set relationship in the context of mode hunting. Specifically focusing on the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM), we first develop a fast version of this algorithm (fastPRIM) under normality which facilitates the theo...

  13. Nutrition education for adolescents: principals' views. (United States)

    Lai-Yeung, Wai-Ling Theresa


    This study aimed to examine school principals' perceptions of the school environment in Hong Kong as a context for the dissemination of food knowledge and inculcation of healthy eating habits. A questionnaire survey was administered in secondary schools in Hong Kong to survey Principals' views of students' food choices, operation of the school tuck shop, and promotion of healthy eating at school. Questionnaires were disseminated to all the secondary schools offering Home Economics (300 out of 466), and 188 schools responded, making up a response rate of 63%. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS. Most of the schools (82%) claimed to have a food policy to monitor the operation of the school canteen, and about half (52%) asserted there were insufficient resources to promote healthy eating at school. Principals (88%) generally considered it not acceptable for the school tuck shop to sell junk food; however, 45% thought that banning junk food at school would not help students develop good eating habits. Only 4% of the principals believed nutrition education influenced eating habits; whereas the majority (94%) felt that even with acquisition of food knowledge, students may not be able to put theory into practice. Cooking skills were considered important but principals (92%) considered transmission of cooking skills the responsibility of the students' families. Most of the principals (94%) believed that school-family collaboration is important in promoting healthy eating. Further efforts should be made to enhance the effectiveness of school food policies and to construct healthy school environments in secondary schools.

  14. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Corstanje


    Full Text Available Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  15. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils (United States)

    Corstanje, Ron; Mercer, Theresa G.; Rickson, Jane R.; Deeks, Lynda K.; Newell-Price, Paul; Holman, Ian; Kechavarsi, Cedric; Waine, Toby W.


    Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs) for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation) and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  16. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.


    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  17. Evaluation of soil structure in the framework of an overall soil quality rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, L; Shepherd, T G; Schindler, U


    Soil structure is an important aspect of agricultural soil quality, and its preservation and improvement are key to sustaining soil functions. Methods of overall soil quality assessment which include visual soil structure information can be useful tools for monitoring and managing the global soil...... resource. The aim of the paper is: (i) to demonstrate the role of visual quantification of soil structure within the procedure of the overall soil quality assessment by the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (M-SQR), (ii) to quantify the magnitude and variability of soil structure and overall M......-SQR on a number of agricultural research sites and (iii) to analyse the correlations of soil quality rating results with crop yields. We analysed visual soil structure and overall soil quality on a range of 20 experimental sites in seven countries. To assess visual soil structure we utilised the Visual Soil...

  18. Digital soil mapping at pilot sites in the northwest coast of Egypt: A multinomial logistic regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy Hassan Abdel-Kader


    Full Text Available The study examines a digital soil mapping approach for the production of soil maps by using multinomial logistic regression on soil and terrain information at pilot sites in the Northwestern Coastal region of Egypt. The aim is to reproduce the original map and predict soil distribution in the adherent landscape. Reference soil maps produced by conventional methods at Omayed and Nagamish areas were used. Spectral and terrain parameters were calculated and logit models of the soil classes were developed. Predicted soil classes’ maps were produced. Software’s IDRISI/SAGA/SATISTCA/SPSS were used. The terrain and spectral parameters were found to be significantly influential and the selection of the land surfaces predictors was satisfactory. The McFadden pseudo R-squares ranged from 0.473 to 0.496. The most significant terrain parameters influencing the spatial distribution of the soil classes were elevation, valley depth, multiresolution ridgetop flatness index, multiresolution valley-bottom flatness index, and SAGA wetness index. However, the most influential spectral parameters are the first two principal components of the six Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper bands. The overall accuracy of the predicted soil maps ranged from 72% to 74% with a Kappa Index ranging from 0.62 to 0.64. The developed probability models were successfully used to predict the spatial distribution of the soil mapping units at pixel resolutions of 28.5 m × 28.5 m and 90 m × 90 m at adjacent unvisited areas at Matrouh and Alamin. The developed methodology could contribute to the allocation and to the soil digital mapping and management of new expansion sites in remote desert areas of Egypt.

  19. Promoting principals' managerial involvement in instructional improvement (United States)

    Gillat, Alex; Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth


    Studies of school leadership suggest that visiting classrooms, emphasizing achievement and training, and supporting teachers are important indicators of the effectiveness of school principals. The utility of a behavior-analytic program to support the enhancement of these behaviors in 2 school principals and the impact of their involvement upon teachers' and students' performances in three classes were examined in two experiments, one at an elementary school and another at a secondary school. Treatment conditions consisted of helping the principal or teacher to schedule his or her time and to use goal setting, feedback, and praise. A withdrawal design (Experiment 1) and a multiple baseline across classrooms (Experiment 2) showed that the principal's and teacher's rates of praise, feedback, and goal setting increased during the intervention, and were associated with improvements in the academic performance of the students. In the future, school psychologists might analyze the impact of involving themselves in supporting the principal's involvement in improving students' and teachers' performances or in playing a similar leadership role themselves. PMID:16795819


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Goksoy


    Full Text Available The research aims to determine the leadership levels the deputy principals feel, their perceptions of their personal features and the environment of the organization in which they demonstrate leadership role. In the research, case study method from qualitative research methods was used. The data were collected by one of the qualitative data collection tools; interviewing. The data were analysed with descriptive analysis techniques. The following results were obtained in the research: Deputy Principals consider themselves as leaders in terms of personal features and behaviours. The competencies of deputy principals in terms of leadership are; technical competencies, interpersonal competencies, conceptual and cognitive competencies. The aspects that deputy principals think that they need to improve and enhance are; human relations, determinedness, consistency, sensitivity, talkativeness and hurriedness. According to research results, it is found that deputy principals are of the opinion that schools have the centralist, inflexible, disaggregated, officialised and non-creative features of the organizational structure in terms of institution, culture, legislation and management.

  1. [Pollution characteristics and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riparian soils along urban rivers of Wenzhou city]. (United States)

    Zhou, Jie-Cheng; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Wang, Lu; Xu, Shi-Yuan; Pan, Qi


    Twenty one riparian soil samples along Jiushanwai River and Shanxia River of Wenzhou city were collected in August 2010 to investigate the pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples were extracted by an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE), purified by a purification column and determined by GC-MS. Results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the riparian soils ranged from 60.7 ng x g(-1) to 3 871.3 ng x g(-1), and the concentrations of sigma PAHs in soils along the Shanxia River were significantly lower than the levels along Jiushanwai River. The dominant compounds were 2 to 3 rings in the riparian soils along both rivers, which in average accounted for 62.47% - 72.51% in sigma PAHs. Compared with the PAHs concentrations in soils of other areas in the world, the riparian soils of the studied rivers were moderately polluted by PAHs, but the concentrations of BaP in three soil samples were much higher than the soil standard value of the former Soviet Union, which should be paid more attention. Based on the ratios of Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Fla/(Fla + Pyr) and principal component analysis results, PAHs in riparian soils of the studied rivers were mainly derived from both the petroleum and combustion.

  2. Calibration of a frequency-domain reflectometer for determining soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil-water content of a clay-loam soil, determined using factory-supplied parameters for the sensor and soil-estimated parameters, was compared to the soil-water content determined in the laboratory. The range in ... Soil bulk density, clay content and temperature had negligible influence on sensor soil-water contents.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Soil, Soil maps, Digital soil map, GIS, Soil Database, Soil thematic maps, Query. Introduction. Soil, a valuable natural resource has been fundamental to human existence and can be said to play a part across the range of human activities such as housing, industrialization, economic activities, mining, fishery, and.

  4. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V


    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  5. From soil in art towards Soil Art (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.


    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  6. Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The soil temperatures at 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50 m depths and soil moisture at 0.05 and 0.10 m are measured using the hydrometeorological data acquisition system installed at the observational site. For soil water contents ranging between 11 and 42% in the soil layer of depth 0.05–0.10 m, the mean values of the ...

  7. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Quesada


    Full Text Available The tropical forests of the Amazon Basin occur on a wide variety of different soil types reflecting a rich diversity of geologic origins and geomorphic processes. We here review the existing literature about the main soil groups of Amazonia, describing their genesis, geographical patterns and principal chemical, physical and morphologic characteristics. Original data is also presented, with profiles of exchangeable cations, carbon and particle size fraction illustrated for the principal soil types; also emphasizing the high diversity existing within the main soil groups when possible. Maps of geographic distribution of soils occurring under forest vegetation are also introduced, and to contextualize soils into an evolutionary framework, a scheme of soil development is presented having as its basis a chemical weathering index. We identify a continuum of soil evolution in Amazonia with soil properties varying predictably along this pedogenetic gradient.

  8. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of Bacterial Community Structure Along Different Management Types in German Forest and Grassland Soils (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Thürmer, Andrea; Wollherr, Antje; Will, Christiane; Hodac, Ladislav; Herold, Nadine; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Daniel, Rolf


    Background Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences) were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. Conclusions/Significance Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land use types grassland

  9. Mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie Wang


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing in the soil core of earth-rockfill dams is a common problem affecting the safety of the dams. Based on fracture tests, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil was suggested. Using this criterion, the mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cubic soil specimens were investigated. The results indicate that the propagation of the crack in a cubic specimen under water pressure occurs in a mixed mode I-II if the crack face is not perpendicular to any of the principal stresses, and the crack most likely to propagate is the one that is perpendicular to the minor principal stress and propagates in mode I.

  10. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel


    close as possible natural soil conditions while producing food, feed, fibre and fuel. This means to establish and manage crops while disturbing the soil as least as possible, to maintain the soil permanently covered with plants or their residues and to allow for a diversity of plants either in rotation or in association. These principles also known as Conservation Agriculture have shown to be the most promising approach for a sustainable production intensification and proven to work in a wide range of agro-ecological conditions. Although adopted already on more than 150 Mha worldwide, in Europe it still can be considered a novel soil management practice as it is applied on only around 2% of the annual cropland. A paradigm shift and innovative approaches are needed both to recognise the principles of Conservation Agriculture as the only cost-effective, and thus overall sustainable soil management practices capable to deliver the soil-mediated ecosystem services and to make Conservation Agriculture systems work and accepted as the best compromise to attain better soil quality. Keywords: Soil threats, Soil conservation, GAEC, Conservation Agriculture, Resource efficiency

  11. Principal Self-Efficacy, Teacher Perceptions of Principal Performance, and Teacher Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Evans, Molly Lynn


    In public schools, the principal's role is of paramount importance in influencing teachers to excel and to keep their job satisfaction high. The self-efficacy of leaders is an important characteristic of leadership, but this issue has not been extensively explored in school principals. Using internet-based questionnaires, this study obtained…

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Working Relationship between School Principals and Vice-Principals (United States)

    Wong, Ping-Man


    Vice-principals' role and their relationship with principals are of paramount importance in shaping the effectiveness of school management, particularly after the implementation of school-based management (SBM) worldwide. This paper reports primarily on prior studies on the vice-principalship and suggests a framework to help explain the different…

  13. Constructing principals' professional identities through life stories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a humanistic perspective to the study of leadership, I discuss and describe how school principals adapt to their new roles, owing to the new education policies and educational restructuring within the South African Department of Education. The Life History approach was used to collect data from six selected school ...

  14. The Principal's Role in Interscholastic Sports. (United States)

    Ruffin, Santee

    Principals are ultimately responsible and accountable for all scheduled activities that are part of the school's program, including interscholastic athletics. Among their responsibilities are supervising athletic directors, treating coaches as teachers first and as glory-winners for the school second, maintaining responsible conduct among…

  15. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  16. Principals, Shared Decision Making, and School Reform. (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.; Cambone, Joseph


    The attitudes of six principals serving in shared decision-making (SDM) high schools toward SDM were studied. Although three supported SDM as a vehicle for improving education, the others supported it for its own sake, to democratize schools. Problems in instituting the reforms in these schools are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Closed-chain principal vector linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Flores, Paulo; Viadero, Fernando


    For high-speed robotics dynamic balance is an important property for low base vibrations and short cycle times. To consider dynamic balance in the beginning of the design process of a manipulator, mechanism solutions can be synthesized from principal vector linkages, which are fundamental kinematic

  18. Women principals' reflections of curriculum management challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to schools. The findings imply a need for greater capacity building amongst principals,as well as further research into continuous curriculum changes in the South African education system. Keywords: Annual National Assessments, management styles, rural primary schools, transformational leadership,women managers ...

  19. Principals' Transformational Leadership in School Improvement (United States)

    Yang, Yingxiu


    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute experience and ideas of the transformational leadership, not only for the principal want to improve leadership himself (herself), but also for the school at critical period of improvement, through summarizing forming process and the problem during the course and key factors that affect the course.…

  20. The Principal's Role in Reporting Child Abuse. (United States)

    Payne, Beth


    The role of the principal in identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect is discussed in this bulletin. Although all 50 states and the District of Columbia have laws that require educators to report cases in which they have knowledge or reasonable cause to suspect child abuse, passage of legislation does not always lead to compliance.…

  1. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement (United States)

    Harnish, David Alan


    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…

  2. Great Schools Have Great Principals: Link Crew (United States)

    Roberts, Rebecca


    The author describes the Link Crew transition program that she implemented in 2012 as assistant principal for curriculum and guidance at Villa Park High School in California. She states that administrative and counseling teams at her school had noticed that ninth-grade students struggled in their transitions to high school, with over half of the…

  3. Kernel principal component analysis for change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Morton, J.C.


    Principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to detect change over time in remotely sensed images. A commonly used technique consists of finding the projections along the two eigenvectors for data consisting of two variables which represent the same spectral band covering the same geographical...

  4. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.


    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  5. relationship between principals' management approaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    relationship between principals' management approaches and level of students' discipline in selected public secondary schools in Nyandarua and Laikipia districts, Kenya. Analysis of the relationship was based on school- size. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of. 211 teachers, 28 ...

  6. Constructing principals' professional identities through life stories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the ideas of democracy and participative leadership in their roles and duties, they will always receive positive and meaningful feedback from their staff which would assist them in maturing in their behaviour and constructing their professional identity. While learning from their teachers, the principals also improved on their.

  7. An Exploration of Principal Instructional Technology Leadership (United States)

    Townsend, LaTricia Walker


    Nationwide the demand for schools to incorporate technology into their educational programs is great. In response, North Carolina developed the IMPACT model in 2003 to provide a comprehensive model for technology integration in the state. The model is aligned to national educational technology standards for teachers, students, and principals.…

  8. Islamitisch financieren tussen principes en realiteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, W.G.


    ‘De financiële crisis zou niet hebben plaatsgevonden, als de wereld de principes van islamitisch bankieren en financieren zou hebben aangenomen.’ Dat was één van de kenmerkende reacties van de kant van de islamitische bankiers, in de laatste maanden van 2008. Toen begon de wereldwijde financiële

  9. Managerial Leadership and the Effective Principal. (United States)

    Yukl, Gary

    To help relate management ideas and knowledge to educational administration, the author reviews the major theories and findings from the last 20 years on managerial leadership and discusses their relevance for school principals. He first summarizes findings from three approaches: the traits approach, emphasizing managerial motivation and skills;…

  10. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Elementary Principals' Effectiveness (United States)

    Fridenvalds, Kriss R.


    This dissertation examined the beliefs of elementary teachers to determine if their perceptions of effective principal leadership align to transformational leadership theory vis-a-vis the Educational Leadership Policy Standards (ELPS). A phenomenological, single-case study approach was utilized by means of a mixed-methodological, Web-based survey,…

  11. Selecting a Principal: Keep It Complicated! (United States)

    Naso, Paul A.


    When searching for a new principal, many search committees tend to use the lists of competencies published in the literature and provided by state departments of education as if they were checklists. Instead, they should focus on more complicated competencies, such as acumen, judgment, and ability to manage the dilemmas of practice.

  12. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (United States)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan


    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  13. My School Principal Is Not a Leader! (United States)

    Okutan, Mehmet


    The emergence of new approaches in educational management, have made mandatory to consider the school administration as "school leader". School principals of today's schools, are obliged to become individuals who influence teachers and students by dint of their personal characteristics, getting rid of being one who utilizes legal powers…

  14. Conceptualizing Social Justice: Interviews with Principals (United States)

    Wang, Fei


    Purpose: Today, as the understanding of diversity is further expanded, the meaning of social justice becomes even more complicated, if not confusing. The purpose of this paper is to explore how school principals with social justice commitment understand and perceive social justice in their leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  15. Attaining Success: Tips for New Principals (United States)

    Roe, Chris


    Leading a school today takes courage, energy and lots of knowledge. Today's principals certainly manage the site and keep all aspects key to running a school smoothly at their fingertips. In addition, leaders today also must have curricular knowledge, model instructional leadership and build community among the constituents. Sometimes, new leaders…

  16. Primary School Principals' Experiences with Smartphone Apps (United States)

    Çakir, Rahman; Aktay, Sayim


    Smartphones are not just pieces of hardware, they at same time also dip into software features such as communication systems. The aim of this study is to examine primary school principals' experiences with smart phone applications. Shedding light on this subject means that this research is qualitative. Criterion sampling has been intentionally…

  17. Burnout And Lifestyle Of Principals And Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lavrenčič


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What kind of lifestyle do the principals and entrepreneurs lead? Does the lifestyle of principals and entrepreneurs influence burnout? Purpose: To find out, based on the results of a questionnaire, what kind of lifestyle both researched groups lead. Does lifestyle have an influence on the occurrence of the phenomenon of burnout. Method: We used the method of data collection by questionnaire. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive and inference statistics. Results: Results showed, that both groups lead a similar lifestyle and that lifestyle influences burnout with principals, as well as entrepreneurs. Organization: School principals and entrepreneurs are the heads of individual organizations or companies, the goal of which is success. To be successful in their work, they must adapt their lifestyle, which can be healthy or unhealthy. If their lifestyle is unhealthy, it can lead to burnout. Society: With results of the questionnaire we would like to answer the question about the lifestyle of both groups and its influence on the occurrence of burnout. Originality: The study of lifestyle and the occurrence of burnout in these two groups is the first study in this area. Limitations/Future Research: In continuation, research groups could be submitted to the research fields of effort physiology and tracking of certain haematological parameters, such as cholesterol, blood sugar and stress hormones - adrenaline, noradrenalin, cortisol. Thus, we could carry out an even more in depth research of the connection between lifestyle and burnout.

  18. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study on the geochemistry of groundwater was carried out in a river basin of Andhra Pradesh to probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO 3 − , Cl−, SO 4 2 − , NO 3 ...

  19. Computer Use by Secondary School Principals (United States)

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Afshari, Marjan; Fooi, Foo Say; Samah, Bahaman Abu


    The purpose of this study was firstly to identify the extent to which Iranian secondary school principals used computers and secondly to explore the relationship between a number of variables related to the use of information and communications technology (ICT). Findings indicated that four factors played a role in explaining the level of computer…

  20. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter


    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  1. The Relationship between Principals' Managerial Approaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using a selfadministered questionnaire from a sample of 211 teachers, 28 principals and 22 chairpersons of the Parent-Teachers Association. The raw data were analysed using frequency counts, the mean and standard deviation and hypotheses tested using the t-test and one way ANOVA at alpha ...

  2. Relationship between principals' management approaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' discipline is critical to the attainment of positive school outcomes. Level of students' discipline depends on whether the principal- as the chief executive of the school- enlists the support of teachers and parents in discipline management. The study hypothesized that an inclusive discipline management approach is ...

  3. Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis for Metabolomic Data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nyamundanda, Gift


    Abstract Background Data from metabolomic studies are typically complex and high-dimensional. Principal component analysis (PCA) is currently the most widely used statistical technique for analyzing metabolomic data. However, PCA is limited by the fact that it is not based on a statistical model. Results Here, probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) which addresses some of the limitations of PCA, is reviewed and extended. A novel extension of PPCA, called probabilistic principal component and covariates analysis (PPCCA), is introduced which provides a flexible approach to jointly model metabolomic data and additional covariate information. The use of a mixture of PPCA models for discovering the number of inherent groups in metabolomic data is demonstrated. The jackknife technique is employed to construct confidence intervals for estimated model parameters throughout. The optimal number of principal components is determined through the use of the Bayesian Information Criterion model selection tool, which is modified to address the high dimensionality of the data. Conclusions The methods presented are illustrated through an application to metabolomic data sets. Jointly modeling metabolomic data and covariates was successfully achieved and has the potential to provide deeper insight to the underlying data structure. Examination of confidence intervals for the model parameters, such as loadings, allows for principled and clear interpretation of the underlying data structure. A software package called MetabolAnalyze, freely available through the R statistical software, has been developed to facilitate implementation of the presented methods in the metabolomics field.

  4. Principal component analysis implementation in Java (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Belka, Radosław; Sławiński, Tomasz; Parian, Mahnaz


    In this paper we show how PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method can be implemented using Java programming language. We consider using PCA algorithm especially in analysed data obtained from Raman spectroscopy measurements, but other applications of developed software should also be possible. Our goal is to create a general purpose PCA application, ready to run on every platform which is supported by Java.

  5. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding School Principals' Coaching Skills (United States)

    Yirci, Ramazan; Özdemir, Tuncay Yavuz; Kartal, Seçil Eda; Kocabas, Ibrahim


    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' perceptions about school principals' coaching skills. The study was carried out within qualitative research methods. The study group included 76 teachers in Elazig and 73 teachers in Kahramanmaras provinces of Turkey. All the data were processed using Nvivo 9 software. The results indicate that…

  6. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct (United States)

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq


    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  7. Transformational Leadership Behaviors in Elementary School Principals (United States)

    Ergle, Barbara


    School leaders face high expectations from society for leadership effectiveness. While it is commonly accepted that leadership practices contribute to school excellence, specific behaviors of effective elementary principals in the local context were not well understood. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate self-reported…

  8. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies. (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne


    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  9. Do climate and soil influence phenotypic variability in leaf litter, microbial decomposition and shredder consumption? (United States)

    Graça, M A S; Poquet, J M


    We tested the hypothesis that water stress and soil nutrient availability drive leaf-litter quality for decomposers and detritivores by relating chemical and physical leaf-litter properties and decomposability of Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur, sampled together with edaphic parameters, across wide European climatic gradients. By regressing principal components analysis of leaf traits [N, P, condensed tannins, lignin, specific leaf area (SLA)] against environmental and soil parameters, we found that: (1) In Q. robur the condensed tannin and lignin contents increased and SLA decreased with precipitation, annual range of temperature, and soil N content, whereas leaf P increased with soil P and temperature; (2) In A. glutinosa leaves N, P, and SLA decreased and condensed tannins increased with temperature, annual range of temperature, and decreasing soil P. On the other hand, leaf P and condensed tannins increased and SLA decreased with minimum annual precipitation and towards sites with low temperature. We selected contrasting leaves in terms of quality to test decomposition and invertebrate consumption. There were intraspecific differences in microbial decomposition rates (field, Q. robur) and consumption by shredders (laboratory, A. glutinosa). We conclude that decomposition rates across ecosystems could be partially governed by climate and soil properties, affecting litter quality and therefore decomposers and detritivores. Under scenarios of global warming and increased nutrients, these results suggest we can expect species-specific changes in leaf-litter properties most likely resulting in slow decomposition with increased variance in temperatures and accelerated decomposition with P increase.

  10. The Leadership careers of selected primary school principals


    McHugh, Gerard


    This thesis explored the leadership role of the Primary School Principal in Ireland. It examined the making of a principal (formation), becoming a principal (accession) and being a principal (incumbency). It painted a portrait of accession to principalship and investigated how participating principals perceive the role of principal early in the second decade of 21st century and moreover what inspires and sustains them in their work. A review of literature included works on leadership, lea...

  11. Soil gas radon assessment and development of a radon risk map in Bolsena, Central Italy. (United States)

    Cinelli, G; Tositti, L; Capaccioni, B; Brattich, E; Mostacci, D


    Vulsini Volcanic district in Northern Latium (Central Italy) is characterized by high natural radiation background resulting from the high concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in the volcanic products. In order to estimate the radon radiation risk, a series of soil gas radon measurements were carried out in Bolsena, the principal urban settlement in this area NE of Rome. Soil gas radon concentration ranges between 7 and 176 kBq/m(3) indicating a large degree of variability in the NORM content and behavior of the parent soil material related in particular to the occurrence of two different lithologies. Soil gas radon mapping confirmed the existence of two different areas: one along the shoreline of the Bolsena lake, characterized by low soil radon level, due to a prevailing alluvial lithology; another close to the Bolsena village with high soil radon level due to the presence of the high radioactive volcanic rocks of the Vulsini volcanic district. Radon risk assessment, based on soil gas radon and permeability data, results in a map where the alluvial area is characterized by a probability to be an area with high Radon Index lower than 20 %, while probabilities higher than 30 % and also above 50 % are found close to the Bolsena village.

  12. Soils of volcanic regions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnalds, O.; Bartoli, F.; Buurman, P.; Oskarsson, H.; Stoops, G.; García-Rodeja, E.


    Soils of volcanic areas often exhibit unique properties differentiating them from other soils on Earth. This book gives comprehensive coverage of soils in volcanic regions within Europe, dealing with most aspects of modern day soil science. It covers a range of issues such as mineralogy, chemistry,

  13. Integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for regional scale assessment of heavy metal soil contamination: A critical review. (United States)

    Hou, Deyi; O'Connor, David; Nathanail, Paul; Tian, Li; Ma, Yan


    Heavy metal soil contamination is associated with potential toxicity to humans or ecotoxicity. Scholars have increasingly used a combination of geographical information science (GIS) with geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis techniques to examine the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils at a regional scale. A review of such studies showed that most soil sampling programs were based on grid patterns and composite sampling methodologies. Many programs intended to characterize various soil types and land use types. The most often used sampling depth intervals were 0-0.10 m, or 0-0.20 m, below surface; and the sampling densities used ranged from 0.0004 to 6.1 samples per km 2 , with a median of 0.4 samples per km 2 . The most widely used spatial interpolators were inverse distance weighted interpolation and ordinary kriging; and the most often used multivariate statistical analysis techniques were principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The review also identified several determining and correlating factors in heavy metal distribution in soils, including soil type, soil pH, soil organic matter, land use type, Fe, Al, and heavy metal concentrations. The major natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals were found to derive from lithogenic origin, roadway and transportation, atmospheric deposition, wastewater and runoff from industrial and mining facilities, fertilizer application, livestock manure, and sewage sludge. This review argues that the full potential of integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for assessing heavy metal distribution in soils on a regional scale has not yet been fully realized. It is proposed that future research be conducted to map multivariate results in GIS to pinpoint specific anthropogenic sources, to analyze temporal trends in addition to spatial patterns, to optimize modeling parameters, and to expand the use of different multivariate analysis tools beyond principal component analysis

  14. The price of soil erosion : an economic evaluation of soil conservation and watershed development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.


    Soil erosion by water is the principal cause of land degradation, and a major constraint to agricultural development in developing countries. In semi-arid zones measures have to be taken to reduce on-site soil, water and nutrient losses and in sub-humid mountainous zones the focus should also be on

  15. Environmental risk of heavy metal pollution and contamination sources using multivariate analysis in the soils of Varanasi environs, India. (United States)

    Singh, Shubhra; Raju, N Janardhana; Nazneen, Sadaf


    This study assessed soil pollution in the Varanasi environs of Uttar Pradesh in India. Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soils is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to human. To identify the concentration and sources of heavy metals and assess the soil environmental quality, 23 samples were collected from different locations covering dumping, road and agricultural area. The average concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits according to soil quality guidelines except Cu (copper) and Pb (lead) in dumping and road soils. Soil heavy metal contamination was assessed on the basis of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). The IPI of the metals ranged from 0.59 to 9.94, with the highest IPI observed in the dumping and road soils. A very significant correlation was found between Pb and Cu. The result of principal component analysis suggested that PC1 was mainly affected by the use of agrochemicals, PC2 was affected by vehicular emission and PC3 was affected by dumping waste. Meanwhile, PC4 was mainly controlled by parent material along with anthropogenic activities. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize the heavy metal levels in soils and thus protect human health.

  16. Occurrence and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil from the Tiefa coal mine district, Liaoning, China. (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei; Yin, Hao; Wang, Ruwei


    In order to evaluate soil-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution from coal mine activities in Tiefa coal mine, Northeast China, 16 PAHs identified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Pollution Agency were determined in mining zone soil (MZS), agricultural soil (AS), local lake bank soil (LBS), a vertical soil profile and three coal gangue samples. The total concentration of 16 PAHs (defined as Σ(16)PAH, dry weight) in surface soil ranged from 5.1 to 5642.3 ng g(-1), with an arithmetic mean of 1118.3 ng g(-1). Σ(16)PAH values at the sites from MZS are significantly higher than those found in AS and LBS. The vertical distribution of PAHs indicated that these compounds can penetrate the deeper layers of the soil, especially the low-rings compounds. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. According to principal component analysis (PCA), four factors were identified in the source contribution, including coal combustion, unburned coal particulates, coal gangue and vehicular emissions. The degree of contamination and the PAH toxicity assessment suggested that the soils of the study area have been seriously polluted and pose a high potential health risk.

  17. Principal components analysis in clinical studies. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Castelló, Adela


    In multivariate analysis, independent variables are usually correlated to each other which can introduce multicollinearity in the regression models. One approach to solve this problem is to apply principal components analysis (PCA) over these variables. This method uses orthogonal transformation to represent sets of potentially correlated variables with principal components (PC) that are linearly uncorrelated. PCs are ordered so that the first PC has the largest possible variance and only some components are selected to represent the correlated variables. As a result, the dimension of the variable space is reduced. This tutorial illustrates how to perform PCA in R environment, the example is a simulated dataset in which two PCs are responsible for the majority of the variance in the data. Furthermore, the visualization of PCA is highlighted.

  18. COPD phenotype description using principal components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Kay; Smith, Jacky; Kolsum, Umme


    BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation in COPD can be measured using biomarkers such as induced sputum and Fe(NO). This study set out to explore the heterogeneity of COPD using biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation and pulmonary function by principal components analysis (PCA). SUBJECTS...... AND METHODS: In 127 COPD patients (mean FEV1 61%), pulmonary function, Fe(NO), plasma CRP and TNF-alpha, sputum differential cell counts and sputum IL8 (pg/ml) were measured. Principal components analysis as well as multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: PCA identified four main components (% variance...... associations between the variables within components 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: COPD is a multi dimensional disease. Unrelated components of disease were identified, including neutrophilic airway inflammation which was associated with systemic inflammation, and sputum eosinophils which were related to increased Fe...

  19. A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis (United States)

    McVean, Gil


    Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

  20. Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. (United States)

    Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu


    The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership.

  1. Principal bundles on the projective line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    LetX be a complete nonsingular curve over the algebraic closurek ofk andGa reductive group over k. Let E → X be a principal G-bundle on X. E is said to be semistable if, for every reduction of structure group EP ⊂ E to a maximal parabolic subgroup P of G, we have degree EP (p) ≤ 0, where p is the Lie algebra of P and EP ...

  2. Integrating Data Transformation in Principal Components Analysis


    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Hu, Jianhua


    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior to applying PCA. Such transformation is usually obtained from previous studies, prior knowledge, or trial-and-error. In this work, we develop a model-based method that integrates data transformation in PCA and finds an appropriate data ...

  3. A principal components model of soundscape perception. (United States)

    Axelsson, Östen; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta


    There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker's N(10)), which shows that 'informational' properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes.

  4. Principal Component Analysis of Students Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. K. Twenefour


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify a metric for measuring students’ performance in mathematics and statistics in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics of a public university in Ghana. Some of the students of the department are of the view that the current grading system used by the Department does not do a good job of distinguishing between the performances of students, as at times students of different academic performance could end up with the same Grade Point Average (GPA, a performance measure. Data for the research which covers the 2012/2013 third year students of the Department were obtained from the university’s student records unit. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to analyze the data. Three principal components were retained as rules or indices for the classification of students’ performance. A derivative of the first principal component, RSI, could serve as a new performance measure for the Department as it takes into consideration differences in the raw scores of the students.

  5. Principal component analysis for authorship attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Jamak


    Full Text Available Background: To recognize the authors of the texts by the use of statistical tools, one first needs to decide about the features to be used as author characteristics, and then extract these features from texts. The features extracted from texts are mostly the counts of so called function words. Objectives: The data extracted are processed further to compress as a data with less number of features, such a way that the compressed data still has the power of effective discriminators. In this case feature space has less dimensionality then the text itself. Methods/Approach: In this paper, the data collected by counting words and characters in around a thousand paragraphs of each sample book, underwent a principal component analysis performed using neural networks. Once the analysis was complete, the first of the principal components is used to distinguish the books authored by a certain author. Results: The achieved results show that every author leaves a unique signature in written text that can be discovered by analyzing counts of short words per paragraph. Conclusions: In this article we have demonstrated that based on analyzing counts of short words per paragraph authorship could be traced using principal component analysis. Methodology could be used for other purposes, like fraud detection in auditing.

  6. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO. −. 3 ,. Cl. −. , SO2−. 4 , NO. − ... in concentration of chemical variables, which is due to anthropogenic and marine origins with varying topography, soil type, depth .... 2.3 Groundwater conditions. Groundwater occurs in the weathered and frac-.

  7. Development and Validation of a Principal Implementation Practices Measure: The Principal Implementation Questionnaire (United States)

    Nettles, Stephen M.; Petscher, Yaacov


    Measurement of principal implementation behaviors has proved difficult to researchers in educational leadership due to a lack of consensus on the operational definitions of leadership constructs. The Principal Implementation Questionnaire (PIQ) was developed and validated with the intention of providing clarity in the assessment of principal leadership behaviors in the implementation of effective reading programs. Constructs were operationally defined within the context of the population of interest, with subsequent item writing centered around the constructs. A resulting calibration sample of principals from Florida Reading First schools was used to test the hypothesized measurement model to determine how well the items were described by the proposed factors. Results from LISREL analyses revealed a well-fitted model, based on numerous fit indices. PMID:26366043

  8. Anglo-American views of Gavrilo Princip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with Western (Anglo-American views on the Sarajevo assassination/attentat and Gavrilo Princip. Articles on the assassination and Princip in two leading quality dailies (The Times and The New York Times have particularly been analysed as well as the views of leading historians and journalists who covered the subject including: R. G. D. Laffan, R. W. Seton-Watson, Winston Churchill, Sidney Fay, Bernadotte Schmitt, Rebecca West, A. J. P. Taylor, Vladimir Dedijer, Christopher Clark and Tim Butcher. In the West, the original general condemnation of the assassination and its main culprits was challenged when Rebecca West published her famous travelogue on Yugoslavia in 1941. Another Brit, the remarkable historian A. J. P. Taylor, had a much more positive view on the Sarajevo conspirators and blamed Germany and Austria-Hungary for the outbreak of the Great War. A turning point in Anglo-American perceptions was the publication of Vladimir Dedijer’s monumental book The Road to Sarajevo (1966, which humanised the main conspirators, a process initiated by R. West. Dedijer’s book was translated from English into all major Western languages and had an immediate impact on the understanding of the Sarajevo assassination. The rise of national antagonisms in Bosnia gradually alienated Princip from Bosnian Muslims and Croats, a process that began in the 1980s and was completed during the wars of the Yugoslav succession. Although all available sources clearly show that Princip, an ethnic Serb, gradually developed a broader Serbo-Croat and Yugoslav identity, he was ethnified and seen exclusively as a Serb by Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks and Western journalists in the 1990s. In the past century imagining Princip in Serbia and the West involved a whole spectrum of views. In interwar Anglo-American perceptions he was a fanatic and lunatic. He became humanised by Rebecca West (1941, A. J. P. Taylor showed understanding for his act (1956, he was fully

  9. The Interdependence of Principal School Leadership and Student Achievement (United States)

    Soehner, David; Ryan, Thomas


    This review illuminated principal school leadership as a variable that impacted achievement. The principal as school leader and manager was explored because these roles were thought to impact student achievement both directly and indirectly. Specific principal leadership behaviors and principal effectiveness were explored as variables potentially…

  10. Principals' perceptions of the motivation potential of performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article explores the proposed performance agreement and its potential influence on principals' motivation to improve their own, and therefore also the teachers' and learners' academic performance. The focus group interviews conducted with principals and deputy principals indicate that principals do not want to be held ...

  11. Stress and Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Principals in Texas (United States)

    Romney, Angela G.


    The role of a secondary school principal continues to expand and increase principals' daily workload. The high stakes testing environment also places pressure on principals to ensure that students score high on standardized tests. With a heavy workload, principals find themselves faced with numerous work-related stressors that influence job…

  12. Differential nutrient limitation of soil microbial biomass and metabolic quotients (qCO2: is there a biological stoichiometry of soil microbes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt H Hartman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variation in microbial metabolism poses one of the greatest current uncertainties in models of global carbon cycling, and is particularly poorly understood in soils. Biological Stoichiometry theory describes biochemical mechanisms linking metabolic rates with variation in the elemental composition of cells and organisms, and has been widely observed in animals, plants, and plankton. However, this theory has not been widely tested in microbes, which are considered to have fixed ratios of major elements in soils. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether Biological Stoichiometry underlies patterns of soil microbial metabolism, we compiled published data on microbial biomass carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P pools in soils spanning the global range of climate, vegetation, and land use types. We compared element ratios in microbial biomass pools to the metabolic quotient qCO2 (respiration per unit biomass, where soil C mineralization was simultaneously measured in controlled incubations. Although microbial C, N, and P stoichiometry appeared to follow somewhat constrained allometric relationships at the global scale, we found significant variation in the C∶N∶P ratios of soil microbes across land use and habitat types, and size-dependent scaling of microbial C∶N and C∶P (but not N∶P ratios. Microbial stoichiometry and metabolic quotients were also weakly correlated as suggested by Biological Stoichiometry theory. Importantly, we found that while soil microbial biomass appeared constrained by soil N availability, microbial metabolic rates (qCO2 were most strongly associated with inorganic P availability. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings appear consistent with the model of cellular metabolism described by Biological Stoichiometry theory, where biomass is limited by N needed to build proteins, but rates of protein synthesis are limited by the high P demands of ribosomes. Incorporation of these

  13. Keratinolytic fungi in Egyptian soils. (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, H M; Moubasher, A A; Maghazy, S M


    The frequency of occurrence of keratinolytic fungi in seventy soil samples, collected from different sites in Upper Egypt and in the coastal area of the Mediterranean, was determined by baiting with human and animal hairs and pigeon feathers. Twenty-one species, in addition to an unidentified species, which belong to sixteen genera were collected. Chrysosporium indicum, C. Tropicum, C. keratinophilum, and Microsporum gypseum were the most frequent fungal species recovered from the baited soils. The soil samples collected from the salt marshes of the coastal Mediterranean area were completely free from any keratinolytic fungi, whereas the soil samples collected from cultivated soils contributed species, ranging from one to four species.

  14. Soil organic carbon covariance with soil water content; a geostatistical analysis in cropland fields (United States)

    Manns, H. R.; Berg, A. A.; von Bertoldi, P.


    Soil texture has traditionally represented the rate of soil water drainage influencing soil water content (WC) in the soil characteristic curves, hydrological models and remote sensing field studies. Although soil organic carbon (OC) has been shown to significantly increase the water holding capacity of soil in individual field studies, evidence is required to consider soil OC as a significant factor in soil WC variability at the scale of a remote sensing footprint (25 km2). The relationship of soil OC to soil WC was evaluated over 50 fields during the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil WC field sampling campaign over southern Manitoba, Canada. On each field, soil WC was measured at 16 sample points, at 100 m spacing to 5 cm depth with Stevens hydra probe sensors on 16 sampling dates from June 7 to July 19, 2012. Soil cores were also taken at sampling sites on each field, each sampling day, to determine gravimetric moisture, bulk density and particle size distribution. On 4 of the sampling dates, soil OC was also determined by loss on ignition on the dried soil samples from all fields. Semivariograms were created from the field mean soil OC and field mean surface soil WC sampled at midrow, over all cropland fields and averaged over all sampling dates. The semivariogram models explained a distinct relationship of both soil OC and WC within the soil over a range of 5 km with a Gaussian curve. The variance in soil that soil OC and WC have in common was a similar Gaussian curve in the cross variogram. Following spatial interpolation with Kriging, the spatial maps of soil OC and WC were also very similar with high covariance over the majority of the sampling area. The close correlation between soil OC and WC suggests they are structurally related in the soil. Soil carbon could thus assist in improving downscaling methods for remotely sensed soil WC and act as a surrogate for interpolation of soil WC.

  15. Aggregate Stability and Erodibility of Purple Soil on Sloping Farmland as affected by different Soil Thickness (United States)

    Huang, Xinjun; Zhang, Qingwen; Chen, Shanghong; Dong, Yuequn; Xiao, Meijia; Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed


    Soil thickness is basic limiting condition for purple soil, not only due to its effect on crop production, but also its effect on soil structure. Steady-state of soil thickness will be achieved over time, as result the soil aggregate which the key factor of soil erodibility can be enhanced as well. However, the effect of soil thickness on aggregates stability and the characteristics of soil erodibility in sloping land have not yet fully understood.A field survey was conducted in hilly area of Sichuan region located in southeast China to study the relationship between soil aggregate stability and soil erodibility on sloping farmland under different four thickness (100cm, 80cm, 60cm, 30cm) of purple soil. Based on two different sieving methods (Dry and Wet sieving), we analyzed soil aggregate stability and its effect on soil erodibility within depth of 0-30cm soil layers. The results indicated that: Water stable aggregate on sloping farmland was ranged between 37.9% to 58.6%, where it increased with increasing the soil thickness. Moreover, fractal dimension calculated from dry-sieving and wet-sieving was 2.06-2.49 and 2.70-2.85 respectively, where it decreased with decreasing the soil thickness. The overall soil erodibility was 0.05-1.00 and a negative significant correlation was found between soil aggregate stability and erodibility(Psoil profile tended to be high in soil erodibility within the top soil layer (0-30cm). The results reveal that soil thickness can affect soil aggregate stability as well as erodibility. As soil thickness increased, the top soil became more stable and less erodible. Keywords:purple soil; soil thickness; soil aggregate;soil erodibility

  16. Do Qualification, Experience and Age Matter for Principals Leadership Styles?


    Muhammad Javed Sawati; Saeed Anwar; Muhammad Iqbal Majoka


    The main focus of present study was to find out the prevalent leadership styles of principals in government schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and to find relationship of leadership styles with qualifications, age and experience of the principals. On the basis of analyzed data, four major leadership styles of the principals were identified as Eclectic, Democratic, Autocratic, and Free-rein. However, a small proportion of the principal had no dominant leadership style. This study shows that princip...

  17. A review of the impacts of degradation threats on soil properties in the UK. (United States)

    Gregory, A S; Ritz, K; McGrath, S P; Quinton, J N; Goulding, K W T; Jones, R J A; Harris, J A; Bol, R; Wallace, P; Pilgrim, E S; Whitmore, A P


    National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats on important soil properties in the UK, seeking quantitative data where possible. Soil erosion results in the removal of important topsoil and, with it, nutrients, C and porosity. A decline in soil organic matter principally affects soil biological and microbiological properties, but also impacts on soil physical properties because of the link with soil structure. Soil contamination affects soil chemical properties, affecting nutrient availability and degrading microbial properties, whilst soil compaction degrades the soil pore network. Soil sealing removes the link between the soil and most of the 'spheres', significantly affecting hydrological and microbial functions, and soils on re-developed brownfield sites are typically degraded in most soil properties. Having synthesized the literature on the impact on soil properties, we discuss potential subsequent impacts on the important soil functions, including food and fibre production, storage of water and C, support for biodiversity, and protection of cultural and archaeological heritage. Looking forward, we suggest a twin approach of field-based monitoring supported by controlled laboratory experimentation to improve our mechanistic understanding of soils. This would enable us to better predict future impacts of degradation processes, including climate change, on soil properties and functions so that we may manage soil resources sustainably.

  18. A non-coaxial critical state soil model and its application to simple shear simulations (United States)

    Yang, Yunming; Yu, H. S.


    The yield vertex non-coaxial theory is implemented into a critical state soil model, CASM (Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 1998; 22:621-653) to investigate the non-coaxial influences on the stress-strain simulations of real soil behaviour in the presence of principal stress rotations. The CASM is a unified clay and sand model, developed based on the soil critical state concept and the state parameter concept. Without loss of simplicity, it is capable of simulating the behaviour of sands and clays within a wide range of densities. The non-coaxial CASM is employed to simulate the simple shear responses of Erksak sand and Weald clay under different densities and initial stress states. Dependence of the soil behaviour on the Lode angle and different plastic flow rules in the deviatoric plane are also considered in the study of non-coaxial influences. All the predictions indicate that the use of the non-coaxial model makes the orientations of the principal stress and the principal strain rate different during the early stage of shearing, and they approach the same ultimate values with an increase in loading. These ultimate orientations are dependent on the density of soils, and independent of their initial stress states. The use of the non-coaxial model also softens the shear stress evolutions, compared with the coaxial model. It is also found that the ultimate shear strengths by using the coaxial and non-coaxial models are dependent on the plastic flow rules in the deviatoric plane. Copyright

  19. 26 CFR 1.44-2 - Property to which credit for purchase of new principal residence applies. (United States)


    ... more than drilling to determine soil conditions, preparation of an architect's sketches, securing of a... total cost of land acquired (as defined in paragraph (b) of this section) prior to March 13, 1975, on which the new principal residence is constructed and the cost of expenditures with respect to...

  20. Trust Me, Principal, or Burn Out! The Relationship between Principals' Burnout and Trust in Students and Parents (United States)

    Ozer, Niyazi


    The purpose of this study was to determine the primary school principals' views on trust in students and parents and also, to explore the relationships between principals' levels of professional burnout and their trust in students and parents. To this end, Principal Trust Survey and Friedman Principal Burnout scales were administered on 119…

  1. Soil properties, soil functions and soil security (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro


    Soil plays a crucial role in the ecosystem functioning such as food production, capture and storage of water, carbon and nutrients and in the realisation of a number of UN Sustainable Developments Goals. In this work we present an approach to spatially and jointly assess the multiple contributions of soil to the delivery of ecosystem services within multiple land-use system. We focussed on the modelling of the impact of soil on sediment retention, carbon storage, storing and filtering of nutrients, habitat for soil organisms and water regulation, taking into account examples of land use and climate scenarios. Simplified models were used for the single components. Spatialised Bayesian Belief networks were used for the jointly assessment and mapping of soil contribution to multiple land use and ecosystem services. We integrated continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping approaches covering the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Uncertainty was accounted for and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils and provides an example of integrated study assessing the contributions of soil. The results show the importance of the multi-functional analysis of the contribution of soils to the ecosystem service delivery and UN SDGs.

  2. Soil! Get the Scoop - The Soil Science Society of America's International Year of Soils Campaign (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan; van Es, Harold


    Soils are a finite natural resource and are nonrenewable on a human time scale. Soils are the foundation for food, animal feed, fuel and natural fiber production, the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and a range of ecosystem functions. The area of fertile soils covering the world's surface is limited and increasingly subject to degradation, poor management and loss to urbanization. Increased awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil is called for if this trend is to be reversed and so enable the levels of food production necessary to meet the demands of population levels predicted for 2050. The Soil Science Society of America is coordinating with the Global Soil Partnership and other organizations around the world to celebrate the 2015 International Year of Soils and raise awareness and promote the sustainability of our limited soil resources. We all have a valuable role in communicating vital information on soils, a life sustaining natural resource. Therefore, we will provide resources to learn about soils and help us tell the story of soils. We will promote IYS on social media by sharing our posts from Facebook and Twitter. Additionally SSSA developed 12 monthly themes that reflect the diverse value of soils to our natural environment and society. Each month has information on the theme, a lesson plan, and other outreach activities. All information is available on a dedicated website The site will be updated constantly throughout the year.

  3. Large scale prediction of soil properties in the West African yam belt based on mid-infrared soil spectroscopy (United States)

    Baumann, Philipp; Lee, Juhwan; Paule Schönholzer, Laurie; Six, Johan; Frossard, Emmanuel


    Yam (Dioscorea sp.) is an important staple food in West Africa. Fertilizer applications have variable effects on yam tuber yields, and a management option solely based on application of mineral NPK fertilizers may bear the risk of increased organic matter mineralization. Therefore, innovative and sustainable nutrient management strategies need to be developed and evaluated for yam cultivation. The goal of this study was to establish a mid-infrared soil spectroscopic library and models to predict soil properties relevant to yam growth. Soils from yam fields at four different locations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso that were representative of the West African yam belt were sampled. The project locations ranged from the humid forest zone (5.88 degrees N) to the northern Guinean savannah (11.07 degrees N). At each location, soils of 20 yam fields were sampled (0-30 cm). For the location in the humid forest zone additional 14 topsoil samples from positions that had been analyzed in the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework developed by ICRAF were included. In total, 94 soil samples were analyzed using established reference analysis protocols. Besides soils were milled and then scanned by fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in the range between 400 and 4000 reciprocal cm. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, PLS1 calibration models that included soils from the four locations were built using two thirds of the samples selected by Kennard-Stones sampling algorithm in the spectral principal component space. Models were independently validated with the remaining data set. Spectral models for total carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, total aluminum, total potassium, exchangeable calcium, and effective cation exchange capacity performed very well, which was indicated by R-squared values between 0.8 and 1.0 on both calibration and validation. For these soil properties, spectral models can be used for cost-effective, rapid, and accurate predictions

  4. Affine Flag Manifolds and Principal Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Alexander HW


    Affine flag manifolds are infinite dimensional versions of familiar objects such as Gramann varieties. The book features lecture notes, survey articles, and research notes - based on workshops held in Berlin, Essen, and Madrid - explaining the significance of these and related objects (such as double affine Hecke algebras and affine Springer fibers) in representation theory (e.g., the theory of symmetric polynomials), arithmetic geometry (e.g., the fundamental lemma in the Langlands program), and algebraic geometry (e.g., affine flag manifolds as parameter spaces for principal bundles). Novel

  5. The principal components of response strength. (United States)

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S


    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable.

  6. Making Sense of Social Justice Leadership: A Case Study of a Principal's Experiences to Create a More Inclusive School (United States)

    DeMatthews, David


    Social justice leadership in high-poverty urban schools is complex. Principals experience a range of feelings and emotions while practicing social justice leadership with implications on their leadership. This article presents a qualitative case study of an elementary school principal in an urban setting and how she led to create a more inclusive…

  7. Interactions of Soil Order and Land Use Management on Soil Properties in the Kukart Watershed, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Surveys of soil properties related to soil functioning for many regions of Kyrgyzstan are limited. This study established ranges of selected chemical [soil organic matter (SOM), pH and total N (TN)], physical (soil texture), and biochemical (six enzyme activities of C, N, P and S cycling) character...

  8. Soil CO{sub 2} flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke [Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Soil Science Laboratory; Goh, Kah Joo [Applied Agricultural Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Soil CO{sub 2} flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO{sub 2} flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m{sup 2}/h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m{sup 2}/h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m{sup 2}/h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO{sub 2} flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO{sub 2} flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m{sup 2}/yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m{sup 2}/yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m{sup 2}/yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO{sub 2} flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO{sub 2} between tropical peatland and the atmosphere.

  9. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils in Taizhou, East China. (United States)

    Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Juan; Chen, Jun; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their hazards in surface soil (n = 92) were investigated in Taizhou, China, which is an area in East China famous for production and exporting of rice. Total concentrations of PAHs in soils ranged from 2.3 × 10(1) to 7.6 × 10(2) with a mean of 1.8 × 10(2) μg/kg (dry mass; dm). Concentrations of 16 PAHs reported here were less than those observed in most previous studies in China and other countries. Concentrations of individual PAH in fluvo-aquic soils were greater than those in paddy soils except naphthalene. Fluoranthene and pyrene were dominant PAHs, which accounted for 19.7 and 13.3 % of the total mass of PAHs, respectively. Based on ratios of low molecular weight PAHs to high molecular weight PAHs, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis, the predominant source of PAHs was combustion and pyrolysis, especially coal, natural gas, gasoline and diesel emissions from traffic, as well as burning of straw. Carcinogenic potencies of 13 samples were 1.1- to 2.9-fold greater than the target values promulgated by the Netherlands, indicating increased carcinogenic risks of soils from these sites. However, risks of cancer via accidental ingestion, dermal absorption and inhalation to humans posed by PAHs in soil were relatively small.

  10. Exoenzyme activity in contaminated soils before and after soil washing: ß-glucosidase activity as a biological indicator of soil health. (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; Cui, Rongxue; Woong Kim, Shin; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo


    It is essential to remediate or amend soils contaminated with various heavy metals or pollutants so that the soils may be used again safely. Verifying that the remediated or amended soils meet soil quality standards is an important part of the process. We estimated the activity levels of eight soil exoenzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, catalase, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, protease, urease, and ß-glucosidase) in contaminated and remediated soils from two sites near a non-ferrous metal smelter, using colorimetric and titrimetric determination methods. Our results provided the levels of activity of soil exoenzymes that indicate soil health. Most enzymes showed lower activity levels in remediated soils than in contaminated soils, with the exception of protease and urease, which showed higher activity after remediation in some soils, perhaps due to the limited nutrients available in remediated soils. Soil exoenzymes showed significantly higher activity in soils from one of the sites than from the other, due to improper conditions at the second site, including high pH, poor nutrient levels, and a high proportion of sand in the latter soil. Principal component analysis revealed that ß-glucosidase was the best indicator of soil ecosystem health, among the enzymes evaluated. We recommend using ß-glucosidase enzyme activity as a prior indicator in estimating soil ecosystem health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Intermediate Principal Stress on Undrained Behavior of Intact Clay under Pure Principal Stress Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou


    Full Text Available This study presents the accumulations of the excess pore water pressure and the deformation as well as the noncoaxial behavior of intact soft clay subjected to pure principal stress rotation. Series of tests were carried out by using a dynamic hollow cylinder apparatus to highlight the influence of intermediate principal stress parameter b. It was found that the rate of PWP evolution was greatly influenced by b, but the influence was not monotonous. Specimens under the condition b = 0.75 had the highest accumulation of pore water pressure while under the condition b = 0 had the strongest resistance to the pore pressure generation. PWP accumulated mainly in the first cycle. The failure of specimens under principal stress rotation was controlled by the strain other than the pore pressure. The shear stiffness decreased more quickly with higher b value. The direction of the principal strain increment was strongly dependent on the principal stress increment orientation and less influenced by the b value and the number of cycles.

  12. Soil Ecology (United States)

    Killham, Ken


    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  13. Spatial distribution of physico-chemical properties and function of heavy metals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu by energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) with statistical approach. (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, A; Ravisankar, R


    Soil physico-chemical properties were thought to be important factors in obscuring clear identification of pollutant sources. In the present study physicochemical properties such as, pH, electrical conductivity, bulk density, porosity density, soil texture and color were determined to identify the pollution status using different conventional analytical methods in soils of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu. Soil pH ranges from 5.39 to 8.43 which indicate that the soils are acidic to alkaline in nature. The concentrations of selected heavy metals were determined using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) technique. In all the locations Al is the most abundant metal and Co is the least amount in soil. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties and heavy metals were studied by Pearson correlation. The statistical technique shows that strong significant correlation among the heavy metals. The Chemometric approaches namely: principal component analyses (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), were used for identify the soil pollutant. Spatial distribution of physico-chemical properties of soil such as pH, soil texture (sand, silt, clay) electrical conductivity was studied by geo-statistical methods such as kriging identified areas. The heavy metal mapping also attempted to know the distribution pattern in soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Three representative UK moorland soils show differences in decadal release of dissolved organic carbon in response to environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Stutter


    Full Text Available Moorland carbon reserves in organo-mineral soils may be crucial to predicting landscape-scale variability in soil carbon losses, an important component of which is dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Surface water DOC trends are subject to a range of scaling, transport and biotic processes that disconnect them from signals in the catchment's soils. Long-term soil datasets are vital to identify changes in DOC release at source and soil C depletion. Here we show, that moorland soil solution DOC concentrations at three key UK Environmental Change Network sites increased between 1993–2007 in both surface- and sub- soil of a freely-draining Podzol (48 % and 215 % increases in O and Bs horizons, respectively, declined in a gleyed Podzol and showed no change in a Peat. Our principal findings were that: (1 considerable heterogeneity in DOC response appears to exist between different soils that is not apparent from the more consistent observed trends for streamwaters, and (2 freely-draining organo-mineral Podzol showed increasing DOC concentrations, countering the current scientific focus on soil C destabilization in peats. We discuss how the key solubility controls on DOC associated with coupled physico-chemical factors of ionic strength, acid deposition recovery, soil hydrology and temperature cannot readily be separated. Yet, despite evidence that all sites are recovering from acidification the soil-specific responses to environmental change have caused divergence in soil DOC concentration trends. The study shows that the properties of soils govern their specific response to an approximately common set of broad environmental drivers. Key soil properties are indicated to be drainage, sulphate and DOC sorption capacity. Soil properties need representation in process-models to understand and predict the role of soils in catchment to global C budgets. Catchment hydrological (i.e. transport controls may, at present, be governing the more ubiquitous rises in

  15. Characterization and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils and vegetations near an electronic waste recycling site, South China. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chun-Ling; Li, Jun; Yin, Hua; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan


    This study aimed at identifying the levels of PCBs generated from e-waste recycling, and their potential impacts on the soils and vegetations as well. The ΣPCBs concentrations in soil and plant samples ranged from 7.4 to 4000 ng g(-1) and from 6.7 to 1500 ng g(-1), respectively. For the plant samples, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. from vegetable field and the wild plant Bidens pilosa L. from the burning site showed relatively higher PCB concentrations than other species. For the soil samples, the e-waste burning site had relatively higher PCB concentrations than the adjacent areas, and vegetable soils had higher PCB concentrations than paddy soils. The PCB concentrations showed a clear decreasing trend with the increasing distance from the e-waste recycling site. PCB 28, 99, 101, 138, 153, and 180 were the predominant congeners. Principal component analysis results showed a potential fractionation of PCB compositions from the burning site to the surroundings. The PCB congener pattern at the burning site was similar to Arochlor 1260, pointing to an input of non-domestic e-waste. Similar PCB congeners were found in soils and related vegetables, indicating they derived from the same source. The consumption of vegetables grown in soils near e-waste recycling sites should be strictly avoided due to the high PCBs in the plant tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Professors, principals and textbooks from the Midwifery school in Zadar. (United States)

    Maksimović, Jovan; Maksimović, Marko


    Midwifery in Dalmatia was highly undeveloped at the beginning of the XIX century. The health report from 1813 suggested that there were only 48 midwives in the whole province, and none of them with a degree from the midwifery school. After abolishing the Central Schools ("Ecoles Centrales"), which were founded at the time of French reign, and which had the university range, the professors who stayed in Zadar continued their work and teaching in the Midwifery School, which was founded in 1820 according to the decision made by Emperor Franz I, and started working in 1821. Since the school was working continuously for the whole century, a lot of professors and principals passed through. Protomedicus of Dalmatia officially performed the duty of principals of the Midwifery School. Their life and work biographies were gathered in this paper. Although the newcomers were mostly illiterate, very contemporary and valuable textbooks were used at that time. The professors of this school wrote some of these textbooks. This paper analyses those textbooks from the current medical science and praxis point of view, which points out to its significance and contribution of its authors to the reputation that the School enjoyed at that time.

  17. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.


    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals,

  18. Thermal alteration of soil organic matter properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest fires (United States)

    Araya, Samuel N.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret


    Fire is a major driver of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics, and contemporary global climate change is changing global fire regimes. We conducted laboratory heating experiments on soils from five locations across the western Sierra Nevada climosequence to investigate thermal alteration of SOM properties and determine temperature thresholds for major shifts in SOM properties. Topsoils (0 to 5 cm depth) were exposed to a range of temperatures that are expected during prescribed and wild fires (150, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 °C). With increase in temperature, we found that the concentrations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decreased in a similar pattern among all five soils that varied considerably in their original SOM concentrations and mineralogies. Soils were separated into discrete size classes by dry sieving. The C and N concentrations in the larger aggregate size fractions (2-0.25 mm) decreased with an increase in temperature, so that at 450 °C the remaining C and N were almost entirely associated with the smaller aggregate size fractions ( < 0.25 mm). We observed a general trend of 13C enrichment with temperature increase. There was also 15N enrichment with temperature increase, followed by 15N depletion when temperature increased beyond 350 °C. For all the measured variables, the largest physical, chemical, elemental, and isotopic changes occurred at the mid-intensity fire temperatures, i.e., 350 and 450 °C. The magnitude of the observed changes in SOM composition and distribution in three aggregate size classes, as well as the temperature thresholds for critical changes in physical and chemical properties of soils (such as specific surface area, pH, cation exchange capacity), suggest that transformation and loss of SOM are the principal responses in heated soils. Findings from this systematic investigation of soil and SOM response to heating are critical for predicting how soils are likely to be affected by future climate and fire regimes.

  19. Nonlinear principal component analysis and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Yuichi; Makino, Naomichi


    This book expounds the principle and related applications of nonlinear principal component analysis (PCA), which is useful method to analyze mixed measurement levels data. In the part dealing with the principle, after a brief introduction of ordinary PCA, a PCA for categorical data (nominal and ordinal) is introduced as nonlinear PCA, in which an optimal scaling technique is used to quantify the categorical variables. The alternating least squares (ALS) is the main algorithm in the method. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), a special case of nonlinear PCA, is also introduced. All formulations in these methods are integrated in the same manner as matrix operations. Because any measurement levels data can be treated consistently as numerical data and ALS is a very powerful tool for estimations, the methods can be utilized in a variety of fields such as biometrics, econometrics, psychometrics, and sociology. In the applications part of the book, four applications are introduced: variable selection for mixed...

  20. Integrating Data Transformation in Principal Components Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi


    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior to applying PCA. Such transformation is usually obtained from previous studies, prior knowledge, or trial-and-error. In this work, we develop a model-based method that integrates data transformation in PCA and finds an appropriate data transformation using the maximum profile likelihood. Extensions of the method to handle functional data and missing values are also developed. Several numerical algorithms are provided for efficient computation. The proposed method is illustrated using simulated and real-world data examples.

  1. Reinvention and the Principal-Agent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ramón Gil García


    Full Text Available Existe una interesante polémica en el sector público, derivada de las tensiones existentes entre desempeño y flexibilidad administrativa por un lado, y rendición de cuentas y control, por el otro. El propósito de este artículo es discutir la utilidad del modelo agente principal para un mejor entendimiento de las tensiones entre desempeño y rendición de cuentas, así como analizar las similitudes y contradicciones de esta perspectiva teórica en comparación con el movimiento de “reinvención del gobierno” de la década de los noventa en Estados Unidos.

  2. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  3. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity


    Garrett, Karen A.


    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  4. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons) (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  5. Principal components regression of body measurements in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal component regression can be used to classify independent and informative variables thereby eliminating redundant information for the purpose of reducing costs of chicken genetic programmes. Keywords: Body weight, Biometric traits, Principal component, Orthogonal, Eigenvalues and Linear measurement ...

  6. L'analyse en composantes principales : principes et applications


    Palm, Rodolphe


    This note describes the principles of principal component analysis and gives two examples. Cette note décrit les principes de l'analyse en composantes principales et donne deux exemples numériques d'application.

  7. Principals' and Teachers' Views of Spirituality in Principal Leadership in Three Primary Schools (United States)

    Gibson, Alaster


    This article discusses key findings from my doctoral research involving a qualitative case study inquiring into the lived experiences of spirituality in principal leadership and its influence on teachers and their teaching within three public primary school contexts in New Zealand. Spirituality is understood in this article as a complex and…

  8. Principals and the Human Condition: Reflections of an Elementary School Principal. (United States)

    Latimer, Milree H.

    Educational leaders must be perceived to act consistently and with integrity. When leaders are conscious of beliefs and values, they will act spontaneously in a consistent manner, and their actions, embedded in their beliefs, will have an underlying harmony. School principals must embrace the concept of empowerment and dignity of the individual…

  9. Teacher and Principal Perceptions of How Principal Transformational and Instructional Leadership Behaviors Relate to Student Achievement (United States)

    Steele, Gayle


    Because of public concern over the effectiveness of our schools, a new evaluation system was put in place to hold principals and teachers directly accountable for student academic achievement. Part of this evaluation included student performance on state assessments. The purpose of this qualitative study sought to examine how the transformation…

  10. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico. (United States)

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C


    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  11. Soil pollution and soil protection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.


    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  12. Comparison of different models for predicting soil bulk density. Case study - Slovakian agricultural soils (United States)

    Makovníková, Jarmila; Širáň, Miloš; Houšková, Beata; Pálka, Boris; Jones, Arwyn


    Soil bulk density is one of the main direct indicators of soil health, and is an important aspect of models for determining agroecosystem services potential. By way of applying multi-regression methods, we have created a distributed prediction of soil bulk density used subsequently for topsoil carbon stock estimation. The soil data used for this study were from the Slovakian partial monitoring system-soil database. In our work, two models of soil bulk density in an equilibrium state, with different combinations of input parameters (soil particle size distribution and soil organic carbon content in %), have been created, and subsequently validated using a data set from 15 principal sampling sites of Slovakian partial monitoring system-soil, that were different from those used to generate the bulk density equations. We have made a comparison of measured bulk density data and data calculated by the pedotransfer equations against soil bulk density calculated according to equations recommended by Joint Research Centre Sustainable Resources for Europe. The differences between measured soil bulk density and the model values vary from -0.144 to 0.135 g cm-3 in the verification data set. Furthermore, all models based on pedotransfer functions give moderately lower values. The soil bulk density model was then applied to generate a first approximation of soil bulk density map for Slovakia using texture information from 17 523 sampling sites, and was subsequently utilised for topsoil organic carbon estimation.

  13. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia (United States)

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma


    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  14. Taking a Distributed Perspective to the School Principal's Workday (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel


    Focusing on the school principal's day-to-day work, we examine who leads curriculum and instruction- and administration-related activities when the school principal is not leading but participating in the activity. We also explore the prevalence of coperformance of management and leadership activities in the school principal's workday. Looking…

  15. Principals' Perceptions of the Importance of Technology in Schools (United States)

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Boriack, Anna Witt; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; MacNeil, Angus


    A sample of 311 principals from a large metropolitan area in the southwest region of the U. S. responded to a questionnaire that addressed public school principals' perceptions related to the major functions of technology in their schools. Principals reported that the major functions of technology were: (a) communication, (b) instruction, (c) data…

  16. District Leadership for Effective Principal Evaluation and Support (United States)

    Kimball, Steven M.; Arrigoni, Jessica; Clifford, Matthew; Yoder, Maureen; Milanowski, Anthony


    Research demonstrating principals' impact on student learning outcomes has fueled the shift from principals as facilities managers to an emphasis on instructional leadership (Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005). Principals are under increasing pressure to carry out…

  17. Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals. (United States)

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.


    Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

  18. Leaving Fingerprints: Principals' Considerations While Implementing Education Reforms (United States)

    Schechter, Chen; Shaked, Haim


    Purpose: Turning an education reform program into school reality greatly depends on the principal. In certain cases, principals choose to implement reform instructions only partially. The purpose of this paper is to explore school principals' considerations leading to their decisions not to fulfill a national reform's guidelines in a full and…

  19. Common Core Implementation Decisions Made by Principals in Elementary Schools (United States)

    Norman, Alexis Cienfuegos


    The purpose of this study was to understand the decisions elementary principals have made during the Common Core State Standards reform. Specifically, (a) what decisions principals have made to support Common Core implementation, (b) what strategies elementary principals have employed to communicate with stakeholders about Common Core State…

  20. Principals' and teachers' attitudes toward and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys were carried out in Ghana into principals' and teachers' attitudes toward and knowledge of inclusive education. Data provided information on the influence of principals' and teachers' background variables on attitudes toward and knowledge of inclusive education. The sample of 128 educators (20 principals and ...

  1. 266 The Principals' and Teacher Counsellors' Perception of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 18, 2011 ... Laikipia District as perceived by school principals and teacher counsellors. Two questionnaires, one for principals .... by teachers, parents, school administration and principals as well as training are necessary for successful ..... may conflict with the role of guidance and counselling. Students are not able to.

  2. Principal Leadership for Technology-enhanced Learning in Science (United States)

    Gerard, Libby F.; Bowyer, Jane B.; Linn, Marcia C.


    Reforms such as technology-enhanced instruction require principal leadership. Yet, many principals report that they need help to guide implementation of science and technology reforms. We identify strategies for helping principals provide this leadership. A two-phase design is employed. In the first phase we elicit principals' varied ideas about the Technology-enhanced Learning in Science (TELS) curriculum materials being implemented by teachers in their schools, and in the second phase we engage principals in a leadership workshop designed based on the ideas they generated. Analysis uses an emergent coding scheme to categorize principals' ideas, and a knowledge integration framework to capture the development of these ideas. The analysis suggests that principals frame their thinking about the implementation of TELS in terms of: principal leadership, curriculum, educational policy, teacher learning, student outcomes and financial resources. They seek to improve their own knowledge to support this reform. The principals organize their ideas around individual school goals and current political issues. Principals prefer professional development activities that engage them in reviewing curricula and student work with other principals. Based on the analysis, this study offers guidelines for creating learning opportunities that enhance principals' leadership abilities in technology and science reform.

  3. Utah Elementary School Principals Preparation as Technology Leaders (United States)

    Esplin, Nathan L.


    The rapidly expanding use of technology in education has brought about the need for principals to be prepared as technology leaders. Although, there is a need for principals to be prepared as technology leaders, many currently are not prepared for this role. It is crucial that principals are prepared in order ability to lead their school in…

  4. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Stages Based on Felt Teaching Characteristics. (United States)

    DeMoulin, Donald F.; Guyton, John W.

    Whether principals could identify teaching traits and categorize these consistently as descriptors of instructional stages was studied by asking 145 randomly selected principals in public schools throughout Illinois and Indiana to characterize teacher behavior based on experience. Principals were asked to list instructional stages, yielding 161…

  5. Principals Leading for Educational Equity: Social Justice in Action (United States)

    Eldridge, Cynthia Marie


    This qualitative case study examined how principals promote educational equity in schools. The study examined the experiences of three principals in a school district that mandated that principals lead for equity. The school system defined equity as the elimination of racial predictability in student achievement. To conduct this examination, the…

  6. The Cluster Approach: Helping to Increase Principal Effectiveness. (United States)

    Chopra, Raj K.


    Facilitating communication and cooperation between principals and teachers, between principals and administrators, and among principals themselves can be accomplished by using a peer support system based on clustering. Fort Bend (Texas) Independent School District has benefited by creating 5 clusters of 8 to 10 elementary and secondary principals…

  7. Leadership Behaviors and Its Relation with Principals' Management Experience (United States)

    Mehdinezhad, Vali; Sardarzahi, Zaid


    This paper aims at studying the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method was used in this study. The target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in the Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample…

  8. Building PACs: A Guide for Title I Principals. (United States)

    Druian, Janice; Sayers, Susan

    This inservice program for principals was designed to assist the development and maintenance of effective Parent Advisory Councils (PACs), as mandated by Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The manual first introduces the concept of the principal as a facilitator, outlining the principal's role and responsibilities within a PAC.…

  9. 21 CFR 701.10 - Principal display panel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel. 701.10 Section 701.10...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.10 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel... is most likely to be displayed, presented, shown, or examined under customary conditions of display...

  10. 21 CFR 801.60 - Principal display panel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel. 801.60 Section 801.60...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter devices in package form and...

  11. 21 CFR 201.60 - Principal display panel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel. 201.60 Section 201.60...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter drugs in package form and as used in...

  12. Assessing Soil Salinity with the use of WorldView-2 Hyperspectral Images in Timpaki, Crete (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.


    Salinization is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring worldwide, with its effects being observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Traditionally, soil salinity is assessed by laboratory determination of the soil electrical conductivity (ECe), rendering large scale studies labor and cost intensive. This study evaluates the feasibility of surface soil salinity estimation, monitoring, and mapping based on images acquired by the WorldView-2 and Landsat 8 multispectral sensors after calibration with a limited number of soil samples. A range of satellite image processing techniques are applied, starting with geometric, radiometric and atmospheric preprocessing corrections. More than 10 spectral salinity indices (algebric equations between visible and infrared band) including three newly introduced salinity indices, as well as vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, etc.) are implemented to detect surface salt deposition and vegetation health. Spectral unmixing is used to monitor salinity employing sophisticated classification approaches. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to a WorldView-2 images in order to determine the initial axes used for the orthogonal transformation, followed by a subsequent 3D rotation of the PCA axes. The linear coefficients of the transformation are retrieved and adjusted to detect salinity in all the range of WorldView-2 image. Furthermore, Landsat 8 images are used to establish and compare the diachronic vegetation regime and plant health in both brackish irrigation and salinity-free olive groves areas. The proposed methods are tested in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, a coastal semi-arid region in south-central Crete. Long term agricultural over-exploitation in the area and little irrigation alternatives have led to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization. EO products are calibrated using soil samples collected from bare soil plots at 0-5 cm depth and representing a

  13. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils under Different Land Use in an Estuary in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Nguyen Van


    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in estuaries warrants study because a healthy estuarine environment, including healthy soil, is important in order to achieve ecological balance and good aquaculture production. The Ba Lat estuary of the Red River is the largest estuary in northern Vietnam and is employed in various land uses. However, the heavy metal contamination of its soil has not yet been reported. The following research was conducted to clarify contamination levels, supply sources, and the effect of land use on heavy metal concentrations in the estuary. Soil samples were collected from the top soil layer of the estuary, and their arsenic (As, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn concentrations were analyzed, as were other soil properties. Most soils in the estuary were loam, silt loam, or sandy loam. The pH was neutral, and the cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.8 to 20 cmol·kg−1. Manganese and iron concentrations averaged 811 µg·g−1 and 1.79%, respectively. The magnitude of the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > As > Cd. The concentrations were higher in the riverbed and mangrove forest than in other land-use areas. Except for As, the mean heavy metal concentrations were lower than the permissible levels for agricultural soils in Vietnam. The principal component analyses suggested that soil As, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin, whereas Cr was of non-anthropogenic origin. The spatial distribution of concentration with land use indicated that mangrove forests play an important role in preventing the spread of heavy metals to other land uses and in maintaining the estuarine environment.

  14. Effects of organic amendment on soil quality as assessed by biological indicators


    Sultana, Salma


    Soil quality decline is one of the most predominant effect deriving from human activities. In particular, intensive agricultural management can affect negatively soils, principally due to rapid depletion of soil organic matter, that affects, in turn, soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The declining trend of soil quality coupled with mismanagement of agricultural production is pose a serious threat to sustainability of intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture is...

  15. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming]. (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming


    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  16. Biomolecular characterization of diazotrophs isolated from the tropical soil in Malaysia. (United States)

    Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Amaddin, Puteri Aminatulhawa Megat; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H


    This study was conducted to evaluate selected biomolecular characteristics of rice root-associated diazotrophs isolated from the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area of Malaysia. Soil and rice plant samples were collected from seven soil series belonging to order Inceptisol (USDA soil taxonomy). A total of 38 diazotrophs were isolated using a nitrogen-free medium. The biochemical properties of the isolated bacteria, such as nitrogenase activity, indoleacetic acid (IAA) production and sugar utilization, were measured. According to a cluster analysis of Jaccard's similarity coefficients, the genetic similarities among the isolated diazotrophs ranged from 10% to 100%. A dendogram constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed that the isolated diazotrophs clustered into 12 groups. The genomic DNA rep-PCR data were subjected to a principal component analysis, and the first four principal components (PC) accounted for 52.46% of the total variation among the 38 diazotrophs. The 10 diazotrophs that tested highly positive in the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) were identified as Bacillus spp. (9 diazotrophs) and Burkholderia sp. (Sb16) using the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the analysis of the biochemical characteristics, three principal components were accounted for approximately 85% of the total variation among the identified diazotrophs. The examination of root colonization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that two of the isolated diazotrophs (Sb16 and Sb26) were able to colonize the surface and interior of rice roots and fixed 22%-24% of the total tissue nitrogen from the atmosphere. In general, the tropical soils (Inceptisols) of the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area in Malaysia harbor a diverse group of diazotrophs that exhibit a large variation of biomolecular characteristics.

  17. Biomolecular Characterization of Diazotrophs Isolated from the Tropical Soil in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli H Shamsuddin


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate selected biomolecular characteristics of rice root-associated diazotrophs isolated from the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area of Malaysia. Soil and rice plant samples were collected from seven soil series belonging to order Inceptisol (USDA soil taxonomy. A total of 38 diazotrophs were isolated using a nitrogen-free medium. The biochemical properties of the isolated bacteria, such as nitrogenase activity, indoleacetic acid (IAA production and sugar utilization, were measured. According to a cluster analysis of Jaccard’s similarity coefficients, the genetic similarities among the isolated diazotrophs ranged from 10% to 100%. A dendogram constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA showed that the isolated diazotrophs clustered into 12 groups. The genomic DNA rep-PCR data were subjected to a principal component analysis, and the first four principal components (PC accounted for 52.46% of the total variation among the 38 diazotrophs. The 10 diazotrophs that tested highly positive in the acetylene reduction assay (ARA were identified as Bacillus spp. (9 diazotrophs and Burkholderia sp. (Sb16 using the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the analysis of the biochemical characteristics, three principal components were accounted for approximately 85% of the total variation among the identified diazotrophs. The examination of root colonization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM proved that two of the isolated diazotrophs (Sb16 and Sb26 were able to colonize the surface and interior of rice roots and fixed 22%–24% of the total tissue nitrogen from the atmosphere. In general, the tropical soils (Inceptisols of the Tanjong Karang rice irrigation project area in Malaysia harbor a diverse group of diazotrophs that exhibit a large variation of biomolecular characteristics.

  18. Working with soils: soil science continuing professional development (United States)

    Hannam, Jacqueline; Thompson, Dick


    The British Society of Soil Science launched the Working with Soils professional competency programme in 2011. This was in response to concerns from practitioners and professionals of a significant skills gap in various sectors that require soil science skills. The programme includes one and two day courses that cover the qualifications, knowledge and skills required of a professional scientist or engineer conducting a range of contract work. All courses qualify for continuing professional development points with various professional practice schemes. Three courses cover the foundations of soil science namely; describing a soil profile, soil classification and understanding soil variability in the field and landscape. Other tailored courses relate to specific skills required from consultants particularly in the planning process where land is assessed for agricultural quality (agricultural land classification). New courses this year include soil handling and restoration that provides practitioners with knowledge of the appropriate management of large volumes of soil that are disturbed during development projects. The courses have so far successfully trained over 100 delegates ranging from PhD students, environmental consultants and government policy advisors.

  19. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus


    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...

  20. Soil steaming effects on weed seedling emergence under the influence of soil type, soil moisture, soil structure and heat duration


    Melander, Bo; Kristensen, J K


    Soil steaming applied in bands is a new technology with the potential to radically lower the burden of hand-weeding intra-row weeds in non-herbicidalvegetable cropping. Preliminary studies with band-steaming have shown effective control of viable weed seeds when the maximum soil temperatures reach 60–80◦C. This temperature range has a particular agronomic interest,and the present study aimed at investigating the influence of soil factors and heat duration on weed seed mortality of soil steami...

  1. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping (United States)

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez


    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  2. SoilGrids1km--global soil information based on automated mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present SoilGrids1km--a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution--containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths: soil organic carbon (g kg-1, soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%, bulk density (kg m-3, cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg, coarse fragments (%, soil organic carbon stock (t ha-1, depth to bedrock (cm, World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles, and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images, lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database. Prediction accuracies assessed using 5-fold cross-validation were between 23-51%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1 weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2 difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3 low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the SoilGrids system is

  3. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh


    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  4. Principal component analysis for fermionic critical points (United States)

    Costa, Natanael C.; Hu, Wenjian; Bai, Z. J.; Scalettar, Richard T.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.


    We use determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC), in combination with the principal component analysis (PCA) approach to unsupervised learning, to extract information about phase transitions in several of the most fundamental Hamiltonians describing strongly correlated materials. We first explore the zero-temperature antiferromagnet to singlet transition in the periodic Anderson model, the Mott insulating transition in the Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice, and the magnetic transition in the 1/6-filled Lieb lattice. We then discuss the prospects for learning finite temperature superconducting transitions in the attractive Hubbard model, for which there is no sign problem. Finally, we investigate finite temperature charge density wave (CDW) transitions in the Holstein model, where the electrons are coupled to phonon degrees of freedom, and carry out a finite size scaling analysis to determine Tc. We examine the different behaviors associated with Hubbard-Stratonovich auxiliary field configurations on both the entire space-time lattice and on a single imaginary time slice, or other quantities, such as equal-time Green's and pair-pair correlation functions.

  5. Principal normal curvature of surfaces. [electromagnetic scattering and the geometrical theory of diffraction (United States)

    Schmidt, R. F.


    Certain principal normal curvatures of differential geometry were developed for use in curvature matrices associated with the asymptotic solution of electromagnetic diffraction problems. The effort is directed toward microwave antenna simulations and high speed digital computer analysis of radiometric instruments used to obtain soil moisture, sea state, salinity and temperature data. It is shown that the methods used to develop the principal normal curvatures for paraboloid, hyperboloid, ellipsoid, sphere, and cone can be applied to other radiometer geometries such as the parabolic torus, even though the surface parameterizations are different. It is concluded that deployable offset geometries, distorted by rotational forces and solar loads may be analyzed by similar means given a suitable surface description.

  6. quantifying the stock of soil organic carbon using multiple regression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 15, 2012 ... QUANTIFYING THE STOCK OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODEL. IN A FALLOW VEGETATION, ... plots were collected and subjected to linear regression analysis. The analysis generated three ... and soils are principal reservoirs of carbon, as they help to reduce the ...

  7. Soil Microbial Communities in Natural and Managed Cloud Montane Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed-Haun Chang


    Full Text Available Forest management often results in changes in soil microbial communities. To understand how forest management can change microbial communities, we studied soil microbial abundance and community structure in a natural Chamaecyparis (NCP forest, a disturbed Chamaecyparis (DCP forest, a secondary (regenerated Chamaecyparis (SCP forest and a secondary (reforested Cryptomeria (SCD forest. We analyzed soil microbial abundance by measuring phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and microbial community structure by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in the studied forest soils. The content of the soil PLFA fungal biomarker decreased from NCP to SCP, DCP and SCD forest soils, associated with the degree of disturbance of forest management. The ratio of soil Gram positive–to-negative bacteria and the stress index (16:1ω7t to 16:1ω7c increased from NCP to SCP and DCP soils; thus, disturbed forests except for SCD showed increased soil microbial stress. Principal component analysis of soil microbial groups by PLFAs separated the four forest soils into three clusters: NCP, DCP and SCP, and SCD soil. The DGGE analysis showed no difference in the microbial community structure for NCP, DCP and SCP soils, but the community structure differed between SCD and the three other forest soils. In cloud montane forests, disturbance due to forest management had only a slight influence on the soil microbial community, whereas reforestation with different species largely changed the soil microbial community structure.

  8. The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Principal: Tales from Remote Western Australia (United States)

    Lock, Graeme; Budgen, Fiona; Lunay, Ralph; Oakley, Grace


    This research investigated the experience of leadership in an isolated school. Data were obtained through structured and semi-structured interviews (Burns, 2000) with a total of eight principals whose experience of leadership in remote communities ranged from new recruits to several decades. Three research questions guided the investigation: What…

  9. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesen, EB; Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M


    embalmed mandibular condyles; the angle of the first principal direction and the axis of the specimen, expressing the orientation of the trabeculae, ranged from 10 degrees to 87 degrees. Morphological parameters were determined by a method based on Archimedes' principle and by micro-CT scanning...

  10. Predicting radiocaesium sorption characteristics with soil chemical properties for Japanese soils. (United States)

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Smolders, Erik; Sweeck, Lieve; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde


    The high variability of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of radiocaesium (RCs) compels a detailed analysis of the radiocaesium interception potential (RIP) of soil, which is one of the specific factors ruling the RCs transfer. The range of the RIP values for agricultural soils in the Fukushima accident affected area has not yet been fully surveyed. Here, the RIP and other major soil chemical properties were characterised for 51 representative topsoils collected in the vicinity of the Fukushima contaminated area. The RIP ranged a factor of 50 among the soils and RIP values were lower for Andosols compared to other soils, suggesting a role of soil mineralogy. Correlation analysis revealed that the RIP was most strongly and negatively correlated to soil organic matter content and oxalate extractable aluminium. The RIP correlated weakly but positively to soil clay content. The slope of the correlation between RIP and clay content showed that the RIP per unit clay was only 4.8 mmol g(-1) clay, about threefold lower than that for clays of European soils, suggesting more amorphous minerals and less micaceous minerals in the clay fraction of Japanese soils. The negative correlation between RIP and soil organic matter may indicate that organic matter can mask highly selective sorption sites to RCs. Multiple regression analysis with soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity explained the soil RIP (R(2)=0.64), allowing us to map soil RIP based on existing soil map information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transformers as a potential for soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stojić


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of PCBs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil and also in the soil of the receiving pit located below the PCB contaminated transformer. Concentrations of PCBs in our samples are ranged from 0,308 to 0,872 mg/kg of absolutely dry soil.

  12. Humification processes in reclaimed open-cast lignite mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros, M.C.; Gil-Sotres, F.; Ceccanti, B.; Trasar-Cepeda, M.C.; Gonzales-Sangregorio, M.V. (Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agraria)


    To identify the principal humification pathways which occur during the initial stages of pedogenesis, organic matter from mine soils of different ages from the Meirama lignite mine in NW Spain was subjected to a series of physicochemical and chemical fractionations. Although humic molecules of molecular weight lower than 10,000 Da were always predominant, the percentage of C associated with molecules of between 50,000 and 200,000 Da increased with soil age, as did the percentage of chemically stabilized humus and the percentage of C associated with immobile complexes. In general, these results suggest that the principal humification pathway in these soils involves abiotic condensation reactions, as in the case of natural soils of this region. The low complexed metal content of the mine soils in comparison with natural soils indicates the low degree of weathering of inorganic fraction which has occurred in the former.

  13. Sources and Distribution of Trace Elements in Soils Near Coal-Related Industries. (United States)

    Shangguan, Yuxian; Wei, Yuan; Wang, Linquan; Hou, Hong


    The degree of contamination of soil and the potential ecological risks associated with five different coal-burning industries were assessed in Shanxi Province, China. Results showed that the trace element concentrations in soil close to the coal industries were higher than those in the background soils, and the enrichment factors were >1. The potential ecological risk indexes ranged from 99 to 328 for the five coal-related industries. Results also illustrated that the trace elements were transported through the atmosphere. Concentrations of B, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, and Mn were high in the area around the steel plant. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that the sources of Se, Mo, Hg, Cd, As, Cr, B, Ni, and Cu were mainly anthropogenic, whereas Pb, V, Cu, Zn, and Mn were from natural sources. The soil Hg and Se contents were simulated by an artificial neural network model, which showed that Hg and Se in soils were from atmospheric deposits and their spatial distributions were related to the dominant wind direction. The potential ecological risk from Hg was much higher (one order of magnitude) than that from the other trace elements, which highlights the fact that it deserves urgent attention. Control of emissions from the burning of coal and other raw materials (such as iron and phosphate ores) should also be prioritized.

  14. Relaxometry in soil science (United States)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.


    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non

  15. Soil distribution and soil properties in the subalpine region of Kazbegi; Greater Caucasus; Georgia: Soil quality rating of agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hanauer


    Full Text Available Soils of the alpine ecosystem of Kazbegi region were investigated according to the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (M-SQR. Most limiting factors are climate as well as steepness, while the low nutrient supply and soil acidity can be tackled by adequate fertilization and liming practice. Inorganic or organic pollution were not detected. Soils on sediment fans as well as glacial sediments, mostly Cambisols (Humic, are characterized by a low to moderate yield potential while high-yield soils, mostly Cambic Umbrisols, can be found on volcanic plateaus. A common element of all soils is the high humus content. Actually, most of them are used only for pasture, due to poor accessibility. Soils on fluvial deposits, mostly Fluvisols, show a very high range of M-SQR-scores. Altogether, the soils of the study area have the actually untapped potential to optimize the basic supply of the local population as well as tourism also by cultivation of cereals. Nevertheless, variety trials on different soil forming substrates as well as erosion control are major preconditions for successful implementation of new cropping systems in the Kazbegi region. Furthermore, particularly rare soils, e.g. Cambisols on Tephra, should be protected.

  16. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schröder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, R.; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Léveillé, R.; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.-B.; Tokar, R.; De La Torre, M.; D'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.; MSL Science Team, the


    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of

  17. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties. (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E


    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  18. Parameters affecting microwave-assisted extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from agricultural soil. (United States)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Labra, Ronnie


    This work describes an optimised method for the determination of six representative organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (diazinon, parathion, methyl pirimiphos, methyl parathion, ethoprophos, and fenitrothion) in agricultural soils. The method is based on microwave-assisted extraction using a water-methanol modified mixture for desorption and simultaneous partitioning on n-hexane (MAEP), together with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). To improve GC-FPD signals (peak intensity and shape) olive oil was used effectively as a "matrix mimic". The optimisation of the extraction method was achieved in two steps: an initial approach through experimental design and principal component analysis where recovery of compounds using a water-methanol mixture ranged from 54 to 77%, and the second one by studying the addition of KH2PO4 to the extracting solution where recoveries were significantly increased, molecular replacing of OPPs from adsorption sites by phosphate being the probable extraction mechanism. Under optimised conditions, recoveries of pesticides from different soils were higher than 73%, except for methyl parathion in some soils, with SD equal or lower than 11% and detection limits ranging from 0.004 to 0.012 microg g(-1). The proposed method was used to determine OPPs in soil samples from different agricultural zones of Chile.

  19. Implementation of the geoethics principal to environmental technologies by Biogeosystem Technique (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Kalinitchenko, Valery; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Sushkova, Svetlana


    The uncertainty and degradation of biosphere is a result of outdated industrial technologies. The incorrect principals of the nature resources use paradigm are to be radically changed corresponding to principals of Geoethics. Technological dead-end is linked to Philosophy of Technology. The organic protection and imitation of natural patterns are till now the theoretical base of technology. The technological and social determinism are proposed as the "inevitable" for humankind. One is forced to believe that the only way for humanity is to agree that the outdated way of technical development is the only possibility for humankind to survive. But rough imitation as a method of outdated technological platform is fruitless now. Survival under practice of industrial technology platform now has become extremely dangerous. The challenge for humanity is to overcome the chain of environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere, which awkwardly imitate the natural processes: plowing leads to degradation of soil and greenhouse gases emission; irrigation leads to excessive moistening and degradation of soil, landscape, greenhouse gases emission, loss of freshwater - the global deficit; waste utilization leads to greenhouse gases emission, loss of oxigen and other ecological hazards. The fundamentally new technologies are to be generates for development of biosphere, food and resources renewing. Aristotle told that technique can go beyond nature and implement "what nature can't bring to a finish." To overcome fundamental shortcomings of industrial technologies, incorrect land use we propose the Biogeosystem Technique (BGT*) for biosphere sustainability. The BGT* key point is transcendent approach (not imitating of the natural processes) - new technical solutions for biosphere - soil construction, the fluxes of energy, matter, and water control and biological productivity of terrestrial systems. Intra-soil milling which provides the

  20. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F


    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Soil Mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verruijt, A.

    This book is the text for the introductory course of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, as I have given from 1980 until my retirement in 2002. It contains an introduction into the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, such as the

  2. Permeability of soils in Mississippi (United States)

    O'Hara, Charles G.


    The permeability of soils in Mississippi was determined and mapped using a geographic information system (GIS). Soil permeabilities in Mississippi were determined to range in value from nearly 0.0 to values exceeding 5.0 inches per hour. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service's State Soil Geographic Data Base (STATSGO) was used as the primary source of data for the determination of area-weighted soil permeability. STATSGO provides soil layer properties that are spatially referenced to mapped areas. These mapped areas are referred to as polygons in the GIS. The polygons arc boundaries of soils mapped as a group and are given unique Map Unit Identifiers (MUIDs). The data describing the physical characteristics of the soils within each polygon are stored in a tabular data base format and are referred to as attributes. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service developed STATSGO to be primarily used as a guide for regional resource planning, management, and monitoring. STATSGO was designed so that soil information could be extracted from properties tables at the layer level, combined by component, and statistically expanded to cover the entire map unit. The results of this study provide a mapped value for permeability which is representative of the vertical permeability of soils in that area. The resultant permeability map provides a representative vertical soil permeability for a given area sufficient for county, multi- county, and area planning, and will be used as the soil permeability data component in the evaluation of the susceptibility of major aquifers to contami- nation in Mississippi.

  3. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; de Vries, F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.


    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend

  4. Range management visual impacts (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel


    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  5. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng


    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in road and farmland soils from an e-waste recycling region in Southern China: concentrations, source profiles, and potential dispersion and deposition. (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Zhen; Chen, She-Jun; Liu, Juan; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi


    The present study analyzed road soils collected near the dismantling workshops of an e-waste recycling region in South China to determine the PBDE profiles. Farmland soils at a distance of about 2 km from the dismantling workshops were also collected to evaluate the potential dispersion and deposition of PBDEs in the surrounding environment. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 191 to 9156 ng/g dry weight in road soils and from 2.9 to 207 ng/g dry weight in farmland soils, respectively. Three PBDE source profiles were observed from the road soils by principal component analysis, and were compared with the congener patterns in different technical products. Elevated abundances of octa- and nona-congeners were found in the "deca-" derived PBDEs as compared with the deca-BDE products. The results in this study suggest that debromination of BDE 209 may have occurred during the use of electric and electronic equipment and/or another technical formulation (Bromkal 79-8DE) was also likely the source of octa- and nona-congeners in e-wastes. Comparison of the PBDE patterns in road and farmland soils implied that the PBDEs in farmland soils have been subject to complex environmental processes.

  7. Principal succession: The socialisation of a primary school principal in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertruida M. Steyn


    Full Text Available This study focussed on the socialisation of a new principal in a South African primary school with a strong Christian culture. He was appointed when the predecessor retired after more than two decades. The conceptual framework focuses on the three phases of socialisation: professional socialisation, organisational socialisation and occupational identity, which are used to interpret the study. A qualitative study, which occurred during two phases, investigated the phenomenon, principal succession, in the particular school. The data collection methods included a number of interviews with the principal, a focus group interview with staff members who experienced the previous principal’s leadership practice, and individual interviews with staff members. The following categories emerged from the data analysis: Recalling the previous principal: ‘One sees Mr X [the predecessor] everywhere’; Entry and orientation: ‘I found it intimidating initially’; and Immersion and reshaping: ‘Reins that previously were a bit slack, he is now pulling tight’.Die sosialisering van ’n primêre skoolhoof in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie studie het gefokus op die sosialisering van ’n nuwe skoolhoof in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse primêre skool met ’n sterk Christelike kultuur. Hy is aangestel toe sy voorganger ná meer as twee dekades afgetree het. Die konseptuele raamwerk, wat gebruik is om die bevindinge te interpreteer, het op die drie fases van sosialisering gefokus, naamlik professionele sosialisering, organisatoriese sosialisering en beroepsidentiteit. ’n Kwalitatiewe ondersoek na die skoolhoofopvolgingverskynsel in die bepaalde skool is in twee fases gedoen. Die data-insamelingsmetodes het ’n aantal onderhoude met die skoolhoof, ’n fokusgroeponderhoud met personeellede wat ook onder leierskap van die vorige skoolhoof gewerk het en individuele onderhoude met personeellede ingesluit. Tydens die data-analise het die volgende kategorieë na vore gekom

  8. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature (United States)

    Murphy, Brian


    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  9. Principal leadership in new teacher induction: Becoming agents of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This small-scale pilot study investigated the role of school principals in the induction of new teachers in Ontario, Canada. Building upon the theoretical framework of Bolman and Deal (2002, as well as interviews, document analysis, and review of extant literature, the following findings were established: (a Principals expressed that the educative mentorship of novices requires the engagement of the entireschool community; and (b Principals, veterans, and novices saw teaching as an intellectual, moral, and political endeavor that required their collective involvement. We suggest that principals employ the notion of “communities of practice” to instill a culture of support for new teacher induction.

  10. Soil Organic Matter to Soil Organic Carbon ratios in recovered mountain peatlands using Vis-Nir spectroscopy approach. (United States)

    Fernandez, Susana del Carmen; Valderrabano, Jesus; Peon, Juan Jose; Bueno, Alvaro


    The present research is part of a Life Project title "Inland Wetlands North of the Iberian Peninsula: Management and restoration of wetlands and hygrophilous environments" TREMEDAL (LIFE 11/ENV/ES/707) in which 25 wetland sites distributed by Galicia, Asturias, Castilla and León, País Vasco and Navarra were selected to be protected, restore or improve their conservation status and store seeds of bog plant species in the gene bank of Atlantic Botanic Garden of Gijon City, Spain. In Cantabrian Mountain Range two Poldjes (Glacio-Karstic depressions) site in Picos de Europa National Park were selected to develop an experimental action in the framework of the Life project. The selected sites harboring the most biodiverse peatland plant communities in the Cantabrian Mountain Range thus are in danger of extinction due to overgrazing. The action proposes the exclusion of livestock and wild herbivores in 5 parcels in order to contrast the differences in evolution of plant communities, hydrology and soil organic matter between grazed and non-grazed areas; and to determine future management measures that can reconcile traditional livestock raising with a better conservation of peatlands. The peatland are Vega of Liordes (Castilla-Leon) at an average altitude of 1868 m and filled mainly by clayed ferruginous sediments and Vega of Comella (Principality of Asturias) at an average altitude of 850 m and filled by at least 49 m of glacial and lacustrine sediments and 8 m of necromass from peatland vegetation. The soils developed are histosols under seasonal hydric regime in which the phreatic level suffers fluctuations over 30 cm along the year. At the time 0 (time fences were) 45 samples of the upper 15 cm of the histosols inside and outside the fences were taken. At the time 1 ( one year later) were re-sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), Oxidizable Organic Carbon (OC), Carbonates presence and pH were analysis by chemical procedures. Also the Vis-Nir spectral analysis of the

  11. Perspectives on the principles and structure of the soil classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses revised principles, perspectives and structure for soil classification of natural soils in South Africa. An expanded 'sphere of pedological interest' is proposed through the formal recognition of a wider range of subsurface soil materials. The concept of soil groups has been recognised and is further ...

  12. Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites (United States)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

  13. Invasive soil organisms and their effects on belowground processes (United States)

    Erik Lilleskov; Jr. Mac A. Callaham; Richard Pouyat; Jane E. Smith; Michael Castellano; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge; Rachel Arango; Frederick. Green


    Invasive species have a wide range of effects on soils and their inhabitants. By altering soils, through their direct effects on native soil organisms (including plants), and by their interaction with the aboveground environment, invasive soil organisms can have dramatic effects on the environment, the economy and human health. The most widely recognized effects...

  14. LLWR techniques for quantifying potential soil compaction consequences of crop (United States)

    Harvesting crop residues for bioenergy or bio-product production may decrease soil organic matter (SOM), resulting in the degradation of soil physical properties and ultimately soil productivity. Using the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) to evaluate improvement or degradation of soil physical pro...

  15. Phosphate-induced cadmium adsorption in a tropical savannah soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of phosphate (P) on cadmium (Cd) adsorption was examined in a savanna soil with long history of different fertilizer amendment. The soil was incubated with P at 0, 250 and 500 mg P kg-1 soil and left to equilibrate for 2 weeks. Cd was added to the P-incubated soil at concentrations ranging from 27, 49 and ...

  16. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick


    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References

  17. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.


    to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern......The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...

  18. Microbial diversity in soil: selection of the microbial populations by plant and soil type and implementations for disease suppressivenss.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P.; Veen, van J.A.; Elsas, van J.D.


    An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The extent of the diversity of microorganisms in soil is seen to be critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality, as a wide range of microorganisms is involved in important soil

  19. Microbial diversity in soil : Selection of microbial populations by plant and soil type and implications for disease suppressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P; van Veen, JA; van Elsas, JD


    An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The extent of the diversity of microorganisms in soil is seen to be critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality, as a wide range of microorganisms is involved in important soil

  20. Application of portable gas chromatography-photo ionization detector combined with headspace sampling for field analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in soils. (United States)

    Zhou, You-Ya; Yu, Ji-Fang; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Chao-Yan; Xie, Ya-Bo; Ma, Li-Qiang; Gu, Qing-Bao; Li, Fa-Sheng


    A method based on headspace (HS) sampling coupling with portable gas chromatography (GC) with photo ionization detector (PID) was developed for rapid determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in soils. Optimal conditions for HS gas sampling procedure were determined, and the influence of soil organic matter on the recovery of BTEX from soil was investigated using five representative Chinese soils. The results showed that the HS-portable-GC-PID method could be effectively operated at ambient temperature, and the addition of 15 ml of saturated NaCl solution in a 40-ml sampling vial and 60 s of shaking time for sample solution were optimum for the HS gas sampling procedure. The recoveries of each BTEX in soils ranged from 87.2 to 105.1 %, with relative standard deviations varying from 5.3 to 7.8 %. Good linearity was obtained for all BTEX compounds, and the detection limits were in the 0.1 to 0.8 μg kg(-1) range. Soil organic matter was identified as one of the principal elements that affect the HS gas sampling of BTEX in soils. The HS-portable-GC-PID method was successfully applied for field determination of benzene and toluene in soils of a former chemical plant in Jilin City, northeast China. Considering its satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility and particular suitability to be operated in ambient environment, HS sampling coupling with portable GC-PID is, therefore, recommended to be a suitable screening tool for rapid on-site determination of BTEX in soils.

  1. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)


    The following goals were addressed in the workshop: review and analysis of available data on carbon in organic soils from the past century to the present; assessment of the probable flux of carbon to and from organic soils in the near future; identification of major data inadequacies which preclude reliable analysis of the principal processes influencing carbon flux in organic soils; and proposal of research initiatives which could improve understanding of organic deposits in relation to the carbon cycle within a time frame of two to four years. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/. Current annual release of carbon from organic soils is estimated to fall within the range of 0.03 to 0.37 x 10/sup 9/ t, a release equivalent to 1.3% to 16% of the annual increase of carbon in the atmosphere. Present annual releases of carbon from the Everglades Agricultural Area in Florida and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley in California are estimated at 0.017 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Annual sequestering of carbon by undrained organic soils has been estimated at about 0.045 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Several strategies for peatland management are available, including creation, preservation, functional designation, and use of wetlands for agriculture and energy supply.

  2. Chemical fractionation of radium-226 in NORM contaminated soil from oilfields. (United States)

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Al-Masri, Mohammad Said; Amin, Yusr; Awad, Ibrahim; Sheaib, Zuhair


    Contamination of soil with (226)Ra is a common problem in the oilfields, leading to costly remediation and disposal programmes. The present study focuses on the chemical fractionation and mobility of (226)Ra in contaminated soils collected from an oilfield using a three-step sequential extraction procedure (BCR). The total activity concentrations of (226)Ra in contaminated soils were measured and found to be in the range from 1030 ± 90 to 7780 ± 530 Bq kg(-1), with a mean activity concentration of 2840 ± 1840 Bq kg(-1). The correlation between the total concentration of (226)Ra and soil properties, mainly pH, LOI, Corg, clay and Ca, was investigated using the principal component analysis method (PCA). The chemical fractionation of (226)Ra was studied using the sequential extraction method (BCR). The highest fraction of (226)Ra (27-65%) was found to be in the acid-reducible fraction, which suggests that (226)Ra is mainly bound to FeMn oxides. The BCR method showed that high percentages of (226)Ra were found to be in mobile soil phases (between 45 and 99%). Consequently, groundwater contamination could occur due to the remobilization of (226)Ra from soils under normal environmental conditions. However, the obtained results could be useful to reduce the volume of NORM wastes generated from the oilfields and decision-making process for final treatment and disposal of NORM-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil moisture dynamics and smoldering combustion limits of pocosin soils in North Carolina, USA (United States)

    James Reardon; Gary Curcio; Roberta Bartlette


    Smoldering combustion of wetland organic soils in the south-eastern USA is a serious management concern. Previous studies have reported smoldering was sensitive to a wide range of moisture contents, but studies of soil moisture dynamics and changing smoldering combustion potential in wetland communities are limited. Linking soil moisture measurements with estimates of...

  4. Soil Quality Indicator: a new concept (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia; Basch, Gottlieb


    During the last century, cultivated soils have been intensively exploited for food and feed production. This exploitation has compromised the soils' natural functions and many of the soil-mediated ecosystems services, including its production potential for agriculture. Also, soils became increasingly vulnerable and less resilient to a wide range of threats. To overcome this situation, new and better management practices are needed to prevent soil from degradation. However, to adopt the best management practices in a specific location, it is necessary to evaluate the soil quality status first. Different soil quality indicators have been suggested over the last decades in order to evaluate the soil status, and those are often based on the performance of soil chemical, physical and biological properties. However, the direct link between these properties and the associated soil functions or soil vulnerability to threats appears more difficult to be established. This present work is part of the iSQAPER project- Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience, where new soil quality concepts are explored to provide better information regarding the effects of the most promising agricultural management practices on soil quality. We have developed a new conceptual soil quality indicator which determines the soil quality status, regarding its vulnerability towards different threats. First, different indicators were specifically developed for each of the eight threats considered - Erosion, SOM decline, Poor Structure, Poor water holding capacity, Compaction, N-Leaching, Soil-borne pests and diseases and Salinization. As an example for the case of Erosion, the RUSLE equation for the estimate of the soil annual loss was used. Secondly, a reference classification was established for each indicator to integrate all possible results into a Good, Intermediate or Bad classification. Finally, all indicators were

  5. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye


    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... conductivity parameters. A larger data set (1618 horizons) with a broader textural range was used in the development of PTFs to predict the van Genuchten parameters. The PTFs using either three or seven textural classes combined with soil organic mater and bulk density gave the most reliable predictions...... of the hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...

  6. Minnesota Pheasant Range (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  7. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  8. Remote sensing applications for range management (United States)

    Haas, R. H.


    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  9. Hip fracture risk estimation based on principal component analysis of QCT atlas: a preliminary study (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Kornak, John; Harris, Tamara; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Lang, Thomas


    We aim to capture and apply 3-dimensional bone fragility features for fracture risk estimation. Using inter-subject image registration, we constructed a hip QCT atlas comprising 37 patients with hip fractures and 38 age-matched controls. In the hip atlas space, we performed principal component analysis to identify the principal components (eigen images) that showed association with hip fracture. To develop and test a hip fracture risk model based on the principal components, we randomly divided the 75 QCT scans into two groups, one serving as the training set and the other as the test set. We applied this model to estimate a fracture risk index for each test subject, and used the fracture risk indices to discriminate the fracture patients and controls. To evaluate the fracture discrimination efficacy, we performed ROC analysis and calculated the AUC (area under curve). When using the first group as the training group and the second as the test group, the AUC was 0.880, compared to conventional fracture risk estimation methods based on bone densitometry, which had AUC values ranging between 0.782 and 0.871. When using the second group as the training group, the AUC was 0.839, compared to densitometric methods with AUC values ranging between 0.767 and 0.807. Our results demonstrate that principal components derived from hip QCT atlas are associated with hip fracture. Use of such features may provide new quantitative measures of interest to osteoporosis.

  10. On hypersurfaces with two distinct principal curvatures in space forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the immersed hypersurfaces in space forms Nn+1(c), n ≥4 with two distinct non-simple principal curvatures without the assumption that the (high order) mean curvature is constant. We prove that any immersed hypersurface in space forms with two distinct non-simple principal curvatures is locally ...

  11. Developing the Leadership Role: A Resource Book for Principals. (United States)

    Blake, Sallie M.

    This book is designed primarily for principals in Right to Read programs and elsewhere, as both a theoretical description of competencies required for educational leadership and as a practical handbook for implementing leadership functions. The volume utilizes the interviews and self-analyses of 36 principals who participated in the Bank Street…

  12. Defamation of and by Principals. A Legal Memorandum. (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    Defamation is a common-law claim for liability that encompasses "libel," which is the written form, and "slander," which is the oral form. School principals can be plaintiffs or defendants in defamation suits. Relevant case law provides illustrations of the various elements of defamation for both roles of the principal. Court…

  13. The Forgotten Aspect of Communication: Principals' Listening Skills (United States)

    Woods, Jerry; Shoho, Alan R.


    This study investigated principals' self-perceptions and teachers' perceptions of principals' listening skills. An instrument measuring perception of listening skills was developed on the basis of four listening factors: attending, empathy, response, and trustworthiness. Factor analysis confirmed the structure of the new listening instrument, and…

  14. 3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yinhang


    The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.

  15. Schoolchildren in the Principality of Liechtenstein are mildly iodine deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilty, F.M.; Zimmermann, M.B.


    Objective: To investigate the iodine status of schoolchildren in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Design: A representative, cross-sectional principality-wide screening of iodine level in household salt and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in primary-school children. Data were compared with the

  16. An Investigation of Depression and Loneliness among School Principals (United States)

    Izgar, Huseyin


    This research aimed to investigate whether loneliness predicts depression, and to examine the levels of depression loneliness among school principals according to such variables as gender and educational background. The study was conducted on 232 school principals (37 females and 195 males). Thirty six of the participants had associate degrees,…

  17. Alignment between Principal and Teacher Beliefs about Technology Use (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdulmajeed; Prestridge, Sarah


    This paper explores the link between principals' and teachers' beliefs regarding technology use in teaching and learning. Principals who have a clear vision for carrying out the pedagogical requirements for technological change in teaching and learning approaches can direct the use of technology to enhance the school learning environment.…

  18. Principal Leadership for Professional Development To Build School Capacity. (United States)

    Youngs, Peter; King, M. Bruce


    Examines extent to which principal leadership for professional development at four urban elementary schools addressed three aspects of school organizational capacity: teachers' knowledge, skills, and disposition; professional community; and program coherence. Finds, for example, that effective principals can sustain high levels of capacity by…

  19. Conceptualizations of School Leadership among High School Principals in Jamaica (United States)

    Newman, Mairette


    Drawing on evidence from research that adopted a qualitative case study design and used grounded theory methods of data analysis, this study examined how selected high school principals in Jamaica conceptualize school leadership. Data were sourced from semi-structured interviews, field observations as well as from school, principal and official…

  20. Principal Concerns: Iowa May Face Statewide Demand. Data Brief (United States)

    DeArmond, Michael; Ouijdani, Monica


    When people talk about human capital or talent in public education, they generally focus on teachers, not principals. That's a mistake. School districts and states generally don't take a strategic approach toward managing their principal workforce. Often, they lack even the most basic information about who is leading their schools: Where do most…