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Sample records for range resonance energy

  1. Investigation of the sup 9 sup 3 Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, Y V; Faikov-Stanchik, H; Ilchev, G; Kim, G N; Kitaev, V Ya; Mezentseva, Z V; Panteleev, T; Sinitsa, V V; Zhuravlev, B V

    2001-01-01

    The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for sup 9 sup 3 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% sup 9 sup 3 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of sup 9 sup 3 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of sup...

  2. Investigation of the 93Nb neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.; Mezentseva, Zh.V.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The results of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and transmission measurements for 93 Nb in energy range 21.5 eV-100 keV are presented. Gamma spectra from 1 to 7 multiplicity were measured on the 501 m and 121 m flight paths of the IBR-30 using a 16-section scintillation detector with a NaI(Tl) crystals of a total volume of 36 l and a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for metallic samples of 50, 80 mm in diameter and 1, 1.5 mm thickness with 100% 93 Nb. Besides, the total and scattering cross-section of 93 Nb were measured by means batteries of B-10 and He-3 counters on the 124 m, 504 m and 1006 m flight paths of the IBR-30. Spectra of multiplicity distribution were obtained for resolved resonances in the energy region E=30-6000 eV and for energy groups in the energy region E=21.5 eV- 100 keV. They were used for determination of the average multiplicity, resonance parameters and capture cross-section in energy groups and for low-laying resonances of 93 Nb. Standard capture cross-sections of 238 U and experimental gamma-ray multiplicity spectra were also used for determination of capture cross section 93 Nb in energy groups. Similar values were calculated using the ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries with the help of the GRUKON computer program. Within the limits of experimental errors there is observed an agreement between the experiment and calculation, but in some groups the experimental values differ from the calculated ones. (author)

  3. Investigation of the 232Th neutron cross-sections in resonance energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Yu.V.; Kitaev, V.Ya.; Sinitsa, V.V.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Borzakov, S.B.; Faikov-Stanchik, H.; Ilchev, G.L.; Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Kim, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    The alternative path in the development of atomic energy is the uranium-thorium cycle. In connection with this, the measurements of the 232 Th neutron capture and total cross-sections and its resonance self-shielding coefficients in resonance energy range are necessary because of their low accuracy. In this work, the results of the investigations of the thorium-232 neutron cross-sections are presented. The measurements have been carried out on the gamma-ray multisection liquid detector and neutron detector as a battery of boron counters on the 120 m flight path of the pulsed fast reactor IBR-30. As the filter samples were used the metallic disks of various thickness and diameter of 45 mm. Two plates from metallic thorium with thickness of 0.2 mm and with the square of 4.5x4.5 cm 2 were used as the radiator samples. The group neutron total and capture cross-sections within the accuracy of 2-7% in the energy range of (10 eV-10 keV) were obtained from the transmissions and the sum spectra of g-rays from the fourth multiplicity to the seventh one. The neutron capture group cross-sections of 238 U were used as the standard for obtaining of thorium ones. Analogous values were calculated on the GRUCON code with the ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3 evaluated data libraries. Within the limits of experimental errors an agreement between the experiment and calculation is observed, but in some groups the experimental values are larger than the calculated ones. (author)

  4. Investigation of neutron resonances of 247Cm in the 0.5-20 eV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, T.S.; Kolesov, A.G.; Klinov, A.V.; Nikol'skij, S.N.; Poruchikov, V.A.; Nefedov, V.N.; Artamonov, V.S.; Ivanov, R.N.; Kalebin, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron resonance parameters of 247 Cm were calculated from the transmission of a curium sample measured by the time-of-flight method. The neutron resonance parameters were calculated by the shape method using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. Since the neutron resonance parameters of 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 243 Am and 240 Pu are well known, it was possible to identify the neutron resonances of 247 Cm from the measured transmission and calculate their parameters. We identified only five neutron resonances of 247 Cm with high values of 2gGAMMAsub(n). This is due to the fact that the 247 Cm content of the sample is low (1.7mg) and the resonances of this isotope are identified against the background of a large number of resonances of 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 243 Am and 240 Pu situated in the energy range in question

  5. Nuclear statistics of dysprosium resonance parameters in the energy range 10 - 1000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U.; Cho, M. H.; Kim, G. N.; Namkung, W.; Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R.; Roe, T. I.

    2016-01-01

    A resonance parameter analysis is often performed in the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR) in order to estimate the average level spacing, distribution of the reduced widths and so on. Neutron Capture experiments on dysprosium isotopes were performed at the electron linear accelerator (LINAC) facility of the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in the neutron energy region from 10 eV to 1 keV. The following nuclear statistics of the resonance parameters will be discussed in this paper. The D 0 for 161 Dy and 163 Dy were judged to be constant up to 120.6 and 163.9 eV, respectively. It was assumed that the D 0 of 162 Dy and 164 Dy is constant up to 1000 eV because they have few resonances. The results were compared with the values from Reference 11 as shown in Figure 1. Statistical distributions of reduced neutron were investigated for the three isotopes in the region from 0 to 1000 eV; 161 Dy, 162 Dy, and 163 Dy, but not for 164 Dy because of a few number of resonances. The reduced neutron widths Γ n 0 were divided by the unweighted average reduced neutron width < Γ n 0 > for each isotope. A cumulative distribution of these unitless ratios is compared with the integral of the Porter-Thomas distribution (χ 2 distribution with one degree of freedom). The results agree reasonably with the Porter Thomas distributions.

  6. Performance analysis and experimental verification of mid-range wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Wang, Jingyu; Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency analysis of a mid-range wireless energy transfer system is performed through non-resonant magnetic coupling. It is shown that the self-resistance of the coils and the mutual inductance are critical in achieving a high efficiency, which is indicated by our theoretical...

  7. Neutron capture resonances in 56Fe and 58Fe in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, F.; Wisshak, K.; Hong, L.D.

    1982-11-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 56 Fe and 58 Fe has been measured in the energy range from 10 to 250 keV relative to the gold standard. A pulsed 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and the 7 Li(p, n) reaction served as a neutron source. Capture gamma rays were detected by two C 6 D 6 detectors, which were operated in coincidence and anticoincidence mode. Two-dimensional data acquisition allowed to apply the pulse height weighting technique off-line. The samples were located at a flight path of 60 cm. The total time resolution was 1.2 ns thus allowing for an energy resolution of 2 ns/m. The experimental set-up was optimized with respect to low background and low neutron sensitivity. The additional flight path of 4 cm from the sample to the detector was sufficient to discriminate capture of sample scattered neutrons by the additional time of flight. In this way reliable results were obtained even for the strong s-wave resonances of both isotopes. The experimental capture yield was analyzed with the FANAC code. The energy resolution allowed to extract resonance parameters in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV. The individual systematic uncertainties of the experimental method are discussed in detail. They were found to range between 5 and 10% while the statistical uncertainty is 3-5% for most of the resonances. A comparison to the results of other authors exhibits in case of 56 Fe systematic differences of 7-11%. For 58 Fe the present results differ up to 50% from the only other measurement for this isotope. (orig.) [de

  8. URR-PACK: Calculating Self-Shielding in the Unresolved Resonance Energy Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, Dermott E.; Trkov, Andrej

    2016-07-01

    This report describes HOW to calculate self-shielding in the unresolved resonance region (URR), in terms of the computer codes we provide to allow a user to do these calculations himself. Here we only describe HOW to calculate; a longer companion report describes in detail WHY it is necessary to include URR self-shielding.

  9. Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF6 molecule: resonances in the excitation energy range of 200-280 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stener, M; Bolognesi, P; Coreno, M; O'Keeffe, P; Feyer, V; Fronzoni, G; Decleva, P; Avaldi, L; Kivimäki, A

    2011-05-07

    Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF(6) molecule have been studied experimentally and theoretically in the excitation energy range up to 100 eV above the S 2p ionization potentials. In addition to the well-known 2t(2g) and 4e(g) shape resonances, the spin-orbit-resolved S 2p photoionization cross sections display two weak resonances between 200 and 210 eV, a wide resonance around 217 eV, a Fano-type resonance around 240 eV, and a second wide resonance around 260 eV. Calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory allow us to assign the 217-eV and 260-eV features to the shape resonances in S 2p photoionization. The Fano resonance is caused by the interference between the direct S 2p photoionization channel and the resonant channel that results from the participator decay of the S 2s(-1)6t(1u) excited state. The weak resonances below 210-eV photon energy, not predicted by theory, are tentatively suggested to originate from the coupling between S 2p shake-up photoionization and S 2p single-hole photoionization. The experimental and calculated angular anisotropy parameters for S 2p photoionization are in good agreement.

  10. Reevaluation and Validation of the 241Pu Resonance Parameters in the Energy Range Thermal to 20 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Courcelle, A.; Santamarina, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new SAMMY analysis of the 241 Pu resonance parameters from thermal to 20 eV is presented. This evaluation takes into account the trends given by integral experiments [post-irradiation experiments performed in French pressurized water reactors (PWRs)]. Compared to the previous evaluations performed by Derrien and de Saussure, the capture cross section increases especially in the 0.26-eV resonance. It is shown that the new resonance parameters proposed in this work improve the prediction of the 242 Pu buildup in a PWR, which was significantly underestimated with the previous evaluations

  11. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-01-01

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q 0 | 0 --a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q 0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q 2 (δε) -1 which becomes dominant for δε 3 . Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  12. Innovative Free-range Resonant Electrical Energy Delivery system (FREE-D System) for a ventricular assist device using wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Benjamin H; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovation of a smaller, single moving part has an advantage over earlier large pulsatile ventricular assist devices (VADs) prone to mechanical failure. Drivelines limit the potential for extended patient survival durations with newer pumps and act as source for infection, increased morbidity, rehospitalizations, and reduced quality of life. The Free-range Resonant Electrical Energy Delivery (FREE-D) wireless power system uses magnetically coupled resonators to efficiently transfer power. We demonstrate the efficiency over distance of this system. The experimental setup consists of an radiofrequency amplifier and control board which drives the transmit resonator coil, and a receiver unit consisting of a resonant coil attached to a radiofrequency rectifier and power management module. The power management module supplies power to the axial pump, which was set at 9,600 rpm. To achieve a seamless wireless delivery in any room size, we introduced a third relay coil. This relay coil can be installed throughout a room, whereas a single relay coil could be built into a jacket worn by the patient, which would always be within range of the receive coil implanted in the patient's body. The power was delivered over a meter distance without interruptions or fluctuations with coil, rectifier, and regulator efficiency more than 80% and overall system efficiency of 61%. The axial pump worked well throughout the 8 hours of continuous operation. Having same setup on the opposite side can double the distance. A tether-free operation of a VAD can be achieved by FREE-D system in room-size distances. It has the potential to make the VAD therapy more acceptable from the patient perspective.

  13. A graphene oxide-based sensing platform for the label-free assay of DNA sequence and exonuclease activity via long range resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yixuan; Tian, Jianniao; Chen, Sheng; Zhao, Yanchun; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Shulin

    2013-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was introduced as an efficient quencher for label-free and sensitive detection of DNA. Probe DNA (pDNA) was mixed with ethidium bromide (EB) and graphene oxide (GO). The interaction between EB and GO led to the fluorescent quenching. Upon the recognition of the target, EB was intercalated into duplex DNA and kept away from GO, which significantly hindered the long range resonance energy transfer (LrRET) from EB to GO and, thus, increased the fluorescence of EB. The changes in fluorescent intensity produced a novel method for sensitivity, and specificity detection of the target. Based on the structure-switching of aptamers, this strategy could be conveniently extended for detection of other biomolecules, which had been demonstrated by the detection of exonuclease activity.

  14. Paper-based solid-phase multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay with tunable dynamic range using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-08-06

    A multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay on a paper-based platform is presented using multicolor immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize two types of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) and red-emitting QDs (rQDs) served as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) acceptors. The gQD/Cy3 FRET pair served as an internal standard, while the rQD/A647 FRET pair served as a detection channel, combining the control and analytical test zones in one physical location. Hybridization of dye-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity for FRET sensitized emission from the acceptor dyes, which served as an analytical signal. Hybridization assays in the multicolor format provided a limit of detection of 90 fmol and an upper limit of dynamic range of 3.5 pmol. The use of an array of detection zones was designed to provide improved analytical figures of merit compared to that which could be achieved on one type of array design in terms of relative concentration of multicolor QDs. The hybridization assays showed excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides. Selectivity of the two-plex hybridization assay was demonstrated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 50:1. Additionally, it is shown that the use of preformed QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates and consideration of the relative number density of the two types of QD-probe conjugates in the two-color assay format is advantageous to maximize assay sensitivity and the upper limit of dynamic range.

  15. Europium resonance parameters from neutron capture and transmission measurements in the energy range 0.01–200 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, G.; Barry, D.P.; Burke, J.A.; Rapp, M.J.; Block, R.C.; Danon, Y.; Geuther, J.A.; Saglime III, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal samples were sealed and imaged with X-rays to determine sample uniformity. • Eleven new resonances were identified below 100 eV. • The resonance regions of 151 Eu and 153 Eu have been extended from 100 to 200 eV. • The thermal total cross section for 151 Eu was measured, up (9 ± 3)% from ENDF/B-VII.1. • Radiation widths were assigned for all resonances from experimental data. - Abstract: Europium is a good absorber of neutrons suitable for use as a nuclear reactor control material. It is also a fission product in the low-yield tail at the high end of the fission fragment mass distribution. Measurements have been made of the stable isotopes with natural and enriched samples. The linear electron accelerator center (LINAC) at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) was used to explore neutron interactions with europium in the energy region from 0.01 to 200 eV. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique. Two transmission measurements were performed at flight paths of 15 and 25 m with 6 Li glass scintillation detectors. The neutron capture measurements were performed at a flight path of 25 m with a 16-segment sodium iodide multiplicity detector. Resonance parameters were extracted from the data using the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. A table of resonance parameters and their uncertainties is presented. To prevent air oxidation metal samples were sealed in airtight aluminum cans in an inert environment. Metal samples of natural europium, 47.8 atom% 151 Eu, 52.2 atom% 153 Eu, as well as metal samples enriched to 98.77 atom% 153 Eu were measured. The measured neutron capture resonance integral for 153 Eu is (9.9 ± 0.4)% larger than ENDF/B-VII.1. The capture resonance integral for 151 Eu is (7 ± 1)% larger than ENDF/B-VII.1. Another significant finding from these measurements was a significant increase in thermal total cross section for 151 Eu, up (9 ± 3)% from ENDF/B-VII.1

  16. Re-evaluation of {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni resonance parameters in the neutron energy range thermal to 800 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Guber, K.H.; Wiarda, D.; Arbanas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The previous {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni set of resonance parameters (Endf/B7.O, Jeff-3, etc.) was based on the SAMMY analysis of Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutron transmission, scattering cross section and capture cross section measurements by C.M. Perey et al. The present results were obtained by adding to the SAMMY experimental database the capture cross sections measured recently at the Oak Ridge Linear Electron Accelerator by Guber et al. and the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator and very high-resolution neutron transmission measurements performed by Brusegan et al. A complete resonance parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) was obtained from the SAMMY analysis of the experimental database. The data sets were made consistent, when needed, by adjusting the neutron energy scales, the normalization coefficients, and the background corrections. The RPCM allows the calculation of the cross section uncertainties due mainly to statistical errors in the experimental data. The systematic uncertainties of the experimental data, estimated from the preliminary analyses of the experimental database, were taken into account in the cross section covariance matrix (CSCM) for total, scattering, and capture cross sections. The diagonal elements of the CSCM were obtained by quadratic combination of the different components of the uncertainties. Because of a lack of experimental information, the energy correlations were not obtained, and a value of 0.5 was arbitrarily taken for all the CSCM nondiagonal elements. The average capture cross-sections are significantly smaller than those calculated form Endf/B7.0

  17. Hadronic resonances at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings cover the analysis of hadronic resonances in heavy ion collisions. The model used for these studies is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The model will be briefly explained, resonance observables will be highlighted and various kinematical issues will be investigated. Special emphasis will be put on the FAIR energy regime, especially highlighting the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) program.

  18. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  19. Free spectral range adjustment of a silicon rib racetrack resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keča, T; Matavulj, P; Headley, W; Mashanovich, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important parameters that describe the quality of photonic components and devices is the free spectral range (FSR). In this paper, the measured outgoing power of a silicon rib racetrack resonator was compared with calculated transfer functions derived by coupled mode theory. The influence of geometric parameters on the FSR and resonant wavelength has been investigated. By altering the values of the coupling length and racetrack radius, derived transfer functions were adjusted to match experimental data. This procedure gives the possibility of estimating the FSR and resonant wavelength for different geometric parameters and predicting resonator functionality.

  20. Resonant long-range interactions between polar macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preto, Jordane; Pettini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by its prospective biological relevance, the issue of resonant long-range interactions between two molecules displaying oscillating dipole moments is reinvestigated within the framework of classical electrodynamics. In particular, our findings shed new light on Fröhlich's theory of selective long-range interactions between biomolecules. First, terms of a very long-range kind – which have never been reported so far – are found in the interaction potential, due to field retardation. Second, at variance with a long-standing belief, it is shown that sizable resonant long-range interactions may exist only if the interacting system is out of thermal equilibrium.

  1. Fluctuations in Fission Characteristics in the Resonance Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.; Courcelle, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the resonance range, experimental data exhibit meaningful fluctuations of the number of prompt neutrons ν p (E) and γ-rays emitted in fission. Fluctuations of delayed-neutrons multiplicity ν d (E) are also expected. Although these fluctuations may have a non-negligible impact on reactor integral parameters (such as k eff , β eff ), they are usually not described in the current nuclear-data libraries Endf, JENDL or Jeff (except for 239 Pu evaluation in Jeff.1). Experiments by Hambsch et al. on 235 U have justified the fluctuations of total kinetic energy of fission fragments [i.e TKE(E)] by the fluctuations in the mass distributions. An interesting channel-mode formalism, described by Furman, provides a methodology to assess the fluctuations of fission characteristics in the resonance range. This approach is based on ideas relating fission channels or transition states as proposed by Bohr and fission modes as parameterized for instance by Brosa et al. This formalism requires the knowledge of physical parameters rarely measured up to now, such as PP JK (E), the energy dependant probability to form a transition state with a spin J and its projection along the deformation axis K, w m JK , the probability to feed the fission mode m from a (J,K) transition state. Nevertheless, in the case of 3 - and 4 - resonances of 235 U, various experiments permit these data to be extracted. The present study proposes a tentative evaluation of ν p of 235 U based on these ideas. The evaluation of νp for 239 Pu, performed in the 80's for the JEF library, was also revisited. At that time, the model was based on the existence of pre-fission gamma (the so called n-γf effect) as well as a spin effect (prescription of different ν p values for each spin state 0 + and 1 + ). This paper emphasizes the need for further measurements to provide more accurate information on the parameters used in this formalism, and improve the present work. (authors)

  2. A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Shi Yong; Fisher, Frank T

    2008-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined

  3. On nuclear reaction duration at the range of overlapping resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reaction duration above the threshold of overlapping resonances is investigated and its importance to obtain a new information on a collision mechanism is evidenced. It is shown also that the duration of resonant nuclear reactions is asymptotically decreasing according to the law[E 2 n(E)] -1 when the energy E and the number of open channels n(E) are increasing [ru

  4. A Fixed-Frequency Bidirectional Resonant DC-DC Converter Suitable for Wide Voltage Gain Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new bidirectional resonant dc-dc converter suitable for wide voltage gain range applications (e.g., energy storage systems). The proposed converter overcomes the narrow voltage gain range of conventional resonant DC-DC converters, and meanwhile achieves high efficiency...... and characteristics of the proposed converter are analyzed. Finally, a 1-kW converter prototype is built and the experimental results verify the theoretical analyses....

  5. Wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Breinbjerg, Olav; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    could be properly designed to minimize undesired energy dissipation in the source coil when the power receiver is out of the range. Our basic observation paves the way for more flexible design and fabrication of non-resonant mid-range wireless energy transfer systems, thus potentially impacting......We demonstrate by theoretical analysis and experimental verification that mid-range wireless energy transfer systems may take advantage of de-tuned coupling devices, without jeopardizing the energy transfer efficiency. Allowing for a modest de-tuning of the source coil, energy transfer systems...... practical implementations of wireless energy transfer....

  6. 238U + n resolved resonance energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Difilippo, F.C.; Ingle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements from 100 eV to 170 keV at 150 m through four 238 U samples are reported. The energy calibration is described, and the resultant 233 U resolved resonance energies are found to be intermediate between those from other workers. In addition, some energies for sharp resonances in 23 Na, 27 Al, 32 S, and 206 Pb are given

  7. A Bidirectional Resonant DC-DC Converter Suitable for Wide Voltage Gain Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Al-Durra, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new bidirectional resonant dc-dc converter suitable for wide voltage gain range applications (e.g., energy storage systems). The proposed converter overcomes the narrow voltage gain range of conventional resonant dc-dc converters, and meanwhile achieves high efficiency...... losses. The operation principles and characteristics of the proposed converter are firstly analyzed in this paper. Then the analytical solutions for the voltage gain, soft-switching, and rms currents are derived, which facilitates the parameters design and optimization. Finally, the proposed topology...... and analysis are verified with experimental results obtained from a 1-kW converter prototype....

  8. Enhanced energy storage in chaotic optical resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Changxu; Di Falco, Andrea; Molinari, Diego P.; Khan, Yasser; Ooi, Boon S.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab initio simulations and experiments in photonic-crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase by considering the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator (that is, the cavity modes) and discover a convergence of their lifetimes towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced energy storage in chaotic optical resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Changxu

    2013-05-05

    Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab initio simulations and experiments in photonic-crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase by considering the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator (that is, the cavity modes) and discover a convergence of their lifetimes towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati, Federica Mara

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter (REWEC) is a device for converting sea wave energy to electrical energy. It belongs to the family of Oscillating Water Columns and is composed by an absorbing chamber connected to the open sea via a vertical duct. The paper gives a holistic view on the concept development of the device, starting from its implementation in the context of submerged breakwaters to the recently developed vertical breakwaters. [it

  11. Dynamic range of atomically thin vibrating nanomechanical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer attractive properties for making resonant nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) operating at high frequencies. While the fundamental limits of linear operation in such systems are important, currently there is very little quantitative knowledge of the linear dynamic range (DR) and onset of nonlinearity in these devices, which are different than in conventional 1D NEMS such as nanotubes and nanowires. Here, we present theoretical analysis and quantitative models that can be directly used to predict the DR of vibrating 2D circular drumhead NEMS resonators. We show that DR has a strong dependence ∝10log(E Y 3/2 ρ 3D -1/2 rtε 5/2 ) on device parameters, in which strain ε plays a particularly important role in these 2D systems, dominating over dimensions (radius r, thickness t). This study formulizes the effects from device physical parameters upon DR and sheds light on device design rules toward achieving high DR in 2D NEMS vibrating at radio and microwave frequencies

  12. Resonant tunnelling through short-range singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotaryuk, A V; Christiansen, P L; Iermakova, S V

    2007-01-01

    A three-parameter family of point interactions constructed from sequences of symmetric barrier-well-barrier and well-barrier-well rectangles is studied in the limit, when the rectangles are squeezed to zero width but the barrier height and the well depth become infinite (the zero-range limit). The limiting generalized potentials are referred to as the second derivative of Dirac's delta function ±λδ-prime(x) with a renormalized coupling constant λ > 0 or simply as ±δ-prime-like point interactions. As a result, a whole family of self-adjoint extensions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger operator is shown to exist, which results in full and partial resonant tunnelling through this class of singular potentials. The resonant tunnelling occurs for countable sets of interaction strength values in the λ-space which are the roots of several transcendental equations. The comparison with the previous results for δ'-like point interactions is also discussed

  13. Theory of coherent resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Cheng, Y.-C.; Reichman, David R.; Eaves, Joel D.

    2008-01-01

    A theory of coherent resonance energy transfer is developed combining the polaron transformation and a time-local quantum master equation formulation, which is valid for arbitrary spectral densities including common modes. The theory contains inhomogeneous terms accounting for nonequilibrium initial preparation effects and elucidates how quantum coherence and nonequilibrium effects manifest themselves in the coherent energy transfer dynamics beyond the weak resonance coupling limit of the Foerster and Dexter (FD) theory. Numerical tests show that quantum coherence can cause significant changes in steady state donor/acceptor populations from those predicted by the FD theory and illustrate delicate cooperation of nonequilibrium and quantum coherence effects on the transient population dynamics.

  14. Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-11-15

    We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)

  15. Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.

  16. Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-01-01

    More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO 2 fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

  17. Atomic resonances above the total ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolen, G.

    1975-01-01

    A rigorous result obtained using the theory associated with dilatation analytic potentials is that by performing a complex coordinate rotation, r/subj/ → r/subj/e/subi//sup theta/, on a Hamiltonian whose potential involves only pairwise Coulombic interactions, one can show that when theta = π/2, no complex eigenvalues (resonances) appear whose energies have a real part greater than the total ionization energy of the atomic system. This appears to conflict with experimental results of Walton, Peart, and Dolder, who find resonance behavior above the total ionization energy of the H -- system and also the theoretical stabilization results of Taylor and Thomas for the same system. A possible resolution of this apparent conflict is discussed and a calculation to check its validity is proposed

  18. A consistent response spectrum analysis including the resonance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Simmchen, A.

    1983-01-01

    The report provides a complete consistent Response Spectrum Analysis for any component. The effect of supports with different excitation is taken into consideration, at is the description of the resonance ranges. It includes information explaining how the contributions of the eigenforms with higher eigenfrequencies are to be considered. Stocking of floor response spectra is also possible using the method described here. However, modified floor response spectra must now be calculated for each building mode. Once these have been prepared, the calculation of the dynamic component values is practically no more complicated than with the conventional, non-consistent methods. The consistent Response Spectrum Analysis can supply smaller and larger values than the conventional theory, a fact which can be demonstrated using simple examples. The report contains a consistent Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA), which, as far as we know, has been formulated in this way for the first time. A consistent RSA is so important because today this method is preferentially applied as an important tool for the earthquake proof of components in nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  19. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R., E-mail: him-lax3@yahoo.com [Laser Spectroscopy Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580003 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.

  20. Zero-range effective field theory for resonant wino dark matter. Part III. Annihilation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Braaten, Eric; Johnson, Evan; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Near a critical value of the wino mass where there is a zero-energy S-wave resonance at the neutral-wino-pair threshold, low-energy winos can be described by a zero-range effective field theory (ZREFT) in which the winos interact nonperturbatively through a contact interaction and through Coulomb interactions. The effects of wino-pair annihilation into electroweak gauge bosons are taken into account through the analytic continuation of the real parameters for the contact interaction to comple...

  1. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.

  2. Mid-range adiabatic wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, A.A.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for efficient mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils via a mediator coil is proposed. By varying the coil frequencies, three resonances are created: emitter–mediator (EM), mediator–receiver (MR) and emitter–receiver (ER). If the frequency sweeps are adiabatic and such that the EM resonance precedes the MR resonance, the energy flows sequentially along the chain emitter–mediator–receiver. If the MR resonance precedes the EM resonance, then the energy flows directly from the emitter to the receiver via the ER resonance; then the losses from the mediator are suppressed. This technique is robust against noise, resonant constraints and external interferences. - Highlights: ► Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer via a mediator coil. ► The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. ► Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils.

  3. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Roed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32 

  4. Resonant vibrational energy transfer in ice Ih

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Li, F.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    Fascinating anisotropy decay experiments have recently been performed on H{sub 2}O ice Ih by Timmer and Bakker [R. L. A. Timmer, and H. J. Bakker, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4148 (2010)]. The very fast decay (on the order of 100 fs) is indicative of resonant energy transfer between OH stretches on different molecules. Isotope dilution experiments with deuterium show a dramatic dependence on the hydrogen mole fraction, which confirms the energy transfer picture. Timmer and Bakker have interpreted the experiments with a Förster incoherent hopping model, finding that energy transfer within the first solvation shell dominates the relaxation process. We have developed a microscopic theory of vibrational spectroscopy of water and ice, and herein we use this theory to calculate the anisotropy decay in ice as a function of hydrogen mole fraction. We obtain very good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of our results shows that four nearest-neighbor acceptors dominate the energy transfer, and that while the incoherent hopping picture is qualitatively correct, vibrational energy transport is partially coherent on the relevant timescale.

  5. Multi-stage LLC resonant converters designed for wide output voltage ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, C.-W.; Bingham, C. M.; Foster, M. P.; Stone, D. A.; Leech, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel multi-stage LLC resonant converter topology for facilitating wide output voltage ranges. This is achieved by combining the gain range of a capacitor-diode clamped LLC resonant converter with that of a traditional LLC resonant converter. A prototype converter is designed and commissioned to illustrate the design procedure and demonstrate resulting operational characteristics. Experimental results are used to show operational characteristics of the proposed conver...

  6. Passively-switched energy harvester for increased operational range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tian; Livermore, Carol; Pierre, Ryan St

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents modeling and experimental validation of a new type of vibrational energy harvester that passively switches between two dynamical modes of operation to expand the range of driving frequencies and accelerations over which the harvester effectively extracts power. In both modes, a driving beam with a low resonant frequency couples into ambient vibrations and transfers their energy to a generating beam that has a higher resonant frequency. The generating beam converts the mechanical power into electrical power. In coupled-motion mode, the driving beam bounces off the generating beam. In plucked mode, the driving beam deflects the generating beam until the driving beam passes from above the generating beam to below it or vice versa. Analytical system models are implemented numerically in the time domain for driving frequencies of 3 Hz to 27 Hz and accelerations from 0.1 g to 2.6 g, and both system dynamics and output power are predicted. A corresponding switched-dynamics harvester is tested experimentally, and its voltage, power, and dynamics are recorded. In both models and experiments, coupled-motion harvesting is observed at lower accelerations, whereas plucked harvesting and/or mixed mode harvesting are observed at higher accelerations. As expected, plucked harvesting outputs greater power than coupled-motion harvesting in both simulations and experiments. The predicted (1.8 mW) and measured (1.56 mW) maximum average power levels are similar under measured conditions at 0.5 g. When the system switches to dynamics that are characteristic of higher frequencies, the difference between predicted and measured power levels is more pronounced due to non-ideal mechanical interaction between the beams’ tips. Despite the beams’ non-ideal interactions, switched-dynamics operation increases the harvester’s operating range. (paper)

  7. Overcoming weak intrinsic depolarizing resonances with energy-jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+ν y , 12+ν y and 36+ν y , which is believed to be partially due to the coupling resonances. To overcome the coupling resonance, an energy-jump was generated by rapidly changing the beam circumference using the powerful AGS rf system. It clearly demonstrates that the novel energy-jump method can successfully overcome coupling resonances and weak intrinsic resonances

  8. Unresolved resonance range cross section, probability tables and self shielding factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, J.Ch.; Blomquist, R.N.; Goluoglu, S.; Mac Farlane, R.E.

    2009-07-01

    The performance and methodology of 4 processing codes have been compared in the unresolved resonance range of a selected set of isotopes. Those isotopes have been chosen to encompass most cases encountered in the unresolved energy range contained in major libraries like Endf/B-7 or Jeff-3.1.1. The code results comparison is accompanied by data format and formalism examinations and processing code fine-interpretation study. After some improvements, the results showed generally good agreement, although not perfect with infinite dilute cross-sections. However, much larger differences occur when shelf-shielded effective cross-sections are compared. The infinitely dilute cross-section are often plot checked but it is the probability table derived and shelf-shielded cross sections that are used and interpreted in criticality and transport calculations. This suggests that the current evaluation data format and formalism, in the unresolved resonance range should be tightened up, ambiguities removed. In addition production of the shelf shielded cross-sections should be converged to a much greater accuracy. (author)

  9. High Resolution and Large Dynamic Range Resonant Pressure Sensor Based on Q-Factor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Stell, Christopher B. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Vorperian, Vatche (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure sensor has a high degree of accuracy over a wide range of pressures. Using a pressure sensor relying upon resonant oscillations to determine pressure, a driving circuit drives such a pressure sensor at resonance and tracks resonant frequency and amplitude shifts with changes in pressure. Pressure changes affect the Q-factor of the resonating portion of the pressure sensor. Such Q-factor changes are detected by the driving/sensing circuit which in turn tracks the changes in resonant frequency to maintain the pressure sensor at resonance. Changes in the Q-factor are reflected in changes of amplitude of the resonating pressure sensor. In response, upon sensing the changes in the amplitude, the driving circuit changes the force or strength of the electrostatic driving signal to maintain the resonator at constant amplitude. The amplitude of the driving signals become a direct measure of the changes in pressure as the operating characteristics of the resonator give rise to a linear response curve for the amplitude of the driving signal. Pressure change resolution is on the order of 10(exp -6) torr over a range spanning from 7,600 torr to 10(exp -6) torr. No temperature compensation for the pressure sensor of the present invention is foreseen. Power requirements for the pressure sensor are generally minimal due to the low-loss mechanical design of the resonating pressure sensor and the simple control electronics.

  10. Graphene-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer for homogeneous immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Seok; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Kim, Min-Gon; Park, Chan Beum

    2012-04-24

    We report on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) between graphene nanosheets and chemiluminescent donors. In contrast to fluorescence resonance energy transfer, CRET occurs via nonradiative dipole-dipole transfer of energy from a chemiluminescent donor to a suitable acceptor molecule without an external excitation source. We designed a graphene-based CRET platform for homogeneous immunoassay of C-reactive protein (CRP), a key marker for human inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, using a luminol/hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. According to our results, anti-CRP antibody conjugated to graphene nanosheets enabled the capture of CRP at the concentration above 1.6 ng mL(-1). In the CRET platform, graphene played a key role as an energy acceptor, which was more efficient than graphene oxide, while luminol served as a donor to graphene, triggering the CRET phenomenon between luminol and graphene. The graphene-based CRET platform was successfully applied to the detection of CRP in human serum samples in the range observed during acute inflammatory stress.

  11. Spectroscopic evidence of resonance energy transfer mechanism from PbS QDs to bulk silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernechea M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the efficiency of the resonance energy transfer from PbS quantum dots to bulk silicon. We present spectroscopic evidence that resonance energy transfer from PbS quantum dots to bulk silicon can be an efficient process for separation distances below 12 nm. Temperature measurements are also presented for PbS quantum dots deposited on glass and silicon with 5 nm and 20nm spacer thicknesses substrates. Our findings show that the resonance energy transfer efficiency remains constant over the 50K to 300K temperature range.

  12. GaN-based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SET Group will design, build and demonstrate a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter capable of handling high power...

  13. Energy transport in mirror machine LISA at electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Rapozo, C. da; Serbeto, A.; Torres-Silva, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that a classical transport calculation is adequate to predict the steady state temperature of the RF produced plasma in LISA machine for both large and small resonant volumes. Temperature anisotropy ranging from 55 to 305 was found which was larger for small resonant volume, and the temperature relaxation was larger at large resonant one. This agrees with the fact that there is a Coulomb relaxation ν c which is proportional to T e -3/2 . It is also shown that the fitting parameter alpha is larger for large resonant volume than for small resonant one. (L.C.J.A.)

  14. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer in Polydiacetylene Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelian; Matthews, Shelton; Kohli, Punit

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated polydiacetylene (PDA) possessing stimuli-responsive properties has been intensively investigated for developing efficient sensors. We report here fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in liposomes synthesized using different molar ratios of dansyl-tagged diacetylene and diacetylene–carboxylic acid monomers. Photopolymerization of diacetylene resulted in cross-linked PDA liposomes. We used steady-state electronic absorption, emission, and fluorescence anisotropy (FA) analysis to characterize the thermal-induced FRET between dansyl fluorophores (donor) and PDA (acceptor). We found that the monomer ratio of acceptor to donor (Rad) and length of linkers (functional part that connects dansyl fluorophores to the diacetylene group in the monomer) strongly affected FRET. For Rad = 10 000, the acceptor emission intensity was amplified by more than 18 times when the liposome solution was heated from 298 to 338 K. A decrease in Rad resulted in diminished acceptor emission amplification. This was primarily attributed to lower FRET efficiency between donors and acceptors and a higher background signal. We also found that the FRET amplification of PDA emissions after heating the solution was much higher when dansyl was linked to diacetylene through longer and flexible linkers than through shorter linkers. We attributed this to insertion of dansyl in the bilayer of the liposomes, which led to an increased dansyl quantum yield and a higher interaction of multiple acceptors with limited available donors. This was not the case for shorter and more rigid linkers where PDA amplification was much smaller. The present studies aim at enhancing our understanding of FRET between fluorophores and PDA-based conjugated liposomes. Furthermore, receptor tagged onto PDA liposomes can interact with ligands present on proteins, enzymes, and cells, which will produce emission sensing signal. Therefore, using the present approach, there exist opportunities for designing FRET

  15. The combined resonance tunneling and semi-resonance level in low energy D-D reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Jin Dezhe; Chang Lee

    1993-01-01

    When nuclear potential wells are connected by an atomic potential well, a new kind of tunneling may happen even if there is no virtual energy level in nuclear potential wells. The necessary condition for this combined resonance tunneling is the resonance in the atomic potential well. Thus, the nuclear reaction may be affected by the action in atomic scale in terms of combined resonance tunneling. The nuclear spectrum data support this idea. (author)

  16. Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.

  17. Impedance Based Analysis and Design of Harmonic Resonant Controller for a Wide Range of Grid Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of grid impedance variation on harmonic resonant current controllers for gridconnected voltage source converters by means of impedance-based analysis. It reveals that the negative harmonic resistances tend to be derived from harmonic resonant controllers...... in the closed-loop output admittance of converter. Such negative resistances may interact with the grid impedance resulting in steady state error or unstable harmonic compensation. To deal with this problem, a design guideline for harmonic resonant controllers under a wide range of grid impedance is proposed...

  18. Range energy for heavy ions in CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.R.; Marques, A.

    1987-01-01

    Range-energy relations in CR-39, for ions from He to Ar, are obtained after their effective nuclear charge. Comparison with earlier calculations and numerical results in the energy range 0,1 to 200 Mev/ Nucleon are also given. (M.W.O.)

  19. Quantum electrodynamics of resonant energy transfer in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzeliunas, G.; Andrews, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    A microscopic many-body QED theory for dipole-dipole resonance energy transfer has been developed from first principles. A distinctive feature of the theory is full incorporation of the dielectric effects of the supporting medium. The approach employs the concept of bath polaritons mediating the energy transfer. The transfer rate is derived in terms of the Green's operator corresponding to the polariton matrix Hamiltonian. In contrast to the more common lossless polariton models, the present theory accommodates an arbitrary number of energy levels for each molecule of the medium. This includes, a case of special interest, where the excitation energy spectrum of the bath molecules is sufficiently dense that it can be treated as a quasicontinuum in the energy region in question, as in the condensed phase normally results from homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening. In such a situation, the photon ''dressed'' by the medium polarization (the polariton) acquires a finite lifetime, the role of the dissipative subsystem being played by bath molecules. It is this which leads to the appearance of the exponential decay factor in the microscopically derived pair transfer rates. Accordingly, the problem associated with potentially infinite total ensemble rates, due to the divergent R -2 contribution, is solved from first principles. In addition, the medium modifies the distance dependence of the energy transfer function A(R) and also produces extra modifications due to screening contributions and local field effects. The formalism addresses cases where the surrounding medium is either absorbing or lossless over the range of energies transferred. In the latter case the exponential factor does not appear and the dielectric medium effect in the near zone reduces to that which is familiar from the theory of radiationless (Foerster) energy transfer

  20. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  1. Design of narrow band photonic filter with compact MEMS for tunable resonant wavelength ranging 100 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanquan Liang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of planar silicon photonic structure is designed and simulated to provide narrow resonant line-width (∼2 nm in a wide photonic band gap (∼210 nm with broad tunable resonant wavelength range (∼100 nm around the optical communication wavelength 1550 nm. This prototype is based on the combination of two modified basic photonic structures, i.e. a split tapered photonic crystal micro-cavity embedded in a photonic wire waveguide, and a slot waveguide with narrowed slabs. This prototype is then further integrated with a MEMS (microelectromechanical systems based electrostatic comb actuator to achieve “coarse tune” and “fine tune” at the same time for wide range and narrow-band filtering and modulating. It also provides a wide range tunability to achieve the designed resonance even fabrication imperfection occurs.

  2. Extracting complex resonance energies from real calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durand, Ph.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 7 (2013), 075001 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/12/0665 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : states * dynamics * modeling quantum resonance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2013

  3. Transmitted spectral modulation of double-ring resonator using liquid crystals in terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huijuan; Zhou, Qingli; Wang, Xiumin; Li, Chenyu; Wu, Ani; Zhang, Cunlin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials with subwavelength structural features show unique electromagnetic responses that are unattainable with natural materials. Recent research on these artificial materials has been pushed forward to the terahertz region because of potential applications in biological fingerprinting, security imaging, remote sensing, and high frequency magnetic and electric resonant devices. Active control of their properties could further facilitate and open up new applications in terms of modulation and switching. Liquid crystals, which have been the subject of research for more than a century, have the unique properties for the development of many other optical components such as light valves, tunable filters and tunable lenses. In this paper, we investigated the transmitted spectral modulation in terahertz range by using liquid crystals (5CB and TEB300) covering on the fabricated double-ring resonators to realize the shift of the resonance frequency. Our obtained results indicate the low frequency resonance shows the obvious blue-shift, while the location of high frequency resonance is nearly unchanged. We believe this phenomenon is related to not only the refractive index of the covering liquid crystals but also the resonant mechanism of both resonances.

  4. POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.

    2000-12-01

    POLIDENT (Point Libraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.

  5. An Optimized Control for LLC Resonant Converter with Wide Load Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xia; Qian, Qinsong

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an optimized control which makes LLC resonant converters operate with a wider load range and provides good closed-loop performance. The proposed control employs two paralleled digital compensations to guarantee the good closed-loop performance in a wide load range during the steady state, an optimized trajectory control will take over to change the gate-driving signals immediately at the load transients. Finally, the proposed control has been implemented and tested on a 150W 200kHz 400V/24V LLC resonant converter and the result validates the proposed method.

  6. Nonlinear properties of double and triple barrier resonant tunneling structures in the sub-THz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuzskij, A.L.; Perestoronin, A.V.; Volchkov, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The high-frequency nonlinear properties of GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD) nanostructures and perspectives of implementation of the quantum regime of amplification in such structures, which is especially efficient in the range of sub-THz and THz ranges, are investigated. It is shown that in a triple barrier RTD the symmetry between the processes of amplification and dissipation can be avoided because of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with both of resonant states in two quantum wells, that results in the significant growth of an RTD efficiency [ru

  7. High-q microring resonator with narrow free spectral range for pulse repetition rate multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz.......We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz....

  8. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  9. Long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An interim report on the long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies in Japan as prepared by an ad hoc committee, Advisory Committee for Energy was given for the period up to the year 2000. As the energy demands in terms of crude oil, the following figures are set: 460 million kl for 1990, 530 million kl for 1995, and 600 million kl for 2000. In Japan, without domestic energy resources, over 80% of the primary energy has been imported; the reliance on Middle East where political situation is unstable, for petroleum is very large. The following things are described. Background and policy; energy demands in industries, transports, and people's livelihood; energy supplies by coal, nuclear energy, petroleum, etc.; energy demand/supply outlook for 2000. (Mori, K.)

  10. Intrinsic Energy Dissipation Limits in Nano and Micromechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Srikanth Subramanian

    Resonant microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have enabled miniaturization of high-performance inertial sensors, radio-frequency filters, timing references and mass-based chemical sensors. Despite the increasing prevalence of MEMS resonators for these applications, the energy dissipation in these structures is not well-understood. Accurate prediction of the energy loss and the resulting quality factor (Q) has significant design implications because it is directly related to device performance metrics including sensitivity for resonant sensors, bandwidth for radio-frequency filters and phase-noise for timing references. In order to assess the future potential for MEMS resonators it is critically important to evaluate the energy dissipation limits, which will dictate the ultimate performance resonant MEMS devices can achieve. This work focuses on the derivation and evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal nano and micromechanical resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction and polarization dependent mode-Gruneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. Evaluation of the quality factor limit reveals that Akhiezer damping, previously thought to depend only on material properties, has a strong dependence on crystal orientation and resonant mode shape. The robust model provides a dissipation limit for all resonant modes including shear-mode vibrations, which have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to volume-preserving phonon branches, indicating that Lame or wine-glass mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, the analytical dissipation model is integrated with commercial finite element software in order to

  11. Study of titanium nitride elasticity characteristics in the homogeneity range by ultrasonic resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidirov, I.; Khajdarov, T.

    1995-01-01

    Elasticity characteristics of cubic and tetragonal phases of titanium nitride in the homogeneity range were studied for the first time by ultrasonic resonance method. It is established that the Young modulus, the shift and volume module of cubic titanium nitride elasticity in the homogeneity range change nonlinearly with decrease in nitrogen concentration and correlate with concentration dependences of other physical properties.15 refs., 2 figs

  12. ENERGY GAIN BY MEANS OF RESONANCE IN THE TESLA COIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Batygin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of publications on the problem, first formulated by Nikola Tesla, generating «free» energy from the air in the surrounding space has been presented. The hypothesis of the resonance phenomenon as a «key» to the air energy has been advanced. The main unsolved problem is the extrac-tion of «free» energy (proposed to call it «resonance» and its supply to the electrical load have been noted. It is expected that the quality factor of the secondary circuit must be large enough.

  13. Electron spin resonance for the detection of long-range spin nematic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shunsuke C.; Momoi, Tsutomu

    2018-03-01

    Spin nematic phase is a quantum magnetic phase characterized by a quadrupolar order parameter. Since the quadrupole operators are directly coupled to neither the magnetic field nor the neutron, currently, it is an important issue to develop a method for detecting the long-range spin nematic order. In this paper, we propose that electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements enable us to detect the long-range spin nematic order. We show that the frequency of the paramagnetic resonance peak in the ESR spectrum is shifted by the ferroquadrupolar order parameter together with other quantities. The ferroquadrupolar order parameter is extractable from the angular dependence of the frequency shift. In contrast, the antiferroquadrupolar order parameter is usually invisible in the frequency shift. Instead, the long-range antiferroquadrupolar order yields a characteristic resonance peak in the ESR spectrum, which we call a magnon-pair resonance peak. This resonance corresponds to the excitation of the bound magnon pair at the wave vector k =0 . Reflecting the condensation of bound magnon pairs, the field dependence of the magnon-pair resonance frequency shows a singular upturn at the saturation field. Moreover, the intensity of the magnon-pair resonance peak shows a characteristic angular dependence and it vanishes when the magnetic field is parallel to one of the axes that diagonalize the weak anisotropic interactions. We confirm these general properties of the magnon-pair resonance peak in the spin nematic phase by studying an S =1 bilinear-biquadratic model on the square lattice in the linear flavor-wave approximation. In addition, we argue applications to the S =1/2 frustrated ferromagnets and also the S =1/2 orthogonal dimer spin system SrCu2(BO3)2, both of which are candidate materials of spin nematics. Our theory for the antiferroquadrupolar ordered phase is consistent with many features of the magnon-pair resonance peak experimentally observed in the low

  14. Battery electric vehicle energy consumption modelling for range estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Range anxiety is considered as one of the major barriers to the mass adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). One method to solve this problem is to provide accurate range estimation to the driver. This paper describes a vehicle energy consumption model considering the influence of weather

  15. High Q diamond hemispherical resonators: fabrication and energy loss mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, Jonathan J; Bancu, Mirela G; Bauer, Joseph M; Cook, Eugene H; Kumar, Parshant; Nyinjee, Tenzin; Perlin, Gayatri E; Ricker, Joseph A; Teynor, William A; Weinberg, Marc S; Newton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated polycrystalline diamond hemispheres by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) in spherical cavities wet-etched into a high temperature glass substrate CTE matched to silicon. Hemispherical resonators 1.4 mm in diameter have a Q of up to 143 000 in the fundamental wineglass mode, for a ringdown time of 2.4 s. Without trimming, resonators have the two degenerate wineglass modes frequency matched as close as 2 Hz, or 0.013% of the resonant frequency (∼16 kHz). Laser trimming was used to match resonant modes on hemispheres to 0.3 Hz. Experimental and FEA energy loss studies on cantilevers and hemispheres examine various energy loss mechanisms, showing that surface related losses are dominant. Diamond cantilevers with a Q of 400 000 and a ringdown time of 15.4 s were measured, showing the potential of polycrystalline diamond films for high Q resonators. These resonators show great promise for use as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRGs) on a chip. (paper)

  16. Stability Analysis and Trigger Control of LLC Resonant Converter for a Wide Operational Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Fang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The gain of a LLC resonant converter can vary with the loads that can be used to improve the efficiency and power density for some special applications, where the maximum gain does not apply at the heaviest loads. However, nonlinear gain characteristics can make the converters unstable during a major disturbance. In this paper, the stability of an LLC resonant converter during a major disturbance is studied and a trigger control scheme is proposed to improve the converter’s stability by extending the converter’s operational range. Through in-depth analysis of the gain curve of the LLC resonant converter, we find that the switching frequency range is one of the key factors determining the system’s stability performance. The same result is also obtained from a mathematical point of view by utilizing the mixed potential function method. Then a trigger control method is proposed to make the LLC resonant converter stable even during a major disturbance, which can be used to extend the converter’s operational range. Finally, experimental results are given to verify the analysis and proposed control scheme.

  17. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s 2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  18. Long-range prospects of world energy demands and future energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji

    1998-01-01

    The long-range prospects for world energy demands are reviewed, and the major factors which are influential in relation to energy demands are discussed. The potential for various kinds of conventional and new energy sources such as fossil fuels, solar energies, nuclear fission, and fusion energies to need future energy demands is also discussed. (author)

  19. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  20. Determination of space-energy distribution of resonance neutrons in reactor lattice cell and calculation of resonance integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmijarevic, I.

    1980-01-01

    Space-energy distribution of resonance neutrons in reactor lattice cell was determined by solving the Boltzmann equation by spherical harmonics method applying P-3 approximation. Computer code SPLET used for these calculations is described. Resonance absorption and calculation of resonance integrals are described as well. Effective resonance integral values for U-238 resonance at 6.7 Ev are calculated for heavy water reactor cell with metal, oxide and carbide fuel elements

  1. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  2. Energy Harvesting with Coupled Magnetorestrictive Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    matching, small hysteresis, and low coercivity2. Ceramic material like PZT tends to develop fatigue during its cycles whereas Galfenol does not have...Magnetostrictive Material PZT Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3, 0<xə, Lead Zirconate Titanate RX Receiver SHM Structural Health Monitoring...zirconate titanate [ PZT ]) have lead in their fabrication process, which is an environmental risk. Another major issue with standard energy

  3. Range and energy functions of interest in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, D.P.; Nagarajan, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    This report documents the energy and range functions generated and used in fast neutron interface dosimetry studies. The basic data of stopping power employed are the most recent. The present report covers a number of media mainly air, oxygen, nitrogen, polythene, graphite, bone and tissue, and a number of charged particles, namely protons, alphas, 9 Be, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C, 14 N and 16 O. These functions would be useful for generation of energy and range values for any of the above particles in any of the above media within +- 1% in any dosimetric calculations. (author)

  4. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  5. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots

  6. Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that as the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, that the particles trapped in the wave will form phase space holes or clumps that can enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause much larger saturation levels of instabilities, and even allow the free energy associated with instability, to be tapped in a system that is linearly stable due to background dissipation

  7. The total neutron cross section of 58Fe in the energy range 7 to 325 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.D.; Beer, H.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1976-08-01

    The total neutron cross section of 58 Fe has been determined in the energy range 7-325 keV by a transmission measurement using enriched 58 Fe samples. The data have been shape fitted by means of an R-matrix multi-level formalism to extract resonance parameters for s- and l > 0 wave resonances. The s-wave strength function was determined to S 0 = (4.3 +- 1.9) c 10 -4 . (orig.) [de

  8. Long range energy transfer in graphene hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Bernardo, César; Moura, Cacilda; Belsley, Michael; Schellenberg, Peter; Ferreira, R A S; André, P S; Stauber, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this work we quantify the distance dependence for the extraction of energy from excited chromophores by a single layer graphene flake over a large separation range. To this end hybrid structures were prepared, consisting of a thin (2 nm) layer of a polymer matrix doped with a well chosen strongly fluorescent organic molecule, followed by an un-doped spacer layer of well-defined thicknesses made of the same polymer material and an underlying single layer of pristine, undoped graphene. The coupling strength is assessed through the variation of the fluorescence decay kinetics as a function of distance between the graphene and the excited chromophore molecules. Non-radiative energy transfer to the graphene was observed at distances of up to 60 nm; a range much greater than typical energy transfer distances observed in molecular systems. (paper)

  9. Contribution to the study of the unresolved resonance range of the neutrons cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguere, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the statistical description of neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance range. The modeling of the total cross section and of the 'shape - elastic' cross section is based on the 'average R-Matrix' formalism. The partial cross sections describing the radiative capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and fission process are calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with width fluctuation corrections. In the unresolved resonance range, these models depend on the average resonance parameters (neutron strength function Sc, mean level spacing D c , average partial reaction widths Γ c , channel radius a c , effective radius R' and distant level parameter R-bar c ∞ ). The codes (NJOY, CALENDF...) dedicated to the processing of nuclear data libraries (JEFF, ENDF/B, JENDL, CENDL, BROND... ) use the average parameters to take into account the self-shielding phenomenon for the simulation of the neutron transport in Monte-Carlo (MCNP, TRIPOLI... ) and deterministic (APOLLO, ERANOS...) codes. The evaluation work consists in establishing a consistent set of average parameters as a function of the total angular momentum J of the system and of the orbital moment of the incident neutron l. The work presented in this paper aims to describe the links between the S-Matrix and the 'average R-Matrix' formalism for the calculation of Sc, R-bar c ∞ , ac and R'. (author) [fr

  10. Comparison and experimental validation of two potential resonant viscosity sensors in the kilohertz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Etienne; Caillard, Benjamin; Dufour, Isabelle; Heinisch, Martin; Jakoby, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Oscillating microstructures are well established and find application in many fields. These include force sensors, e.g. AFM micro-cantilevers or accelerometers based on resonant suspended plates. This contribution presents two vibrating mechanical structures acting as force sensors in liquid media in order to measure hydrodynamic interactions. Rectangular cross section microcantilevers as well as circular cross section wires are investigated. Each structure features specific benefits, which are discussed in detail. Furthermore, their mechanical parameters and their deflection in liquids are characterized. Finally, an inverse analytical model is applied to calculate the complex viscosity near the resonant frequency for both types of structures. With this approach it is possible to determine rheological parameters in the kilohertz range in situ within a few seconds. The monitoring of the complex viscosity of yogurt during the fermentation process is used as a proof of concept to qualify at least one of the two sensors in opaque mixtures. (paper)

  11. Comparison and experimental validation of two potential resonant viscosity sensors in the kilohertz range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Etienne; Caillard, Benjamin; Dufour, Isabelle [Univ. Bordeaux, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); Heinisch, Martin; Jakoby, Bernhard [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsensors, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    Oscillating microstructures are well established and find application in many fields. These include force sensors, e.g. AFM micro-cantilevers or accelerometers based on resonant suspended plates. This contribution presents two vibrating mechanical structures acting as force sensors in liquid media in order to measure hydrodynamic interactions. Rectangular cross section microcantilevers as well as circular cross section wires are investigated. Each structure features specific benefits, which are discussed in detail. Furthermore, their mechanical parameters and their deflection in liquids are characterized. Finally, an inverse analytical model is applied to calculate the complex viscosity near the resonant frequency for both types of structures. With this approach it is possible to determine rheological parameters in the kilohertz range in situ within a few seconds. The monitoring of the complex viscosity of yogurt during the fermentation process is used as a proof of concept to qualify at least one of the two sensors in opaque mixtures. (paper)

  12. Comparison and experimental validation of two potential resonant viscosity sensors in the kilohertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Etienne; Heinisch, Martin; Caillard, Benjamin; Jakoby, Bernhard; Dufour, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    Oscillating microstructures are well established and find application in many fields. These include force sensors, e.g. AFM micro-cantilevers or accelerometers based on resonant suspended plates. This contribution presents two vibrating mechanical structures acting as force sensors in liquid media in order to measure hydrodynamic interactions. Rectangular cross section microcantilevers as well as circular cross section wires are investigated. Each structure features specific benefits, which are discussed in detail. Furthermore, their mechanical parameters and their deflection in liquids are characterized. Finally, an inverse analytical model is applied to calculate the complex viscosity near the resonant frequency for both types of structures. With this approach it is possible to determine rheological parameters in the kilohertz range in situ within a few seconds. The monitoring of the complex viscosity of yogurt during the fermentation process is used as a proof of concept to qualify at least one of the two sensors in opaque mixtures.

  13. Circuit model optimization of a nano split ring resonator dimer antenna operating in infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneiding, N.; Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U.; Shamonina, E.

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.

  14. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  15. Wideband energy harvesting for piezoelectric devices with linear resonant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng; Hofmann, Heath F

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an active energy harvesting technique for a spring-mass-damper mechanical resonator with piezoelectric electromechanical coupling is investigated. This technique applies a square-wave voltage to the terminals of the device at the same frequency as the mechanical excitation. By controlling the magnitude and phase angle of this voltage, an effective impedance matching can be achieved which maximizes the amount of power extracted from the device. Theoretically, the harvested power can be the maximum possible value, even at off-resonance frequencies. However, in actual implementation, the efficiency of the power electronic circuit limits the amount of power harvested. A power electronic full-bridge converter is built to implement the technique. Experimental results show that the active technique can increase the effective bandwidth by a factor of more than 2, and harvests significantly higher power than rectifier-based circuits at off-resonance frequencies.

  16. Auger vs resonance neutralization in low energy He+ ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    He + ions incident on a metal surface can neutralize either by an Auger or resonant charge exchange. While the Auger process has always been thought to be dominant, recent theoretical interest in the simpler one-electron resonance process has led to suggestions that this alone can account for the neutralization seen in low energy He + ion scattering. In this paper this assertion is analysed by looking at the wider information available on charge exchange processes for He + ion scattering through comparison with Li + ion scattering, the importance of multiple scattering in both these scattering experiments and the results of ion neutralization spectroscopy. These lead to the conclusion that while resonance neutralization to produce metastable He* may well occur at a substantial rate in He + ion scattering, the dominant process leading to loss of ions from the final scattered signal is Auger neutralization as originally proposed. (author)

  17. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matova, S.P.; Elfrink, R.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Schaijk, R. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with

  18. Energy-range relation and mean energy variation in therapeutic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, Johanna; Brahme, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the mean energy and range of therapeutic light ion beams and low- and high-energy electrons have been derived, based on the energy dependence of their respective stopping powers. The new mean energy and range relations are power-law expressions relevant for light ion radiation therapy, and are based on measured practical ranges or known tabulated stopping powers and ranges for the relevant incident particle energies. A practical extrapolated range, R p , for light ions was defined, similar to that of electrons, which is very closely related to the extrapolated range of the primary ions. A universal energy-range relation for light ions and electrons that is valid for all material mixtures and compounds has been developed. The new relation can be expressed in terms of the range for protons and alpha particles, and is found to agree closely with experimental data in low atomic number media and when the difference in the mean ionization energy is low. The variation of the mean energy with depth and the new energy-range relation are useful for accurate stopping power and mass scattering power calculations, as well as for general particle transport and dosimetry applications

  19. DINS measurements on VESUVIO in the Resonance Detector configuration: proton mean kinetic energy in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropaolo, Antonino; Andreani, Carla; Filabozzi, Alessandra; Senesi, Roberto; Gorini, Giuseppe; Perelli-Cippo, Enrico; Tardocchi, Marco; Rhodes, Nigel J.; Schooneveld, Erik M.

    2006-04-01

    Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements have been performed on a liquid water sample at two different temperatures and pressures. The experiments were carried out using the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. This experiment represents the first DINS measurement from water using the Resonance Detector configuration, employing yttrium-aluminum-perovskite scintillator and a 238U analyzer foil. The maximum energy of the scattered neutrons was about 70 eV, allowing to access an extended kinematic space with energy and wave vector transfers at the proton recoil peak in the range 1 eV <= hbarω <= 20 eV and 25 Å-1 <= q <= 90 Å-1, respectively. Comparison with DINS measurements on water performed in the standard Resonance Filter configuration indicates the potential advantages offered by the use of Resonance Detector approach for DINS measurements at forward scattering angles.

  20. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance in the microtesla range using a high Tc dc-SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Jin, Yirong; Li, Shao; Ren, Yufeng; Tian, Ye; Chen, Yingfei; Li, Jie; Chen, Genghua; Zheng, Dongning

    2012-12-01

    We have detected the ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance signal from water samples using a high-Tc dc-SQUID sensor. The measurements were carried out in a homemade magnetically shielded room. Resonance spectra of 1H from tap water and other substance samples were obtained in the field range from 7-110μT corresponding to resonance frequency 300-4.68kHz. Two kind of experimental systems were built, the first one is a directly coupled system, its signal to noise ratio in a single-shot measurement is around 4 for about 15 ml water. The second one used a Cu coil to transfer the flux to the SQUID sensor. Signal to noise ratio was improved to about 20 in a single-shot measurement for 5ml water, which benefits from the improvement of coupling efficiency. The effect of residual gradient in the magnetically shielded room was also investigated. J-coupling of 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl alcohol was measured, the peaks are consistent with high field results.

  1. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance in the microtesla range using a high Tc dc-SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ning; Jin Yirong; Li Shao; Ren Yufeng; Tian Ye; Chen Yingfei; Li Jie; Chen Genghua; Zheng Dongning

    2012-01-01

    We have detected the ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance signal from water samples using a high-T c dc-SQUID sensor. The measurements were carried out in a homemade magnetically shielded room. Resonance spectra of 1 H from tap water and other substance samples were obtained in the field range from 7-110μT corresponding to resonance frequency 300-4.68kHz. Two kind of experimental systems were built, the first one is a directly coupled system, its signal to noise ratio in a single-shot measurement is around 4 for about 15 ml water. The second one used a Cu coil to transfer the flux to the SQUID sensor. Signal to noise ratio was improved to about 20 in a single-shot measurement for 5ml water, which benefits from the improvement of coupling efficiency. The effect of residual gradient in the magnetically shielded room was also investigated. J-coupling of 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl alcohol was measured, the peaks are consistent with high field results.

  2. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  3. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  4. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol [Department of System Dynamics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Eun, E-mail: jekim@cu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-Ro, Hayang-Eup, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  5. Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Burgdörfer, J; Chizhova, L A; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Rotter, S; Saul, H; Schmidt, U; Abele, H

    2014-04-18

    We report on precision resonance spectroscopy measurements of quantum states of ultracold neutrons confined above the surface of a horizontal mirror by the gravity potential of Earth. Resonant transitions between several of the lowest quantum states are observed for the first time. These measurements demonstrate that Newton's inverse square law of gravity is understood at micron distances on an energy scale of 10-14  eV. At this level of precision, we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded for values of the coupling constant β>5.8×108 at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and an attractive (repulsive) dark matter axionlike spin-mass coupling is excluded for the coupling strength gsgp>3.7×10-16 (5.3×10-16) at a Yukawa length of λ=20  μm (95% C.L.).

  6. Nano Sensing and Energy Conversion Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltai (Isaac Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanophotonic technique has been attracting much attention in applications of nano-bio-chemical sensing and energy conversion of solar energy harvesting and enhanced energy transfer. One approach for nano-bio-chemical sensing is surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging, which can detect the material properties, such as density, ion concentration, temperature, and effective refractive index in high sensitivity, label-free, and real-time under ambient conditions. Recent study shows that SPR can successfully detect the concentration variation of nanofluids during evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Spoof surface plasmon resonance based on multilayer metallo-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate SPR dispersion control, which can be combined with SPR imaging, to characterize high refractive index materials because of its exotic optical properties. Furthermore, nano-biophotonics could enable innovative energy conversion such as the increase of absorption and emission efficiency and the perfect absorption. Localized SPR using metal nanoparticles show highly enhanced absorption in solar energy harvesting. Three-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial cavity nanostructure shows enhanced spontaneous emission. Recently ultrathin film perfect absorber is demonstrated with the film thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating wavelength using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ phenomena at the wavelength close to SPR. It is expected to provide a breakthrough in sensing and energy conversion applications using the exotic optical properties based on the nanophotonic technique.

  7. Generation of low-energy muons with laser resonant ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Iwasaki, M.; Matsuzaki, T.; Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Strasser, P.; Shimomura, K.; Makimura, S.; Nagamine, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed a low-energy muSR spectrometer at RIKEN-RAL muon facility in ISIS, the UK. With low-background of pulsed muon beam, and short pulse width from laser resonant ionization method, it is hoped this instrument will open new possibilities for studies of material sciences with muon beam. It is enphasized that this method is well suited to the facility where intense pulsed proton beam is available

  8. Ion range estimation by using dual energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenemohr, Nora; Greilich, Steffen [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Krauss, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Forchheim (Germany). Imaging and Therapy; Dinkel, Julien [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiology; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Radiology; Gillmann, Clarissa [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Radiation Oncology; Ackermann, Benjamin [Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-01

    Inaccurate conversion of CT data to water-equivalent path length (WEPL) is one of the most important uncertainty sources in ion treatment planning. Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging might help to reduce CT number ambiguities with the additional information. In our study we scanned a series of materials (tissue substitutes, aluminum, PMMA, and other polymers) in the dual source scanner (Siemens Somatom Definition Flash). Based on the 80 kVp/140Sn kVp dual energy images, the electron densities Q{sub e} and effective atomic numbers Z{sub eff} were calculated. We introduced a new lookup table that translates the Q{sub e} to the WEPL. The WEPL residuals from the calibration were significantly reduced for the investigated tissue surrogates compared to the empirical Hounsfield-look-up table (single energy CT imaging) from (-1.0 {+-} 1.8)% to (0.1 {+-} 0.7)% and for non-tissue equivalent PMMA from -7.8% to -1.0%. To assess the benefit of the new DECT calibration, we conducted a treatment planning study for three different idealized cases based on tissue surrogates and PMMA. The DECT calibration yielded a significantly higher target coverage in tissue surrogates and phantom material (i.e. PMMA cylinder, mean target coverage improved from 62% to 98%). To verify the DECT calibration for real tissue, ion ranges through a frozen pig head were measured and compared to predictions calculated by the standard single energy CT calibration and the novel DECT calibration. By using this method, an improvement of ion range estimation from -2.1% water-equivalent thickness deviation (single energy CT) to 0.3% (DECT) was achieved. If one excludes raypaths located on the edge of the sample accompanied with high uncertainties, no significant difference could be observed. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation in the resonance range of nuclei with a mass number above 220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.

    1970-01-01

    The author discusses the problems posed by the evaluation of neutron data for fissile or fertile nuclei in the range of resolved or unresolved resonances. It appears to take several years until the data of an experiment are used by the reactor physicists. If one wants to have recent data at one's disposal, one cannot have recourse to evaluated-data libraries. Moreover, the existing parameter sets are only fragmentary. A new evaluation is, therefore, necessary for nearly all of these nuclei, but it cannot be based upon different parameter sets; these are indeed contradictory, and the evaluator will have to go back to the original data. The author shows for the set of σ f of 235 U, that a careful comparison of the data shows up unsuspected local defects. Some examples illustrate the deviation between analyses carried out by different methods and between the results on the established divergences. The parameters or cross-sections are far from being known with the precision one would desire. This fact gives rise to anomalies in the interpretation of data necessary for understanding and simulation in the range of unresolved resonances. But the introduction of concepts connected with sub-threshold fission noticeably furthers this understanding. Therefore a comparison of the methods of analysis must be made in more and more accurate measurements (evaluation and correction of systematic errors). (author) [fr

  10. Energy-loss of He ions in carbon allotropes studied by elastic resonance in backscattering spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, Mitsuo, E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Rauhala, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    Backscattering spectra for {sup 4}He ions incident on carbon allotropes have been measured in the energy range from 4.30 to 4.95 MeV in steps of 50–100 keV at scattering angles of 106° and 170°. We used three carbon allotropes: graphite, diamond and amorphous carbon. For all these allotropes, we can observe the sharp ({sup 4}He, {sup 12}C) elastic nuclear resonance at the He ion energy of 4.265 MeV in the backscattering spectra. By varying the incident He energy, we have systematically analyzed the profiles of the resonance peaks to study the energy-loss processes: stopping cross-sections and energy-loss straggling around the interesting region of the stopping maximum at about 500 keV. We focus on the resonance profiles and investigate an allotropic effect concerning the energy-loss. Furthermore, an energy bunching effect on the straggling is presented and the mechanism is discussed.

  11. Acoustic energy harvesting using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Phipps, Alex; Horowitz, Stephen; Ngo, Khai; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the development of an acoustic energy harvester using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The EMHR consists of an orifice, cavity, and a piezoelectric diaphragm. Acoustic energy is converted to mechanical energy when sound incident on the orifice generates an oscillatory pressure in the cavity, which in turns causes the vibration of the diaphragm. The conversion of acoustic energy to electrical energy is achieved via piezoelectric transduction in the diaphragm of the EMHR. Moreover, the diaphragm is coupled with energy reclamation circuitry to increase the efficiency of the energy conversion. Lumped element modeling of the EMHR is used to provide physical insight into the coupled energy domain dynamics governing the energy reclamation process. The feasibility of acoustic energy reclamation using an EMHR is demonstrated in a plane wave tube for two power converter topologies. The first is comprised of only a rectifier, and the second uses a rectifier connected to a flyback converter to improve load matching. Experimental results indicate that approximately 30 mW of output power is harvested for an incident sound pressure level of 160 dB with a flyback converter. Such power level is sufficient to power a variety of low power electronic devices.

  12. Low energy range dielectronic recombination of Fluorine-like Fe17+ at the CSRm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadir; Huang, Zhong-Kui; Wen, Wei-Qiang; Mahmood, Sultan; Dou, Li-Jun; Wang, Shu-Xing; Xu, Xin; Wang, Han-Bing; Chen, Chong-Yang; Chuai, Xiao-Ya; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Mao, Li-Jun; Li, Jie; Yin, Da-Yu; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Yuan, You-Jin; Zhu, Lin-Fan; Ma, Xin-Wen

    2018-05-01

    The accuracy of dielectronic recombination (DR) data for astrophysics related ions plays a key role in astrophysical plasma modeling. The absolute DR rate coefficient of Fe17+ ions was measured at the main cooler storage ring at the Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou, China. The experimental electron-ion collision energy range covers the first Rydberg series up to n = 24 for the DR resonances associated with the {}2P1/2\\to {}2P3/2{{Δ }}n=0 core excitations. A theoretical calculation was performed by using FAC code and compared with the measured DR rate coefficient. Overall reasonable agreement was found between the experimental results and calculations. Moreover, the plasma rate coefficient was deduced from the experimental DR rate coefficient and compared with the available results from the literature. At the low energy range, significant discrepancies were found, and the measured resonances challenge state-of-the-art theory at low collision energies. Supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0402300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China through (11320101003, U1732133, 11611530684) and Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS (QYZDY-SSW-SLH006)

  13. A dual resonance model for high energy electroweak reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Jean-Francois

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an original model for the weak interaction at high energy (about 1 TeV) that is inspired from resonance dual models established for hadron physics. The first chapter details the basis and assumptions of the standard model. The second chapter deals with various scenarios that go beyond the standard model and that involve a strong interaction and a perturbative approach to assess coupling. The third chapter is dedicated to the main teachings of hadron physics concerning resonances, the model of Regge poles and the concept of duality. We present our new model in the fourth chapter, we build a scenario in which standard fermions and the 3 massive gauge bosons would have a sub-structure alike that of hadrons. In order to give non-null values to the width of resonances we use the K matrix method, we describe this method in the last chapter and we apply it for the computation of the width of the Z 0 boson. Our model predicts a large spectra of states particularly with the 143-up-lets of ff-bar states. The K matrix method has allowed us to compute amplitudes for helicity, then to collapse them in amplitudes invariant with SU(2) and to project these amplitudes in partial waves of helicity. For most resonances partial widths are very low compared to their mass

  14. A Proportional Resonant Control Strategy for Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to control the range extender generation system is to improve the efficiency and reduce the emissions of the electric vehicle (EV. In this paper, based on the purpose of efficiency optimization, both engine and generator are matched to get a public high efficiency region, and a partial power following control strategy was presented. The engine speed is constant in the defined power range, so the output power regulation of the range extender is only realized by the adjustment of the torque of the generator. Engine speed and generator torque were decoupled. An improved proportional resonant (PR controller is adopted to achieve fast output power regulation. In order to ensure the response characteristics of the control system and to improve the robustness, the impacts on system’s characteristics and stability caused by PR controller and parameters in the inner-current loop were analyzed via frequency response characteristics. A pre-Tustin with deviation compensation is proposed for PR controller’s discretization. A stable and robust power following control method is obtained for the range extender control system. Finally, simulation and experiment of the proposed control strategy illustrated its feasibility and correctness.

  15. A current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two timeslower hybrid resonance frequency on tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient current drive scheme in central or off-axis region is required for the steady state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. The current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two times lower hybrid resonance (w>2wlh could be such a scheme in high density, high temperature reactor-grade tokamak plasmas. First, it has relatively higher parallel electric field to the magnetic field favorable to the current generation, compared to fast waves in other frequency range. Second, it can deeply penetrate into high density plasmas compared to the slow wave in the same frequency range. Third, parasitic coupling to the slow wave can contribute also to the current drive avoiding parametric instability, thermal mode conversion and ion heating occured in the frequency range w<2wlh. In this study, the propagation boundary, accessibility, and the energy flow of the fast wave are given via cold dispersion relation and group velocity. The power absorption and current drive efficiency are discussed qualitatively through the hot dispersion relation and the polarization. Finally, those characteristics are confirmed with ray tracing code GENRAY for the KSTAR plasmas.

  16. Systematic investigation of resonance-induced single-harmonic enhancement in the extreme-ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the intensity enhancement of single harmonics in high-order harmonic generation from laser plasma. We identified several targets (In, Sn, Sb, Cr, and Mn) that demonstrate resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonic, that are spectrally close to ionic transitions with strong oscillator strengths. We optimized and obtained enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 21st, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from the above targets, by varying the chirp of the 800 nm wavelength femtosecond laser. We also observe harmonic enhancement by using frequency-doubled pump laser (400 nm wavelength). For Mn plasma pumped by the 400 nm wavelength laser, the maximum order of the enhanced harmonic observed was the 17th order (λ=23.5 nm), which corresponds to the highest photon energy (52.9 eV) reported for an enhanced single harmonic

  17. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Basic ideas about how resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) can take place in finite solids are reviewed. These ideas not only provide a basis for conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but they also explain how through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. The underlying formalism predicts that the orientation of the external fields in the SPAWAR protocolootnotetextKrivit, Steven B., New Energy Times, 2007, issue 21, item 10. http://newenergytimes.com/news/2007/NET21.htm^,ootnotetextSzpak, S.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.; Gordon, F.E. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften 94,511(2007)..has direct bearing on the emission of high-energy particles. Resonant EMI also implies that nano-scale solids, of a particular size, provide an optimal environment for initiating Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in the PdD system.

  18. Resonant wave energy harvester based on dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Giacomo; Pietro Rosati Papini, Gastone; Righi, Michele; Forehand, David; Ingram, David; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are a class of capacitive solid-state devices that employ highly stretchable dielectrics and conductors to convert mechanical energy into high-voltage direct-current electricity. Their promising performance in terms of convertible energy and power density has been mostly proven in quasi-static experimental tests with prescribed deformation. However, the assessment of their ability in harvesting energy from a dynamic oscillating source of mechanical energy is crucial to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical applications. This paper reports a first demonstration of a DEG system that is able to convert the oscillating energy carried by water waves into electricity. A DEG prototype is built using a commercial polyacrylate film (VHB 4905 by 3M) and an experimental campaign is conducted in a wave-flume facility, i.e. an artificial basin that makes it possible to generate programmed small-scale waves at different frequencies and amplitudes. In resonant conditions, the designed system demonstrates the delivery of a maximum of 0.87 W of electrical power output and 0.64 J energy generated per cycle, with corresponding densities per unit mass of dielectric elastomer of 197 W kg-1 and 145 J kg-1. Additionally, a notable maximum fraction of 18% of the input wave energy is converted into electricity. The presented results provide a promising demonstration of the operation and effectiveness of ocean wave energy converters based on elastic capacitive generators.

  19. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  20. Pion-deuteron scattering in the range of the Delta resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, A.

    1988-10-01

    The author calculates the observables for elastic πd scattering at intermediate energies in the framework of a model which is based on an effective meson field theory, whereby also the Δ isobar is regarded. The calculation is reduced to the determination of the four two-body T matrices for the processes NN→NN, NN→NΔ, and NΔ→NΔ in the framework of a Tamm-Dancoff approximation. After a calculation of the p-wave πN scattering phase shift results are presented on differential cross sections and polarization asymmetries in the energy range from 116 MeV to 292 MeV. (HSI)

  1. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, S P; Elfrink, R; Vullers, R J M; Van Schaijk, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adjustable resonance frequencies have been designed—one with a solid bottom and one with membrane on the bottom. The resonance frequencies of the resonators were matched to the complementing piezoelectric harvesters during harvesting. The aim of the presented work is a feasibility study on using packaged piezoelectric energy harvesters with Helmholtz resonators for airflow energy harvesting. The maximum energy we were able to obtain was 42.2 µW at 20 m s −1

  2. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotubes in a wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The differential conductance of armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a wide energy range has been numerically calculated by using the tight-binding model and the Green’s function method. The effects of the contact coupling between CNTs and electrodes on conductance have been explored. The ballistic conductance is proportional to the band numbers and has a ladder-like feature. As the increase of the contact coupling, the conductance oscillations appear and they are robust against the coupling. More importantly, on the first step of the conductance ladder, the armchair CNTs have two quasi-periodic conductance oscillations, i.e. a rapid conductance oscillation superimposed on a slow fluctuation background; while the zigzag CNTs have only one conductance oscillation. But on the second conductance step, all CNTs have two quasi-periodic conductance oscillations. The physical origin of the conductance oscillations has been revealed

  3. Design and kinetic analysis of piezoelectric energy harvesters with self-adjusting resonant frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Jen, Wang; Tsung-Yi, Chuang; Jui-Hsin, Yu

    2017-09-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesters have been developed as power sources for wireless sensor networks. Because the vibration frequency of the environment is varied with surrounding conditions, how to design an adaptive energy harvester is a practical topic. This paper proposes a design for a piezoelectric energy harvester possessing the ability to self-adjust its resonant frequency in rotational environments. The effective length of a trapezoidal cantilever is extended by centrifugal force from a rotating wheel to vary its area moment of inertia. The analytical solution for the natural frequency of the piezoelectric energy harvester was derived from the parameter design process, which could specify a structure approaching resonance at any wheel rotating frequency. The kinetic equation and electrical damping induced by power generation were derived from a Lagrange method and a mechanical-electrical coupling model, respectively. An energy harvester with adequate parameters can generate power at a wide range of car speeds. The output power of an experimental prototype composed of piezoelectric thin films and connected to a 3.3 MΩ external resistor was approximately 70-140 μW at wheel speeds ranging from 200 to 700 RPM. These results demonstrate that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester can be applied as a power source for the wireless tire pressure monitoring sensor.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  5. Application of long range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model for Thailand energy outlook 2030 : reference case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charusiri, W.; Eua-arporn, B.; Ubonwat, J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the total energy consumption in Thailand increased 8.8 per cent, from 47,806 to 60,260 ktoe. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) is an accounting tool that simulates future energy scenarios. According to a Business As Usual (BAU) case, the overall energy demand in Thailand is estimated to increase from 61,262 to 254,200 ktoe between 2004 and 2030. Commercial energy consumption, which comprises petroleum products, natural gas, coal and its products, and electricity, increased by 9.0 per cent in Thailand in 2004, and new and renewable energy increased by 7.8 per cent. Nearly 60 per cent of the total commercial energy supply in Thailand was imported and increased for a fifth year in a row. The changes in energy consumption can be attributed to population growth and increase in economic activity and development. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  6. Simulation of a resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells and energy storage chokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Reiniger, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    For the TRIUMF KAON Factory Booster Ring, a resonant-type magnet power supply has been proposed for the dipole magnet excitation. The Booster Ring magnet power supply system based on resonant circuits, coupled with distributed energy make-up networks, is a complex system, sensitive to many system parameters. When multiple resonant cells, each with its own energy make-up network, are connected in a ring, it is very difficult to derive closed-form solutions to determine the operating conditions of the power supply system. A meaningful way to understand and analyze such a complex system is to use a simulation tool. This paper presents the analysis of operating conditions of the resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells, using the circuit simulation tool, SPICE. The focus of the study is on the effect of circuit parameter variations in energy storage chokes

  7. High accuracy 235U(n,f) data in the resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradela, C.; Duran, I.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; David, S.; Ferrant, L.; Tarrio, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Tagliente, G.; Terlizzi, R.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, S.J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Martinez, T.; Villamarin, D.; Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J.; Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Lukic, S.; Rudolf, G.; Becvar, F.; Embid-Segura, M.; Krticka, M.; Vincente, M.C.; Calvino, F.; Cortes, G.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Calviani, M.; Cennini, P.; Chiaveri, E.; Dahlfors, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Rubbia, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, V.; Weiss, C.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J.; Carrapico, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Tavora, L.; Vaz, P.; Chepel, V.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Lindote, A.; Colonna, N.; Marrone, S.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Wiesher, M.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Mosconi, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Tain, J.L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Lampoudis, C.; Savvidis, I.; Fujii, K.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Furman, W.; Konovalov, V.; Goverdovski, A.; Ketlerov, V.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P.; Praena, J.; Guerrero, C.; Haight, R.; Koehler, P.; Reifarth, R.; Igashira, M.; Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R.; Massimi, C.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Mengoni, A.; Plompen, A.; Rullhusen, P.; Rauscher, T.; Ventura, A.; Pavlik, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 235 U neutron-induced cross section is widely used as reference cross section for measuring other fission cross sections, but in the resonance region it is not considered as an IAEA standard because of the scarce experimental data covering the full region. In this work, we deal with a new analysis of the experimental data obtained with a detection setup based on parallel plate ionization chambers (PPACs) at the CERN n-TOF facility in the range from 1 eV to 10 keV. The relative cross section has been normalised to the IAEA value in the region between 7.8 and 11 eV, which is claimed as well-known. Its comparison with the last IAEA reference files and with the present version of the ENDF evaluation leads to the following conclusions: 1) there is very good agreement with the shape of the ENDF cross-section in the resolved resonance range, while showing a lower background; 2) the ENDF integral values, apart from a 2% difference in the normalisation value at 7.8-11.0 eV, show a sharp drop at the transition from the resolved to the unresolved resonance energy regions; And 3) There is a very good agreement with the IAEA integral-data set, provided that an offset of 0.09 barn is applied in the whole energy range

  8. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.; Hardin, Brian E.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation

  9. Electronic energy transfer through non-adiabatic vibrational-electronic resonance. I. Theory for a dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivek; Peters, William K.; Jonas, David M.

    2017-10-01

    Non-adiabatic vibrational-electronic resonance in the excited electronic states of natural photosynthetic antennas drastically alters the adiabatic framework, in which electronic energy transfer has been conventionally studied, and suggests the possibility of exploiting non-adiabatic dynamics for directed energy transfer. Here, a generalized dimer model incorporates asymmetries between pigments, coupling to the environment, and the doubly excited state relevant for nonlinear spectroscopy. For this generalized dimer model, the vibrational tuning vector that drives energy transfer is derived and connected to decoherence between singly excited states. A correlation vector is connected to decoherence between the ground state and the doubly excited state. Optical decoherence between the ground and singly excited states involves linear combinations of the correlation and tuning vectors. Excitonic coupling modifies the tuning vector. The correlation and tuning vectors are not always orthogonal, and both can be asymmetric under pigment exchange, which affects energy transfer. For equal pigment vibrational frequencies, the nonadiabatic tuning vector becomes an anti-correlated delocalized linear combination of intramolecular vibrations of the two pigments, and the nonadiabatic energy transfer dynamics become separable. With exchange symmetry, the correlation and tuning vectors become delocalized intramolecular vibrations that are symmetric and antisymmetric under pigment exchange. Diabatic criteria for vibrational-excitonic resonance demonstrate that anti-correlated vibrations increase the range and speed of vibronically resonant energy transfer (the Golden Rule rate is a factor of 2 faster). A partial trace analysis shows that vibronic decoherence for a vibrational-excitonic resonance between two excitons is slower than their purely excitonic decoherence.

  10. Shape resonances in low-energy-electron collisions with halopyrimidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H. F., E-mail: bettega@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil)

    2013-12-07

    We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy electrons with halopyrimidines, namely, 2-chloro, 2-bromo, and 5-bromopyrimidine. We employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials to compute the cross sections in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization levels of approximation for energies up to 10 eV. We found four shape resonances for each molecule: three of π* nature localized on the ring and one of σ* nature localized along the carbon–halogen bond. We compared the calculated positions of the resonances with the electron transmission spectroscopy data measured by Modelli et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 10775 (2011)]. In general the agreement between theory and experiment is good. In particular, our results show the existence of a π* temporary anion state of A{sub 2} symmetry for all three halopyrimidines, in agreement with the dissociative electron attachment spectra also reported by Modelli et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 10775 (2011)].

  11. Non-resonant energy harvesting via an adaptive bistable potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinloo, Ashkan Haji; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Narrow bandwidth and easy detuning, inefficiency in broadband and non-stationary excitations, and difficulties in matching a linear harvester’s resonance frequency to low-frequency excitations at small scales, have convinced researchers to investigate nonlinear, and in particular bistable, energy harvesters in recent years. However, bistable harvesters suffer from co-existing low and high energy orbits, and sensitivity to initial conditions, and have recently been proven inefficient when subjected to many real-world random and non-stationary excitations. Here, we propose a novel non-resonant buy-low-sell-high strategy that can significantly improve the harvester’s effectiveness at low frequencies in a much more robust fashion. This strategy could be realized by a passive adaptive bistable system. Simulation results confirm the high effectiveness of the adaptive bistable system following a buy-low-sell-high logic when subjected to harmonic and random non-stationary walking excitations compared to its conventional bistable and linear counterparts. (paper)

  12. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  13. Resonant tunneling: A method for simultaneous determination of resonance energy and energy eigenvalue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: Fethi_maiz@yahoo.fr [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); Eissa, S.A. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); AL-AZHAR University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); AlFaify, S. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-09-15

    Assuming an effective mass approximation and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method for simultaneous determination of the energy levels forming the sub-band structure and the transmissions coefficient of non-symmetrical, non-periodical potential semiconducting heterostructure is being proposed. The method can be applied on a multilayer system with varying thickness and effective mass of the layers, and with potential that is neither periodical nor symmetrical. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, cases of symmetrical rectangular triple-barrier structure with constant effective mass, multi-barrier semiconductor heterostructure (nine barriers–eight-wells), and monomer height barrier superlattices (300 barriers) systems have been examined. Findings show very good agreements with previously published results obtained by different methods on similar systems. The proposed method was found to be useful for any number of semiconducting layers arranged in any random way making it more realistic, simple, and applicable to superlattice analysis and for devices design.

  14. Wide-range tuning of polymer microring resonators by the photobleaching of CLD-1 chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Joyce K. S.; Huang, Yanyi; Paloczi, George T.; Yariv, Amnon; Zhang, Cheng; Dalton, Larry R.

    2004-11-01

    We present a simple and effective method for the postfabrication trimming of optical microresonators. We photobleach CLD-1 chromophores to tune the resonance wavelengths of polymer microring resonator optical notch filters. A maximum wavelength shift of -8.73 nm is observed. The resonators are fabricated with a soft-lithography molding technique and have an intrinsic Q value of 2.6×10^4 and a finesse of 9.3. The maximum extinction ratio of the resonator filters is -34 dB, indicating that the critical coupling condition has been satisfied.

  15. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont proportionnelles a E{sup 5}{sub {gamma

  16. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  17. New energy replacement method for resonant power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Resonant Power Supply is an economically and technically advanced solution for Rapid Cycling Accelerators. Several papers dealt with the design and operation of these power supplies, however, the energy replacement methods were not discussed in the past. This paper analyzes different energy-replacement methods and presents a new method. This method uses a 24-pulse converter to regulate the magnet current during flat-top and injection periods and replaces the energy loss by charging the accelerator capacitor bank during the flat-top, reset and injection periods, charge is injected in the circuit during the acceleration period, when it replaces the energy loss. This paper compares the new method with the existing ones. The analyses proved the feasibility of the proposed method. The operation of the proposed method was verified by a model experiment, which showed that the new circuit can be controlled accurately and operates with smaller disturbances to the power line than the existing systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  19. Research of resonant losses of ultrasonic sound in the deformed single crystals in temperature range 77...300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchenko, A.M.; Petchenko, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The damped dislocation resonance in preliminary deformed up to 1 % single crystals KBr was investigated. The measurements of a frequency dependence of a dislocation damping decrement of ultrasonic sound were conducted in range of frequencies 7,5...217,5 MHz and temperature range 77...300 K. From the analysis of frequency spectrums the temperature course of a coefficient of phonon viscosity B was determined, which is agreed both with the theory and experimental literary data. The influencing temperature changes of length of a dislocation segment on parameters of a resonant maximum and dynamic drag of dislocations by phonons was revealed and analyzed

  20. Resonance charge exchange mechanism at high and moderate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Charge exchange mechanisms at high and medium energies are investigated, ta king the resonance charge exchange of a proton by an hydrogen atom as an example . It is established that there are two classical charge exchange mechanisms rel ated to direct proton knockout from the bound state and one quantum-mechanical mechanism corresponding to the electron tunnelling from one bound state to anoth er. The classical cross-section diverges for two of these mechanisms, and the quasiclassical scattering amplitude must be calculated on the base of a complex classical trajectory. Physical grounds for the choice of such trajectories are discussed and calculations of the Van Vleck determinant for these mechanisms a re presented. Contributions from different mechanisms to the total charge excha nge cross-section are analyzed. A comparison with experimental data and results of other authors is made

  1. Energy-resolved fast neutron resonance radiography at CSNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhixin; Tang, Jingyu; Jing, Hantao; Fan, Ruirui; Li, Qiang; Ning, Changjun; Bao, Jie; Ruan, Xichao; Luan, Guangyuan; Feng, Changqin; Zhang, Xianpeng

    2018-05-01

    The white neutron beamline at the China Spallation Neutron Source will be used mainly for nuclear data measurements. It will be characterized by high flux and broad energy spectra. To exploit the beamline as a neutron imaging source, we propose a liquid scintillator fiber array for fast neutron resonance radiography. The fiber detector unit has a small exposed area, which will limit the event counts and separate the events in time, thus satisfying the requirements for single-event time-of-flight (SEToF) measurement. The current study addresses the physical design criteria for ToF measurement, including flux estimation and detector response. Future development and potential application of the technology are also discussed.

  2. Resonance energy transfer: The unified theory via vector spherical harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinter, Roger, E-mail: r.grinter@uea.ac.uk; Jones, Garth A., E-mail: garth.jones@uea.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-21

    In this work, we derive the well-established expression for the quantum amplitude associated with the resonance energy transfer (RET) process between a pair of molecules that are beyond wavefunction overlap. The novelty of this work is that the field of the mediating photon is described in terms of a spherical wave rather than a plane wave. The angular components of the field are constructed in terms of vector spherical harmonics while Hankel functions are used to define the radial component. This approach alleviates the problem of having to select physically correct solution from non-physical solutions, which seems to be inherent in plane wave derivations. The spherical coordinate system allows one to easily decompose the photon’s fields into longitudinal and transverse components and offers a natural way to analyse near-, intermediate-, and far-zone RET within the context of the relative orientation of the transition dipole moments for the two molecules.

  3. An accurate energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams in arbitrary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Brahme, A.

    1994-01-01

    A general analytical energy-range relationship has been derived to relate the practical range, R p to the most probable energy, E p , of incident electron beams in the range 1 to 50 MeV and above, for absorbers of any atomic number. In the present study only Monte Carlo data determined with the new ITS.3 code have been employed. The standard deviations of the mean deviation from the Monte Carlo data at any energy are about 0.10, 0.12, 0.04, 0.11, 0.04, 0.03, 0.02 mm for Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag and U, respectively, and the relative standard deviation of the mean is about 0.5% for all materials. The fitting program gives some priority to water-equivalent materials, which explains the low standard deviation for water. A small error in the fall-off slope can give a different value for R p . We describe a new method which reduces the uncertainty in the R p determination, by fitting an odd function to the descending portion of the depth-dose curve in order to accurately determine the tangent at the inflection point, and thereby the practical range. An approximate inverse relation is given expressing the most probable energy of an electron beam as a function of the practical range. The resultant relative standard error of the energy is less than 0.7%, and the maximum energy error ΔE p is less than 0.3 MeV. (author)

  4. Theoretical photoionization spectra in the UV photon energy range for a Mg-like Al+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Soung; Kim, Young Soon

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we report the photoionization cross sections of the Al + ion calculated for the photon energy range 20-26 eV and 30-50 eV. We have expanded our previous calculation (2007 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 014302) with an optimized admixture of the initial ground state 3s 21 S and exited states 3s3p 1,3 P, 3s3d 1,3 D and 3s4s 1,3 S, and obtained significantly improved predictions for the main background and autoionizing resonance structures of the reported experimental spectra. The absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the Al + ion in these energy ranges have been performed by West et al (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 052719), and they reported that the prominent peaks around 21 eV were attributed to the effects of the significant influence of the small fraction of the fourth-order radiation with energies around 84 eV from the synchrotron source. In our previous work, the main shape for these cross sections was calculated assuming an admixture of initial 3s 21 S and 3s3p 3 P states, only with a rough overall estimate for the experimental spectra in the photon energy range 20-26 eV, and without these peaks around 21 eV. The report of the experimental assignment attributes these peaks to the excitation of a 2p electron from the core. However, our present results with the new admixture reveal similar peaks without considering the possibility of the core excitation

  5. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanida Tangkawsakul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 108 cells/ml. The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing.

  6. Assessment of Coulomb shifts in nucleon scattering resonances on light nuclei at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, N.Zh.; Uzakova, Zh.; Abdanova, L.

    2003-01-01

    The assessments of the Coulomb forces contribution to position and width of the resonances at nucleons scattering on light nuclei within low energy field are given. In particular the shifts of resonances in amplitudes arising in the processes protons scattering on light nuclei relatively neutrons scattering resonance characteristics on these nuclei are considered

  7. SSC High Energy Booster resonance corrector and dynamic tune scanning simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    A resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSCL) was investigated by means of dynamic multiparticle tracking. In the simulation the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that the bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the half integer and third integer resonance correction system is demonstrated.

  8. Observation of Resonant Behavior in the Energy Velocity of Diffused Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, R.; Garcia, P. D.; Blanco, A.; Lopez, C.; Bertolotti, J.; Wiersma, D. S.; Martin, M. D.; Vina, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter we demonstrate Mie resonances mediated transport of light in randomly arranged, monodisperse dielectric spheres packed at high filling fractions. By means of both static and dynamic optical experiments we show resonant behavior in the key transport parameters and, in particular, we find that the energy transport velocity, which is lower than the group velocity, also displays a resonant behavior

  9. Resonance oscillations of nonreciprocal long-range van der Waals forces between atoms in electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkunov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study theoretically the van der Waals interaction between two atoms out of equilibrium with an isotropic electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that at large interatomic separations, the van der Waals forces are resonant, spatially oscillating, and nonreciprocal due to resonance absorption and emission of virtual photons. We suggest that the van der Waals forces can be controlled and manipulated by tuning the spectrum of artificially created random light.

  10. Performance Improvement of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface-Energy-Induced Dual Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengnan; Shen, Ping; Liu, Yan; Chen, Boyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang

    2016-03-09

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is effectively applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs) to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, universality of the reported results mainly focused on utilizing single type of MNPs to enhance light absorption only in specific narrow wavelength range. Herein, a surface-energy-induced dual MNP plasmon resonance by thermally evaporating method was presented to achieve the absorption enhancement in wider range. The differences of surface energy between silver (Ag), gold (Au), and tungsten trioxide (WO3) compared by contact angle images enable Ag and Au prefer to respectively aggregate into isolated islands rather than films at the initial stage of the evaporation process, which was clearly demonstrated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. The sum of plasmon-enhanced wavelength range induced by both Ag NPs (350-450 nm) and Au NPs (450-600 nm) almost cover the whole absorption spectra of active layers, which compatibly contribute a significant efficiency improvement from 4.57 ± 0.16 to 6.55 ± 0.12% compared to the one without MNPs. Besides, steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide strong evidence that the SPR induced by the Ag-Au NPs increase the intensity of light absorption. Finally, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) reveals that doping Au and Ag causes upper shift of both the work function and valence band of WO3, which is directly related to hole collection ability. We believe the surface-energy-induced dual plasmon resonance enhancement by simple thermally evaporating technique might pave the way toward higher-efficiency PSCs.

  11. Organic solar cells: understanding the role of Förster resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Krishna; Belcher, Warwick J; Fell, Christopher J; Dastoor, Paul C

    2012-12-12

    Organic solar cells have the potential to become a low-cost sustainable energy source. Understanding the photoconversion mechanism is key to the design of efficient organic solar cells. In this review, we discuss the processes involved in the photo-electron conversion mechanism, which may be subdivided into exciton harvesting, exciton transport, exciton dissociation, charge transport and extraction stages. In particular, we focus on the role of energy transfer as described by F¨orster resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory in the photoconversion mechanism. FRET plays a major role in exciton transport, harvesting and dissociation. The spectral absorption range of organic solar cells may be extended using sensitizers that efficiently transfer absorbed energy to the photoactive materials. The limitations of F¨orster theory to accurately calculate energy transfer rates are discussed. Energy transfer is the first step of an efficient two-step exciton dissociation process and may also be used to preferentially transport excitons to the heterointerface, where efficient exciton dissociation may occur. However, FRET also competes with charge transfer at the heterointerface turning it in a potential loss mechanism. An energy cascade comprising both energy transfer and charge transfer may aid in separating charges and is briefly discussed. Considering the extent to which the photo-electron conversion efficiency is governed by energy transfer, optimisation of this process offers the prospect of improved organic photovoltaic performance and thus aids in realising the potential of organic solar cells.

  12. Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Role of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Dastoor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cells have the potential to become a low-cost sustainable energy source. Understanding the photoconversion mechanism is key to the design of efficient organic solar cells. In this review, we discuss the processes involved in the photo-electron conversion mechanism, which may be subdivided into exciton harvesting, exciton transport, exciton dissociation, charge transport and extraction stages. In particular, we focus on the role of energy transfer as described by F¨orster resonance energy transfer (FRET theory in the photoconversion mechanism. FRET plays a major role in exciton transport, harvesting and dissociation. The spectral absorption range of organic solar cells may be extended using sensitizers that efficiently transfer absorbed energy to the photoactive materials. The limitations of F¨orster theory to accurately calculate energy transfer rates are discussed. Energy transfer is the first step of an efficient two-step exciton dissociation process and may also be used to preferentially transport excitons to the heterointerface, where efficient exciton dissociation may occur. However, FRET also competes with charge transfer at the heterointerface turning it in a potential loss mechanism. An energy cascade comprising both energy transfer and charge transfer may aid in separating charges and is briefly discussed. Considering the extent to which the photo-electron conversion efficiency is governed by energy transfer, optimisation of this process offers the prospect of improved organic photovoltaic performance and thus aids in realising the potential of organic solar cells.

  13. Wide wavelength range tunable one-dimensional silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance filter based on azimuthal rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Yukino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe wavelength tuning in a one dimensional (1D silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance (GMR structure under conical mounting configuration of the device. When the GMR structure is rotated about the axis perpendicular to the surface of the device (azimuthal rotation for light incident at oblique angles, the conditions for resonance are different than for conventional GMR structures under classical mounting. These resonance conditions enable tuning of the GMR peak position over a wide range of wavelengths. We experimental demonstrate tuning over a range of 375 nm between 500 nm˜875 nm. We present a theoretical model to explain the resonance conditions observed in our experiments and predict the peak positions with show excellent agreement with experiments. Our method for tuning wavelengths is simpler and more efficient than conventional procedures that employ variations in the design parameters of structures or conical mounting of two-dimensional (2D GMR structures and enables a single 1D GMR device to function as a high efficiency wavelength filter over a wide range of wavelengths. We expect tunable filters based on this technique to be applicable in a wide range of fields including astronomy and biomedical imaging.

  14. N* resonances from KΛ amplitudes in sliced bins in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisovich, A.V.; Nikonov, V.A.; Sarantsev, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Particle and Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Burkert, V. [Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Hadzimehmedovic, M.; Omerovic, R.; Stahov, J. [University of Tuzla, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Ireland, D.G. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Klempt, E. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Svarc, A. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Thoma, U. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    The two reactions γp → K{sup +}Λ and π{sup -}p → K{sup 0}Λ are analyzed to determine the leading photoproduction multipoles and the pion-induced partial wave amplitudes in slices of the invariant mass. The multipoles and the partial-wave amplitudes are simultaneously fitted in a multichannel Laurent+Pietarinen model (L+P model), which determines the poles in the complex energy plane on the second Riemann sheet close to the physical axes. The results from the L+P fit are compared with the results of an energy-dependent fit based on the Bonn-Gatchina (BnGa) approach. The study confirms the existence of several poles due to nucleon resonances in the region at about 1.9 GeV with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +}, 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}, 5/2{sup -}. (orig.)

  15. High-energy tail distributions and resonant wave particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    High-energy tail distributions (k distributions) are used as an alternative to a bi-Lorentzian distribution to study the influence of energetic protons on the right- and left-hand cyclotron modes in a hot two-temperature plasma. Although the parameters are chosen to be in a range appropriate to solar wind or magnetospheric configurations, the results apply not only to specific space plasmas. The presence of energetic particles significantly alters the behavior of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes, leading to a wide range of unstable frequencies and increased growth rates. From the strongly enhanced growth rates it can be concluded that high-energy tail distributions should not show major temperature anisotropies, which is consistent with observations.

  16. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  17. Exploring the range of energy savings likely from energy efficiency retrofit measures in Ireland's residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential energy savings in the Irish residential sector by 2020 due to the introduction of an ambitious retrofit programme. We estimate the technical energy savings potential of retrofit measures targeting energy efficiency of the space and water heating end uses of the 2011 stock of residential dwellings between 2012 and 2020. We build eight separate scenarios, varying the number of dwellings retrofitted and the depth of retrofit carried out in order to investigate the range of energy savings possible. In 2020 the estimated technical savings potential lies in the range from 1713 GWh to 10,817 GWh, but is more likely to fall within the lower end of this range, i.e. between 1700 and 4360 GWh. When rebound effects are taken into account this reduces further to 1100 GWh and 2800 GWh per annum. The purpose of this paper was to test the robustness of the NEEAP target savings for residential retrofit, i.e. 3000 GWh by 2020. We conclude that this target is technically feasible but very challenging and unlikely to be achieved based on progress to date. It will require a significant shift towards deeper retrofit measures compared to what has been achieved by previous schemes. - Highlights: • Paper estimates range of energy savings likely from Irish residential retrofit. • Achieving NEEAP target savings of 3000 GWh by 2020 is feasible but very challenging. • Likely savings of 1100–2800 GWh per annum in 2020, including rebound. • NEEAP target unlikely to be achieved based on current trends.

  18. FEL based photon collider of TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Shnejdmiller, E.A.; Sarantsev, V.P.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Physical principles of operation of high energy photon linear colliders (PLC) based on the Compton backscattering of laser photons on high energy electrons are discussed. The main emphasis is put on the analysis of a possibility to construct the PLC with the center of mass energy 0.5-2 TeV. Free electron laser (FEL) is considered as a source of primary photons. Proposed FEL system consists of a tunable FEL oscillator (output power ∼ 1 - 10 MW) with subsequent amplification of the master signal in a FEL amplifier up to the power ∼ 3 x 10 11 W. The FEL parameters are optimized, restrictions on the electron beam and FEL magnetic system parameters are formulated and problems of technical realization are discussed. It is shown that the FEL technique provides the most suitable way to construct photon linear collider on the base of future generation linear collider. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  20. Analysis of the 235U neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Using recent high-resolution measurements of the neutron transmission of 235 U and the spin-separated fission cross-section data of Moore et al., a multilevel analysis of the 235 U neutron cross sections was performed up to 300 eV. The Dyson Metha Δ 3 statistics were used to help locate small levels above 100 eV where resonances are not clearly resolved even in the best resolution measurements available. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are discussed

  1. Analysis of the 235U neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Using recent high-resolution measurements of the neutron transmission of 235 U and the spin-separated fission cross-section data of Moore et al., a multilevel analysis of the 235 U neutron cross sections was performed up to 300 eV. The Dyson Metha Δ 3 statistics were used to help locate small levels above 100 eV where resonances are not clearly resolved even in the best resolution measurements available. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are discussed. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Stability of a Short Rayleigh Range Laser Resonator with Misaligned or Distorted Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, Peter P; Colson, William B

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the prospect of constructing an FEL with short Rayleigh length in a high-vibration shipboard environment, we have studied the effect of mirror vibration and distortion on the behavior of the fundamental optical mode of a cold-cavity resonator. A tilt or transverse shift of a mirror causes the optical mode to rock sinusoidally about the original resonator axis. A longitudinal mirror shift or a change in the mirror’s radius of curvature causes the beam diameter at a mirror to dilate and contract with successive impacts. Results from both ray-tracing techniques and wavefront propagation simulations are in excellent agreement.

  3. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-Free Multistep Synthesis of Silver Nanoplates with Plasmon Resonance in the Near Infrared Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Assad U; Zhou, Zhengping; Krause, Joseph; Liu, Guoliang

    2017-11-01

    Herein, a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-free method is described for synthesizing Ag nanoplates that have localized surface plasmon resonance in the near-infrared (NIR) range. Citrate-capped Ag spherical nanoparticles are first grown into small Ag nanoplates that resonate in the range of 500-800 nm. The small Ag nanoplates are used as seeds to further grow into large Ag nanoplates with a lateral dimension of 100-600 nm and a plasmon resonance wavelength of 800-1660 nm and above. The number of growth steps can be increased as desired. Without introducing additional citrate into the solutions of small Ag nanoplate seeds, large Ag nanoplates can be synthesized within minutes. The entire synthesis is completely PVP free, which promotes the nanoparticle growth along the lateral direction to form large Ag nanoplates. The multistep growth and the minimum usage of citrate are essential for the fast growth of high-aspect-ratio Ag nanoplates resonating in the NIR range. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Properties of short-range and long-range correlation energy density functionals from electron-electron coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The combination of density-functional theory with other approaches to the many-electron problem through the separation of the electron-electron interaction into a short-range and a long-range contribution is a promising method, which is raising more and more interest in recent years. In this work some properties of the corresponding correlation energy functionals are derived by studying the electron-electron coalescence condition for a modified (long-range-only) interaction. A general relation for the on-top (zero electron-electron distance) pair density is derived, and its usefulness is discussed with some examples. For the special case of the uniform electron gas, a simple parametrization of the on-top pair density for a long-range only interaction is presented and supported by calculations within the ''extended Overhauser model.'' The results of this work can be used to build self-interaction corrected short-range correlation energy functionals

  5. Circularly polarized microwaves for magnetic resonance study in the GHz range: Application to nitrogen-vacancy in diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrózek, M.; Rudnicki, D. S.; Gawlik, W.; Mlynarczyk, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create time-dependent magnetic fields of controlled polarization is essential for many experiments with magnetic resonance. We describe a microstrip circuit that allows us to generate strong magnetic field at microwave frequencies with arbitrary adjusted polarization. The circuit performance is demonstrated by applying it to an optically detected magnetic resonance and Rabi nutation experiments in nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond. Thanks to high efficiency of the proposed microstrip circuit and degree of circular polarization of 85%; it is possible to address the specific spin states of a diamond sample using a low power microwave generator. The circuit may be applied to a wide range of magnetic resonance experiments with a well-controlled polarization of microwaves

  6. Pulsed power inductive energy storage in the microsecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Miller, A.R.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilkinson, M.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the past five years Maxwell has developed a series of inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generators; ACE 1, ACE 2, ACE 3, and ACE 4, to drive electron-beam loads. They are all based on a plasma opening switch (POS) contained in a single vacuum envelope operating at conduction times of around one microsecond. They all employ fast capacitor bank technology to match this conduction time without intermediate power conditioning. Oil or air filled transmission lines transfer capacitor bank energy to a vacuum section where the final pulse compression is accomplished. Development of the ACE series is described, emphasizing capacitor bank and the opening switch technology for delivering high voltage, multimegampere pulses to electron beam loads

  7. Resonant inelastic scattering at intermediate X-ray energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, C F; Journel, L; Gallet, J J; Rogalev, A; Krill, G; Kappler, J P

    2000-01-01

    We describe resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in X-ray fluorescence performed in the 3-5 keV range. The examples chosen are X-ray fluorescence MCD of FeRh and RIXS experiments performed at the L/sub 3/ edge of Ce. Fe Rh is antiferromagnetic at room temperature but has a transition to the ferromagnetic state above 400 K. The Rh MCD signal is compared with an augmented spherical wave calculation. The experiment confirms the predicted spin polarization of the Rh 4d valence states. The RIXS measurements on Ce compounds and intermetallics address the problem of mixed valency especially in systems where degeneracy with the Fermi level remains small. Examples are taken from the 2p to (4f5d) /sup +1/ followed by 3d to 2p RIXS for a highly ionic compound CeF /sub 3/ and for almost gamma -like CeCuSi. (38 refs).

  8. Optimal Design of a High Efficiency LLC Resonant Converter with a Narrow Frequency Range for Voltage Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Luo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a key factor in the design of a voltage-adjustable LLC resonant converter, frequency regulation range is very important to the optimization of magnetic components and efficiency improvement. This paper presents a novel optimal design method for LLC resonant converters, which can narrow the frequency variation range and ensure high efficiency under the premise of a required gain achievement. A simplified gain model was utilized to simplify the calculation and the expected efficiency was initially set as 96.5%. The restricted area of parameter optimization design can be obtained by taking the intersection of the gain requirement, the efficiency requirement, and three restrictions of ZVS (Zero Voltage Switch. The proposed method was verified by simulation and experiments of a 150 W prototype. The results show that the proposed method can achieve ZVS from full-load to no-load conditions and can reach 1.6 times the normalized voltage gain in the frequency variation range of 18 kHz with a peak efficiency of up to 96.3%. Moreover, the expected efficiency is adjustable, which means a converter with a higher efficiency can be designed. The proposed method can also be used for the design of large-power LLC resonant converters to obtain a wide output voltage range and higher efficiency.

  9. Kilovoltage energy imaging with a radiotherapy linac with a continuously variable energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D A; Hansen, V N; Thompson, M G; Poludniowski, G; Niven, A; Seco, J; Evans, P M

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the effect on image quality of significantly reducing the primary electron energy of a radiotherapy accelerator is investigated using a novel waveguide test piece. The waveguide contains a novel variable coupling device (rotovane), allowing for a wide continuously variable energy range of between 1.4 and 9 MeV suitable for both imaging and therapy. Imaging at linac accelerating potentials close to 1 MV was investigated experimentally and via Monte Carlo simulations. An imaging beam line was designed, and planar and cone beam computed tomography images were obtained to enable qualitative and quantitative comparisons with kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging systems. The imaging beam had an electron energy of 1.4 MeV, which was incident on a water cooled electron window consisting of stainless steel, a 5 mm carbon electron absorber and 2.5 mm aluminium filtration. Images were acquired with an amorphous silicon detector sensitive to diagnostic x-ray energies. The x-ray beam had an average energy of 220 keV and half value layer of 5.9 mm of copper. Cone beam CT images with the same contrast to noise ratio as a gantry mounted kilovoltage imaging system were obtained with doses as low as 2 cGy. This dose is equivalent to a single 6 MV portal image. While 12 times higher than a 100 kVp CBCT system (Elekta XVI), this dose is 140 times lower than a 6 MV cone beam imaging system and 6 times lower than previously published LowZ imaging beams operating at higher (4-5 MeV) energies. The novel coupling device provides for a wide range of electron energies that are suitable for kilovoltage quality imaging and therapy. The imaging system provides high contrast images from the therapy portal at low dose, approaching that of gantry mounted kilovoltage x-ray systems. Additionally, the system provides low dose imaging directly from the therapy portal, potentially allowing for target tracking during radiotherapy treatment. There is the scope with such a tuneable system

  10. Electron beam absorption in solid and in water phantoms: depth scaling and energy-range relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; Roos, M.

    1989-01-01

    In electron dosimetry energy parameters are used with values evaluated from ranges in water. The electron ranges in water may be deduced from ranges measured in solid phantoms. Several procedures recommended by national and international organisations differ both in the scaling of the ranges and in the energy-range relations for water. Using the Monte Carlo method the application of different procedures for electron energies below 10 MeV is studied for different phantom materials. It is shown that deviations in the range scaling and in the energy-range relations for water may accumulate to give energy errors of several per cent. In consequence energy-range relations are deduced for several solid phantom materials which enable a single-step energy determination. (author)

  11. Nanometer-range atomic order directly recovered from resonant diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Kub, Jiří; Fábry, Jan; Hlinka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 054202. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diffuse scattering * resonant scattering * atomic structure * perovskites * relaxors * PbMg 1/3 Nb 2/3 O 3 (PMN) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  12. Study on the aligned uranium-235 nuclear decay in the neutron energy range of 1.7 eV - 2.15 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danelyan, L.S.; Zakharov, Yu.V.; Zykov, V.M.; Mostovoj, V.I.; Stolyarov, V.A.; Biryukov, S.A.; Zysina, N.Yu.; Osochnikov, A.A.; Svettsov, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer comparative measurements of intensity of fission reaction on the aligned and non-oriented uranium-235 nuclei have been performed in order to identify the resonances caused by p-neutron capture as well as to determine the p-neutron contribution to the fission cross section in the region of unresolved resonances. In some isolated resonances differences in cross sections on aligned and non-oriented nuclei of about 10% have been observed which can permit to assi.on them to p-resonances. In the region of unresolved resonances in the 0.15-2.15 keV neutron energy range to the accuracy +-1% no changes in the fission cross section during the nuclear alignment have been observ

  13. Design analysis of doped-silicon surface plasmon resonance immunosensors in mid-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPippo, William; Lee, Bong Jae; Park, Keunhan

    2010-08-30

    This paper reports the design analysis of a microfabricatable mid-infrared (mid-IR) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor platform. The proposed platform has periodic heavily doped profiles implanted into intrinsic silicon and a thin gold layer deposited on top, making a physically flat grating SPR coupler. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis was conducted to prove the design feasibility, characterize the sensor's performance, and determine geometric parameters of the heavily doped profiles. Finite element analysis (FEA) was also employed to compute the electromagnetic field distributions at the plasmon resonance. Obtained results reveal that the proposed structure can excite the SPR on the normal incidence of mid-IR light, resulting in a large probing depth that will facilitate the study of larger analytes. Furthermore, the whole structure can be microfabricated with well-established batch protocols, providing tunability in the SPR excitation wavelength for specific biosensing needs with a low manufacturing cost. When the SPR sensor is to be used in a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy platform, its detection sensitivity and limit of detection are estimated to be 3022 nm/RIU and ~70 pg/mm(2), respectively, at a sample layer thickness of 100 nm. The design analysis performed in the present study will allow the fabrication of a tunable, disposable mid-IR SPR sensor that combines advantages of conventional prism and metallic grating SPR sensors.

  14. ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] discharges maintained by radiation in the millimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Yu.V.; Golubev, S.V.; Eremeev, A.G.; Zorin, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that plasmas formed by microwave breakdown of gases under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions can serve as an efficient source for ion beams. The major disadvantage of this type of source is relatively low ion beam currents which generally do not exceed 1 A (for an electron density of ∼10 12 cm -3 in the discharge). Raising the current density in the ion beams requires a higher plasma density, which can be obtained by using higher frequencies. Thus, a study has recently been made of the parameters of the plasma formed by ECR breakdown in a linear confinement system employing pulsed radiation at a frequency of 60 GHz. The maximum electron densities obtained in the experiment were 2·10 13 cm -3 at a gas pressure of 3·10 -4 torr. In this paper the authors describe some experiments on the creation of plasmas by means of quasi-cw electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 100 GHz under electron cyclotron resonance conditions

  15. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0–20 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyn, V.I.

    2016-01-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C 32 H 66 ) has been studied in-situ in the range 0–20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes. - Highlights: • Obtaining spectra of activated polymerization using ellipsometry and Kelvin probe. • Identified: two resonant and one non-resonant mechanisms of the activation. • The resonances are due to the action of the dissociative electron attachment. • Kinetics of transient processes in adsorbed layer under 20 eV pulsed electron beam.

  16. Neutron resonance transmission spectroscopy with high spatial and energy resolution at the J-PARC pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shinohara, T.; Kai, T.; Ooi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2–4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Shiota, Y. [Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8 Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2014-05-11

    The sharp variation of neutron attenuation at certain energies specific to particular nuclides (the lower range being from ∼1 eV up to ∼1 keV), can be exploited for the remote mapping of element and/or isotope distributions, as well as temperature probing, within relatively thick samples. Intense pulsed neutron beam-lines at spallation sources combined with a high spatial, high-timing resolution neutron counting detector, provide a unique opportunity to measure neutron transmission spectra through the time-of-flight technique. We present the results of experiments where spatially resolved neutron resonances were measured, at energies up to 50 keV. These experiments were performed with the intense flux low background NOBORU neutron beamline at the J-PARC neutron source and the high timing resolution (∼20 ns at epithermal neutron energies) and spatial resolution (∼55 µm) neutron counting detector using microchannel plates coupled to a Timepix electronic readout. Simultaneous element-specific imaging was carried out for several materials, at a spatial resolution of ∼150 µm. The high timing resolution of our detector combined with the low background beamline, also enabled characterization of the neutron pulse itself – specifically its pulse width, which varies with neutron energy. The results of our measurements are in good agreement with the predicted results for the double pulse structure of the J-PARC facility, which provides two 100 ns-wide proton pulses separated by 600 ns, broadened by the neutron energy moderation process. Thermal neutron radiography can be conducted simultaneously with resonance transmission spectroscopy, and can reveal the internal structure of the samples. The transmission spectra measured in our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of mapping elemental distributions using this non-destructive technique, for those elements (and in certain cases, specific isotopes), which have resonance energies below a few keV, and with lower

  17. Non-resonant energy harvester with elastic constraints for low rotating frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sebastián P.; Febbo, Mariano; Gatti, Claudio D.; Ramirez, José M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a non-resonant piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) which is designed to capture energy from low frequency rotational vibration. The proposed device works out of the plane of rotation where the motion of a mass-spring system is transferred to a piezoelectric layer with the intention to generate energy to power wireless structural monitoring systems or sensors. The mechanical structure is formed by two beams with rigid and elastic boundary conditions at the clamped end. On the free boundaries, heavy masses connected by a spring are placed in order to increase voltage generation and diminish the natural frequency. A mathematical framework and the equations governing the energy-harvesting system are presented. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed for different rotation speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Hz. An output power of 125 μW is obtained for maximum rotating frequency demonstrating that the proposed design can collect enough energy for the suggested application.

  18. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornaton, Y.; Stoyanova, A.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    of the noninteracting Kohn-Sham one. When second-order corrections to the density are neglected, the energy expression reduces to a range-separated double-hybrid (RSDH) type of functional, RSDHf, where "f" stands for "full-range integrals" as the regular full-range interaction appears explicitly in the energy...

  19. Polarized beam asymmetry for. gamma. d. -->. Peta in the energy range 0. 4-0. 8 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, F.V.; Arustamyan, G.V.; Galumyan, P.I.; Grabsky, V.H.; Hakopyan, H.H.; Karapetyan, V.V.; Vartapetyan, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the polarized beam asymmetry for deuteron photodisintegration ..gamma..d ..-->.. Peta have been carried out in the energy range E/sub ..gamma../ = 0.4-0.8 GeV and at angles theta/sub p//sup cm/ = 45/sup 0/-75/sup 0/. The results obtained are in disagreement with theoretical predictions which take into account the dibaryon resonance contribution. The data qualitative analysis indicates the weakness of isoscalar dibaryon amplitudes near E/sub ..gamma../ = 400 MeV. 8 references, 1 figure.

  20. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamatskou, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  1. Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  2. Förster resonance energy transfer between acridinediones and selected fluorophores—Medium dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaveni, R. [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600113 (India); Ramamurthy, P., E-mail: prm60@hotmail.com [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600113 (India)

    2013-06-15

    We report highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer process between acridinedione dyes and basic fluorophores. FRET between free and β-cyclodextrin modified acridinediones as donors and fluorophoric dyes like safranine as acceptor were investigated in an alcoholic medium, polymer solution and a polymeric film. Efficiency of the processes were experimentally found by steady-state and time-resolved experiments for different donor and acceptor combinations. The associated spectral parameters viz., R{sup 0}, J(λ) were calculated, the Stern–Volmer relations based on fluorescence intensity and lifetime were constructed and the rates of energy transfer were calculated. The results indicated that the dominant mechanism responsible for the excitation energy transfer is that of resonance transfer due to long range dipole–dipole interaction and the process was found to be highly efficient when the medium was a constrained one as in the case of a polymeric film. A multifold enhancement in efficiency of energy transfer was also observed when the donor was a modified acridinedione when compared to a free acridinedione. The reason is attributed to the effective binding of the acceptor into the cavity of β-cyclodextrin. Highlights: ► FRET between acridinediones and fluorophoric acceptors were investigated. ► FRET analysis was carried out in methanol, a 5% PVA solution and in PVA matrix. ► FRET efficiency was maximum when the medium was PVA matrix. ► FRET efficiency was also more when β-CD modified ADR is used as the donor. ► Efficiency enhancement is due to the inclusion of acceptor into the cavity of β-CD.

  3. Pion elastic scattering from polarized 13C in the energy region of the P33 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yifen, Yen

    1992-08-01

    Asymmetries (A y ) and differential cross sections (dσ/dΩ) were measured for π + and π - elastic scattering using polarized and unpolarized 13 C targets. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility with the pion beam from the Low Energy Pion channel. The scattered pions were detected with the Large Acceptance Spectrometer. The 13 C nuclei in 13 C-enriched 1-butanol were polarized by the dynamic nuclear polarilization method. Angular distributions of both A y and dσ/dΩ were measured below the P 33 resonance at the incident energy of 130 MeV for π + and π - , and above the resonance at 223 MeV for π + and at 226 MeV for π - . In addition, A y and dσ/dΩ were measured in a range of momentum transfers, 1.75 ≤ q ≤ 2.05 fm - , at several energies. At 130 MeV, the values of A y are significantly different from zero for π - scattering. For π + at 130 MeV and for both π - and π + at all other energies, the A y are mostly consistent with zero. Theoretical analyses were done using different nuclear structure models. The data were not reproduced by the presently available nuclear wave functions. It was found that the asymmetry is strongly sensitive to the quadrupole spin flip part of the transition. The data of this thesis complement measurements of the magnetic form factor from electron scattering. In attempts to fit both the asymmetry and the magnetic form factor, it was found that the pion asymmetry data are not reproduced by the wavefunctions which fit the magnetic form factor at low momentum transfers

  4. EXAMINING A SERIES RESONANT INVERTER CIRCUIT TO USE IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ÇETİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available As we know, solar energy is the energy source which is environment friendly, renewable, and can be found easily. Particularly, in the recent years, interest on producing electrical energy by alternative energy sources increased because of the fact that underground sources are not enough to produce energy in the future and also these sources cause enviromental pollution. The solar energy is one of the most popular one among the alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic systems produce the electrical energy from the sunlight. In this study, a series resonant inverter circuit which is used in the photovoltaic energy conversion systems has been examined.Effects of the series resonant inverter circuit on the photovoltaic energy conversion system have been investigated and examined

  5. Method for analysis of averages over transmission energy of resonance neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, A.V.; Luk'yanov, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data on transmissions on iron specimens in different energy groups have been analyzed on the basis of an earlier developed theoretical model for the description of resonance neutron averages in transmission energy, as the functions of specimen thickness and mean resonance parameters. The parameter values obtained agree with the corresponding data evaluated in the theory of mean neutron cross sections. The method suggested for the transmission description permits to reproduce experimental results for any thicknesses of specimens [ru

  6. Excitation and photon decay of giant resonances excited by intermediate energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the giant resonances. In particular, recent measurements have been made of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented. 22 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  7. Transcript of the proceedings of the first Albuquerque informal range/energy workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, D.K.

    1981-04-01

    An informal workshop was held to discuss aspects of the calculation of range and energy deposition distributions which are of interest in ion implantation experiments. Topics covered include: problems encountered in using published range and energy deposition tabulations; some limitations in the solutions of range/energy transport equations; the effect of the scattering cross section on straggle; Monte Carlo calculations of ranges and straggling; damage studies in aluminum; simulation of heavy-ion irradiation of gold using MARLOWE; and MARLOWE calculations of range distribution parameters - dependence on input data and calculational model

  8. Energy harvesting by dynamic unstability and internal resonance for piezoelectric beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Chunbo; Qin, Weiyang, E-mail: 353481781@qq.com; Deng, Wangzheng [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We investigated the energy harvesting of a vertical beam with tip mass under vertical excitations. We applied dynamic unstability and internal resonance to improve the efficiency of harvesting. The experiments of harmonic excitation were carried out. Results show that for the beam there exist internal resonances in the dynamically unstable and the buckling bistable cases. The dynamic unstability is a determinant for strong internal resonance or mode coupling, which can be used to create a large output from piezoelectric patches. Then, the experiments of stochastic excitation were carried out. Results prove that the internal resonance or mode coupling can transfer the excitation energy to the low order modes, mainly the first and the second one. This can bring about a large output voltage. For a stochastic excitation, it is proved that there is an optimal weight of tip mass for realizing internal resonance and producing large outputs.

  9. High Performing Ternary Solar Cells through Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Nonfullerene Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Gu, Wenxing; Hong, Ling; Mi, Yang; Liu, Feng; Liu, Ming; Yang, Yufei; Sharma, Bigyan; Liu, Xinfeng; Huang, Hui

    2017-08-16

    Nonradiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is an important mechanism of organic solar cells, which can improve the exciton migration over a long distance, resulting in improvement of efficiency of solar cells. However, the current observations of FRET are very limited, and the efficiencies are less than 9%. In this study, FRET effect was first observed between two nonfullerene acceptors in ternary solar cells, which improved both the absorption range and exciton harvesting, leading to the dramatic enhancement in the short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. Moreover, this strategy is proved to be a versatile platform for conjugated polymers with different bandgaps, resulting in a remarkable efficiency of 10.4%. These results demonstrated a novel method to enhance the efficiency of organic soar cells.

  10. Investigation of (n, p) and (n, alpha) reactions with thermal and resonance energy neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gledenov, Yu M

    2002-01-01

    Influence of results of (n, alpha) and (n, p) reactions cross section and asymmetry measurements on certain branches of fundamental and applied science is considered. For instance, some of the cross sections are critical for comprehension of many scenarios of nuclear synthesis in the Universe. They are also used for studying some aspects of nuclear structure and fundamental symmetries, such as mixing of isospin and non-retaining of spatial parity. And, finally, cross sections of the reactions are of applied interest, for reactor materials technologies specifically. Types of sources and methods of (n, p) and (n, alpha) reactions measurements in energy range of thermal and resonance neutrons are described in the review. Special attention is paid to measurements in radioactive relatively short-lived samples and very small stable samples. Several examples of the measurements are provided, which are of scientific interest, as they permit demonstrating the method used. Possible future measurements are discussed in ...

  11. Revealing Nucleic Acid Mutations Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina P. L. Junager

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid mutations are of tremendous importance in modern clinical work, biotechnology and in fundamental studies of nucleic acids. Therefore, rapid, cost-effective and reliable detection of mutations is an object of extensive research. Today, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET probes are among the most often used tools for the detection of nucleic acids and in particular, for the detection of mutations. However, multiple parameters must be taken into account in order to create efficient FRET probes that are sensitive to nucleic acid mutations. In this review; we focus on the design principles for such probes and available computational methods that allow for their rational design. Applications of advanced, rationally designed FRET probes range from new insights into cellular heterogeneity to gaining new knowledge of nucleic acid structures directly in living cells.

  12. Energy and momentum balance in nonlinear interactions of resonant and nonresonant waves in turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Nambu, Mitsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    From investigations of resonant interactions of particles and waves in turbulent plasmas it is well known that not only resonant particles contribute to expressions for the wave energy and momentum providing conservation of these quantities for closed systems. In particular, it was demonstrated that contribution of the nonresonant particles is very important for the energy conservation in the quasilinear theory: although the nonresonant terms do not appear in the diffusion equation, they contribute to the wave energy (and, in general, wave momentum) ensuring the conservation of total energy (and momentum) in the system. We note that the real part of the dielectric permittivity ε ωk as well as the wave frequency ω k of the resonant waves do not depend on time in the quasilinear approximation since only nonresonant particles (which distribution is constant) contribute to them. The resonant wave amplitude, however, is the function on time, and changing of the wave energy is completely balanced by the corresponding change of the resonant particle energy. If in the system there are only nonresonant waves, and it is closed (i.e., there is no energy exchange with some external sources or sinks), the system is stationary and the nonresonant wave as well as particle energy are not changing

  13. Resonance energy transfer based electrochemiluminescence and fluorescence sensing of riboflavin using graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huan [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); The Phytochemistry Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau of Qinghai Province, College of Pharmacy, Qinghai Nationalities University, Xining, Qinghai 810007 (China); Ma, Qin; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Caihe; Qin, Dongdong; Shan, Duoliang; Chen, Jing [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China)

    2017-06-22

    Graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots (g-CNQDs) are rarely used in the field of electrochemiluminescence. In this paper, g-CNQDs have a strong and stable electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal generated in the presence of co-reactant K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ECL signal of g-CNQDs was quenched by the mechanism of resonance energy transfer (RET) between donor g-CNQDs and receptor riboflavin (RF) that is proved by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, electrochemiluminescence and fluorescence emission spectroscopy analysis technology. Therefore, we achieved detection of the riboflavin content in the drug tablets of vitamin B{sub 2} using ECL and FL. The determination results of ECL showed that the riboflavin content of the drug vitamin B{sub 2} (VB{sub 2}) tablets was consistent with the fluorescence (FL) analysis, with wider linear range of 0.02–11 μM and lower minimum detection limit of 0.63 nM (S/N = 3) than FL. Hence, the riboflavin content in human serum was further detected using ECL. The relative standard deviation is less than 6.5%, with an acceptable recovery of 95.33%–104.22%, which means that this sensor has potential applications in the actual sample analysis. As a new ECL luminary, g-CNQDs have opened a new field for the development and application of ECL sensor. - Highlights: • G-CNQDs proposed as a new luminophore for ECL. • ECL signal was strong and stable in the presence of co-reactant K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}. • Based on the resonance energy transfer between g-CNQDs and riboflavin. • ECL has wider linear range and lower detection limit than FL.

  14. Resonance energy transfer based electrochemiluminescence and fluorescence sensing of riboflavin using graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huan; Ma, Qin; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Caihe; Qin, Dongdong; Shan, Duoliang; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2017-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots (g-CNQDs) are rarely used in the field of electrochemiluminescence. In this paper, g-CNQDs have a strong and stable electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal generated in the presence of co-reactant K 2 S 2 O 8 . The ECL signal of g-CNQDs was quenched by the mechanism of resonance energy transfer (RET) between donor g-CNQDs and receptor riboflavin (RF) that is proved by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, electrochemiluminescence and fluorescence emission spectroscopy analysis technology. Therefore, we achieved detection of the riboflavin content in the drug tablets of vitamin B 2 using ECL and FL. The determination results of ECL showed that the riboflavin content of the drug vitamin B 2 (VB 2 ) tablets was consistent with the fluorescence (FL) analysis, with wider linear range of 0.02–11 μM and lower minimum detection limit of 0.63 nM (S/N = 3) than FL. Hence, the riboflavin content in human serum was further detected using ECL. The relative standard deviation is less than 6.5%, with an acceptable recovery of 95.33%–104.22%, which means that this sensor has potential applications in the actual sample analysis. As a new ECL luminary, g-CNQDs have opened a new field for the development and application of ECL sensor. - Highlights: • G-CNQDs proposed as a new luminophore for ECL. • ECL signal was strong and stable in the presence of co-reactant K 2 S 2 O 8 . • Based on the resonance energy transfer between g-CNQDs and riboflavin. • ECL has wider linear range and lower detection limit than FL.

  15. Finite Range Effects in Energies and Recombination Rates of Three Identical Bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Klokmose; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    is large. The models are built on contact potentials which take into account finite range effects; one is a two-channel model and the other is an effective range expansion model implemented through the boundary condition on the three-body wave function when two of the particles are at the same point...... in space. We compare the results with the results of the ubiquitous single-parameter zero-range model where only the scattering length is taken into account. Both finite range models predict variations of the well-known geometric scaling factor 22.7 that arises in Efimov physics. The threshold value...... at negative scattering length for creation of a bound trimer moves to higher or lower values depending on the sign of the effective range compared to the location of the threshold for the single-parameter zero-range model. Large effective ranges, corresponding to narrow resonances, are needed...

  16. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  17. Research of isolated resonances using the average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.O.; Grymalo, A.K.; Kolotyi, V.V.; Mityushkin, O.O.; Venediktov, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work is devoted to detailed description of one of the research directions in the Neutron Physics Department (NPD), namely, to research of resonance parameters of isolated nuclear level at the filtered neutron beam on the horizontal experimental channel HEC-8 of the WWR-M reactor. Research of resonance parameters is an actual problem nowadays. This is because there are the essential differences between the resonance parameter values in the different evaluated nuclear data library (ENDL) for many nuclei. Research of resonance parameter is possible due to the set of the neutron cross sections received at the same filter, but with the slightly shifted filter average energy. The shift of the filter average energy is possible by several processes. In this work this shift is realized by neutron energy dependence on scattering angle. This method is provided by equipment.

  18. Tracing back resonances to families of Regge trajectories. New finite energy sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbrojt, Jacques.

    1975-04-01

    An amplitude is supposed to be expressed for large enough energies as a sum of contributions of Regge poles. Calling family of trajectories the set of trajectories which differ by integers from one of them, a correspondance, such that the energy and width of a given resonance depend on only family of trajectories, is established between resonances of the amplitude and families of trajectories. The contribution to the amplitude of each family of trajectories is shown to satisfy the same finite energy sum rules as does the amplitude itself. In these sum rules the resonance approximation can be made where the only resonances that will appear are those which are in correspondence with the family [fr

  19. A no-tune no-match wideband probe for nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy in the VHF range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfetter, Hermann; Petrovic, Andreas; Eggenhofer, Heidi; Stollberger, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy is a method for the characterization of chemical compounds containing so-called quadrupolar nuclei. Similar to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the sample under investigation is irradiated with strong radiofrequency (RF) pulses, which stimulate the emission of weak RF signals from the quadrupolar nuclei. The signals are then amplified and Fourier transformed so as to obtain a spectrum. In principle, narrowband NQR spectra can be measured with NMR spectrometers. However, pure NQR signals require the absence of a static magnetic field and several special applications require the characterization of a substance over a large bandwidth, e.g. 50-100% of the central frequency, which is hardly possible with standard NMR equipment. Dedicated zero-field NQR equipment is not widespread and current concepts employ resonating probes which are tuned and matched over a wide range by using mechanical capacitors driven by stepper motors. While providing the highest signal to noise ratio (SNR) such probes are slow in operation and can only be operated from dedicated NMR consoles. We developed a low-cost NQR wideband probe without tuning and matching for applications in the very high frequency (VHF) range below 300 MHz. The probe coil was realized as part of a reactive network which approximates an exponential transmission line. The input reflection coefficient of the two developed prototype probe coils is ≤ 20 dB between 90-145 MHz and 74.5-99.5 MHz, respectively. Two wideband NQR spectra of published test substances were acquired with an SNR of better than 20 dB after sufficient averaging. The measured signals and the SNR correspond very well to the theoretically expected values and demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Because there is no need for tuning and matching, our probes can be operated easily from any available NMR console.

  20. Assessment of tidal range energy resources based on flux conservation in Jiantiao Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wu, He; Yu, Huaming; Lv, Ting; Li, Jiangyu; Yu, Yujun

    2017-12-01

    La Rance Tidal Range Power Station in France and Jiangxia Tidal Range Power Station in China have been both long-term successful commercialized operations as kind of role models for public at large for more than 40 years. The Sihwa Lake Tidal Range Power Station in South Korea has also developed to be the largest marine renewable power station with its installed capacity 254 MW since 2010. These practical applications prove that the tidal range energy as one kind of marine renewable energy exploitation and utilization technology is becoming more and more mature and it is used more and more widely. However, the assessment of the tidal range energy resources is not well developed nowadays. This paper summarizes the main problems in tidal range power resource assessment, gives a brief introduction to tidal potential energy theory, and then we present an analyzed and estimated method based on the tide numerical modeling. The technical characteristics and applicability of these two approaches are compared with each other. Furthermore, based on the theory of tidal range energy generation combined with flux conservation, this paper proposes a new assessment method that include a series of evaluation parameters and it can be easily operated to calculate the tidal range energy of the sea. Finally, this method is applied on assessment of the tidal range power energy of the Jiantiao Harbor in Zhejiang Province, China for demonstration and examination.

  1. Energy of nuclear-active particles in the 1-50 TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarevskij, D.M.; Garsevanishvili, L.P.; Morozov, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    The ''TsKhRA-TsKARO'' installation designed for the investigation of cosmic beams interaction with nuclei in the energy range of 1-50 TeV is described. The installation comprises a magnetic spark spectrometer, photography system, ionization calorimeter and scintillating trigger device. The ionization calorimeter contains 12 rows of ionization chambers interlayed with 4 lead and 8 iron absorbers. The rows of ionization chambers of the calorimeter upper half are placed in the mutually-perpendicular direction to restore the direction and spatial situation of the electron-nuclear cascade. All in all the ionization calorimeter contains 100 channels of preintensifiers from which the information is transmitted to the terminal intensifiers and then to the storage cells. The aperture ratio of the whole installation (taking account of the upper chambers) is 0.5 m 2 /steradian, and the aperture ratio of the calorimeter together with the lower chambers is approximately 2 m 2 /steradian. Presented are integral spectra of the hadrons at the height of mountains and at the height of 2500 m above sea level obtained with the help of the installation described. Comparison of the number of charged and neutral particles recorded with the ''TsKhRA-TsKARO'' installation agrees well with the known ratio of charged and neutral cosmic hadrons on the heights of mountains n/c = 0.52+-0.05

  2. Multicomponent long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction system: Bright solitons, energy-sharing collisions, and resonant solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkaravarthi, K; Kanna, T; Vijayajayanthi, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2014-11-01

    We consider a general multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system with arbitrary nonlinearity coefficients, which describes the nonlinear resonance interaction of multiple short waves with a long wave in two spatial dimensions. The general multicomponent LSRI system is shown to be integrable by performing the Painlevé analysis. Then we construct the exact bright multisoliton solutions by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method and study the propagation and collision dynamics of bright solitons in detail. Particularly, we investigate the head-on and overtaking collisions of bright solitons and explore two types of energy-sharing collisions as well as standard elastic collision. We have also corroborated the obtained analytical one-soliton solution by direct numerical simulation. Also, we discuss the formation and dynamics of resonant solitons. Interestingly, we demonstrate the formation of resonant solitons admitting breather-like (localized periodic pulse train) structure and also large amplitude localized structures akin to rogue waves coexisting with solitons. For completeness, we have also obtained dark one- and two-soliton solutions and studied their dynamics briefly.

  3. A dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Wang, Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports a dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter (RROC) for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. An approximate theoretical model has been established to integrate the electromechanical coupling into a comprehensive electromagnetic-dynamic model of the dual resonant RROC. Numerical simulation has proved the nature of dual resonances by revealing that both the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be achieved when the stand-alone rectilinear oscillator (RLO) and the stand-alone rotary oscillator (RTO) were excited independently. Simulation on the magnetically coupled RROC has also shown that the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be obtained simultaneously in the low-frequency region (2-14 Hz) with well-defined restoring torque (M r ) and the initial rotation angle of the RLO (ψ). The magnetic interaction patterns between the rectilinear and the RTOs have been categorized based on aforementioned simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results have demonstrated broadband output attributing from the dual resonances. Experimental results have also indicated that the RROC could have wide bandwidth in a much lower frequency region (2-8 Hz) even without the rotary resonance as long as the system parameters are carefully tuned. Parameter analysis on different values of M r and ψ are experimentally carried out to provide a quantitative guidance of designing the RROC to achieve an optimal power density.

  4. Energy loss of muons in the energy range 1-10000 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, W.; Kopp, R.; Voss, R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of the most recent formulae for the cross-sections contributing to the energy loss of muons in matter, notably due to electro-magnetic interactions (ionization, bremsstrahlung and electron-pair production) and nuclear interactions. Computed energy losses dE/dx are tabulated for muons with energy between 1 GeV and 10,000 GeV in a number of materials commonly used in high-energy physics experiments. In comparison with earlier tables, these show deviations that grow with energy and amount to several per cent at 200 GeV muon energy. (orig.)

  5. Upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer-based aptasensor for the sensitive detection of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Fang, Congcong; Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Wang, Zhouping

    2015-11-15

    In this work, a biosensor based on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to SYBR Green I has been developed. The aptamers are covalently linked to UCNPs and hybridized with their complementary strands. The subsequent addition of SYBR Green allows SYBR Green I to insert into the formed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) duplex and brings the energy donor and acceptor into close proximity, leading to the fluorescence of UCNPs transferred to SYBR Green I. When excited at 980 nm, the UCNPs emit luminescence at 477 nm, and this energy is transferred to SYBR Green I, which emits luminescence at 530 nm. In the presence of oxytetracycline (OTC), the aptamers prefer to bind to its corresponding analyte and dehybridize with the complementary DNA. This dehybridization leads to the liberation of SYBR Green I, which distances SYBR Green I from the UCNPs and recovers the UCNPs' luminescence. Under optimal conditions, a linear calibration is obtained between the ratio of I530 to I477 nm (I530/I477) and the OTC concentration, which ranges from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.054 ng/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Topology of the Adiabatic Potential Energy Surfaces for theResonance States of the Water Anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, Daniel J.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-04-15

    The potential energy surfaces corresponding to the long-lived fixed-nuclei electron scattering resonances of H{sub 2}O relevant to the dissociative electron attachment process are examined using a combination of ab initio scattering and bound-state calculations. These surfaces have a rich topology, characterized by three main features: a conical intersection between the {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 2} Feshbach resonance states; charge-transfer behavior in the OH ({sup 2}{Pi}) + H{sup -} asymptote of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} and {sup 2}A{sub 1} resonances; and an inherent double-valuedness of the surface for the {sup 2}B{sub 2} state the C{sub 2v} geometry, arising from a branch-point degeneracy with a {sup 2}B{sub 2} shape resonance. In total, eight individual seams of degeneracy among these resonances are located.

  7. Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Tang, J.

    2015-01-01

    This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined

  8. Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Tang, J., E-mail: jtang@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined.

  9. Comparison of static and microfluidic protease assays using modified bioluminescence resonance energy transfer chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluorescence and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (F/BRET are two forms of Förster resonance energy transfer, which can be used for optical transduction of biosensors. BRET has several advantages over fluorescence-based technologies because it does not require an external light source. There would be benefits in combining BRET transduction with microfluidics but the low luminance of BRET has made this challenging until now. METHODOLOGY: We used a thrombin bioprobe based on a form of BRET (BRET(H, which uses the BRET(1 substrate, native coelenterazine, with the typical BRET(2 donor and acceptor proteins linked by a thrombin target peptide. The microfluidic assay was carried out in a Y-shaped microfluidic network. The dependence of the BRET(H ratio on the measurement location, flow rate and bioprobe concentration was quantified. Results were compared with the same bioprobe in a static microwell plate assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The BRET(H thrombin bioprobe has a lower limit of detection (LOD than previously reported for the equivalent BRET(1-based version but it is substantially brighter than the BRET(2 version. The normalised BRET(H ratio of the bioprobe changed 32% following complete cleavage by thrombin and 31% in the microfluidic format. The LOD for thrombin in the microfluidic format was 27 pM, compared with an LOD of 310 pM, using the same bioprobe in a static microwell assay, and two orders of magnitude lower than reported for other microfluidic chip-based protease assays. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that BRET based microfluidic assays are feasible and that BRET(H provides a useful test bed for optimising BRET-based microfluidics. This approach may be convenient for a wide range of applications requiring sensitive detection and/or quantification of chemical or biological analytes.

  10. Numerical simulation on range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Wencheng; Sun Punan; Dai Wenjiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target, the range of electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV moving in common target material of accelerator was calculated by Monte-Carlo method. Comparison between the calculated result and the published data were performed. The results of Monte-Carlo calculation are in good agreement with the published data. Empirical formulas were obtained for the range of high-energy electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV in common target material by curve fitting, offering a series of referenced data for the design of targets in electron accelerator. (authors)

  11. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...

  12. Energy measurement using a resonator based time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Clifft, B.; Johnson, K.W.; Lewis, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A resonant pick-up time-of-flight system has been developed for the precise measurement of beam energy at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The excellent timing characteristics available with ATLAS beams make it desirable to design the beam transport system to be isochronous. The advantages of the resonant time-of-flight system over other energy analysis systems such as the dispersive magnet system are numerous. The system is non-interceptive and non-destructive and preserves the beam phase space. It is non-dispersive. Path length variations are not introduced into the beam which would reduce the timing resolution. It has a large signal-to-noise ratio when compared to non-resonant beam pick-up techniques. It provides the means to precisely set the linac energy and potentially to control the energy in a feedback loop. Finally, the resonant pick-up time-of-flight system is less expensive than an equivalent magnetic system. It consists of two beam-excited resonators, associated electronics to decode the information, a computer interface to the linac PDP 11/34 control computer, and software to analyze the information and deduce the measured beam energy. This report describes the system and its components and gives a schematic overview

  13. Photopion production from nuclei in the energy region of the Δ resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamas, G.

    1979-01-01

    The γD→p+p+π - and the γ 4 He→p+π+3 nucleons reactions in the energy region of the Δ resonance are studied. As a temporary conclusion, it is possible to explain the largest part of the photon-nucleus interaction for D and 4 He in the Δ resonance region by the quasi-free production and the pion and proton rescattering

  14. Peripheral collisions of heavy ions induced by 40Ar at intermediate energies: giant resonance high energy structures and projectile fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.

    1987-09-01

    The results obtained in similar studies at low incident energies are first of all reviewed. The time of flight spectrometer built for the experiments is then described. A study of the properties of the projectile-like fragments shows numerous deviations from the relativistic energy fragmentation model. Evidence for a strong surface transfer reaction component is given and the persistence of mean field effects at intermediate energies is stressed. A calculation of the contribution of the transfer evaporation mechanism to the inelastic spectra shows that this mechanism is responible for the major part of the background measured at high excitation energy and can in some cases induce narrow structures in the spectra. The inelastic spectra shows a strong excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance. In the region between 20 and 80 MeV excitation energy narrow structures are present for all the studied systems. Statistical and Fourier analysises allow to quantify the probabilities of existence, the widths and the excitation energies of these structures. A transfer evaporation hypothesis cannot consistently reproduce all the observed structures. The excitation energies of the structures can be well described by phenomenological laws where the energies are proportional to the -1/3 power of the target mass. Complete calculations of the excitation probabilities of giant resonances and multiphonon states are performed within a model where the nuclear excitation are calculated microscopically in the Random Phase Approximation. It is shown that a possible interpretation of the structures is the excitation of multiphonon states built with 2 + giant resonances [fr

  15. On square-wave-driven stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dongxu, E-mail: sudx@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 1538505 (Japan); Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 1538505 (Japan); Cartmell, Matthew P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of implementing square-wave-driven stochastic resonance to enhance energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis was that such stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate. This definition is inadequate because of the necessity and difficulty in estimating white noise density. A bistable mechanism has been designed using an explicit analytical model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance in the paper. Experimental tests confirm that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by a random signal apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response that we now term square-wave-driven stochastic resonance. The study therefore indicates that this approach may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of random excitation.

  16. On square-wave-driven stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Dongxu; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of implementing square-wave-driven stochastic resonance to enhance energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis was that such stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate. This definition is inadequate because of the necessity and difficulty in estimating white noise density. A bistable mechanism has been designed using an explicit analytical model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance in the paper. Experimental tests confirm that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by a random signal apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response that we now term square-wave-driven stochastic resonance. The study therefore indicates that this approach may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of random excitation

  17. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale......, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons...... in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron...

  18. Wide-range and fast thermally-tunable silicon photonic microring resonators using the junction field effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Lentine, Anthony; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas; Pomerene, Andrew; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-10-03

    Tunable silicon microring resonators with small, integrated micro-heaters which exhibit a junction field effect were made using a conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic foundry fabrication process. The design of the resistive tuning section in the microrings included a "pinched" p-n junction, which limited the current at higher voltages and inhibited damage even when driven by a pre-emphasized voltage waveform. Dual-ring filters were studied for both large (>4.9 THz) and small (850 GHz) free-spectral ranges. Thermal red-shifting was demonstrated with microsecond-scale time constants, e.g., a dual-ring filter was tuned over 25 nm in 0.6 μs 10%-90% transition time, and with efficiency of 3.2 μW/GHz.

  19. Derivative corrections to the symmetry energy and the isovector dipole-resonance structure in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J P; Magner, A G; Ring, P

    2015-01-01

    The effective surface approximation is extended accounting for derivatives of the symmetry energy density per particle. The new expressions for the isovector surface energy constants are used for calculations of improved energies and sum rules of the isovector dipole-resonance strength structure within the Fermi-liquid droplet model. Our results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical approaches. (paper)

  20. Spin and isospin characteristics of the excited states of 36Ar through the reaction 32S(α,γ)36Ar in the bombarding energy range E/sub α/ = 4 to 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, D.R.; Eswaran, M.A.; Ragoowansi, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The α capture reaction 32 S(α,γ) 36 Ar was studied in the bombarding energy range of E/sub α/ = 4.13 to 5.00 MeV corresponding to the excitation energy range of E/sub x/ = 10.31 to 11.08 MeV in 36 Ar. Seven resonances have been located and their resonance strengths determined. Two of the resonances decay predominantly to the ground state while the other five decay predominantly to the first excited state of 36 Ar. Angular distribution measurements of the predominant decay gamma ray have been performed and the spin and parity of all the resonances assigned. The isospin of two of the resonances have been assigned as T = 0 while T = 1 has been assigned for three others. Evidence has been obtained for the operation of the isospin selection rule for the dipole (E1 and M1) and quadrupole (E2) gamma decay

  1. Effectiveness Testing of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for an Automobile Wheel Using Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunshun Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The collection of clean power from ambient vibrations is considered a promising method for energy harvesting. For the case of wheel rotation, the present study investigates the effectiveness of a piezoelectric energy harvester, with the application of stochastic resonance to optimize the efficiency of energy harvesting. It is hypothesized that when the wheel rotates at variable speeds, the energy harvester is subjected to on-road noise as ambient excitations and a tangentially acting gravity force as a periodic modulation force, which can stimulate stochastic resonance. The energy harvester was miniaturized with a bistable cantilever structure, and the on-road noise was measured for the implementation of a vibrator in an experimental setting. A validation experiment revealed that the harvesting system was optimized to capture power that was approximately 12 times that captured under only on-road noise excitation and 50 times that captured under only the periodic gravity force. Moreover, the investigation of up-sweep excitations with increasing rotational frequency confirmed that stochastic resonance is effective in optimizing the performance of the energy harvester, with a certain bandwidth of vehicle speeds. An actual-vehicle experiment validates that the prototype harvester using stochastic resonance is capable of improving power generation performance for practical tire application.

  2. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  3. Energy Distributions from Three-Body Decaying Many-Body Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Garrido, E.

    2007-01-01

    We compute energy distributions of three particles emerging from decaying many-body resonances. We reproduce the measured energy distributions from decays of two archetypal states chosen as the lowest 0 + and 1 + resonances in 12 C populated in β decays. These states are dominated by sequential, through the 8 Be ground state, and direct decays, respectively. These decay mechanisms are reflected in the ''dynamic'' evolution from small, cluster or shell-model states, to large distances, where the coordinate or momentum space continuum wave functions are accurately computed

  4. Energy measurement using a resonator-based time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Lewis, R.N.; Johnson, K.W.; Clifft, B.

    1983-01-01

    The resonant time-of-flight system which has been developed has several advantages over other potential approaches. The system is non-interceptive and nondestructive. The beam phase space is preserved. It is non-dispersive. Path length variations are not introduced into the beam transport which would reduce the timing resolution. It has a large signal-to-noise ratio when compared to non-resonant beam pick-up techniques. It provides the means to precisely set the linac energy and, potentially, to control the energy in a feedback loop is desired. It is less expensive than an equivalent magnetic system

  5. Theoretical study of cylindrical energy analyzers for MeV range heavy ion beam probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    1993-07-01

    A cylindrical energy analyzer with drift spaces is shown to have a second order focusing for beam incident angle when the deflection angle is properly chosen. The analyzer has a possibility to be applied to MeV range heavy ion beam probes, and will be also available for accurate particle energy measurements in many other fields. (author)

  6. Deuteron stripping on beryllium target in the 100-2300 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecolley, J.F.; Varignon, C.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Thun, J.; Borne, F.; Martinez, E.; Menard, S.; Pras, P.; Boudard, A.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Frehaut, J.; Hanappe, F.; Ledoux, X.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Milleret, G.; Patin, Y.; Stuttge, L.; Terrien, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Cross sections for stripping and dissociation of deuterons interacting with Be targets in the 100-2300 MeV energy range have been measured. Comparisons with model calculations suggest a dominant contribution of the stripping process. It is also shown that the deuteron break-up cross section exhibits the same energy dependence as the nucleon-nucleon cross section. (orig.)

  7. Direct measurement of resonance strengths in 34S(α ,γ )38Ar at astrophysically relevant energies using the DRAGON recoil separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P. D.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2018-03-01

    Background: Nucleosynthesis of mid-mass elements is thought to occur under hot and explosive astrophysical conditions. Radiative α capture on 34S has been shown to impact nucleosynthesis in several such conditions, including core and shell oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning, and type Ia supernovae. Purpose: Broad uncertainties exist in the literature for the strengths of three resonances within the astrophysically relevant energy range (ECM=1.94 -3.42 MeV at T =2.2 GK ). Further, there are several states in 38Ar within this energy range which have not been previously measured. This work aimed to remeasure the resonance strengths of states for which broad uncertainty existed as well as to measure the resonance strengths and energies of previously unmeasured states. Methods: Resonance strengths and energies of eight narrow resonances (five of which had not been previously studied) were measured in inverse kinematics with the DRAGON facility at TRIUMF by impinging an isotopically pure beam of 34S ions on a windowless 4He gas target. Prompt γ emissions of de-exciting 38Ar recoils were detected in an array of bismuth germanate scintillators in coincidence with recoil nuclei, which were separated from unreacted beam ions by an electromagnetic mass separator and detected by a time-of-flight system and a multianode ionization chamber. Results: The present measurements agree with previous results. Broad uncertainty in the resonance strength of the ECM=2709 keV resonance persists. Resonance strengths and energies were determined for five low-energy resonances which had not been studied previously, and their strengths were determined to be significantly weaker than those of previously measured resonances. Conclusions: The five previously unmeasured resonances were found not to contribute significantly to the total thermonuclear reaction rate. A median total thermonuclear reaction rate calculated using data from the present work along with existing literature values

  8. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between conjugated molecules infiltrated in three-dimensional opal photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Lu; Sui, Ning; Wang, Ying-Hui; Qian, Cheng; Ma, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Han-Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Coumarin 6 (C-6) to Sulforhodamine B (S-B) infiltrated into opal PMMA (poly-methyl-methacrylate) photonic crystals (PCs) has been studied in detail. The intrinsic mesh micro-porous structure of opal PCs could increase the luminescent efficiency through inhibiting the intermolecular interaction. Meanwhile, its structure of periodically varying refractive indices could also modify the FRET through affecting the luminescence characteristics of energy donor or energy acceptor. The results demonstrate that the FRET efficiency between conjugated dyes was easily modified by opal PCs. - Highlights: • We investigate the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between two kinds of dyes. • These two kinds of dyes are infiltrated in PMMA opal photonic crystals. • The structure of opal PCs could improve the luminescent characteristics. • The structure of opal PCs could improve the energy transfer characteristics

  9. Mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Wang Sixue; Du Guanghua; Yan Sha; Zhao Weijiang

    2002-01-01

    The authors present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100 keV Ar + ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60 μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 x 10 -5 . The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He + ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

  10. Alpha Beam Energy Determination Using a Range Measuring Device for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Byeon Gil; Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The threshold energy of the {sup 209}Bi(α,3n){sup 210} At reaction is at about 30MeV. Our laboratory suggested an energy measurement method to confirm the proton-beam's energy by using a range measurement device. The experiment was performed energy measurement of alpha beam. The alpha beam of energy 29 MeV has been extracted from the cyclotron for the production of {sup 211}At. This device was composed of four parts: an absorber, a drive shaft, and a servo motor and a Faraday cup. The drive shaft was mounted on the absorber and connects with the axis of the servo motor and rotates linearly and circularly by this servo motor. A Faraday cup is for measuring the beam flux. As this drive shaft rotates, the thickness of the absorber varies depending on the rotation angle of the absorber. The energy of the alpha particle accelerated and extracted from MC-50 cyclotron was calculated with the measurement of the particle range in Al foil and using ASTAR, SRIM, MCNPX software. There were a little discrepancy between the expected energy and the calculated energy within the 0.5MeV error range. We have a plan to make an experiment with various alpha particle energies and another methodology, for example, the cross section measurement of the nuclear reaction.

  11. Performance tests of a special ionization chamber for X-rays in mammography energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.O., E-mail: jonas.silva@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia (Brazil). Instituto de Física; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiações

    2017-07-01

    A special mammography homemade ionization chamber was developed to be applied for mammography energy range dosimetry. This chamber has a total sensitive volume of 6 cm{sup 3} and is made of a PMMA body and graphite coated collecting electrode. Performance tests as saturation, ion collection efficiency, linearity of chamber response versus air kerma rate and energy dependence were determined. The results obtained with this special homemade ionization chamber are within the limits stated in international recommendations. This chamber can be used in quality control programs of mammography energy range. All measurements were carried out at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. (author)

  12. MEMS fabricated energy harvesting device with 2D resonant structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Triches, Marco

    This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2......, an output power of 32.5 nW is reached with an external load of 17 MΩ, under a harmonic source motion with acceleration RMS amplitude 0.03 g (0.3 m/s2) and frequency 179 Hz.......This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2...

  13. Continuous Energy, Multi-Dimensional Transport Calculations for Problem Dependent Resonance Self-Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multidimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. Specifically, the methods here utilize the existing continuous energy SCALE5 module, CENTRM, and the multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solver, NEWT to develop a new code, CENTRM( ) NEWT. The work here addresses specific theoretical limitations in existing CENTRM resonance treatment, as well as investigates advanced numerical and parallel computing algorithms for CENTRM and NEWT in order to reduce the computational burden. The result of the work here will be a new computer code capable of performing problem dependent self-shielding analysis for both existing and proposed GENIV fuel designs. The objective of the work was to have an immediate impact on the safety analysis of existing reactors through improvements in the calculation of fuel temperature effects, as well as on the analysis of more sophisticated GENIV/NGNP systems through improvements in the depletion/transmutation of actinides for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives.

  14. Mean range and energy of 28Si ions some Makrofol track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyam, S.; Mishra, R.; Tripathy, S.P.; Mawar, A.K.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Khathing, D.T.; Srivastava, A.; Avasthi, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of energy loss of the impinging ion as it passes through succeeding layers of the target material gives information regarding the nature of material and helps to calculate the range of the ions in a thick target in which the ions are stopped. Here the range, energy loss of 118 MeV 28 Si were measured in Makrofol-N, Makrofol-G and Makrofol-KG, using nuclear track technique. The experimental range data are compared with the theoretical values obtained from different computer codes. (author)

  15. Fabrication and characterization of non-resonant magneto-mechanical low-frequency vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammari, Abdullah; Caskey, Logan; Negrete, Johnny; Bardaweel, Hamzeh

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a non-resonant magneto-mechanical vibration energy harvester. When externally excited, the energy harvester converts vibrations into electric charge using a guided levitated magnet oscillating inside a multi-turn coil that is fixed around the exterior of the energy harvester. The levitated magnet is guided using four oblique mechanical springs. A prototype of the energy harvester is fabricated using additive manufacturing. Both experiment and model are used to characterize the static and dynamic behavior of the energy harvester. Measured restoring forces show that the fabricated energy harvester retains a mono-stable potential energy well with desired stiffness nonlinearities. Results show that magnetic spring results in hardening effect which increases the resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Additionally, oblique mechanical springs introduce geometric, negative, nonlinear stiffness which improves the harvester's response towards lower frequency spectrum. The unique design can produce a tunable energy harvester with multi-well potential energy characteristics. A finite element model is developed to estimate the average radial flux density experienced by the multi-turn coil. Also, a lumped parameter model of the energy harvester is developed and validated against measured data. Both upward and downward frequency sweeps are performed to determine the frequency response of the harvester. Results show that at higher excitation levels hardening effects become more apparent, and the system dynamic response turns into non-resonant. Frequency response curves exhibit frequency jump phenomena as a result of coexistence of multiple energy states at the frequency branch. The fabricated energy harvester is hand-held and measures approximately 100.5 [cm3] total volume. For a base excitation of 1.0 g [m/s2], the prototype generates a peak voltage and normalized power density of approximately 3.5 [V] and 0.133 [mW/cm3 g2], respectively, at 15.5 [Hz].

  16. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  17. Enhanced optical transmission through a star-shaped bull's eye at dual resonant-bands in UV and the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Tavakol; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Kong, Byung-Joo; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-07-13

    Dual resonant bands in UV and the visible range were simultaneously observed in the enhanced optical transmission (EOT) through star-shaped plasmonic structures. EOTs through four types of polygonal bull's eyes with a star aperture surrounded by the concentric star grooves were analyzed and compared for 3, 4, 5, and 6 corners, using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to plasmonic resonances in the visible range, the UV-band resonance intensity was found to scale with the number of corners, which is related with higher order multipole interactions. Spectral positions and relative intensities of the dual resonances were analyzed parametrically to find optimal conditions to maximize EOT in UV-visible dual bands.

  18. Resonance capture reactions with a total energy detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of nuclear reaction rates is considered; the Moxon--Rae detector and pulse height weighting are reviewed. This method has been especially useful in measuring (n,γ) cross sections. Strength functions and level spacing can be derived from (n,γ) yields. The relevance of neutron capture data to astrophysical nucleosynthesis is pointed out. The total gamma energy detection method has been applied successfully to radiative neutron capture cross section measurements. A bibliography of most of the published papers reporting neutron capture cross sections measured by the pulse height weighting technique is included. 55 references

  19. Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M R D; Borello-Lewin, T; Miyake, H; Duarte, J L M; Rodrigues, C L; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L B; Ukita, G M; Cappuzzello, F; Foti, A; Cavallaro, M; Agodi, C; Cunsolo, A; Carbone, D; Bondi, M; Napoli, M De; Roeder, B T; Linares, R; Lombardo, I

    2014-01-01

    The 9 Be( 6 Li,d) 13 C and 12,13 C( 6 Li,d) 16,17 O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13 C and 15-30 keV for 16 O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θ d = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility

  20. Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Ukita, G. M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Bondi, M.; De Napoli, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Linares, R.; Lombardo, I.

    2014-12-01

    The 9Be(6Li,d)13C and 12,13C(6Li,d)16,17O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13C and 15-30 keV for 16O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θd = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility.

  1. Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Sensor Networks with Non-Uniform Maximum Transmission Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the energy hole problem is a key factor affecting the network lifetime. In a circular multi-hop sensor network (modeled as concentric coronas, the optimal transmission ranges of all coronas can effectively improve network lifetime. In this paper, we investigate WSNs with non-uniform maximum transmission ranges, where sensor nodes deployed in different regions may differ in their maximum transmission range. Then, we propose an Energy-efficient algorithm for Non-uniform Maximum Transmission range (ENMT, which can search approximate optimal transmission ranges of all coronas in order to prolong network lifetime. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that ENMT performs better than other algorithms.

  2. Range-separated density-functional theory for molecular excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebolini, E.

    2014-01-01

    Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is nowadays a method of choice to compute molecular excitation energies. However, within the usual adiabatic semi-local approximations, it is not able to describe properly Rydberg, charge-transfer or multiple excitations. Range separation of the electronic interaction allows one to mix rigorously density-functional methods at short range and wave function or Green's function methods at long range. When applied to the exchange functional, it already corrects most of these deficiencies but multiple excitations remain absent as they need a frequency-dependent kernel. In this thesis, the effects of range separation are first assessed on the excitation energies of a partially-interacting system in an analytic and numerical study in order to provide guidelines for future developments of range-separated methods for excitation energy calculations. It is then applied on the exchange and correlation TDDFT kernels in a single-determinant approximation in which the long-range part of the correlation kernel vanishes. A long-range frequency-dependent second-order correlation kernel is then derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation and added perturbatively to the range-separated TDDFT kernel in order to take into account the effects of double excitations. (author)

  3. Sensing DNA Opening in Transcription Using Quenchable Förster Resonance Energy Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Thorben; Santoso, Yusdi; Tomescu, Alexandra I.; Gryte, Kristofer; Hwang, Ling Chin; Camará, Beatriz; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.

    2010-01-01

    Many biological processes, such as gene transcription and replication, involve opening and closing of short regions of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Few techniques, however, can study these processes in real time or at the single-molecule level. Here, we present a Förster resonance energy transfer

  4. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based method for histone methyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devkota, Kanchan; Lohse, Brian; Nyby Jakobsen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    A simple dye–quencher fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay for methyltransferases was developed and used to determine kinetic parameters and inhibitory activity at EHMT1 and EHMT2. Peptides mimicking the truncated histone H3 tail were functionalized in each end with a dye...

  5. Foerster resonance energy transfer in inhomogeneous non-dispersive nanophotonic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.

    A nondispersive inhomogeneous dielectric environment of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum emitters affects their Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) rate. We find that this rate does not depend on the emission frequency and hence not on the local optical density of states (LDOS) at that freq...

  6. Prediction of the metabolizable energy requirements of free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainer, M M A; Rabello, C B V; Santos, M J B; Lopes, C C; Ludke, J V; Silva, J H V; Lima, R A

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of estimating the ME requirements of free-range laying hens for maintenance, weight gain, and egg production. These experiments were performed to develop an energy requirement prediction equation by using the comparative slaughter technique and the total excreta collection method. Regression equations were used to relate the energy intake, the energy retained in the body and eggs, and the heat production of the hens. These relationships were used to determine the daily ME requirement for maintenance, the efficiency energy utilization above the requirements for maintenance, and the NE requirement for maintenance. The requirement for weight gain was estimated from the energy content of the carcass, and the diet's efficiency energy utilization was determined from the weight gain, which was measured during weekly slaughter. The requirement for egg production was estimated by considering the energy content of the eggs and the efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. The requirement and efficiency energy utilization for maintenance were 121.8 kcal ME/(kg∙d)and 0.68, respectively. Similarly, the NE requirement for maintenance was 82.4 kcal ME/(kg∙d), and the efficiency energy utilization above maintenance was 0.61. Because the carcass body weight and energy did not increase during the trial, the weight gain could not be estimated. The requirements for egg production requirement and efficiency energy utilization for egg production were 2.48 kcal/g and 0.61, respectively. The following energy prediction equation for free-range laying hens (without weight gain) was developed: ME /(hen ∙ d) = 121.8 × W + 2.48 × EM, in which W = body weight (kg) and EM = egg mass (g/[hen ∙ d]).

  7. Resonant scattering and charm showers in ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Electron antineutrinos with energy of about 7 x 10 to the 6th GeV have much-enhanced cross sections due to W-boson production off electrons. Possible signals due to cosmic-ray sources are estimated. Higher-energy antineutrinos can efficiently produce a W accompanied by radiation. Another possibility, which could lead to shadowing at modest depths, is resonant production of a charged Higgs particle. The importance of muon production by charm showers in rock is pointed out.

  8. Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniffen, D.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Palmeira, R.A.R.; Rao, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range can provide unique information with which to study many astrophysical problems. Observations in the 10-50 MeV range provide the cleanest window with which to view the isotropic diffuse component of the radiation and to study the possible cosmological implications of the spectrum. For the study of compact sources, this is the important region between the X-ray sky and the vastly different γ-ray sky seen by SAS-2 and COS-B. To understand the implications of medium energy γ-ray astronomy to the study of the galactic diffuse γ-radiation, the model developed to explain the high energy γ-ray observations of SAS-2 is extended to the medium energy range. This work illustrates the importance of medium energy γ-ray astronomy for studying the electromagnetic component of the galactic cosmic rays. To observe the medium energy component of the intense galactic center γ-ray emission, two balloon flights of a medium energy γ-ray spark chamber telescope were flown in Brazil in 1975. These results indicate the emission is higher than previously thought and above the predictions of the theoretical model

  9. Energy System Expectations for Nuclear in the 21. Century: A Plausible Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, Lucille M.; McDonald, Alan; Rogner, Hans-Holger; Vera, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines a range of scenarios describing what the world's energy system might look like in the middle of the century, and what nuclear energy's most profitable role might be. The starting point is the 40 non-greenhouse-gas-mitigation scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2000). Given their international authorship and comprehensive review by governments and scientific experts, the SRES scenarios are the state of the art in long-term energy scenarios. However, they do not present the underlying energy system structures in enough detail for specific energy technology and infrastructure analyses. This paper therefore describes initial steps within INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles of the International Atomic Energy Agency) to translate the SRES results into a range of possible nuclear energy technology requirements for mid-century. The paper summarizes the four SRES scenarios that will be used in INPRO and the reasons for their selection. It provides illustrative examples of the sort of additional detail that is being developed about the overall energy system implied by each scenario, and about specific scenario features particularly relevant to nuclear energy. As recommended in SRES, the selected scenarios cover all four SRES 'story-line families'. The energy system translations being developed in INPRO are intended to indicate how energy services may be provided in mid-century and to delineate likely technology and infrastructure implications. They will indicate answers to questions like the following. The list is illustrative, not comprehensive. - What kind of nuclear power plants will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What energy forms and other products and services provided by nuclear reactors will best fit the mid-century energy system? - What would be their market shares? - How difficult will it be to site new nuclear

  10. Near-Infrared Resonance Energy Transfer Glucose Biosensors in Hybrid Microcapsule Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike McShane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence-based sensing systems offer potential for noninvasive monitoring with implantable devices, but require carrier technologies that provide suitable immobilization, accessibility, and biocompatibility. Recent developments towards this goal include a competitive binding assay for glucose that has been encapsulated in semipermeable microcapsule carriers. This paper describes an extension of this work to increase the applicability to in vivo monitoring, wherein two significant developments are described: (1 a near-infrared resonance energy transfer system for transducing glucose concentration, and (2 novel hybrid organic-inorganic crosslinked microcapsules as carriers. The quenching-based assay is a competitive binding (CB system based on apo-glucose oxidase (AG as the receptor and dextran as the competitive ligand. The encapsulated quencher-labeled dextran and near infrared donor-labeled glucose receptor showed a stable and reversible response with tunable sensitivity of 1–5%/mM over the physiological range, making these transducers attractive for continuous monitoring for biomedical applications.

  11. Homogeneous non-competitive bioaffinity assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokko, Tiina; Kokko, Leena; Soukka, Tero; Loevgren, Timo

    2007-01-01

    A homogeneous non-competitive assay principle for measurement of small analytes based on quenching of fluorescence is described. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs between the donor, intrinsically fluorescent europium(III)-chelate conjugated to streptavidin, and the acceptor, quencher dye conjugated to biotin derivative when the biotin-quencher is bound to Eu-streptavidin. Fluorescence can be measured only from those streptavidins that are bound to biotin of the sample, while the fluorescence of the streptavidins that are not occupied by biotin are quenched by quencher-biotin conjugates. The quenching efficiencies of the non-fluorescent quencher dyes were over 95% and one dye molecule was able to quench the fluorescence of more than one europium(III)-chelate. This, however, together with the quadrovalent nature of streptavidin limited the measurable range of the assay to 0.2-2 nmol L -1 . In this study we demonstrated that FRET could be used to design a non-competitive homogeneous assay for a small analyte resulting in equal performance with competitive heterogeneous assay

  12. Distance distributions of short polypeptides recovered by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the 10 A domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Roccatano, Danilo; Zacharias, Martin; Nau, Werner M

    2006-06-28

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between tryptophan (Trp) as donor and 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (Dbo) as acceptor was studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The unique feature of this FRET pair is its exceptionally short Förster radius (10 A), which allows one to recover distance distributions in very short structureless peptides. The technique was applied to Trp-(GlySer)n-Dbo-NH2 peptides with n = 0-10, for which the average probe/quencher distance ranged between 8.7 and 13.7 A experimentally (in propylene glycol, analysis according to wormlike chain model) and 8.6-10.2 A theoretically (for n = 0-6, GROMOS96 molecular dynamics simulations). The larger FRET efficiency in steady-state compared to time-resolved fluorescence experiments was attributed to a static quenching component, suggesting that a small but significant part (ca. 10%) of the conformations are already in van der Waals contact when excitation occurs.

  13. RESONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    small bar magnets. NMR spectroscopy .... that the integrated area for the methylene .... in a network of spins. .... Schematic representation of the type of short (broken arrows) and medium-range .... we can define between cities and towns in the.

  14. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  15. Investigation of the neutron-proton-interaction in the energy range from 20 to 50 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczynski, J.

    1984-07-01

    In the framework of the investigation of the isospin singlet part of the nucleon-nucleon-interaction in the energy range below 100 MeV two experiments were conducted, which were selected by sensitivity calculations. At the Karlsruhe polarized neutron facility POLKA the analyzing powers Asub(y) and Asub(yy) of the elastic n vector-p- and n vector-p vector-scattering were measured in the energy range from 20 to 50 MeV. The results of this epxeriment are compared to older data. In the energy range from 20 to 50 MeV the new data were analyzed together with other selected data of the nucleon-nucleon-system in phase shift analyses. The knowledge of the isospin singlet phase shifts 1 P 1 and 3 D 3 was improved by the new data. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Differential cross section measurement of elastic scattering 12C(p,p)12C in the astrophysical range of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktibayev, M.K.; Burminskii, V.P.; Burtebaev, N.; Dzazairov -Kakhramanov, V.; Hassan, S.F.; Satpaev, N.K.; Zazulin, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The fulfillment of planned works on measurements of differential cross sections of elastic scattering of protons on nuclear 12 C at the energy region of 350†1050 keV suggests the preparation of thin self - supporting carbon target. The self - supporting target is necessary in order to perform investigations in the total angular range. In the future last data will be used in order to determine optical potentials and scattering phases for this nuclear in the energy range of astrophysical interest. There was prepared target layer of the 12 C with natural composition of carbon and of thickness of 17.4 μg/cm 2 . The spraying was conducted in the vacuum evaporation installation (VUP - 4) by an electron bombardment method. Carbon was sprayed on a glass plate with previously deposited of layer salt. After a heating during 12 hours at the temperature of 150 o C the film of carbon was floated from glass plate and self - supporting target has been picked up on the specially prepared target frame. In order to determine thickness of target there was used the resonance chamber, installed in the protons channel of the accelerator RAC - 2 - 1 (INP NNC RK), with the help of which there was measured energy loss of the protons beam during the passage through target, disposed in the central chamber. For this purpose there was used the reaction 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si with narrow resonance with E R = 992 keV and with detection of gamma-quanta with E γ = 1779 keV. On shift of the resonance E R =992 keV in the reaction 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si, which takes place owing to protons energy loss in the thickness of carbon film, and using table values of brake quantities S(E p )[MeV·cm 2 /g] [1], there was determined thickness of this fine film. Such the method allows to determine thicknesses of films in the interval of (10 † 100) mcg/cm 2 with the accuracy of not worse than 5%. In the present work there were carried out measurements of angular distributions of cross sections of the

  17. Ion implantation range and energy deposition codes COREL, RASE4, and DAMG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, D.K.

    1977-07-01

    The FORTRAN codes COREL, RASE4 and DAMG2 can be used to calculate quantities associated with ion implantation range and energy deposition distributions within an amorphous target, or for ions incident far from low index directions and planes in crystalline targets. RASE4 calculates the projected range, R/sub p/, the root mean square spread in the projected range, ΔR/sub p/, and the root mean square spread of the distribution perpendicular to the projected range ΔR/sub perpendicular to/. These parameters are calculated as a function of incident ion energy, E, and the instantaneous energy of the ion, E'. They are sufficient to determine the three dimensional spatial distribution of the ions in the target in the Gaussian approximation when the depth distribution is independent of the lateral distribution. RASE4 can perform these calculations for targets having up to four different component atomic species. The code COREL is a short, economical version of RASE4 which calculates the range and straggling variables for E' = 0. Its primary use in the present package is to provide the average range and straggling variables for recoiling target atoms which are created by the incident ion. This information is used by RASE4 in calculating the redistribution of deposited energy by the target atom recoils. The code DAMG2 uses the output from RASE4 to calculate the depth distribution of energy deposition into either atomic processes or electronic processes. With other input DAMG2 can be used to calculate the depth distribution of any energy dependent interaction between the incident ions and target atoms. This report documents the basic theory behind COREL, RASE4 and DAMG2, including a description of codes, listings, and complete instructions for using the codes, and their limitations

  18. Power Take-Off with Integrated Resonator for Energy Extraction from Linear Motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a magnetic gear for converting linear motion into rotational motion and vice versa. The present invention converts slow linear irregular oscillating motion of wave energy devices into torque on a high speed shaft for powering a generator while making the wave energy device...... of sea or ocean waves into useful energy, such as electricity. The invention relates to the control and operation of a magnetic gear based motor/generator system. The invention provides a high force density electric powered linear actuator....... resonate with the waves. The invention relates to the field of energy-harvesting from energy sources, where the energy-harvesting requires the extraction of energy from slow and often irregular reciprocating motion of bodies. The present invention relates to a wave power apparatus for converting power...

  19. High energy ion range and deposited energy calculation using the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck splitting of the Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozolevski, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the splitting of the straight-ahead Boltzmann transport equation in the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, decomposing the differential cross-section into a singular part, corresponding to small energy transfer events, and in a regular one, which corresponds to large energy transfer. The convergence of implantation profile, nuclear and electronic energy depositions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, to the respective exact distributions, calculated from Monte-Carlo method, was exanimate in a large-energy interval for various values of splitting parameter and for different ion-target mass relations. It is shown that for the universal potential there exists an optimal value of splitting parameter, for which range and deposited energy distributions, calculated from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation, accurately approximate the exact distributions and which minimizes the computational expenses

  20. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...

  1. A Wireless Magnetic Resonance Energy Transfer System for Micro Implantable Medical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyang Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the magnetic resonance coupling principle, in this paper a wireless energy transfer system is designed and implemented for the power supply of micro-implantable medical sensors. The entire system is composed of the in vitro part, including the energy transmitting circuit and resonant transmitter coils, and in vivo part, including the micro resonant receiver coils and signal shaping chip which includes the rectifier module and LDO voltage regulator module. Transmitter and receiver coils are wound by Litz wire, and the diameter of the receiver coils is just 1.9 cm. The energy transfer efficiency of the four-coil system is greatly improved compared to the conventional two-coil system. When the distance between the transmitter coils and the receiver coils is 1.5 cm, the transfer efficiency is 85% at the frequency of 742 kHz. The power transfer efficiency can be optimized by adding magnetic enhanced resonators. The receiving voltage signal is converted to a stable output voltage of 3.3 V and a current of 10 mA at the distance of 2 cm. In addition, the output current varies with changes in the distance. The whole implanted part is packaged with PDMS of excellent biocompatibility and the volume of it is about 1 cm3.

  2. Resonance interaction energy between two entangled atoms in a photonic bandgap environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notararigo, Valentina; Passante, Roberto; Rizzuto, Lucia

    2018-03-26

    We consider the resonance interaction energy between two identical entangled atoms, where one is in the excited state and the other in the ground state. They interact with the quantum electromagnetic field in the vacuum state and are placed in a photonic-bandgap environment with a dispersion relation quadratic near the gap edge and linear for low frequencies, while the atomic transition frequency is assumed to be inside the photonic gap and near its lower edge. This problem is strictly related to the coherent resonant energy transfer between atoms in external environments. The analysis involves both an isotropic three-dimensional model and the one-dimensional case. The resonance interaction asymptotically decays faster with distance compared to the free-space case, specifically as 1/r 2 compared to the 1/r free-space dependence in the three-dimensional case, and as 1/r compared to the oscillatory dependence in free space for the one-dimensional case. Nonetheless, the interaction energy remains significant and much stronger than dispersion interactions between atoms. On the other hand, spontaneous emission is strongly suppressed by the environment and the correlated state is thus preserved by the spontaneous-decay decoherence effects. We conclude that our configuration is suitable for observing the elusive quantum resonance interaction between entangled atoms.

  3. The potential energy of an infinite system of nucleons and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The nature and properties of the delta resonance, Δ (1236), in infinite nuclear and neutron matter are investigated. Calculations of the potential energy of a system of separate Fermi seas of nucleons and delta resonances have been performed using Jastrow lowest-order constrained variational techniques. Using the Reid soft-core nucleon-nucleon interaction and a model, consistent, energy-dependent, static one-pion- and one-rho-meson-exchange nucleon-delta potential, a significant reduction in the potential energy of the system is found at densities above nuclear matter density (0.17 fm -3 ) when deltas are present. The density at which the formation of a separate Fermi sea of deltas is favourable is estimated and the consequences for the possible formation of a pion condensate and the properties of neutron star matter are discussed. (author)

  4. Energy harvesting from coherent resonance of horizontal vibration of beam excited by vertical base motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-15

    This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.

  5. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    -effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel......This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...

  6. Search for solar Axion Like Particles in the low energy range at CAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantatore, G.; Karuza, M.; Lozza, V.; Raiteri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) could be continuously produced in the Sun via the Primakoff process. The ALP flux could be seen on Earth by observing the photons produced by the ALP decay. The expected energy distribution of reconverted photons is peaked at 3 keV. There could be, however, a low energy tail due to various processes active in the Sun. We report results of the first test measurements in the low energy range performed at CAST along with a description of the experimental setup. Future detector developments are discussed and preliminary results on a liquid nitrogen cooled Avalanche Photodiode are presented.

  7. Relation of photofission cross sections and delayed neutron photoproduction in the range of E1-giant resonance. Sootnoshenie mezhdu secheniyami fotodeleniya i fotoobrazovaniya zapazdyvayushchikh nejtronov v oblasti E1-gigantskogo rezonansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganich, P P; Parlag, O A; Sikora, D I; Sychev, S I

    1989-03-01

    Relation between yields and cross sections of photofission and photoproduction is studied in order to use them in the methods for analysis of fissile nuclides. Total yield of delayed neutrons from the {sup 232}Th target and ratios of total yields from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th targets were measured in the M=300 microtron in 6-18 MeV energy range. Efficiency of the suggested method for refining the {sup 238}U photofission cross sections in the range of E1-giant resonance is shown.

  8. Excitation energies from Görling-Levy perturbation theory along the range-separated adiabatic connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M.; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien

    2018-06-01

    A Görling-Levy (GL)-based perturbation theory along the range-separated adiabatic connection is assessed for the calculation of electronic excitation energies. In comparison with the Rayleigh-Schrödinger (RS)-based perturbation theory this GL-based perturbation theory keeps the ground-state density constant at each order and thus gives the correct ionisation energy at each order. Excitation energies up to first order in the perturbation have been calculated numerically for the helium and beryllium atoms and the hydrogen molecule without introducing any density-functional approximations. In comparison with the RS-based perturbation theory, the present GL-based perturbation theory gives much more accurate excitation energies for Rydberg states but similar excitation energies for valence states.

  9. Efficient method for the solution of the energy dependent integral Boltzmann transport equation in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, G.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of neutron-nuclei reaction rates in the lower resolved resonance region (167 eV - 1.855 eV) is considered in this dissertation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calculation of these reaction rates for tight lattices where their accuracy is most important. The results of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, VIM, are chosen as reference values for this study. The primary objective of this work is to develop a method for calculating resonance reaction rates which agree well with the reference solution, yet is efficient enough to be used by nuclear reactor fuel cycle designers on a production basis. A very efficient multigroup solution of the two spatial region energy dependent integral transport equation is developed. This solution, denoted the Broad Group Integral Method (BGIM), uses escape probabilities to obtain the spatial coupling between regions and uses an analytical flux shape within a multigroup to obtain weighted cross sections which account for the rapidly varying resonance cross sections. The multigroup lethargy widths chosen for the numerical integration of the two region energy-dependent neutron continuity equations can be chosen much wider (a factor of 30 larger) than in the direct numerical integration methods since the analytical flux shape is used to account for fine structure effects. The BGIM solution is made highly efficient through the use of these broad groups. It is estimated that for a 10 step unit cell fuel cycle depletion calculation, the computer running time for a production code such as EPRI-LEOPARD would be increased by only 6% through the use of the more accurate and intricate BGIM method in the lower resonance energy region

  10. Nanophotonic Control of the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Christian; Zijlstra, Niels; Lagendijk, Ad

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the local density of optical states (LDOS) on the rate and efficiency of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a donor to an acceptor. The donors and acceptors are dye molecules that are separated by a short strand of double-stranded DNA. The LDOS...... is controlled by carefully positioning the FRET pairs near a mirror. We find that the energy transfer efficiency changes with LDOS, and that, in agreement with theory, the energy transfer rate is independent of the LDOS, which allows one to quantitatively control FRET systems in a new way. Our results imply...

  11. Resonance Energy Transfer in Hybrid Devices in the Presence of a Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii; Huck, Alexander; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2014-01-01

    to approximately 10 nm was observed. By comparing the carrier dynamics of the quantum wells and the nanocrystals, we found that nonradiative recombination via surface states, generated during dry etching of the wafer, counteracts the nonradiative energy-transfer process to the nanocrystals and therefore decreases......We have studied room-temperature, nonradiative resonant energy transfer from InGaN/GaN quantum wells to CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals separated by aluminum oxide layers of different thicknesses. Nonradiative energy transfer from the quantum wells to the nanocrystals at separation distances of up...

  12. Experimental characterization of cantilever-type piezoelectric generator operating at resonance for vibration energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanini, Roberto, E-mail: rmontanini@unime.it; Quattrocchi, Antonino, E-mail: aquattrocchi@unime.it [University of Messina, Dept. of Engineering, Contrada di Dio, Messina (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    A cantilever-type resonant piezoelectric generator (RPG) has been designed by gluing a PZT patch working in d{sub 31} mode onto a glass fibre reinforced composite cantilever beam with a discrete mass applied on its free end. The electrical and dynamic behaviour of the RPG prototype has been investigated by carrying out laboratory tests aimed to assess the effect of definite design parameters, specifically the electric resistance load and the excitation frequency. Results showed that an optimum resistance load exists, at which power generation is maximized. Moreover, it has been showed that power generation is strongly influenced by the vibration frequency highlighting that, at resonance, output power can be increased by more than one order of magnitude. Possible applications include inertial resonant harvester for energy recovery from vibrating machines, sea waves or wind flux and self-powering of wireless sensor nodes.

  13. Long-Range Energy Propagation in Nanometer Arrays of Light Harvesting Antenna Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalantet, Maryana; Escalante Marun, M.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Zhao, Yiping; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Hunter, C. Neil; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first observation of long-range transport of excitation energy within a biomimetic molecular nanoarray constructed from LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Fluorescence microscopy of the emission of light after local excitation with a diffraction-limited light beam

  14. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Epperson, DM; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRS) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult

  15. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate...

  16. 56Fe resonance parameters for neutron energies up to 850 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perey, C.M.; Perey, F.G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Larson, N.M.

    1990-12-01

    High-resolution neutron measurements for 56 Fe-enriched iron targets were made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in transmission below 20 MeV and in differential elastic scattering below 5 MeV. Transmission measurements were also performed with a natural iron target below 160 keV. The transmission data were analyzed from 5 to 850 keV with the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY which uses Bayes' theorem for the fitting process. This code provides energies and neutron widths of the resonances inside the 5- to 850-keV energy region, as well as possible parameterization for resonances external to the analyzed region to describe the smooth cross section from a few eV to 850 keV. The resulting set of resonance parameters yields the accepted values for the thermal total and capture cross sections. The differential elastic-scattering data at several scattering angles were compared to theoretical calculations from 40 to 850 keV using the R-matrix code RFUNC based on the Blatt-Biedenharn formalism. Various combinations of spin and parity were tried to predict cross sections for the well defined ell > 0 resonances; comparison of these predictions with the data allowed us to determine the most likely spin and parity assignments for these resonances. The results of a capture data analysis by Corvi et al. (COR84), from 2 to 350 keV, were combined with our results to obtain the radiation widths of the resonances below 350 keV observed in transmission, capture, and differential elastic-scattering experiments

  17. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework combined with increasing demand for energy has created an opportunity for dramatic changes in the way energy is generated in Ghana. However, the impending changes and their implication remain uncertain. This paper examines the extent to which future energy scenarios in Ghana could rely on energy from biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO_2e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable. Resorting to first generation ethanol would require the allocation of over 580,000 ha of agricultural land for ethanol production. - Highlights: • This paper examines modern bioenergy contribution to Ghana's future energy mix. • Three scenarios are developed and analysed. • Opportunities exist for modern bioenergy to replace carbon intensive fuels. • Introducing modern bioenergy to the mix could result in a 14% reduction in GHG.

  18. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N.M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P.M.; Poludniowski, G.; Green, S.; Parker, D.J.; Price, T.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  19. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Evans, P M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Poludniowski, G; Price, T; Waltham, C; Allinson, N M

    2015-06-03

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  20. Multi-Group Library Generation with Explicit Resonance Interference Using Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Jin; Cho, Jin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, multi-group cross section libraries for the DeCART code were generated using a new procedure. The new procedure includes generating the RI tables based on the MC calculations, correcting the effective fission product yield calculations, and considering most of the fission products as resonant nuclides. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the transport lattice code KARMA (Kernel Analyzer by Ray-tracing Method for fuel Assembly) and DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) for a multi-group neutron transport analysis of light water reactors (LWRs). These codes adopt the method of characteristics (MOC) to solve the multi-group transport equation and resonance fixed source problem, the subgroup and the direct iteration method with resonance integral tables for resonance treatment. With the development of the DeCART and KARMA code, KAERI has established its own library generation system for a multi-group transport calculation. In the KAERI library generation system, the multi-group average cross section and resonance integral (RI) table are generated and edited using PENDF (point-wise ENDF) and GENDF (group-wise ENDF) produced by the NJOY code. The new method does not need additional processing because the MC method can handle any geometry information and material composition. In this study, the new method is applied to the dominant resonance nuclide such as U{sup 235} and U{sup 238} and the conventional method is applied to the minor resonance nuclides. To examine the newly generated multi-group cross section libraries, various benchmark calculations such as pin-cell, FA, and core depletion problem are performed and the results are compared with the reference solutions. Overall, the results by the new method agree well with the reference solution. The new procedure based on the MC method were verified and provided the multi-group library that can be used in the SMR nuclear design analysis.

  1. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  2. Coupled superconducting qudit-resonator system: Energy spectrum, state population, and state transition under microwave drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Y.; Xu, H. K.; Su, F. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Tian, Ye; Han, Siyuan; Zhao, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    Superconducting quantum multilevel systems coupled to resonators have recently been considered in some applications such as microwave lasing and high-fidelity quantum logical gates. In this work, using an rf-SQUID type phase qudit coupled to a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator, we study both theoretically and experimentally the energy spectrum of the system when the qudit level spacings are varied around the resonator frequency by changing the magnetic flux applied to the qudit loop. We show that the experimental result can be well described by a theoretical model that extends from the usual two-level Jaynes-Cummings system to the present four-level system. It is also shown that due to the small anharmonicity of the phase device a simplified model capturing the leading state interactions fits the experimental spectra very well. Furthermore we use the Lindblad master equation containing various relaxation and dephasing processes to calculate the level populations in the simpler qutrit-resonator system, which allows a clear understanding of the dynamics of the system under the microwave drive. Our results help to better understand and perform the experiments of coupled multilevel and resonator systems and can be applied in the case of transmon or Xmon qudits having similar anharmonicity to the present phase device.

  3. A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jing, E-mail: jingqiu@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin [Sensors and Instruments Research Center, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-05-07

    Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.

  4. Multi-port isolated LLC resonant converter for distributed energy generation with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Manez, Kevin; Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2017-01-01

    regulation increase in complexity. In this paper, an isolated multi-port bidirectional converter based on an LLC converter is presented. The converter operates as a dc transformer at a fixed switching frequency and duty cycle without any control loop. The resonant tanks are designed to ensure soft...

  5. e+e- annihilation into multihadrons in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisello, D.

    1990-11-01

    In the study of e + e - annihilation into multihadrons, evidence is found for a resonant state around 1650 MeV/c 2 in the π + π - π + π - π 0 and K S 0 K ± π -+ channels. The π + π - π + π - channel shows the well known ρ'(1600) signal with a significant a 1 π and ρε dynamics while the π + π - π 0 π 0 , without ωπ 0 dynamics, shows a wide bump around 1650 MeV/c 2 with a main ρ ± π -+ π 0 dynamics. Data have been collected with the DM2 detector at DCI, the Orsay colliding ring, and refer to about 2 pb -1 luminosity in the 1350 - 2400 MeV energy interval

  6. Long-range Coulomb interactions in low energy (e,2e) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proper treatment of long-range Coulomb interactions has confounded atomic collision theory since Schrodinger first presented a quantum-mechanical model for atomic interactions. The long-range Coulomb interactions are difficult to include in models in a way that treats the interaction sufficiently well but at the same time ensures the calculation remains tractable. An innovative application of an existing multi-parameter (e,2e) data acquisition system will be described. To clarify the effects of long-range Coulomb interactions, we will report the correlations and interactions that occur at low energy, observed by studying the energy sharing between outgoing electrons in the electron-impact ionisation of krypton

  7. Darwin: Dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Satoh, D.; Endo, A.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with Wide energy ranges), has been developed for real-time monitoring of doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a Phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. DARWIN has the following features: (1) capable of monitoring doses from neutrons, photons and muons with energies from thermal energy to 1 GeV, 150 keV to 100 MeV and 1 MeV to 100 GeV, respectively, (2) highly sensitive with precision and (3) easy to operate with a simple graphical user-interface. The performance of DARWIN was examined experimentally in several radiation fields. The results of the experiments indicated the accuracy and wide response range of DARWIN for measuring dose rates from neutrons, photons and muons with wide energies. It was also found from the experiments that DARWIN enables us to monitor small fluctuations of neutron dose rates near the background level because of its high sensitivity. With these properties, DARWIN will be able to play a very important role for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities. (authors)

  8. Assessment of tumor energy and oxygenation status by bioluminescence, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cryospectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Klieser, W; Schaefer, C; Walenta, S; Rofstad, E K; Fenton, B M; Sutherland, R M

    1990-03-15

    The energy and oxygenation status of tumors from two murine sarcoma lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI) were assessed using three independent techniques. Tumor energy metabolism was investigated in vivo by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, tumors were frozen in liquid nitrogen to determine the tissue ATP concentration by imaging bioluminescence and to register the intracapillary oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) saturation using the cryospectrophotometric method. There was a positive correlation between the nucleoside triphosphate beta/total resonance ratio or a negative correlation between the Pi/total resonance ratio and the model ATP concentration obtained by bioluminescence, respectively. This was true for small tumors with no extended necrosis irrespective of tumor type. Moreover, a positive correlation was obtained between the HbO2 saturations and the ATP concentration measured with bioluminescence. The results demonstrate the potential of combined studies using noninvasive, integrating methods and high-resolution imaging techniques for characterizing the metabolic milieu in tumors.

  9. Partial wave analysis of DM2 data in the η(1430) energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.; Cosme, G.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Grosdidier, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lepeltier, V.; Szklarz, G.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Pescara, L.; Sartori, P.; Stanco, L.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Falvard, A.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    Partial Wave Analysis of the J/ψ → γK S 0 K ± π -+ , γK ± K -+ π 0 decays in the ι/η(1430) mass range shows a clear pseudoscalar dominance, with two dynamical components. The main one, centered at ∼ 1460 MeV/c 2 , proceeds via a 0 (980)π dynamics, while the second one with K*(892)K dynamics is peaked at ∼ 1420 MeV/c 2 , close to its threshold. In addition, the higher part of the mass spectrum contains a significant contribution from the 1 ++ K*(892)K wave. In the PWA of the J/ψ → γηπ + π - channel a resonant a 0 π production is observed slightly below 1400 MeV/c 2

  10. Polymer-Polymer Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Significantly Boosts the Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Bharti, Vishal; Kumar, Mahesh; Chand, Suresh; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Optically resonant donor polymers can exploit a wider range of the solar spectrum effectively without a complicated tandem design in an organic solar cell. Ultrafast Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a polymer-polymer system that significantly improves the power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells from 6.8% to 8.9% is demonstrated, thus paving the way to achieving 15% efficient solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng; Mao, Haiyang; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Ruiwen; Ming, Anjie [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Ou, Yi; Ou, Wen [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Smart Sensor Engineering Center, Jiangsu R& D Center for Internet of Things, Wuxi 214315 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes.

  12. Vibration energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on flexible coil and liquid spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Tang, Y.; Shkel, A.; Kim, E. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports an electromagnetic vibration-energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on liquid spring composed of ferrofluid. Cylinder magnet array formed by four disc NdFeB magnets is suspended by ferrofluid in a laser-machined acrylic tube which is wrapped by flexible planar coil fabricated with microfabrication process. The magnet array and coil are aligned automatically by the ferrofluid. Restoring force when the magnet array is deviated from the balance position is proportional to the deviated distance, which makes the ferrofluid work as a liquid spring obeying Hook's law. Experimental results show that the electromagnetic energy harvester occupying 1.8 cc and weighing 5 g has a resonant frequency of 16 Hz and generates an induced electromotive force of Vrms = 2.58 mV (delivering 79 nW power into matched load of 21 Ω) from 3 g acceleration at 16 Hz.

  13. Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Meng; Mao, Haiyang; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Ruiwen; Ming, Anjie; Ou, Yi; Ou, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes

  14. Investigation of the energy levels of the gadolinium atom using resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Tae; Yi, Jong Hoon; Rhee, Yong Joo; Lee, Jong Min

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the ionization processes, the energy values, and the strengths of ion signals by using a dye laser frequency in the ultra-violet range with one-color multi-photon ionization. Also, two color multi-photon ionization by using another near infrared photon has been done to investigate energy levels with odd-parity in the energy range of between 35500 cm -1 and 37700 cm -1

  15. Investigation of the energy levels of the gadolinium atom using resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J T; Rhee, Y J; Lee, J M

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the ionization processes, the energy values, and the strengths of ion signals by using a dye laser frequency in the ultra-violet range with one-color multi-photon ionization. Also, two color multi-photon ionization by using another near infrared photon has been done to investigate energy levels with odd-parity in the energy range of between 35500 cm sup - sup 1 and 37700 cm sup - sup 1

  16. Photoluminescence quenching through resonant energy transfer in blends of conjugated polymer with low-molecular acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapunidi, S. A.; Paraschuk, D. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    A model is proposed for photoluminescence quenching due to resonant energy transfer in a blend of a conjugated polymer and a low-molecular energy acceptor. An analytical dependence of the normalized photoluminescence intensity on the acceptor concentration is derived for the case of a homogeneous blend. This dependence can be described by two fitting parameters related to the Foerster radii for energy transfer between conjugated segments of the polymer and between the conjugated polymer segment and the energy acceptor. Asymptotic approximations are obtained for the model dependence that make it possible to estimate the contribution from the spatial migration of excitons to the photoluminescence quenching. The proposed model is used to analyze experimental data on the photoluminescence quenching in a blend of the soluble derivative of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and trinitrofluorenone [13]. The Foerster radius for resonant energy transfer between the characteristic conjugated segment of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and the energy acceptor is determined to be r F = 2.6 ± 0.3 nm

  17. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  18. In vivo measurement of phosphorus energy metabolites by topical magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, Hiroshi [National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki Aichi (Japan); Koizuka, Izumi; Takada, Muneharu; Naruse, Shoji

    1982-12-01

    An apparatus of TMR (topical magnetic resonance) was briefly described, and the technique to use it was shown. The effect of digital filter was demonstrated and measurement of a pulse width was shown using a phantom. Pulse width and /sup 31/P-NMR spectrum measured in a rat head were shown. The /sup 31/P-NMR spectrum well revealed the phosphorus energy metabolites such as creatine phosphoric acid, ATP, and ADP.

  19. Two-dimensional Forster resonance energy transfer (2-D FRET) and the membrane raft hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Acasandrei, Maria; Dale, Robert; VAN DE VEN, Martin; AMELOOT, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    A model for analyzing Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) data in relation to the cell plasma membrane raft hypothesis is developed to take into account: (a) the distribution of FRET donors and acceptors at the surface of probing antibody fragments specific for a putative raft component; (b) partitioning of the raft component between raft and non-raft areas of the membrane; and (c) the dependence of the raft partition on the expression level of the considered component. Analysis of relev...

  20. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors for quantitative monitoring of pentose and disaccharide accumulation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looger Loren L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineering microorganisms to improve metabolite flux requires detailed knowledge of the concentrations and flux rates of metabolites and metabolic intermediates in vivo. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors represent a promising technology for measuring metabolite levels and corresponding rate changes in live cells. These sensors have been applied successfully in mammalian and plant cells but potentially could also be used to monitor steady-state levels of metabolites in microorganisms using fluorimetric assays. Sensors for hexose and pentose carbohydrates could help in the development of fermentative microorganisms, for example, for biofuels applications. Arabinose is one of the carbohydrates to be monitored during biofuels production from lignocellulose, while maltose is an important degradation product of starch that is relevant for starch-derived biofuels production. Results An Escherichia coli expression vector compatible with phage λ recombination technology was constructed to facilitate sensor construction and was used to generate a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for arabinose. In parallel, a strategy for improving the sensor signal was applied to construct an improved maltose sensor. Both sensors were expressed in the cytosol of E. coli and sugar accumulation was monitored using a simple fluorimetric assay of E. coli cultures in microtiter plates. In the case of both nanosensors, the addition of the respective ligand led to concentration-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer responses allowing quantitative analysis of the intracellular sugar levels at given extracellular supply levels as well as accumulation rates. Conclusion The nanosensor destination vector combined with the optimization strategy for sensor responses should help to accelerate the development of metabolite sensors. The new carbohydrate fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors can be used for in vivo

  1. Molding resonant energy transfer by colloidal crystal: Dexter transfer and electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Urbina, Luis; Kolaric, Branko; Libaers, Wim; Clays, Koen

    2010-05-01

    Building photonic crystals by combination of colloidal ordering and metal sputtering we were able to construct a system sensitive to an electrical field. In corresponding crystals we embedded the Dexter pair (Ir(ppy3) and BAlq) and investigated the influence of the band gap on the resonant energy transfer when the system is excited by light and by an electric field respectively. Our investigations extend applications of photonic crystals into the field of electroluminescence and LED technologies.

  2. Short-range second order screened exchange correction to RPA correlation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Direct random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energies have become increasingly popular as a post-Kohn-Sham correction, due to significant improvements over DFT calculations for properties such as long-range dispersion effects, which are problematic in conventional density functional theory. On the other hand, RPA still has various weaknesses, such as unsatisfactory results for non-isogyric processes. This can in parts be attributed to the self-correlation present in RPA correlation energies, leading to significant self-interaction errors. Therefore a variety of schemes have been devised to include exchange in the calculation of RPA correlation energies in order to correct this shortcoming. One of the most popular RPA plus exchange schemes is the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) correction. RPA + SOSEX delivers more accurate absolute correlation energies and also improves upon RPA for non-isogyric processes. On the other hand, RPA + SOSEX barrier heights are worse than those obtained from plain RPA calculations. To combine the benefits of RPA correlation energies and the SOSEX correction, we introduce a short-range RPA + SOSEX correction. Proof of concept calculations and benchmarks showing the advantages of our method are presented.

  3. Multi-resonant electromagnetic shunt in base isolation for vibration damping and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yalu; Liu, Yilun; Zuo, Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts applied to base isolation for dual-function vibration damping and energy harvesting. Two multi-mode shunt circuit configurations, namely parallel and series, are proposed and optimized based on the H2 criteria. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the relative displacement between the base and the primary structure is minimized. Practically, this will improve the safety of base-isolated buildings subjected the broad bandwidth ground acceleration. Case studies of a base-isolated building are conducted in both the frequency and time domains to investigate the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts under recorded earthquake signals. It shows that both multi-mode shunt circuits outperform traditional single mode shunt circuits by suppressing the first and the second vibration modes simultaneously. Moreover, for the same stiffness ratio, the parallel shunt circuit is more effective at harvesting energy and suppressing vibration, and can more robustly handle parameter mistuning than the series shunt circuit. Furthermore, this paper discusses experimental validation of the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts for vibration damping and energy harvesting on a scaled-down base isolation system.

  4. Observations of resonance-like structures for positron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, L.

    1993-01-01

    Absolute values of elastic differential cross sections (DCS's) are measured for position (e + ) scattering by argon (8.7-300 eV) krypton (6.7-400 eV) and also neon (13.6-400 eV) using a crossed-beam experimental setup. When the DCS's are plotted at fixed scattering angles of 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees and 120 degrees versus energy it has been found that well-defined resonance-like structures are found at an energy of 55-60 eV for argon and at 25 and 200 eV for krypton, with a broader structure found between 100-200 eV for neon. These observed resonance-like structures are unusual because they occur at energies well above the known inelastic thresholds for these atoms. They may represent examples of open-quotes coupled channel shape resonancesclose quotes, first predicted by Higgins and Burke [1] for e + -H scattering in the vicinity of 36 eV (width ∼ 4 eV), which occurs only when both the elastic and positronium formation scattering channels are considered together. A more recent e + -H calculation by Hewitt et al. [2] supports the Higgins and Burke prediction. These predictions and the present observations suggest the existence of a new type of atomic scattering resonance

  5. Observations of resonance-like structures for positron-atom elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, L.; Kauppila, W.E.; Kwan, C.K.; Stein, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured absolute values of elastic differential cross sections (DCS's) for positron (e + ) scattering by argon (8.7-300 eV), krypton (6.7-400 eV), and also neon (13.6-400 eV) using a crossed-beam experimental setup. When the DCS's are plotted at fixed scattering angles of 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees versus energy it has been found that well-defined resonance-like structures were found at an energy of 55-60 eV for argon and at 25 and 200 eV for krypton, with a broader structure found between 100-200 eV for neon. These observed resonance-like structures are unusual because they occur at energies well above the known inelastic thresholds for these atoms. They may represent examples of open-quotes coupled channel shape resonancesclose quotes, first predicted by Higgins and Burke for e + -H scattering in the vicinity of 36 eV (width ∼ 4 eV), which occurs only when both the elastic and positronium formation scattering channels are considered together. A more recent e + -H calculation by Hewitt et al. supports the Higgins and Burke prediction. These predictions and the present observations suggest the existence of a new type of atomic scattering resonance

  6. Physics of ep collisions in the TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Mele, B.; Rueckl, R.

    1984-01-01

    We study the physics of electron-proton collisions in the range of centre-of-mass energies between √s approx.= 0.3 TeV (HERA) and √s approx.= (1-2) TeV. The latter energies would be achieved if the electron or positron beam of LEP [Esub(e) approx.= (50-100) GeV] is made to collide with the proton beam of LHC [Esub(p) approx.= (5-10) TeV]. (orig.)

  7. Using the probability method for multigroup calculations of reactor cells in a thermal energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, I.E.; Pustoshilova, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using the transmission probability method with performance inerpolation for determining spatial-energy neutron flux distribution in cells of thermal heterogeneous reactors is considered. The results of multigroup calculations of several uranium-water plane and cylindrical cells with different fuel enrichment in a thermal energy range are given. A high accuracy of results is obtained with low computer time consumption. The use of the transmission probability method is particularly reasonable in algorithms of the programmes compiled computer with significant reserve of internal memory

  8. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U.; Levin, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y 1 , y 2 ) ≥ 1, which is independent of y 1 and y 2 . Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  9. Simple estimation of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) orientation factor distribution in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loura, Luís M S

    2012-11-19

    Because of its acute sensitivity to distance in the nanometer scale, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found a large variety of applications in many fields of chemistry, physics, and biology. One important issue regarding the correct usage of FRET is its dependence on the donor-acceptor relative orientation, expressed as the orientation factor k(2). Different donor/acceptor conformations can lead to k(2) values in the 0 ≤ k(2) ≤ 4 range. Because the characteristic distance for FRET, R(0), is proportional to (k(2))1/6, uncertainties in the orientation factor are reflected in the quality of information that can be retrieved from a FRET experiment. In most cases, the average value of k(2) corresponding to the dynamic isotropic limit ( = 2/3) is used for computation of R(0) and hence donor-acceptor distances and acceptor concentrations. However, this can lead to significant error in unfavorable cases. This issue is more critical in membrane systems, because of their intrinsically anisotropic nature and their reduced fluidity in comparison to most common solvents. Here, a simple numerical simulation method for estimation of the probability density function of k(2) for membrane-embedded donor and acceptor fluorophores in the dynamic regime is presented. In the simplest form, the proposed procedure uses as input the most probable orientations of the donor and acceptor transition dipoles, obtained by experimental (including linear dichroism) or theoretical (such as molecular dynamics simulation) techniques. Optionally, information about the widths of the donor and/or acceptor angular distributions may be incorporated. The methodology is illustrated for special limiting cases and common membrane FRET pairs.

  10. Excitation-energy-dependent resonances in x-ray emissions under near-threshold electron excitation of the Ce 3d and 4d levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.B.; Baun, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Soft x-ray appearance potential spectra of the 3d and 4d levels of polycrystalline cerium metal are reported in this paper. Resonant x-ray emissions are observed when the electron-excitation energy sweeps through the ionization energies of the 3d and 4d levels. The resonant x rays excited at the 3d-level onsets are considerably more intense, and are excited at a lower electron-excitation energy than the 3d-series characteristic x rays. In the neighborhood of the 4d-electron thresholds, four line-like structures extend to approx.8 eV below the 4d-electron binding energies, while two broad and more intense structures occur above the 4d onsets, with the largest one reaching a peak intensity at 12 eV above the 4d thresholds. The resonant emissions apparently arise from the decay of threshold-excited states which are bound to the inner vacancy and have core configurations nd 9 4f 3 , (n=3,4). The exchange interaction between the three 4f electrons and the respective d-orbital vacancy spreads the 4d-threshold structures over a 20 eV range of excitation energies and the 3d-threshold structures over a much smaller range

  11. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging of CFP/YFP labeled NDH in cyanobacterium cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Dongmei; Lv Wei; Huang Zhengxi; Xia Andong; Xu Min; Ma Weimin; Mi Hualing; Ogawa Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The laser confocal scanning microscopy combined with time-correlated single photon counting imaging technique to obtain fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime images for fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurement is reported. Both the fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and intensity images show inhomogeneous cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein (CFP /YFP) expression or inhomogeneous energy transfer between CFP and YFP over whole cell. The results presented in this work show that FLIM could be a potential method to reveal the structure-function behavior of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complexes in living cell

  12. 3He(α, γ7Be cross section in a wide energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szücs Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction rate of the 3He(α,γ7 Be reaction is important both in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN and in the Solar hydrogen burning. There have been a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to determine this reaction rate with high precision. Some long standing issues have been solved by the more precise investigations, like the different S(0 values predicted by the activation and in-beam measurement. However, the recent, more detailed astrophysical model predictions require the reaction rate with even higher precision to unravel new issues like the Solar composition. One way to increase the precision is to provide a comprehensive dataset in a wide energy range, extending the experimental cross section database of this reaction. This paper presents a new cross section measurement between Ecm = 2.5 − 4.4 MeV, in an energy range which extends above the 7Be proton separation threshold.

  13. Development of dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A new radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with WIde energy raNges), has been developed for real-time monitoring of doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. DARWIN has the following features: (1) capable of monitoring doses from neutrons, photons and muons with energies from thermal energy to 1 GeV, 150 keV to 100 MeV, and 1 MeV to 100 GeV, respectively, (2) highly sensitive with precision, and (3) easy to operate with a simple graphical user-interface. The performance of DARWIN was examined experimentally in several radiation fields. The results of the experiments indicated the accuracy and rapid response of DARWIN for measuring dose rates from neutrons, photons and muons with wide energies. With these properties, we conclude that DARWIN will be able to play a very important role for improving radiation safety in high energy accelerator facilities. (author)

  14. Anomalous resonance-radiation energy-transfer rate in a scattering dispersive medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhtman, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a generalization of the concept of group velocity as an energy-transfer rate in a dispersive medium with complex refractive index when the polaritons, which are energy carriers, undergo scattering, in contrast to the classical concept of the group velocity of free polaritons (i.e., without scattering in the medium). The concept of delay time from quantum multichannel-scattering, theory is used as the fundamental concept. Based on Maxwell's equations and the new mathematical Φ-function method, a consistent conceptual definition of group velocity in terms of the ratio of the coherent-energy flux density to the coherent-energy density is obtained for the first time, and a critical analysis of the earlier (Brillouin) understanding of energy-transfer rate is given in the light of radiation-trapping theory and the quantum theory of resonance scattering. The role of generalized group velocity is examined for the interpretation of the phenomenon of multiple resonance scattering, or radiation diffusion. The question of causality for the given problem is touched upon; a new relationship is obtained, called the microcausality condition, which limits the anomalous values of group velocity by way of the indeterminacy principle and the relativistic causality principle for macroscopic time intervals directly measurable in experiment, whereby attention is focused on the connection of the given microcausality condition and the well-known Wigner inequality for the time delay of spherical waves. 22 refs

  15. An Energy-Efficient Link with Adaptive Transmit Power Control for Long Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, P.; Blaszczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research is carried out to develop a reliable smart sensor system with high energy efficiency for battery operated wireless IoT devices in the agriculture sector. However, only a limited amount of research has covered automatic transmission power adjustment schemes...... and algorithms which are essential for deployment of wireless IoT nodes. This paper presents an adaptive link algorithm for farm applications with emphasis on power adjustment for long range communication networks....

  16. Energy of N two-dimensional bosons with zero-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazak, B.; Petrov, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We derive an integral equation describing N two-dimensional bosons with zero-range interactions and solve it for the ground state energy B N by applying a stochastic diffusion Monte Carlo scheme for up to 26 particles. We confirm and go beyond the scaling B N ∝ 8.567 N predicted by Hammer and Son (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 250408) in the large-N limit.

  17. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  18. Long-range energy transfer in self-assembled quantum dot-DNA cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Siu, Albert; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient transport of energy across QD-DNA thin films.The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient

  19. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  20. Determination of personnel exposures in the lower energy ranges of X-ray by photographic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Kim, J.R.; Suk, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper described an improved technical method required for proper evaluation of personnel exposures by means of the photographic dosimeter developed by KAERI in lower gamma or X-ray energy regions, with which response of the dosimeter varies significantly. With calibration of the dosimeter in the energy range from 30 to 300 keV, the beam spectrum was carefully selected and specified it adequately. The absorber combinations and absorber thickness used to obtain the specified X-ray spectra from a constant potential X-ray machine were determined theoretically and also experimentally. A correlation between the density and exposure for the four separate energies, such as 49 keV eff , 154 keV eff 250 keV eff and 662 keV, is experimentally determined. As a result, it can be directly evaluated the exposure from the measured response of dosimeter. (Author)

  1. Standardization of radiation protection measurements in mixed fields of an extended energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The improved ICRU concept of dose equivalent index aims at standardizing both area and personnel dose measurements so that the results on the dosimetry of external irradiations in radiation protection become compatible. It seems that for photon and neutron energies up to 3 and 20 MeV respectively the realization of dose-equivalent index is straightforward, but the inclusion of higher energies and/or other types of radiation will lead both to conceptual and practical difficulties. It will be shown that practical measurements in mixed radiation fields of an extended energy range for protection purposes will overestimate the standardized quantity. While area measurements can be performed to represent a good approximation, greater uncertainties have to be accepted in personnel dosimetry for stray radiation fields around GeV proton accelerators

  2. Calibration efficiency of HPGe detector in the 50-1800 KeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Luzia

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of an HPGe detector in the 50 - 1800 keV energy range, for two geometries for water measurements: Marinelli breaker (850 ml) and a polyethylene flask (100 ml). The experimental data were corrected for the summing effect and fitted to a continuous, differentiable and energy dependent function given by 1n(ε)=b 0 +b 1 .1n(E/E 0 )+ β.1n(E/E 0 ) 2 , where β = b 2 if E>E 0 and β =a 2 if E ≤E 0 ; ε = the full absorption peak efficiency; E is the gamma-ray energy and {b 0 , b 1 , b 2 , a 2 , E 0 } is the parameter set to be fitted. (author)

  3. Photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers in the 7-10 eV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenel, Aurelie; Roncero, Octavio, E-mail: octavio.roncero@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental (IFF-CSIC), C.S.I.C., Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Alfredo [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada (UAM), Unidad Asociada a IFF-CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias Módulo 14, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Cantoblanco (Spain)

    2016-04-14

    The ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of the HCN and HNC isomers have been simulated in the 7-10 eV photon energy range. For this purpose, the three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 7 lowest electronic states, and the corresponding transition dipole moments, have been calculated, at multireference configuration interaction level. The spectra are calculated with a quantum wave packet method on these adiabatic potential energy surfaces. The spectra for the 3 lower excited states, the dissociative electronic states, correspond essentially to predissociation peaks, most of them through tunneling on the same adiabatic state. The 3 higher electronic states are bound, hereafter electronic bound states, and their spectra consist of delta lines, in the adiabatic approximation. The radiative lifetime towards the ground electronic states of these bound states has been calculated, being longer than 10 ns in all cases, much longer that the characteristic predissociation lifetimes. The spectra of HCN is compared with the available experimental and previous theoretical simulations, while in the case of HNC there are no previous studies to our knowledge. The spectrum for HNC is considerably more intense than that of HCN in the 7-10 eV photon energy range, which points to a higher photodissociation rate for HNC, compared to HCN, in astrophysical environments illuminated by ultraviolet radiation.

  4. Synthesis and systematic evaluation of dark resonance energy transfer (DRET)-based library and its application in cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Kang, Nam-Young; Yu, Xiaotong; Sahu, Srikanta; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report a new strategy for constructing a dye library with large Stokes shifts. By coupling a dark donor with BODIPY acceptors of tunable high quantum yield, a novel dark resonance energy transfer (DRET)-based library, named BNM, has been synthesized. Upon excitation of the dark donor (BDN) at 490 nm, the absorbed energy is transferred to the acceptor (BDM) with high efficiency, which was tunable in a broad range from 557 nm to 716 nm, with a high quantum yield of up to 0.8. It is noteworthy to mention that the majority of the non-radiative energy loss of the donor was converted into the acceptor's fluorescence output with a minimum leak of donor emission. Fluorescence imaging tested in live cells showed that the BNM compounds are cell-permeable and can also be employed for live-cell imaging. This is a new library which can be excited through a dark donor allowing for strong fluorescence emission in a wide range of wavelengths. Thus, the BNM library is well suited for high-throughput screening or multiplex experiments in biological applications by using a single laser excitation source. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Intelligent Energy Management Control for Extended Range Electric Vehicles Based on Dynamic Programming and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihe Xi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extended range electric vehicle (EREV can store much clean energy from the electric grid when it arrives at the charging station with lower battery energy. Consuming minimum gasoline during the trip is a common goal for most energy management controllers. To achieve these objectives, an intelligent energy management controller for EREV based on dynamic programming and neural networks (IEMC_NN is proposed. The power demand split ratio between the extender and battery are optimized by DP, and the control objectives are presented as a cost function. The online controller is trained by neural networks. Three trained controllers, constructing the controller library in IEMC_NN, are obtained from training three typical lengths of the driving cycle. To determine an appropriate NN controller for different driving distance purposes, the selection module in IEMC_NN is developed based on the remaining battery energy and the driving distance to the charging station. Three simulation conditions are adopted to validate the performance of IEMC_NN. They are target driving distance information, known and unknown, changing the destination during the trip. Simulation results using these simulation conditions show that the IEMC_NN had better fuel economy than the charging deplete/charging sustain (CD/CS algorithm. More significantly, with known driving distance information, the battery SOC controlled by IEMC_NN can just reach the lower bound as the EREV arrives at the charging station, which was also feasible when the driver changed the destination during the trip.

  6. Frontier applications of rf superconductivity for high energy physics in the TeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigner, M.; Padamsee, H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present understanding of the fundamental nature of matter is embodied in the standard theory. This theory views all matter as composed of families of quarks and leptons with their interactions mediated by the family of force-carrying particles. Progress in particle accelerators has been a vital element in bringing about this level of understanding. Although the standard theory is successful in relating a wide range of phenomena, it raises deeper questions about the basic nature of matter and energy. Among these are: why are the masses of the various elementary particles and the strengths of the basic forces what they are? It is expected that over the next decade a new generation of accelerators spanning the 100 Gev mass range will shed light on some of these questions. These accelerators, will provide the means to thoroughly explore the energy regime corresponding to the mass scale of the weak interactions to reveal intimate details of the force carrying particles, the weak bosons, Z0 and W+-. Superconducting rf technology will feature in a major way in the electron storage rings. Current theoretical ideas predict that to make further progress towards a more fundamental theory of matter, it will be necessary to penetrate the TeV energy regime. At this scale a whole new range of phenomena will manifest the nature of the symmetry breaking mechanism that must be responsible for the differences they observe in the familiar weak and electromagnetic forces. History has shown that unexpected discoveries made in a new energy regime have proven to be the main engine of progress. The experimental challenge to accelerator designers and builders is clear. 11 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  7. Crossed beam study of He+-O2 charge transfer reactions in the collision energy range 0.5-200 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, G.; Linder, F.

    1986-01-01

    Energy spectra and angular distributions of the O + and O 2 + product ions resulting from the He + -O 2 charge transfer reaction have been measured in the collision energy range 0.5-200 eV using the crossed-beam method. The O 2 + ions represent only a minor fraction of the reaction products (0.2-0.6% over the energy range measured). In the dissociative charge transfer reaction, four main processes are identified leading to O+O + reaction products in different electronic states. Two different mechanisms can be distinguished, each being responsible for two of the observed processes: (i) a long-distance energy-resonant charge transfer process involving the c 4 Σsub(u) - (upsilon'=0) state of O 2 + and (ii) a slightly exothermic charge transfer process via the (III) 2 PIsub(u) state of O 2 + (with the exothermicity depending on the collision energy). Angle-integrated branching ratios and partial cross sections (in absolute units) have been determined. The branching ratios of the individual processes show a pronounced dependence on the collision energy. At low energies, the O + product ions are preferentially formed in the 2 P 0 and 2 D 0 excited states. The angular distributions of the O + product ions show an anisotropic behaviour indicating an orientation-dependent charge transfer probability in the He + -O 2 reaction. (orig.)

  8. Controlling resonance energy transfer in nanostructure emitters by positioning near a mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraddana, Dilusha; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Andrews, David L.

    2017-08-01

    The ability to control light-matter interactions in quantum objects opens up many avenues for new applications. We look at this issue within a fully quantized framework using a fundamental theory to describe mirror-assisted resonance energy transfer (RET) in nanostructures. The process of RET communicates electronic excitation between suitably disposed donor and acceptor particles in close proximity, activated by the initial excitation of the donor. Here, we demonstrate that the energy transfer rate can be significantly controlled by careful positioning of the RET emitters near a mirror. The results deliver equations that elicit new insights into the associated modification of virtual photon behavior, based on the quantum nature of light. In particular, our results indicate that energy transfer efficiency in nanostructures can be explicitly expedited or suppressed by a suitably positioned neighboring mirror, depending on the relative spacing and the dimensionality of the nanostructure. Interestingly, the resonance energy transfer between emitters is observed to "switch off" abruptly under suitable conditions of the RET system. This allows one to quantitatively control RET systems in a new way.

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Magnetic Resonance : Introduction, Advanced Topics and Applications to Fossil Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fraissard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at an Advanced Study Institute on "Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Fossil Energy Problems," which was held at the village of Maleme, Crete, in July of 1983. As of this writing, a different popular attitude prevails from that when the ASI was proposed as far as how critical the world energy picture is. In the popular press, a panglossian attitude (the "petroleum glut" of the 80's) has replaced the jeremiads of the 70's ( a catastrophic "energy crisis"). Yet, there are certain important constants: (a) for the foreseeable future, fossil energy sources (petroleum, coal, oil shale, etc. ) will continue to be of paramount importance; and (b) science and technology of the highest order are needed to extend the fossil ener~y resource base and to utilize it in a cost-effective manner that is also environmentally acceptable. It is precisely this second item that this volume addresses. The volume introduces the phenomenology of magnetic resonance ~n a unified and detailed man...

  10. Non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for car-key applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Hehn, T.; Thewes, M.; Kuehne, I.; Frey, A.; Scholl, G.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for application in a remote car-key, to extend the lifetime of the battery or even to realize a fully energy autonomous, maintenance-free car-key product. Characteristic for a car-key are low frequency and large amplitude motions during normal daily operation. The basic idea of this non-resonant generator is to use a round flat permanent magnet moving freely in a round flat cavity, which is packaged on both sides by printed circuit boards embedded with multi-layer copper coils. The primary goal of this structure is to easily integrate the energy harvester with the existing electrical circuit module into available commercial car-key designs. The whole size of the energy harvester is comparable to a CR2032 coin battery. To find out the best power-efficient and optimal design, several magnets with different dimensions and magnetizations, and various layouts of copper coils were analysed and built up for prototype testing. Experimental results show that with an axially magnetized NdFeB magnet and copper coils of design variant B a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.1V can be observed.

  11. High-energy localized eigenstates in a Fabry-Perot graphene resonator in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalipaev, V. V.

    2012-06-01

    A semiclassical analysis of the high-energy eigenstates of Dirac fermions inside a graphene monolayer nanoribbon resonator of Fabry-Perot type in a magnetic field with zigzag boundary conditions is discussed. A semiclassical asymptotic method of construction of Maslov spectral series of energy spectrum and eigenfunctions, localized in an asymptotically small neighborhood of a periodic orbit, is developed for the graphene Dirac system. The isolated periodic orbit is confined between two flat boundaries. The analysis involves constructing a localized asymptotic solution to the Dirac system (electron-hole Gaussian beam). Then, the stability of a continuous family of periodic orbits (POs) confined between reflecting boundaries of the resonator is studied. The asymptotics of the eigenfunctions are constructed as a superposition of two Gaussian beams propagating in opposite directions between two reflecting points of the periodic orbit. The asymptotics of the energy spectrum are obtained by means of the generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition only for stable POs. It provides two parts of semiclassical Maslov spectral series with positive and negative energies, for electrons and holes, correspondingly, with two different Hamiltonian dynamics and families of classical trajectories. The presence of electrostatic potential is vital as it makes a family of periodic orbit stable. For one subclass of lens-shaped periodic orbits, for a piecewise linear potential, localized eigenstates were computed numerically by the finite element method using COMSOL, and proved to be in very good agreement with the ones computed semiclassically.

  12. Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map based on acoustic resonance frequency of suction muffler in compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM

  13. Semiclassical wave packet treatment of scattering resonances: application to the delta zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetoshkin, Evgeny; Babikov, Dmitri

    2007-09-28

    For the first time Feshbach-type resonances important in recombination reactions are characterized using the semiclassical wave packet method. This approximation allows us to determine the energies, lifetimes, and wave functions of the resonances and also to observe a very interesting correlation between them. Most important is that this approach permits description of a quantum delta-zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions and reproduces the anomalous rates of ozone formation.

  14. Study of deuteron photodisintegration with linearly polarized photons over the energy range E/sub el/ = 0. 4 to 0. 8 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agababyan, K.S.; Adamyan, F.V.; Akopyan, G.G.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Galumyan, P.I.; Grabskii, V.O.; Karapetyan, V.V.; Karapetyan, G.V.; Kordonskii, M.S.

    1985-06-01

    We describe the experimental methods and the results of measurements of the asymmetry of the cross section of the eld pn reaction induced by linearly polarized photons over the energy range E/sub el/ = 0.4 to 0.8 GeV and proton angles in the c.m. system theta* = 45 to 95. Experiments were conducted on a two-arm spectrometer installation. The results obtained do not agree either with calculations within the framework of phenomenological models, or with predictions of a partial-wave analysis that includes the contribution of dibaryon resonances.

  15. NEUTRON-PROTON EFFECTIVE RANGE PARAMETERS AND ZERO-ENERGY SHAPE DEPENDENCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HACKENBURG, R.W.

    2005-06-01

    A completely model-independent effective range theory fit to available, unpolarized, np scattering data below 3 MeV determines the zero-energy free proton cross section {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.4287 {+-} 0.0078 b, the singlet apparent effective range r{sub s} = 2.754 {+-} 0.018{sub stat} {+-} 0.056{sub syst} fm, and improves the error slightly on the parahydrogen coherent scattering length, a{sub c} = -3.7406 {+-} 0.0010 fm. The triplet and singlet scattering lengths and the triplet mixed effective range are calculated to be a{sub t} = 5.4114 {+-} 0.0015 fm, a{sub s} = -23.7153 {+-} 0.0043 fm, and {rho}{sub t}(0,-{epsilon}{sub t}) = 1.7468 {+-} 0.0019 fm. The model-independent analysis also determines the zero-energy effective ranges by treating them as separate fit parameters without the constraint from the deuteron binding energy {epsilon}{sub t}. These are determined to be {rho}{sub t}(0,0) = 1.705 {+-} 0.023 fm and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) = 2.665 {+-} 0.056 fm. This determination of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is most sensitive to the sparse data between about 20 and 600 keV, where the correlation between the determined values of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is at a minimum. This correlation is responsible for the large systematic error in r{sub s}. More precise data in this range are needed. The present data do not event determine (with confidence) that {rho}{sub t}(0,0) {ne} {rho}{sub t}(0, -{epsilon}{sub t}), referred to here as ''zero-energy shape dependence''. The widely used measurement of {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.491 {+-} 0.014 b from W. Dilg, Phys. Rev. C 11, 103 (1975), is argued to be in error.

  16. Experimental investigation of dd reaction in range of ultralow energies using Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Parzhitskij, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the experiments to measure the dd reaction cross section in the range of deuteron collision energies from 0.1 keV to 1.5 keV using Z-pinch technique are presented. The experiment was performed at the Pulsed Ion Beam Accelerator of the High-Current Electronics Institute in Tomsk. The dd fusion neutrons were registered by scintillation detectors using time-of-flight method and BF 3 detectors of thermal neutrons. At 90% confidence level, the upper limits of the neutron producing dd reaction cross sections are obtained for average deuteron collision energies of 0.11, 0.34, 0.37 and 1.46 keV. The results demonstrate that high-intensity pulsed accelerators with a generator current of 2-3 MA allow the dd reaction cross sections to be measured in the range of deuteron collision energies from 0.8 keV to 3 keV

  17. Photoproduction in the Energy Range 70-200 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment continues the photoproduction studies of WA4 and WA57 up to the higher energies made available by the upgrading of the West Hall. An electron beam of energy 200 GeV is used to produce tagged photons in the range 65-180 GeV; The photon beam is incident on a 60 cm liquid hydrogen target in the Omega Spectrometer. A Ring Image Cherenkov detector provides pion/kaon separation up to 150 GeV/c. The Transition Radiation Detector extends the charged pion identification to the momentum range from about 80 GeV/c upwards. The large lead/liquid scintillator calorimeter built by the WA70 collaboration and the new lead/scintillating fibre det (Plug) are used for the detection of the $\\gamma$ rays produced by the interactions of the primary photons in the hydrogen target. \\\\ \\\\ The aim is to make a survey of photoproduction reactions up to photon energies of 200 GeV. The large aperture of the Omega Spectrometer will particularly enable study of fragmentation of the photon to states of high mass, up to @C 9 G...

  18. Development of dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    A new inventive radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with WIde energy raNges), has been developed for monitoring doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. Scintillations from the detector induced by thermal and fast neutrons, photons and muons were discriminated by analyzing their waveforms, and their light outputs were directly converted into the corresponding doses by applying the G-function method. Characteristics of DARWIN were studied by both calculation and experiment. The calculated results indicate that DARWIN gives reasonable estimations of doses in most radiation fields. It was found from the experiment that DARWIN has an excellent property of measuring doses from all particles that significantly contribute to the doses in surrounding environments of accelerator facilities - neutron, photon and muon with wide energy ranges. The experimental results also suggested that DARWIN enables us to monitor small fluctuation of neutron dose rates near the background-level owing to its high sensitivity. (author)

  19. R-matrix analysis of 235U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of 235 U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which 235 U is present

  20. ENDF/B-IV representation of the 238U total neutron cross section in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Perez, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The ENDF/B-IV prescription fails to represent correctly the 238 U total (and scattering) cross section between the levels of the resolved range. It is shown how this representation can be improved by properly accounting for the contribution of levels outside the resolved region to the cross section at energies inside the resolved region, and by substituting the more precise multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the presently used single-level formula. The importance of computing accurately the minima in the total cross section is illustrated by comparing values of the self-shielded capture resonance integral computed with ENDF/B-IV and with a more accurate cross section model

  1. Low-energy D* + (D-bar)10 scattering and the nature of resonance-like structure Z+(4430)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ming; Meng Guozhan; He Song; Liu Chuan; Niu Zhiyuan; Shen Yuan; Chen Ying; Li Gang; Zhang Yuanjiang; Liu Yubin; Meng Xiangfei; Ma Jianping; Zhang Jianbo; CLQCD collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Low-energy scattering of D *+ and (D-bar) 1 0 meson is studied using quenched lattice QCD with improved lattice actions on anisotropic lattices. The threshold scattering parameters, namely the scattering length a 0 and the effective range r 0 , for the s-wave scattering in J P = 0 - channel are extracted: a 0 = 2.52(47) fm and r 0 = 0.7(1) fm. It is argued that, albeit the interaction between the two charmed mesons being attractive, it is unlikely that they can form a shallow bound state in this channel. Our calculation provides some useful information on the nature of the newly discovered resonance-like structure Z + (4430) by the Belle Collaboration. (authors)

  2. Dynamic performance improvement of standalone battery integrated PMSG wind energy system using proportional resonant controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar Varma Sagiraju

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The load voltage and frequency should be controlled under steady state and transient conditions in off grid applications. Power quality and power management is very important task for rural communities under erratic wind and load conditions. This paper presents a coordinated Proportional resonant (PR and battery energy controller for enhancement of power quality and power management in direct drive standalone wind energy system. The dynamic performance of standalone direct drive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG is investigated with the proposed control scheme under various operating conditions such as fluctuating wind with step increase and decrease in wind velocity, balanced and unbalanced load conditions. The proposed PR control strategy with battery energy controller also ensures effective power balance between wind and battery source in order to fulfill the load demand. The superiority of the proposed control strategy is confirmed by comparing with the traditional vector control strategy under fluctuating wind and load conditions through MATLAB/SIMULINK platform.

  3. Efficient Exciton Diffusion and Resonance-Energy Transfer in Multi-Layered Organic Epitaxial Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Cadelano, Michele; Quochi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Multi-layered epitaxial nanofibers are exemplary model systems for the study of exciton dynamics and lasing in organic materials due to their well-defined morphology, high luminescence efficiencies, and color tunability. We resort to temperature-dependent cw and picosecond photoluminescence (PL......) spectroscopy to quantify exciton diffusion and resonance-energy transfer (RET) processes in multi-layered nanofibers consisting of alternating layers of para-hexaphenyl (p6P) and α-sexithiophene (6T), serving as exciton donor and acceptor material, respectively. The high probability for RET processes...... is confirmed by Quantum Chemical calculations. The activation energy for exciton diffusion in p6P is determined to be as low as 19 meV, proving p6P epitaxial layers also as a very suitable donor material system. The small activation energy for exciton diffusion of the p6P donor material, the inferred high p6P...

  4. Plasmonic resonance-enhanced local photothermal energy deposition by aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Xinyuan; Jiang Naibo; Zhang Zhili; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Local energy deposition of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) by localized surface plasmon resonance-enhanced photothermal effects is demonstrated. Low-power light stimuli are efficiently and locally concentrated to trigger the oxidation reactions of Al NPs because of the large ohmic absorption and high reactivity of the Al. Numerical simulations show that both ultraviolet and visible light are more efficient than infrared light for photothermal energy coupling. The natural oxidation layer of alumina is found to have minimum impact on the energy deposition because of its negligible dielectric losses. The near-field distributions of the electric field indicate that slight aggregation induces much higher local enhancement, especially at the interface region of multiple contacting nanoparticles.

  5. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Small-scale field experiments and first full-scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Iannolo, Roberto; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati Federica Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter 3 (REWEC3) is a device belonging to the family of Oscillating Water Columns (OWCs), that can convert the energy of incident waves into electrical energy via turbines. In contrast to classical OWCs, it incorporates a small vertical U-shaped duct to connect the water column to the open wave field. This article shows the results of a small-scale field experiment involving a REWEC3 designed for working with a 2 kW turbine. Then, the next experimental activity on a REWEC3 installed in the NOEL laboratory with the collaboration of ENEA, is presented. Finally, the first prototype of ReWEC3 under construction in Civitavecchia (Rome, Italy) is shown. The crucial features of the construction stage are discussed and some initial performances are provided. [it

  6. Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Ships from Indication of Nonlinear Energy Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The detection of the onset of parametric roll resonance on ships is of a central importance in order to activate specific control strategies able to counteract the large roll motion. One of the main priorities is to have detectors with a small detection time, such that warnings can be issued when...... the roll oscillations are about 5◦. This paper proposes two different detection approaches: the first one based on sinusoidal detection in white gaussian noise; the second one utilizes an energy flow indicator in order to catch the onset of parametric roll based upon the transfer of energy from heave...... and pitch to roll. Both detectors have been validated against experimental data of a scale model of a container vessel excited with both regular and irregular waves. The detector based on the energy flow indicator proved to be very robust to different scenarios (regular/irregular waves) since it does...

  7. Higher Energy Intake Variability as Predisposition to Obesity: Novel Approach Using Interquartile Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejt, Martin; Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová; Novák, Jan; Zlámal, Filip; Forbelská, Marie; Bienert, Petr; Mořkovská, Petra; Zavřelová, Miroslava; Pohořalá, Aneta; Jurášková, Miluše; Salah, Nabil; Bienertová-Vašků, Julie

    2017-12-01

    It is known that total energy intake and its distribution during the day influences human anthropometric characteristics. However, possible association between variability in total energy intake and obesity has thus far remained unexamined. This study was designed to establish the influence of energy intake variability of each daily meal on the anthropometric characteristics of obesity. A total of 521 individuals of Czech Caucasian origin aged 16–73 years (390 women and 131 men) were included in the study, 7-day food records were completed by all study subjects and selected anthropometric characteristics were measured. The interquartile range (IQR) of energy intake was assessed individually for each meal of the day (as a marker of energy intake variability) and subsequently correlated with body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (cW). Four distinct models were created using multiple logistic regression analysis and backward stepwise logistic regression. The most precise results, based on the area under the curve (AUC), were observed in case of the %BF model (AUC=0.895) and cW model (AUC=0.839). According to the %BF model, age (p<0.001) and IQR-lunch (p<0.05) seem to play an important prediction role for obesity. Likewise, according to the cW model, age (p<0.001), IQR-breakfast (p<0.05) and IQR-dinner (p <0.05) predispose patients to the development of obesity. The results of our study show that higher variability in the energy intake of key daily meals may increase the likelihood of obesity development. Based on the obtained results, it is necessary to emphasize the regularity in meals intake for maintaining proper body composition. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  8. Bi-resonant structure with piezoelectric PVDF films for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng

    2016-01-01

    and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity......This paper reports on a bi-resonant structure of piezoelectric PVDF films energy harvester (PPEH), which consists of two cantilevers with resonant frequencies of 15 Hz and 22 Hz. With increased acceleration, the vibration amplitudes of the two cantilever-mass structures are increased and collision...

  9. Entropy, energy and negativity in Fermi-resonance coupled states of substituted methanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiwen; Wan Mingfang; Ma Zhongqi

    2010-01-01

    Several measures of entanglement have attracted considerable interest in the relationship of a measure of entanglement with other quantities. The dynamics of entropy, energy and negativity is studied for Fermi-resonance coupled vibrations in substituted methanes with three kinds of initial mixed states, which are the mixed density matrices of binomial states, thermal states and squeezed states on two vibrational modes, respectively. It is demonstrated that for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes the entropies of the stretch and the bend are anti-correlated in the same oscillatory frequency, so do the energies for each kind of state with small magnitudes, whereas the entropies exhibit positive correlations with the corresponding energies. Furthermore, for small magnitudes quantum mutual entropy is positively correlated with the interacting energy. Analytic forms of entropies and energies are provided with initial conditions in which they are stationary, and the agreement between analytic and numerical simulations is satisfactory. The dynamical entanglement measured by negativity is examined for those states and conditions. It is shown that negativity displays a sudden death for mixed binomial states and mixed thermal states with small magnitudes, and the time-averaged negativity has the minimal value under the conditions of stationary entropies and energies. Moreover, negativity is positively correlated with the mutual entropy and the interacting energy just for mixed squeezed states with small magnitudes. Those are useful for molecular quantum information processing and dynamical entanglement.

  10. Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, Sivan, E-mail: sivan.isaacs@gmail.com; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering and TheIlse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); NEW CREATE Programme, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 CREATE Way, Research Wing, #02-06/08, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-05-11

    Using an insulator-metal-insulator structure with dielectric having refractive index (RI) larger than the analyte, long range surface plasmon (SP) resonance exhibiting ultra-high penetration depth is demonstrated for sensing applications of large bioentities at wavelengths in the visible range. Based on the diverging beam approach in Kretschmann-Raether configuration, one of the SP resonances is shown to shift in response to changes in the analyte RI while the other is fixed; thus, it can be used as a built in reference. The combination of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth and self-reference using the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth, self-reference, and the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected using large number of camera pixels with a smart algorithm for sub-pixel resolution, a sensor with ultra-low detection limit is demonstrated suitable for large bioentities.

  11. Scintillation Response of CaF2 to H and He over a Continuous Energy Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Xiang, Xia; Weber, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent demands for new radiation detector materials with improved γ-ray detection performance at room temperature have prompted research efforts on both accelerated material discovery and efficient techniques that can be used to identify material properties relevant to detector performance. New material discovery has been limited due to the difficulties of large crystal growth to completely absorb γ-energies; whereas high-quality thin films or small crystals of candidate materials can be readily produced by various modern growth techniques. In this work, an ion-scintillator technique is demonstrated that can be applied to study scintillation properties of thin films and small crystals. The scintillation response of a benchmark scintillator, europium-doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Eu), to energetic proton and helium ions is studied using the ion-scintillator approach based on a time of flight (TOF) telescope. Excellent energy resolution and fast response of the TOF telescope allow quantitative measurement of light yield, nonlinearity and energy resolution over an energy range from a few tens to a few thousands of keV

  12. The anisotropy of cosmic ray particles in the energy range 1011-1019 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chunxian

    1985-01-01

    A study of the anisotropy of primary cosmic ray is presented. The expression of the anisotropy is derived in a model of statistical discrete sources in an infinite galaxy. Using these derived formulas, the amplitudes of the first harmonic anisotropies caused by eleven supernovea nearby the Earth are estimated individually and the trend of the resultant anisotropy is investigated. It is found that the expected results can account for the power law of Esup(0.5) of the anisotropy above the energy 5 x 10 15 eV. The Compton-getting effect can cause an additional anisotropy which is independent of energy and added to the resultant anisotropy of these discrete sources. It is apparent that the anisotropies available in the low energy range 10 11 - 10 14 eV are caused by the Compton-Getting effect. Taking the differential spectrum index γ = 2.67 measured in the same energy bound we get the streaming velocity of 35 km/s with respect to the cosmic ray background

  13. Actinide data in the thermal energy range - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henri; Weigmann, H.; Sowerby, M.; Mattes, Margarete; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Halsall, M.J.; Weston, L.; Deruytter, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by a Subgroup investigating actinide data in the thermal energy range. Thermal nuclear constants for the primary actinides have been extensively studies, but the most recent evaluations are not in full agreement with thermal reactor calculations. The objective of the Subgroup was to identify the origin of these differences and to reassess the recent evaluations. A considerable effort was devoted to the η of U-235, where analysis of lattice temperature coefficient measurements has suggested an energy dependent shape below thermal energy

  14. An absolute measurement of 252Cf prompt fission neutron spectrum at low energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajtai, A.; Dyachenko, P.P.; Kutzaeva, L.S.; Kononov, V.N.; Androsenko, P.A.; Androsenko, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Prompt neutron energy spectrum at low energies (25 keV 252 Cf spontaneous fission has been measured with a time-of-flight technique on a 30 cm flight-path. Ionization chamber and lithium-glass were used as fission fragment and neutron detectors, respectively. Lithium glasses of NE-912 (containing 6 Li) and of NE-913 (containing 7 Li) 45 mm in diameter and 9.5 mm in thickness have been employed alternatively, for the registration of fission neutrons and gammas. For the correct determination of the multiscattering effects - the main difficulty of the low energy neutron spectrum measurements - a special geometry for the neutron detector was used. Special attention was paid also to the determination of the absolute efficiency of the neutron detector. The real response function of the spectrometer was determined by a Monte-Carlo calculation. The scattering material content of the ionization chamber containing a 252 Cf source was minimized. As a result of this measurement a prompt fission neutron spectrum of Maxwell type with a T=1.42 MeV parameter was obtained at this low energy range. We did not find any neutron excess or irregularities over the Maxwellian. (author)

  15. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  16. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderski, L; Marcinkowski, R; Moszynski, M; Czarnacki, W; Szawlowski, M; Szczesniak, T; Pausch, G; Plettner, C; Roemer, K

    2012-01-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF 2 :Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF 2 :Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  17. Electron response of some low-Z scintillators in wide energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, L.; Marcinkowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Szawlowski, M.; Szczesniak, T.; Pausch, G.; Plettner, C.; Roemer, K.

    2012-06-01

    Light yield nonproportionality and the intrinsic resolution of some low atomic number scintillators were studied by means of the Wide Angle Compton Coincidence (WACC) technique. The plastic and liquid scintillator response to Compton electrons was measured in the energy range of 10 keV up to 4 MeV, whereas a CaF2:Eu sample was scanned from 3 keV up to 1 MeV. The nonproportionality of the CaF2:Eu light yield has characteristics typical for inorganic scintillators of the multivalent halides group, whereas tested organic scintillators show steeply increasing nonproportionality without saturation point. This is in contrast to the behavior of all known inorganic scintillators having their nonproportionality curves at saturation above energies between tens and several hundred keV.

  18. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico); M.S. Student at CIMAV (Mexico); Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  19. A high-throughput homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Chengquan; Pan, Xiaohu; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A Förster resonance energy transfer system by using polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor for sensitive detection of tumor marker was proposed. Highlights: ► A homogeneous immunosensing strategy based on FRET for detection of tumor marker was proposed. ► Close of QDs and AuNPs allow the occurrence of quenching the photoluminescence of nano-bio-probes. ► Signal quenching was monitored by a self-developed image analyzer. ► The fluorometric assay format is attractive for widespread carcinoma screening and even field use. -- Abstract: A novel homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer for sensitive detection of tumor, e.g., marker with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), was proposed. The assay was consisted of polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor. In presence of CEA, the bio-affinity between antigen and antibody made the QDs and AuNPs close enough, thus the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of CdTe QDs occurred. The PL properties could be transformed into the fluorometric variation, corresponding to the target antigen concentration, and could be easily monitored and analyzed with the home-made image analysis software. The fluorometric results indicated a linear detection range of 1–110 ng mL −1 for CEA, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng mL −1 . The proposed assay configuration was attractive for carcinoma screening or single sample in point-of-care testing, and even field use. In spite of the limit of available model analyte, this approach could be easily extended to detection of a wide range of biomarkers

  20. A high-throughput homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Jing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhengjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Chengquan [Changzhou College of Information Technology, Changzhou 213164 (China); Pan, Xiaohu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Liu, Songqin, E-mail: liusq@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2013-02-06

    Graphical abstract: A Förster resonance energy transfer system by using polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor for sensitive detection of tumor marker was proposed. Highlights: ► A homogeneous immunosensing strategy based on FRET for detection of tumor marker was proposed. ► Close of QDs and AuNPs allow the occurrence of quenching the photoluminescence of nano-bio-probes. ► Signal quenching was monitored by a self-developed image analyzer. ► The fluorometric assay format is attractive for widespread carcinoma screening and even field use. -- Abstract: A novel homogeneous immunoassay based on Förster resonance energy transfer for sensitive detection of tumor, e.g., marker with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), was proposed. The assay was consisted of polyclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as donor and monoclonal goat anti-CEA antibody labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptor. In presence of CEA, the bio-affinity between antigen and antibody made the QDs and AuNPs close enough, thus the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of CdTe QDs occurred. The PL properties could be transformed into the fluorometric variation, corresponding to the target antigen concentration, and could be easily monitored and analyzed with the home-made image analysis software. The fluorometric results indicated a linear detection range of 1–110 ng mL{sup −1} for CEA, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng mL{sup −1}. The proposed assay configuration was attractive for carcinoma screening or single sample in point-of-care testing, and even field use. In spite of the limit of available model analyte, this approach could be easily extended to detection of a wide range of biomarkers.

  1. Swimming bath pumps. Ranges of application, selection, installation, energy efficiency; Schwimmbadpumpen. Einsatzbereiche, Auswahl, Aufbau, Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korupp, Sascha

    2012-07-01

    The booklet under consideration reports on pumps being used in swimming baths. The range of application of the individual sorts of pump is described. The knowledge on the selection of suitable pumps is given. Subsequently, the design of a pump with the main components, the installation of a pump as well as the most important issues and difficulties of the pump material are illustrated. The total costs of a pump within its life cycle are determined. These life cycle costs can be reduced by propulsion components increasing the energy efficiency such as frequency converter, motors with permanent magnets or heat exchanger motors.

  2. Calculation of Bremsstrahlung radiation of electrons on atoms in wide energy range of photons

    CERN Document Server

    Romanikhin, V P

    2002-01-01

    The complete spectra of the Bremsstrahlung radiation on the krypton atoms within the range of the photon energies of 10-25000 eV and lanthanum near the potential of the 4d-shell ionization is carried out. The atoms summarized polarizability is calculated on the basis of the simple semiclassical approximation of the local electron density and experimental data on the photoabsorption. The comparison with the calculational results is carried out through the method of distorted partial waves (PDWA) for Kr and with the experimental data on La

  3. Possible manifestation of long range forces in high energy hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraev, Eh.A.; Ferro, P.; Trentadue, L.

    1997-01-01

    Pion-pion and photon-photon scattering are discussed.. We obtain, starting from the impact representation introduced by Cheng and Wu a new contribution to the high energy hadron-hadron scattering amplitude for small transferred momentum q 2 of the form is (q 2 /m 4 )ln(-q 2 /m 2 ). This behaviour may be interpreted as a manifestation of long transverse-range forces between hadrons which, for ρ>> m -1 fall off as ρ -4 . We consider the examples of pion and photon scattering with photons converted in the intermediate state to two pairs of quarks interacting by exchanging two gluon colorless state. A phenomenological approach for proton impact factor is used to analyze proton-proton scattering. The analysis of the lowest order radiative corrections for the case of photon-photon scattering is done. We discuss the possibility of observing the effects of these long range forces

  4. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Delplanque

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+ act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5 modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+ and the acceptor (Cy5 with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  5. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplanque, Aleksandra; Wawrzynczyk, Dominika; Jaworski, Pawel; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Buckle, Malcolm; Nyk, Marcin; Nogues, Claude; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio) probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+) act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm) NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA) by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5) modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+) and the acceptor (Cy5) with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  6. Ratio-metric sensor to detect riboflavin via fluorescence resonance energy transfer with ultrahigh sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jilong; Su, Siheng; Wei, Junhua; Bahgi, Roya; Hope-Weeks, Louisa; Qiu, Jingjing; Wang, Shiren

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) ration-metric fluorescent probe based on heteroatom N, S doped carbon dots (N, S-CDs) was developed to determine riboflavin in aqueous solutions. The ratio of two emission intensities at different wavelengths is applied to determine the concentration of riboflavin (RF). This method is more effective in reducing the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. Therefore, this probe obtains high sensitivity with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.9 nM (0.7 ng/ml) which is in the highest level of all riboflavin detection approaches and higher than single wavelength intensity detection (1.9 μM). In addition, this sensor has a high selectivity of detecting riboflavin in deionized water (pH=7) with other biochemical like amino acids. Moreover, riboflavin in aqueous solution is very sensitive to sunlight and can be degraded to lumiflavin, which is toxic. Because the N, S doped carbon dots cannot serve as an energy donor for N, S doped carbon dots and lumiflavin system, this system makes it easy to determine whether the riboflavin is degraded or not, which is first to be reported. This platform may provide possibilities to build a new and facile fluorescence resonance energy transfer based sensor to detect analytes and metamorphous analytes in aqueous solution.

  7. 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Impaired energy metabolism in latent hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theissen, P.; Kaldewey, S.; Moka, D.; Bunke, J.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1993-01-01

    31 Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows an in vivo examination of energy metabolism. The present study was designed to evaluate whether in patients with latent hyperthyroidism alterations of muscle energy metabolism could be found similar to those observed in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. In 10 patients with overt hyperthyroidism before therapy and 20 with latent hyperthyroidism (also without therapy) and in 24 healthy volunteers magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the calf muscle was performed within a 1.5-Tesla magnet. Muscle concentrations of phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and ATP were quantified compared to an external standard solution of K 2 HPO 4 . In the patients with overt hyperthyroidism and with latent hyperthyroidism a significant decrease of phosphocreatine was found. Further, the ATP concentration in patients with latent and manifest hyperthyroidism tended towards lower values. There were no significant differences in the decrease of phosphocreatine and ATP between both patient groups. Therefore, this study for the first time shows that alterations of energy metabolism in latent hyperthyroidism can be measured and that they are similar to those observed in overt hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  8. R matrix analysis of 239Pu neutron cross sections in the energy range up to 1000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an R matrix analysis of the 239 Pu neutron cross sections up to 1000-eV neutron energy. The analysis was performed with the multilevel multichannel Reich-Moore code SAMMY. The method of analysis is describe, and the selection of experimental data is discussed. Some tabular and graphical comparisons between calculated and measured cross sections and transmissions are presented. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are examined. The resonance parameters are proposed for the new evaluated data files ENDF/B-VI and JEF2

  9. Review of 241 Pu resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.

    1981-10-01

    The status of 241 Pu resonance parameters is reviewed. The most important recent results are compared in some energy ranges, both from single level and multilevel point of view. It appears that an accurate set of resonance parameters is not still obtained for a general description of the cross-sections in the resonance region. Some recommendations are given for further experiments or evaluations

  10. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Pham, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios were considered, namely the base case with no mitigation options, replacement of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by biogas stove, substitution of gasoline by ethanol in transport sector, replacement of coal by wood as fuel in industrial boilers, electricity generation with biomass energy technologies and an integrated scenario including all the options together. Substitution of coal stoves by biogas stove has positive abatement cost, as the cost of wood in Vietnam is higher than coal. Replacement of kerosene and LPG cookstoves by biomass stove also has a positive abatement cost. Replacement of gasoline by ethanol can be realized after a few years, as at present the cost of ethanol is more than the cost of gasoline. The replacement of coal by biomass in industrial boiler is also not an attractive option as wood is more expensive than coal in Vietnam. The substitution of fossil fuel fired plants by packages of BETs has a negative abatement cost. This option, if implemented, would result in mitigation of 10.83 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 in 2010

  11. Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-04-19

    Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power P OUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage V RECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a P OUT of 288 μW and a V RECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier.

  12. Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power POUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage VRECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a POUT of 288 μW and a VRECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier. PMID:28422085

  13. Direct determination of resonance energy transfer in photolyase: structural alignment for the functional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuang; Guo, Lijun; Ai, Yuejie; Li, Jiang; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Luo, Yi; Zhong, Dongping

    2014-11-13

    Photoantenna is essential to energy transduction in photoinduced biological machinery. A photoenzyme, photolyase, has a light-harvesting pigment of methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) that transfers its excitation energy to the catalytic flavin cofactor FADH¯ to enhance DNA-repair efficiency. Here we report our systematic characterization and direct determination of the ultrafast dynamics of resonance energy transfer from excited MTHF to three flavin redox states in E. coli photolyase by capturing the intermediates formed through the energy transfer and thus excluding the electron-transfer quenching pathway. We observed 170 ps for excitation energy transferring to the fully reduced hydroquinone FADH¯, 20 ps to the fully oxidized FAD, and 18 ps to the neutral semiquinone FADH(•), and the corresponding orientation factors (κ(2)) were determined to be 2.84, 1.53 and 1.26, respectively, perfectly matching with our calculated theoretical values. Thus, under physiological conditions and over the course of evolution, photolyase has adopted the optimized orientation of its photopigment to efficiently convert solar energy for repair of damaged DNA.

  14. Cavities at the Si projected range by high dose and energy Si ion implantation in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canino, M.; Regula, G.; Lancin, M.; Xu, M.; Pichaud, B.; Ntzoenzok, E.; Barthe, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Two series of n-type Si samples α and β are implanted with Si ions at high dose (1 x 10 16 ) and high energies, 0.3 and 1.0 MeV, respectively. Both sort of samples are then implanted with 5 x 10 16 He cm -2 (at 10 or 50 keV) and eventually with B atoms. Some of the samples are annealed at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000 deg. C to allow the thermal growth of He-cavities, located between sample surface and the projected range (R p ) of Si. After the triple ion implantation, which corresponds to defect engineering, samples were characterized by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Voids (or bubbles) are observed not only at the R p (He) on all annealed samples, but also at the R p (Si) on β samples implanted with He at 50 keV. The samples are also studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and the spectra confirm that as-implanted samples contain di-vacancies and that the annealed ones, even at high temperature have bigger open volumes, which are assumed to be the same voids observed by XTEM. It is demonstrated that a sole Si implantation at high energy and dose is efficient to create cavities which are thermally stable up to 1000 deg. C only in the presence of He.

  15. Transport properties of gaseous ions over a wide energy range, IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehland, L.A.; Mason, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper updates three previous papers entitled open-quotes Transport Properties of Gaseous Ions over a Wide Energy Range.close quotes. These papers referred to as Parts I, II, and III, were by H.W.Ellis, P.Y. Pai, E.W. McDaniel, E.A. Mason, and L.A. Viehland, S.L. Lin, M.G. Thackston. Part IV contains compilations of experimental data on ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients (both longitudinal and transverse) for ions in neutral gases in an externally applied electrostatic field, at various gas temperatures; the data are tabulated as a function of the ionic energy parameter E/N, where E is the electric field strength and N is the number density of the neutral gas. Part IV also contains a locator key to ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients compiled in Parts I-IV. The coverage of the literature extends into 1994. The criteria for selection of the data are; (1) the measurements must cover a reasonably wide range of E/N; (2) the identity of the ions must be well established; and (3) the accuracy of the data must be good. 26 refs., 6 tabs

  16. Range-energy relations and stopping powers of organic liquids and vapours for alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan-Rezayat, A.; Palmer, R.B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in methyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in both the liquid and vapour phases. Stopping power values for these materials and for oxygen gas over the energy range 1.0-8.0 MeV are also given. From these results stopping powers have been derived for the -CH 2 -group and for -Cl occurring in chemical combination in the liquid and vapour phases. The molecular stopping power in the vapour phase is shown to exceed that in the liquid phase by 2-6% below 2 MeV, reducing to negligible differences at about 5 MeV for the materials directly investigated and for the -Cl atom. No significant phase effect is observed for the -CH 2 -group, but it is noted that the uncertainties in the values of the derived stopping powers are much greater in this case. Comparison of the experimental molecular stopping powers with values calculated from elemental values using the Bragg additivity rule shows agreement for vapours but not for liquids. (author)

  17. Sound propagation in water containing large tethered spherical encapsulated gas bubbles with resonance frequencies in the 50 Hz to 100 Hz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin M; Hinojosa, Kevin T; Wochner, Mark S; Argo, Theodore F; Wilson, Preston S; Mercier, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    The efficacy of large tethered encapsulated gas bubbles for the mitigation of low frequency underwater noise was investigated with an acoustic resonator technique. Tethered latex balloons were used as the bubbles, which had radii of approximately 5 cm. Phase speeds were inferred from the resonances of a water and balloon-filled waveguide approximately 1.8 m in length. The Commander and Prosperetti effective-medium model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 732-746 (1989)] quantitatively described the observed dispersion from well below to just below the individual bubble resonance frequency, and it qualitatively predicted the frequency range of high attenuation for void fractions between 2% and 5% for collections of stationary balloons within the waveguide. A finite-element model was used to investigate the sensitivity of the waveguide resonance frequencies, and hence the inferred phase speeds, to changes in individual bubble size and position. The results indicate that large tethered encapsulated bubbles could be used mitigate low frequency underwater noise and that the Commander and Prosperetti model would be useful in the design of such a system.

  18. A simple and sensitive immunoassay for the determination of human chorionic gonadotropin by graphene-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiuqian; Jing, Tao; Zhou, Tingting; Zhou, Yusun; Wu, Wei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we report a strategy of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) using graphene as an efficient long-range energy acceptor. Magnetic nanoparticles were also used in CRET for simple magnetic separation and immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-HCG antibody. In the design of CRET system, the sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed between human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, antigen) and two different antibodies bridged the magnetic nanoparticles and graphene (acceptors), which led to the occurrence of CRET from chemiluminescence light source to graphene. After optimizing the experimental conditions, the quenching of chemiluminescence signal depended linearly on the concentration of HCG in the range of 0.1 mIU mL(-1)-10 mIU mL(-1) and the detection limit was 0.06 mIU mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of HCG levels in saliva and serum samples, and the results were in good agreement with the plate ELISA with colorimetric detection. It could also be developed for detection of other antigen-antibody immune complexes by using the corresponding antigens and respective antibodies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  20. The astrophysical S-factor for dd-reactions at keV-energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskii, V.; Bystritsky, V.; Chaikovsky, S.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results of measurements of the astrophysical S-factor for dd-reaction at keV-energy range collision energies using liner plasma technique are presented. The experiments were carried out at the high current generator of the Institute of High-Current Electronics in Tomsk, Russia. The measured values of the S-factors for the deuteron collision energies 1.80, 2.06 and 2.27 keV are S dd =(114±68), (64±30), (53±16) b x keV, respectively. The corresponding cross sections for dd-reactions, described as a product of the barrier factor and measured astrophysical S-factor, are σ dd n (E col =1.80 keV)=(4.3±2.6) x 10 -33 cm 2 ; σ dd n (E col =2.06 keV)=(9.8±4.6) x 10 -33 cm 2 ; σ dd n (E col =2.27 keV)=(2.1±0.6) x 10 -32 cm 2 . (orig.) [de

  1. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  2. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny F. Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Förster (or fluorescence resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting.

  3. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kenny F.; Dennis, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting. PMID:26057041

  4. Microspectroscopic Study of Liposome-to-cell Interaction Revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefimova, Svetlana L; Kurilchenko, Irina Yu; Tkacheva, Tatyana N; Kavok, Nataliya S; Todor, Igor N; Lukianova, Nataliya Yu; Chekhun, Vasyl F; Malyukin, Yuriy V

    2014-03-01

    We report the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-labeling of liposomal vesicles as an effective approach to study in dynamics the interaction of liposomes with living cells of different types (rat hepatocytes, rat bone marrow, mouse fibroblast-like cells and human breast cancer cells) and cell organelles (hepatocyte nuclei). The in vitro experiments were performed using fluorescent microspectroscopic technique. Two fluorescent dyes (DiO as the energy donor and DiI as an acceptor) were preloaded in lipid bilayers of phosphatidylcholine liposomes that ensures the necessary distance between the dyes for effective FRET. The change in time of the donor and acceptor relative fluorescence intensities was used to visualize and trace the liposome-to-cell interaction. We show that FRET-labeling of liposome vesicles allows one to reveal the differences in efficiency and dynamics of these interactions, which are associated with composition, fluidity, and metabolic activity of cell plasma membranes.

  5. Luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) aptasensor for ochratoxin A detection using upconversion nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Byun, Ju-Young; Mun, Hyoyoung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2017-07-01

    We report an aptasensor for homogeneous ochratoxin A (OTA) detection based on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). This system uses upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), such as NaYF4:Yb3+, Er 3+, as the donor. The aptamer includes the optimum-length linker (5-mer-length DNA) and OTA-specific aptamer sequences. Black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1), as the acceptor, was modified at the 3' end of the aptamer sequence. BHQ1 plays as a quencher in LRET aptasensor and shows absorption at 543 nm, which overlaps with well the emission of the UCNPs. When OTA is added, the BHQ1-labeled OTA aptamer was folded due to the formation of the G-quadruplex-OTA complex, which induced the BHQ1 close to the UCNPs. Consequently, resonance energy transfer between UCNPs (donor) and BHQ1 (acceptor) enables quenching of upconversion luminescence signals under laser irradiation of 980 nm. Our results showed that the LRET-based aptasensor allows specific OTA analysis with a limit of detection of 0.03 ng/mL. These results demonstrated that the OTA in diverse foods can be detected specifically and sensitively in a homogeneous manner.

  6. Electrostatically driven resonance energy transfer in "cationic" biocompatible indium phosphide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatha, Gayathri; Roy, Soumendu; Rao, Anish; Mallick, Abhik; Basu, Sudipta; Pillai, Pramod P

    2017-05-01

    Indium Phosphide Quantum Dots (InP QDs) have emerged as an alternative to toxic metal ion based QDs in nanobiotechnology. The ability to generate cationic surface charge, without compromising stability and biocompatibility, is essential in realizing the full potential of InP QDs in biological applications. We have addressed this challenge by developing a place exchange protocol for the preparation of cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The quaternary ammonium group provides the much required permanent positive charge and stability to InP/ZnS QDs in biofluids. The two important properties of QDs, namely bioimaging and light induced resonance energy transfer, are successfully demonstrated in cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The low cytotoxicity and stable photoluminescence of cationic InP/ZnS QDs inside cells make them ideal candidates as optical probes for cellular imaging. An efficient resonance energy transfer ( E ∼ 60%) is observed, under physiological conditions, between the cationic InP/ZnS QD donor and anionic dye acceptor. A large bimolecular quenching constant along with a linear Stern-Volmer plot confirms the formation of a strong ground state complex between the cationic InP/ZnS QDs and the anionic dye. Control experiments prove the role of electrostatic attraction in driving the light induced interactions, which can rightfully form the basis for future nano-bio studies between cationic InP/ZnS QDs and anionic biomolecules.

  7. Energy calibration issues in nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy: observing small spectral shifts and making fast calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D

    2013-09-01

    The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements.

  8. Equilateral Triangular Dielectric Resonator Nantenna at Optical Frequencies for Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Tariq Sethi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a remarkable growth in the telecommunication industry. With the introduction of smart gadgets, the demand for high data rate and bandwidth for wireless applications have increased exponentially at the cost of exponential consumption of energy. The latter is pushing the research and industry communities to devise green communication solutions that require the design of energy saving devices and techniques in one part and ambient energy harvesting techniques in the other part. With the advent of nanocomponents fabrication technology, researchers are now able to tap into the THz frequency regime and fabricate optical low profile antennas at a nanoscale. Optical antennas have proved their potential and are revolutionizing a class of novel optical detectors, interconnectors, sensors, and energy harvesting related fields. Authors in this paper propose an equilateral triangular dielectric resonator nantenna (ETDRNA working at 193.5 THz standard optical frequency. The simulated antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth from 192.3 THz to 197.3 THz with an end-fire directivity of 8.6 dBi, covering the entire standard optical window of C-band. Numerical demonstrations prove the efficiency of the nantenna at the frequencies of interest, making it a viable candidate for future green energy harvesting and high speed optical applications.

  9. Palladium Nanoparticles-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Aptasensor for Highly Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin M₁ in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Daibin; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Mao, Jin; Wu, Jing

    2017-10-13

    A highly sensitive aptasensor for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) detection was constructed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs). PdNPs (33 nm) were synthesized through a seed-mediated growth method and exhibited broad and strong absorption in the whole ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range. The strong coordination interaction between nitrogen functional groups of the AFM₁ aptamer and PdNPs brought FAM and PdNPs in close proximity, which resulted in the fluorescence quenching of FAM to a maximum extent of 95%. The non-specific fluorescence quenching caused by PdNPs towards fluorescein was negligible. After the introduction of AFM₁ into the FAM-AFM₁ aptamer-PdNPs FRET system, the AFM₁ aptamer preferentially combined with AFM₁ accompanied by conformational change, which greatly weakened the coordination interaction between the AFM₁ aptamer and PdNPs. Thus, fluorescence recovery of FAM was observed and a linear relationship between the fluorescence recovery and the concentration of AFM₁ was obtained in the range of 5-150 pg/mL in aqueous buffer with the detection limit of 1.5 pg/mL. AFM₁ detection was also realized in milk samples with a linear detection range from 6 pg/mL to 150 pg/mL. The highly sensitive FRET aptasensor with simple configuration shows promising prospect in detecting a variety of food contaminants.

  10. Measurement of αs from energy-energy correlations at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Du, Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Kwon, Y.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.; Schindler, R.H.; Schneekloth, U.; Schumm, B.A.; Seiden, A.; Sen, S.

    1994-01-01

    We determine the strong coupling α s from a comprehensive study of energy-energy correlations (EEC's) and their asymmetry (AEEC's) in hadronic decays of Z 0 bosons collected by the SLD experiment at SLAC. The data are compared with all four available predictions of QCD calculated up to O(α s 2 ) in perturbation theory, and also with a resummed calculation matched to all four of these calculations. We find large discrepancies between α s values extracted from the different O(α s 2 ) calculations. We also find a large renormalization scale ambiguity in α s determined from the EEC's using the O(α s 2 ) calculations; this ambiguity is reduced in the case of the AEEC's and is very small when the matched calculations are used. Averaging over all calculations, and over the EEC and AEEC results, we obtain α s (M Z 2 )=0.124 -0.004 +0.003 (expt.) ±0.009 (theory)

  11. Resonance of conductivity in UHF-range to the action of alternating current in La0.7Pb0.3MnO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.V.; Petrakovskij, G.A.; Sablina, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    The experimental results of the study on the effect of the low frequency transport current on the conductivity in UHF-range of the La 0.7 Pb 0.3 MnO 3 monocrystals are presented. In absence of the external magnetic field the UHF-conductivity response signal on the current impact has the form of the relaxation process. The peak of the amplitude resonance growth is observed in the external magnetic field in the response spectrum. The resonance response is of nonlinear character. The temperature and field dependences of the UHF-response basic parameters are in direct correlation with the magnetoresistance behaviour. The results obtained are analyzed within the frames of the oscillatory approximation. The mechanism of the phases electron separation is proposed as the possible mechanism of the current impact [ru

  12. Long-range protein electron transfer observed at the single-molecule level: In situ mapping of redox-gated tunneling resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Farver, O; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    on the redox potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximate to 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...... constants display tunneling features with distance-decay factors of 0.83 and 0.91 angstrom(-1) in H2O and D2O, respectively. Redox-gated tunneling resonance is observed in situ at the single-molecule level by using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy, exhibiting an asymmetric dependence...

  13. Probing intermolecular protein-protein interactions in the calcium-sensing receptor homodimer using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Hansen, Jakob L; Sheikh, Søren P

    2002-01-01

    -induced intermolecular movements in the CaR homodimer using the new bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique, BRET2, which is based on the transference of energy from Renilla luciferase (Rluc) to the green fluorescent protein mutant GFP2. We tagged CaR with Rluc and GFP2 at different intracellular locations...

  14. Electron transport in furfural: dependence of the electron ranges on the cross sections and the energy loss distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Krupa, K.; Colmenares, R.; Blanco, F.; Muńoz, A.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limá Vieira, P.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; García, G.

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies have provided a complete set of differential and integral electron scattering cross section data from furfural over a broad energy range. The energy loss distribution functions have been determined in this study by averaging electron energy loss spectra for different incident energies and scattering angles. All these data have been used as input parameters for an event by event Monte Carlo simulation procedure to obtain the electron energy deposition patterns and electron ranges in liquid furfural. The dependence of these results on the input cross sections is then analysed to determine the uncertainty of the simulated values.

  15. Probability tables and gauss quadrature: application to neutron cross-sections in the unresolved energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Maillard, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The idea of describing neutron cross-section fluctuations by sets of discrete values, called ''probability tables'', was formulated some 15 years ago. We propose to define the probability tables from moments by equating the moments of the actual cross-section distribution in a given energy range to the moments of the table. This definition introduces PADE approximants, orthogonal polynomials and GAUSS quadrature. This mathematical basis applies very well to the total cross-section. Some difficulties appear when partial cross-sections are taken into account, linked to the ambiguity of the definition of multivariate PADE approximants. Nevertheless we propose solutions and choices which appear to be satisfactory. Comparisons are made with other definitions of probability tables and an example of the calculation of a mixture of nuclei is given. 18 refs

  16. Calculation of Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer Response Functions in Energy Range up to 20 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Martinkovic, J

    2005-01-01

    Multisphere neutron spectrometer is a basic instrument of neutron measurements in the scattered radiation field at charged-particles accelerators for radiation protection and dosimetry purposes. The precise calculation of the spectrometer response functions is a necessary condition of the propriety of neutron spectra unfolding. The results of the response functions calculation for the JINR spectrometer with LiI(Eu) detector (a set of 6 homogeneous and 1 heterogeneous moderators, "bare" detector within cadmium cover and without it) at two geometries of the spectrometer irradiation - in uniform monodirectional and uniform isotropic neutron fields - are given. The calculation was carried out by the code MCNP in the neutron energy range 10$^{-8}$-20 MeV.

  17. High Voltage Gain Dual Active Bridge Converter with an Extended Operation Range for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tomas Manez, Kevin; Yudi, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Bridge (P2DAB) converter, i.e. low-voltage (LV) side parallel and high-voltage (HV) side series, is proposed to achieve high voltage gain and low current stress over switching devices and transformer windings. Given the unmodified P2DAB power stage, by regulating the phase-shift angle between......Developing bidirectional dc-dc converters has become a critical research topic and gains more and more attention in recent years due to the extensive applications of smart grids with energy storages, hybrid and electrical vehicles and dc microgrids. In this paper, a Partial Parallel Dual Active...... the paralleled active bridges, the power equations and voltage gain are then modified, and therefore the operation range can be extended effectively. The operating principles of the proposed converter and its power characteristics under various operation modes are studied, and the design constraints...

  18. Transport properties of gaseous ions over a wide energy range. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, H.W.; Thackston, M.G.; McDaniel, E.W.; Mason, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper updates and extends in scope our two previous papers entitled ''Transport Properties of Gaseous Ions over a Wide Energy Range.'' The references to the earlier publications (referred to as ''Part I'' and ''Part II'') are I, H. W. Ellis, R. Y. Pai, E. W. McDonald, E. A. Mason, and L. A. Viehland, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 17, 177--210 (19876); and II, H. W. Ellis, E. W. McDaniel, D. L. Albritton, L. A. Veihland, S. L. Lin, and E. A. Mason, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 22, 179--217 (1978). Parts I and II contained compilations of experimental data on ionic mobilities and diffusion coefficients (both longitudinal and transverse) for ions in neutral gase (almost exclusively at room temperature) in an externally applied electric field

  19. Multi-functional measurement systems for studying photon-hadron interactions in the intermediate energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Vol'nov, M.I.; Eliseev, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The PION multifunctional time-of-flight measurement system operating on-line with the D-116 computer is described. The system is designed to study proton-hadron interaction processes using the PACHRA synchrotron beam. The following devices are involved into the basic permanent system equipment: two gamma telescope counters, neutron spectrometer, scintillation mass spectrometer, and also cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets, ionization chambers, and quantometer. The time-of-flight neutron spectrometer consists of 4 coordinate-sensitive scintillation counters, before which the logic detector operating in the anticoincidence regime is placed. Information acquisition and measurement system control are accomplished by the computer using the CAMAK modules. The above system allows one to observe at the same time different physical processes and to carry out simultaneous measurements in a wide energy range

  20. Probability tables and gauss quadrature: application to neutron cross-sections in the unresolved energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Maillard, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The idea of describing neutron cross-section fluctuations by sets of discrete values, called probability tables, was formulated some 15 years ago. The authors propose to define the probability tables from moments by equating the moments of the actual cross-section distribution in a given energy range to the moments of the table. This definition introduces PADE approximants, orthogonal polynomials and GAUSS quadrature. This mathematical basis applies very well to the total cross-section. Some difficulties appear when partial cross-sections are taken into account, linked to the ambiguity of the definition of multivariate PADE approximants. Nevertheless the authors propose solutions and choices which appear to be satisfactory. Comparisons are made with other definition of probability tables and an example of the calculation of a mixture of nuclei is given

  1. Range-energy relation, range straggling and response function of CsI(Tl), BGO and GSO(Ce) scintillators for light ions

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeichikov, V; Jakobsson, B; Rodin, A M; Ter-Akopian, G M

    2000-01-01

    Range-energy relations and range straggling of sup 1 sup , sup 2 sup , sup 3 H and sup 4 sup , sup 6 He isotopes with the energy approx 50A MeV are measured for the CsI(Tl), BGO and GSO(Ce) scintillators with an accuracy better than 0.2% and 5%, respectively. The Si-Sci/PD telescope was exposed to secondary beams from the mass separator ACCULINNA. The experimental technique is based on the registration of the 'jump' in the amplitude of the photodiode signal for ions passing through the scintillation crystal. Light response of the scintillators for ions 1<=Z<=4 is measured in energy range (5-50)A MeV, the results are in good agreement with calculations based on Birks model. The energy loss straggling for particles with DELTA E/E=0.01-0.50 and mass up to A=10 in 286 mu m DELTA E silicon detector is studied and compared with theoretical prescriptions. The results allow a precise absolute calibration of the scintillation crystal and to optimize the particle identification by the DELTA E-E(Sci/PD) method.

  2. Average fast neutron flux in three energy ranges in the Quinta assembly irradiated by two types of beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strugalska-Gola Elzbieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed within the international project “Energy plus Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes” (E&T - RAW for investigations of energy production and transmutation of radioactive waste of the nuclear power industry. 89Y (Yttrium 89 samples were located in the Quinta assembly in order to measure an average high neutron flux density in three different energy ranges using deuteron and proton beams from Dubna accelerators. Our analysis showed that the neutron density flux for the neutron energy range 20.8 - 32.7 MeV is higher than for the neutron energy range 11.5 - 20.8 MeV both for protons with an energy of 0.66 GeV and deuterons with an energy of 2 GeV, while for deuteron beams of 4 and 6 GeV we did not observe this.

  3. Energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in Nd2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.P.; Kao, C.C.; Haemaelaeinen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report the energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering from Nd 2 CuO 4 . An energy loss feature at ∼6 eV is observed in the vicinity of the Cu K-edge. Numerical calculations based on the Anderson impurity model identify this as a charge transfer excitation to the anti-bonding state. The incident polarization is shown to select the intermediate states participating in the resonance process. Resonances are observed at 8,990 eV and 9,000 eV with the incident polarization perpendicular and parallel to the CuO planes, respectively. In contrast to the single-site model calculations, no resonances are observed associated with the 1s3d 10 L intermediate states, suggesting non-local effects play a role

  4. Evaluation of the 237Np neutron cross sections in the energy range from 10-5 eV to 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Fort, E.

    1979-01-01

    The 237 Np neutron cross-sections have been evaluated in the energy range from thermal to 5 MeV. A set of resonance parameters including a negative level, is recommanded after examination of the available experimental data. This set is used 1) to calculate the cross-sections from the thermal region to 150 ev, and 2) to provide the statistical parameters suitable to the calculations in the unresolved region. At higher energies, the transmission coefficients Te are calculated by the coupled channel optical model code ECIS. They are then used as input in the statistical model code FISINGA. The optical model parameters, including the deformation parameters, are those used by Lagrange for the Pu isotopes, slightly modified to reproduce at 40 KeV the total cross-sections obtained from the pure statistical parameters. The recommendations of Lynn concerning the level density parameters have been used. In this paper we describe the various steps of the evaluation

  5. A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshor, C.B.; Oakes, T.M.; Myers, E.R.; Rogers, B.J.; Currie, J.E.; Young, S.M.; Crow, J.A.; Scott, P.R.; Miller, W.H.; Bellinger, S.L.; Sobering, T.J.; Fronk, R.G.; Shultis, J.K.; McGregor, D.S.; Caruso, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Hand-held instruments that can be used to passively detect and identify sources of neutron radiation—either bare or obscured by neutron moderating and/or absorbing material(s)—in real time are of interest in a variety of nuclear non-proliferation and health physics applications. Such an instrument must provide a means to high intrinsic detection efficiency and energy-sensitive measurements of free neutron fields, for neutrons ranging from thermal energies to the top end of the evaporation spectrum. To address and overcome the challenges inherent to the aforementioned applications, four solid-state moderating-type neutron spectrometers of varying cost, weight, and complexity have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The motivation of this work is to introduce these novel human-portable instruments by discussing the fundamental theory of their operation, investigating and analyzing the principal considerations for optimal instrument design, and evaluating the capability of each of the four fabricated spectrometers to meet the application needs.

  6. A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshor, C.B. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Oakes, T.M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Myers, E.R.; Rogers, B.J.; Currie, J.E.; Young, S.M.; Crow, J.A.; Scott, P.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Missouri University Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Bellinger, S.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Sobering, T.J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Fronk, R.G.; Shultis, J.K.; McGregor, D.S. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Caruso, A.N., E-mail: carusoan@umkc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Hand-held instruments that can be used to passively detect and identify sources of neutron radiation—either bare or obscured by neutron moderating and/or absorbing material(s)—in real time are of interest in a variety of nuclear non-proliferation and health physics applications. Such an instrument must provide a means to high intrinsic detection efficiency and energy-sensitive measurements of free neutron fields, for neutrons ranging from thermal energies to the top end of the evaporation spectrum. To address and overcome the challenges inherent to the aforementioned applications, four solid-state moderating-type neutron spectrometers of varying cost, weight, and complexity have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The motivation of this work is to introduce these novel human-portable instruments by discussing the fundamental theory of their operation, investigating and analyzing the principal considerations for optimal instrument design, and evaluating the capability of each of the four fabricated spectrometers to meet the application needs.

  7. Modeling the neutron spin-flip process in a time-of-flight spin-resonance energy filter

    CERN Document Server

    Parizzi, A A; Klose, F

    2002-01-01

    A computer program for modeling the neutron spin-flip process in a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spin-resonance energy filter has been developed. The software allows studying the applicability of the device in various areas of spallation neutron scattering instrumentation, for example as a dynamic TOF monochromator. The program uses a quantum-mechanical approach to calculate the local spin-dependent spectra and is essential for optimizing the magnetic field profiles along the resonator axis. (orig.)

  8. Using the Moist Static Energy Budget to Understand Storm Track Shifts across a Range of Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barpanda, P.; Shaw, T.

    2017-12-01

    Storm tracks shift meridionally in response to forcing across a range of time scales. Here we formulate a moist static energy (MSE) framework for storm track position and use it to understand storm track shifts in response to seasonal insolation, El Niño minus La Niña conditions, and direct (increased CO2 over land) and indirect (increased sea surface temperature) effects of increased CO2. Two methods (linearized Taylor series and imposed MSE flux divergence) are developed to quantify storm track shifts and decompose them into contributions from net energy (MSE input to the atmosphere minus atmospheric storage) and MSE flux divergence by the mean meridional circulation and stationary eddies. Net energy is not a dominant contribution across the time scales considered. The stationary eddy contribution dominates the storm-track shift in response to seasonal insolation, El Niño minus La Niña conditions, and CO2 direct effect in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas the mean meridional circulation contribution dominates the shift in response to CO2 indirect effect during northern winter and in the Southern Hemisphere during May and October. Overall, the MSE framework shows the seasonal storm-track shift in the Northern Hemisphere is connected to the stationary eddy MSE flux evolution. Furthermore, the equatorward storm-track shift during northern winter in response to El Niño minus La Niña conditions involves a different regime than the poleward shift in response to increased CO2 even though the tropical upper troposphere warms in both cases.

  9. 1/J2 corrections to BMN energies from the quantum long range Landau-Lifshitz model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minahan, Joseph A.; Tirziu, Alin; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous paper [hep-th/0509071], it was shown that quantum 1/J corrections to the BMN spectrum in an effective Landau-Lifshitz (LL) model match with the results from the one-loop gauge theory, provided one chooses an appropriate regularization. In this paper we continue this study for the conjectured Bethe ansatz for the long range spin chain representing perturbative large-N N = 4 Super Yang-Mills in the SU(2) sector, and the 'quantum string' Bethe ansatz for its string dual. The comparison is carried out for corrections to BMN energies up to order λ-tilde 3 in the effective expansion parameter λ-tilde = λ/J 2 . After determining the 'gauge-theory' LL action to order λ-tilde 3 , which is accomplished indirectly by fixing the coefficients in the LL action so that the energies of circular strings match with the energies found using the Bethe ansatz, we find perfect agreement. We interpret this as further support for an underlying integrability of the system. We then consider the 'string-theory' LL action which is a limit of the classical string action representing fast string motion on an S 3 subspace of S 5 and compare the resulting λ-tilde 3 /J 2 corrections to the prediction of the 'string' Bethe ansatz. As in the gauge case, we find precise matching. This indicates that the LL hamiltonian supplemented with a normal ordering prescription and ζ-function regularization reproduces the full superstring result for the 1/J 2 corrections, and also signifies that the string Bethe ansatz does describe the quantum BMN string spectrum to order 1/J 2 . We also comment on using the quantum LL approach to determine the non-analytic contributions in λ that are behind the strong to weak coupling interpolation between the string and gauge results

  10. Energy savings and increased electric vehicle range through improved battery thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Schneider, Christoph; Koehler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells are temperature sensitive: operation outside the optimal operating range causes premature aging and correspondingly reduces vehicle range and battery system lifetime. In order to meet consumer demands for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle performance, especially in adverse climates, a battery thermal management system (BTMS) is often required. This work presents a novel experimental method for analyzing BTMS using three sample cooling plate concepts. For each concept, the input parameters (ambient temperature, coolant temperature and coolant flow rate) are varied and the resulting effect on the average temperature and temperature distribution across and between cells is compared. Additionally, the pressure loss along the coolant path is utilized as an indicator of energy efficiency. Using the presented methodology, various cooling plate layouts optimized for production alternative techniques are compared to the state of the art. It is shown that these production-optimized cooling plates provide sufficient thermal performance with the additional benefit of mechanical integration within the battery and/or vehicle system. It is also shown that the coolant flow influences battery cell thermal behavior more than the solid material and that pressure drop is more sensitive to geometrical changes in the cooling plate than temperature changes at the module.

  11. Refractometers for different refractive index range by surface plasmon resonance sensors in multimode optical fibers with different metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppella, P.; Corso, Alain J.; Pelizzo, Maria G.; Cennamo, N.; Zeni, L.

    2016-09-01

    We have realized a plasmonic sensor based on Au/Pd metal bilayer in a multimode plastic optical fiber. This metal bilayer, based on a metal with high imaginary part of the refractive index and gold, shows interesting properties in terms of sensitivity and performances, in different refractive index ranges. The development of highly sensitive platforms for high refractive index detection (higher than 1.38) is interesting for chemical applications based on molecularly imprinted polymer as receptors, while the aqueous medium is the refractive index range of biosensors based on bio-receptors. In this work we have presented an Au/Pd metal bilayer optimized for 1.38-1.42 refractive index range.

  12. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer system for measuring dynamic protein-protein interactions in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Boyu; Wang, Yao; Song, Yunhong; Wang, Tietao; Li, Changfu; Wei, Yahong; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui

    2014-05-20

    Protein-protein interactions are important for virtually every biological process, and a number of elegant approaches have been designed to detect and evaluate such interactions. However, few of these methods allow the detection of dynamic and real-time protein-protein interactions in bacteria. Here we describe a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system based on the bacterial luciferase LuxAB. We found that enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) accepts the emission from LuxAB and emits yellow fluorescence. Importantly, BRET occurred when LuxAB and eYFP were fused, respectively, to the interacting protein pair FlgM and FliA. Furthermore, we observed sirolimus (i.e., rapamycin)-inducible interactions between FRB and FKBP12 and a dose-dependent abolishment of such interactions by FK506, the ligand of FKBP12. Using this system, we showed that osmotic stress or low pH efficiently induced multimerization of the regulatory protein OmpR and that the multimerization induced by low pH can be reversed by a neutralizing agent, further indicating the usefulness of this system in the measurement of dynamic interactions. This method can be adapted to analyze dynamic protein-protein interactions and the importance of such interactions in bacterial processes such as development and pathogenicity. Real-time measurement of protein-protein interactions in prokaryotes is highly desirable for determining the roles of protein complex in the development or virulence of bacteria, but methods that allow such measurement are not available. Here we describe the development of a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology that meets this need. The use of endogenous excitation light in this strategy circumvents the requirement for the sophisticated instrument demanded by standard fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Furthermore, because the LuxAB substrate decanal is membrane permeable, the assay can be performed without lysing the bacterial cells

  13. COREL, Ion Implantation in Solids, Range, Straggling Using Thomas-Fermi Cross-Sections. RASE4, Ion Implantation in Solids, Range, Straggling, Energy Deposition, Recoils. DAMG2, Ion Implantation in Solids, Energy Deposition Distribution with Recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: COREL calculates the final average projected range, standard deviation in projected range, standard deviation in locations transverse to projected range, and average range along path for energetic atomic projectiles incident on amorphous targets or crystalline targets oriented such that the projectiles are not incident along low index crystallographic axes or planes. RASE4 calculates the instantaneous average projected range, standard deviation in projected range, standard deviation in locations transverse to projected range, and average range along path for energetic atomic projectiles incident on amorphous targets or crystalline targets oriented such that the projectiles are not incident along low index crystallographic axes or planes. RASE4 also calculates the instantaneous rate at which the projectile is depositing energy into atomic processes (damage) and into electronic processes (electronic excitation), the average range of target atom recoils projected onto the direction of motion of the projectiles, and the standard deviation in the recoil projected range. DAMG2 calculates the distribution in depth of the energy deposited into atomic processes (damage), electronic processes (electronic excitation), or other energy-dependent quality produced by energetic atomic projectiles incident on amorphous targets or crystalline targets oriented such that the projectiles are not incident along low index crystallographic axes or planes. 2 - Method of solution: COREL: The truncated differential equation which governs the several variables being sought is solved through second-order by trapezoidal integration. The energy-dependent coefficients in the equation are obtained by rectangular integration over the Thomas-Fermi elastic scattering cross section. RASE4: The truncated differential equation which governs the range and straggling variables is solved through second-order by trapezoidal integration. The energy

  14. Study of the giant multipole resonances, especially the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by inelastic electron scattering with medium and high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, E.G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances were looked for by inelastic electron scattering up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of Esub(o) = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. Basing on this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as a superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forwards angles a further weak excitation appears at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is also observed in (α,α') scattering experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has partly to be assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gels because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Study of the giant multipole resonances especially of the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by medium and high energy resolution inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, G.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV were looked for by medium resolution inelastic electron scattering. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of E 0 = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. On the base of this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forward angles a further weak excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV appears which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is observed also in (α, α') experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also a Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has to be partly assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gets because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Highly sensitive digital optical sensor with large measurement range based on the dual-microring resonator with waveguide-coupled feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xing-Ye; Wang Kui-Ru; Yuan Jin-Hui; Jin Bo-Yuan; Sang Xin-Zhu; Yu Chong-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel high-performance digital optical sensor based on the Mach—Zehnder interferential effect and the dual-microring resonators with the waveguide-coupled feedback. The simulation results show that the sensitivity of the sensor can be orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional sensor, and high quality factor is not critical in it. Moreover, by optimizing the length of the feedback waveguide to be equal to the perimeter of the ring, the measurement range of the proposed sensor is twice as much as that of the conventional sensor in the weak coupling case

  17. Multipolarity analysis for 14C high-energy resonance populated by (18O,16O) two-neutron transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Bondì, M.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Azaiez, F.; Franchoo, S.; Khan, E.; Bonaccorso, A.; Fortunato, L.; Foti, A.; Linares, R.; Lubian, J.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Vitturi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The 12 C( 18 O, 16 O) 14 C reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been explored up to high excitation energy of the residual nucleus thanks to the use of the MAGNEX spectrometer to detect the ejectiles. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a resonance has been observed at 16.9 MeV. A multipolarity analysis of the cross section angular distribution indicates an L = 0 character for such a transition

  18. Kinetics and dynamics of near-resonant vibrational energy transfer in gas ensembles of atmospheric interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Anthony J.

    2018-03-01

    This study of near-resonant, vibration-vibration (V-V) gas-phase energy transfer in diatomic molecules uses the theoretical/computational method, of Marsh & McCaffery (Marsh & McCaffery 2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117, 503 (doi:10.1063/1.1489998)) The method uses the angular momentum (AM) theoretical formalism to compute quantum-state populations within the component molecules of large, non-equilibrium, gas mixtures as the component species proceed to equilibration. Computed quantum-state populations are displayed in a number of formats that reveal the detailed mechanism of the near-resonant V-V process. Further, the evolution of quantum-state populations, for each species present, may be followed as the number of collision cycles increases, displaying the kinetics of evolution for each quantum state of the ensemble's molecules. These features are illustrated for ensembles containing vibrationally excited N2 in H2, O2 and N2 initially in their ground states. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  19. High energy radiation precursors to the collapse of black holes binaries based on resonating plasma modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.

    2018-05-01

    The presence of well organized plasma structures around binary systems of collapsed objects [1,2] (black holes and neutron stars) is proposed in which processes can develop [3] leading to high energy electromagnetic radiation emission immediately before the binary collapse. The formulated theoretical model supporting this argument shows that resonating plasma collective modes can be excited in the relevant magnetized plasma structure. Accordingly, the collapse of the binary approaches, with the loss of angular momentum by emission of gravitational waves [2], the resonance conditions with vertically standing plasma density and magnetic field oscillations are met. Then, secondary plasma modes propagating along the magnetic field are envisioned to be sustained with mode-particle interactions producing the particle populations responsible for the observable electromagnetic radiation emission. Weak evidence for a precursor to the binary collapse reported in Ref. [2], has been offered by the Agile X-γ-ray observatory [4] while the August 17 (2017) event, identified first by the LIGO-Virgo detection of gravitational waves and featuring the inferred collapse of a neutron star binary, improves the evidence of such a precursor. A new set of experimental observations is needed to reassess the presented theory.

  20. A Wide Area Bipolar Cascade Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode for a Hybrid Range-Intensity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-19

    to produce the required SNR. Also, through parametric analysis, we determined that a system iii trade -off, between the collection optic diameter, and...edition, 1989. 65. van der Ziel, J. P. and W. T. Tsang. “ Intergrated multilayer GaAs laser separated by tunnel junctions”. Applied Physics Letters...can deliver sufficient energy to produce the required SNR. Also, through parametric analysis, we determined that a system trade -off, between the

  1. On-chip transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Anthony J; Noor, M Omair; Vannoy, Charles H; Algar, W Russ; Krull, Ulrich J

    2012-01-03

    The glass surface of a glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel was modified to develop a solid-phase assay for quantitative determination of nucleic acids. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) within channels was used to deliver and immobilize semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), and electrophoresis was used to decorate the QDs with oligonucleotide probe sequences. These processes took only minutes to complete. The QDs served as energy donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for transduction of nucleic acid hybridization. Electrokinetic injection of fluorescent dye (Cy3) labeled oligonucleotide target into a microfluidic channel and subsequent hybridization (within minutes) provided the proximity for FRET, with emission from Cy3 being the analytical signal. The quantification of target concentration was achieved by measurement of the spatial length of coverage by target along a channel. Detection of femtomole quantities of target was possible with a dynamic range spanning an order of magnitude. The assay provided excellent resistance to nonspecific interactions of DNA. Further selectivity of the assay was achieved using 20% formamide, which allowed discrimination between a fully complementary target and a 3 base pair mismatch target at a contrast ratio of 4:1. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  3. A luminescence resonance energy transfer based aptasensor for the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A using upconversion nanoparticles and gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shaoliang; Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Wang, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a turn-on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) method for the detection of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA). It utilizes upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of the type NaYF_4: Yb, Er as the energy donor and gold nanorods (Au NRs) as the acceptor. Biotin-labeled OTA aptamers were bound to the surface of the avidin-functionalized UCNPs. The AuNRs, in turn, were modified with thiolated OTA aptamer cDNA via thiol chemistry. The emission band of the UCNPs under 980-nm laser excitation has a maximum peaking at 657 nm and overlaps the absorption band of the AuNRs which peaks at 660 nm. Quenching of luminescence occurs because the hybridization actions shorten the distance between UCNPs and AuNRs. If, however, OTA is added, the two kinds of particles separate again because of the high affinity between OTA and the OTA aptamer. As a result, luminescence is recovered. The calibration plot is linear in the 0.05 to 100 ng mL"−"1 OTA concentration range, and the limit of detection is 27 pg mL"−"1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of OTA in beer. (author)

  4. Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N_{2} Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Martin; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Vrakking, Marc J J; Kornilov, Oleg

    2016-04-22

    Autoionizing Rydberg states of molecular N_{2} are studied using time-, energy-, and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse with a photon energy of 17.5 eV excites the resonance and a subsequent IR pulse ionizes the molecule before the autoionization takes place. The angular-resolved photoelectron spectra depend on pump-probe time delay and allow for the distinguishing of two electronic states contributing to the resonance. The lifetime of one of the contributions is determined to be 14±1  fs, while the lifetime of the other appears to be significantly shorter than the time resolution of the experiment. These observations suggest that the Rydberg states in this energy region are influenced by the effect of interference stabilization and merge into a complex resonance.

  5. An improved energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams based on multiple accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Andreo, P.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.; Bielajew, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretically based analytical energy-range relationship has been developed and calibrated against well established experimental and Monte Carlo calculated energy-range data. Only published experimental data with a clear statement of accuracy and method of evaluation have been used. Besides published experimental range data for different uniform media, new accurate experimental data on the practical range of high-energy electron beams in water for the energy range 10-50 MeV from accurately calibrated racetrack microtrons have been used. Largely due to the simultaneous pooling of accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data for different materials, the fit has resulted in an increased accuracy of the resultant energy-range relationship, particularly at high energies. Up to date Monte Carlo data from the latest versions of the codes ITS3 and EGS4 for absorbers of atomic numbers between four and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, PMMA, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U) and incident electron energies between 1 and 100 MeV have been used as a complement where experimental data are sparse or missing. The standard deviation of the experimental data relative to the new relation is slightly larger than that of the Monte Carlo data. This is partly due to the fact that theoretically based stopping and scattering cross-sections are used both to account for the material dependence of the analytical energy-range formula and to calculate ranges with the Monte Carlo programs. For water the deviation from the traditional energy-range relation of ICRU Report 35 is only 0.5% at 20 MeV but as high as - 2.2% at 50 MeV. An improved method for divergence and ionization correction in high-energy electron beams has also been developed to enable use of a wider range of experimental results. (Author)

  6. The spectral energy distributions of isolated neutron stars in the resonant cyclotron scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Xu, Renxin

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their very well Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, the optical/UV excess is a long standing problem. Recently, Kaplan et al. (2011) have measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may due to contribution from bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.

  7. [Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Detection of Cobalt Ions by Silver Triangular Nanoplates and Rhodamine 6G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-qing; Peng, Jun; Ling, Jian; Liu, Chao-juan; Cao, Qiu-e; Ding, Zhong-tao

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, the authors studied fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) phenomenon between silver triangular nanoplates and bovine serum albumin (BSA)/Rhodamine 6G fluorescence complex, and established a fluorescence method for the detection of cobalt ions. We found that when increasing the silver triangular nanoplates added to certain concentrations of fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA)/Rhodamine 6G complex, the fluorescence of Rhodamine 6G would be quenched up to 80% due to the FRET between the quencher and donor. However, in the presence of cobalt ions, the disassociation of the fluorescent complex from silver triangular nanoplates occurred and the fluorescence of the Rhodamine 6G recovered. The recovery of fluorescence intensity rate (I/I0) has a good relationship with the cobalt ion concentration (cCO2+) added. Thus, the authors developed a fluorescence method for the detection of cobalt ions based on the FRET of silver triangular nanoplates and Rhodamine 6G.

  8. Biosensing with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Coupling between Fluorophores and Nanocarbon Allotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs, including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET. This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

  9. Simulation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments: effect of the dyes on protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Lucy R; Paci, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer is a powerful technique which is often used to probe the properties of proteins and complex macromolecules. The technique relies on relatively large fluorescent dyes which are engineered into the molecule of interest. In the case of small proteins, these dyes may affect the stability of the protein, and modify the folding kinetics and the folding mechanisms which are being probed. Here we use atomistic simulation to investigate the effect that commonly used fluorescent dyes have on the folding of a four-helix bundle protein. We show that, depending on where the dyes are attached, their effect on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the protein may be significant. We find that, while the overall folding mechanism is not affected by the dyes, they can destabilize, or even stabilize, intermediate states.

  10. Vibrational analysis of HOCl up to 98% of the dissociation energy with a Fermi resonance Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, R.; Joyeux, M.; Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the vibrational energies and wave functions of HOCl obtained from previous ab initio calculations [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 2662 (1998); 109, 10273 (1998)]. Up to approximately 13 and h;000 cm -1 , the normal modes are nearly decoupled, so that the analysis is straightforward with a Dunham model. In contrast, above 13 and h;000 cm -1 the Dunham model is no longer valid for the levels with no quanta in the OH stretch (v 1 =0). In addition to v 1 , these levels can only be assigned a so-called polyad quantum number P=2v 2 +v 3 , where 2 and 3 denote, respectively, the bending and OCl stretching normal modes. In contrast, the levels with v 1 ≥2 remain assignable with three v i quantum numbers up to the dissociation (D 0 =19 and h;290 and h;cm -1 ). The interaction between the bending and the OCl stretch (ω 2 congruent 2ω 3 ) is well described with a simple, fitted Fermi resonance Hamiltonian. The energies and wave functions of this model Hamiltonian are compared with those obtained from ab initio calculations, which in turn enables the assignment of many additional ab initio vibrational levels. Globally, among the 809 bound levels calculated below dissociation, 790 have been assigned, the lowest unassigned level, No. 736, being located at 18 and h;885 cm -1 above the (0,0,0) ground level, that is, at about 98% of D 0 . In addition, 84 resonances located above D 0 have also been assigned. Our best Fermi resonance Hamiltonian has 29 parameters fitted with 725 ab initio levels, the rms deviation being of 5.3 cm -1 . This set of 725 fitted levels includes the full set of levels up to No. 702 at 18 and h;650 cm -1 . The ab initio levels, which are assigned but not included in the fit, are reasonably predicted by the model Hamiltonian, but with a typical error of the order of 20 cm -1 . The classical analysis of the periodic orbits of this Hamiltonian shows that two bifurcations occur at 13 and h;135 and 14 and h;059 cm -1 for levels with v 1 =0. Above each

  11. Analyzing power for π-p elastic scattering in the energy region of the Roper resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Briscoe, W.J.; Eichon, A.D.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Kim, G.J.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Wightman, J.A.; Sadler, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the analyzing power A/sub N/ in π - p elastic scattering at p/sub π/ = 471--687 MeV/c are presented and compared with the results of recent πN partial-wave analyses (PWA's) by the Karlsruhe-Helsinki, CMU-LBL, and VPI groups. While agreeing with the main features of the measured angular dependence of A/sub N/, the three PWA's yield larger values than the measurements at forward angles at p/sub π/ = 471, 547, and 625 MeV/c. At 687 MeV/c the PWA's do not agree with the data at far backward angles. We estimate the effect of our data on the phase shifts in this energy region, which includes the Roper resonance

  12. Numerical examinations of simplified spondylodesis models concerning energy absorption in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadert Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metallic implants in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are a potential safety risk since the energy absorption may increase temperature of the surrounding tissue. The temperature rise is highly dependent on implant size. Numerical examinations can be used to calculate the energy absorption in terms of the specific absorption rate (SAR induced by MRI on orthopaedic implants. This research presents the impact of titanium osteosynthesis spine implants, called spondylodesis, deduced by numerical examinations of energy absorption in simplified spondylodesis models placed in 1.5 T and 3.0 T MRI body coils. The implants are modelled along with a spine model consisting of vertebrae and disci intervertebrales thus extending previous investigations [1], [2]. Increased SAR values are observed at the ends of long implants, while at the center SAR is significantly lower. Sufficiently short implants show increased SAR along the complete length of the implant. A careful data analysis reveals that the particular anatomy, i.e. vertebrae and disci intervertebrales, has a significant effect on SAR. On top of SAR profile due to the implant length, considerable SAR variations at small scale are observed, e.g. SAR values at vertebra are higher than at disc positions.

  13. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed

  14. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.

  15. Study on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdS quantum dots and Eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using mercaptoacetic acid (TGA) as the stabilizer in an aqueous system. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was constructed between water-soluble CdS QDs (donor) and Eosin Y (acceptor). Several factors that impacted the fluorescence spectra of the FRET system, such as pH (3.05-10.10), concentration of Eosin Y (2-80 mg/L) and concentration of CdS QDs (2-80 mg/L), were investigated and refined. Donor-to-acceptor ratios, the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between CdS QDs and Eosin Y were obtained. The results showed that a FRET system could be established between water-soluble CdS QDs and Eosin Y at pH 5.0; donor-to-acceptor ratios demonstrated a 1: 8 proportion of complexes; the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between the QDs and Eosin Y were 20.07% and 4.36 nm,respectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Distribution of radiative strength with excitation energy: the E1 and M1 giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Speth, J.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations of the giant dipole resonance in the particle-hole model, employing empirical values for the unperturbed particle and hole energies, have been unsuccessful in pushing the dipole state to a sufficiently high energy. it is argued that unperturbed levels correspondign to an effective mass of m*/m approx. 0.6 to 0.7 should be employed. The couplings of particles and holes to vibrations are the crucial ingredients in these considerations. More generally, it is argued that the effective mass relevant to excitations near the Fermi surface is that corresponding to empirical single-particle levels, m*/m greater than or equal to 1.0. For particle-hole excitations above the Fermi surface, it is a decreasing function of excitation energy, reaching the above values 0.6 to 0.7 for E greater than or equal to 2 dirac constant/b omega, dirac constant/sub omega/ being the shell spacing. This has the consequence of spreading out the M1 strength. A new interpretation of experimental strengths is proposed

  17. Wireless Energy Transfer Using Resonant Magnetic Induction for Electric Vehicle Charging Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Neelima

    The research work for this thesis is based on utilizing resonant magnetic induction for wirelessly charging electric vehicles. The background theory for electromagnetic induction between two conducting loops is given and it is shown that an RLCequivalent circuit can be used to model the loops. An analysis of the equivalent circuit is used to show how two loosely coupled loops can be made to exchange energy efficiently by operating them at a frequency which is the same as the resonant frequency of both. Furthermore, it is shown that the efficiency is the maximum for critical coupling (determined by the quality factors of the loops), and increasing the coupling beyond critical coupling causes double humps to appear in the transmission efficiency versus frequency spectrum. In the experiment, as the loops are brought closer together which increases the coupling between them, doubles humps, as expected from the equivalent circuit analysis is seen. Two models for wireless energy transfer are identified: basic model and array model. The basic model consists of the two loosely coupled loops, the transmitter and the receiver. The array model consists of a 2 x 2 array of the transmitter and three parasites, and the receiver. It is shown that the array model allows more freedom for receiver placement at the cost of degraded transmission efficiency compared to the basic model. Another important part of the thesis is software validation. HFSS-IE and 4NEC2 are the software tools used and the simulation results for wire antennas are compared against references obtained from a textbook and a PhD dissertation. It is shown that the simulations agree well with the references and also with each other.

  18. Correlation between blister skin thickness, the maximum in the damage-energy distribution, and projected ranges of helium ions in Nb for the energy range 10 to 1500 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Jacques, R.G.; Martel, J.G.; Terreault, B.; Veilleux, G.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Fenske, G.

    1976-01-01

    The skin thickness of blisters formed on polycrystalline niobium by 4 He + irradiation at room temperature for energies from 15 to 80 keV have been measured. Similar measurements were conducted for 10 keV 4 He + irradiation at 500 0 C to increase blister exfoliation, and thereby allow examination of a larger number of blister skins. For energies smaller than 100 keV the skin thicknesses are compared with the projected range and the damage-energy distributions constructed from moments interpolated from Winterbon's tabulated values. For energies of 10 and 15 keV the projected ranges and damage-energy distributions have also been computed with a Monte Carlo program. For energies larger than 100 keV the projected ranges of 4 He + in Nb were calculated using either Brice's formalism or the one given by Schiott. The thicknesses for 60 and 80 keV, and those reported earlier for 100 to 1500 keV correlate well with calculated projected ranges. For energies lower than 60 keV the measured thicknesses are larger than the calculated ranges

  19. Quality assessment and consistency check of measured nuclear data up to 20 MeV including the range of resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedy, Z.T.

    1984-09-01

    This is the final report of a research contract with the IAEA. The object is the compilation and evaluation of all the data on (n,t) and (n,3He) reactions cross-sections, respectively. The main results of the research are given (some discrepancies in the experimental data; analytic formulas for an empirical description of the data, separately for the even and odd nuclei with z>20; methods to extrapolate to energies where measurements are missing; mass regions where data are needed), and publications by the authors with the detailed results are quoted

  20. Characterization of G-protein coupled receptor kinase interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hansen, Jakob L

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase-inactive muta......To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase...

  1. Resonance Strength Measurement at Astrophysical Energies: The 17O(p,α14N Reaction Studied via THM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Trojan Horse Method (THM has been used to investigate the low-energy cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 17O nuclei, overcoming extrapolation procedures and enhancement effects due to electron screening. We will report on the indirect study of the 17O(p,α14N reaction via the Trojan Horse Method by applying the approach developed for extracting the resonance strength of narrow resonance in the ultralow energy region. The mean value of the strengths obtained in the two measurements was calculated and compared with the direct data available in literature.

  2. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa A.; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  3. Multiphoton resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    The long-time average of level populations in a coherently-excited anharmonic sequence of energy levels (e.g., an anharmonic oscillator) exhibits sharp resonances as a function of laser frequency. For simple linearly-increasing anharmonicity, each resonance is a superposition of various multiphoton resonances (e.g., a superposition of 3, 5, 7, . . . photon resonances), each having its own characteristic width predictable from perturbation theory

  4. Energy dispersion of x-ray continua in the energy range 9kev to 19kev refraction on Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, H.; Streli, C.; Pepponi, G.; Wobrauschek, P.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection of x-rays in matter at given grazing incidence angle is characterized by the occurrence of an energy cut-off. Photons with energies greater than the cut-off energy penetrate into matter and are refracted according to a transition from the optically more dense to the optically less dense medium. Since the refractive index depends on photon energy, an energy dispersion of continuous x-radiation is observed. The present investigation is dedicated to the energy dispersion of continuous x-radiation (Mo, 45 kV) by Si wafers. Theory and experimental results are in excellent agreement. (author)

  5. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  6. Electron energy spectrum produced in radio sources by turbulent, resonant acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilek, J.A.; Henriksen, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    We consider relativistic particle acceleration by resonant Alfven waves which are driven internally in a radio source from fully developed fluid turbulence. We find that self-similar behavior as described by Lacombe, f(p)proportionalp - /sup s/ but with sroughly-equal4.5, arises self-consistently when this turbulent wave driving coexists with synchrotron losses. The coupling of the wave and particle distributions provides feedback which drives an arbitrary initial distribution to the form-stable, self-similar form. The model predicts that turbulent plasma in a radio source should evolve toward a synchrotron spectral index, 0.5< or approx. =α< or approx. =1.0 in one particle lifetime, and that the average spectrum of most sources should also be in this range. The theory may also be applicable to other turbulent sites, such as cosmic-ray reaccelertion in the interstellar medium

  7. Impact of dopant profiles on the end of range defects for low energy germanium preamorphized silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo-Castillo, R.A.; Law, M.E.; Jones, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    As the industry continues to aggressively scale CMOS technology, the shift to lower energy ion implantation becomes essential. The consequent shallower amorphous layers result in dopant profiles that are in closer proximity to the end of range (EOR) damage and therefore a better understanding of the interaction between the dopant atoms and the EOR is required. A study is conducted on the influence of dopant profiles on the behavior of the EOR defects. Czochralski-grown silicon wafers are preamorphized with 1 x 10 15 cm -2 , 10 keV Ge + ions and subsequently implanted with 1 x 10 15 cm -2 , 1 keV B + ions. A sequence of rapid thermal and furnace anneals are performed at 750 deg. C under a nitrogen ambient for periods of 1 s up to 6 h. Plan view transmission electron microscopy (PTEM) reveals a significant difference in the defect evolution for samples with and without boron, suggesting that the boron influences the evolution of the EOR defects. The extended defects observed for samples which contain boron appear as dot-like defects which are unstable and dissolve after very short anneal times. The defect evolution however, in samples without boron follows an Oswald ripening behavior and form {3 1 1}-type defects and dislocation loops. Hall effect measurements denote a high initial activation and subsequent deactivation of the dopant atoms which is characteristic of the formation of boron interstitial clusters. Diffusion analyses via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) support this theory

  8. Photofragmentation spectra of halogenated methanes in the VUV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartoni, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.cartoni@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, Roma 00185 (Italy); Bolognesi, Paola; Fainelli, Ettore; Avaldi, Lorenzo [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo (Rm) 00015 (Italy)

    2014-05-14

    In this paper an investigation of the photofragmentation of dihalomethanes CH{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and chlorinated methanes (CH{sub n}Cl{sub 4−n} with n = 0–3) with VUV helium, neon, and argon discharge lamps is reported and the role played by the different halogen atoms is discussed. Halogenated methanes are a class of molecules used in several fields of chemistry and the study of their physical and chemical proprieties is of fundamental interest. In particular their photodissociation and photoionization are of great importance since the decomposition of these compounds in the atmosphere strongly affects the environment. The results of the present work show that the halogen-loss is the predominant fragmentation channel for these molecules in the VUV photon energy range and confirm their role as reservoir of chlorine, bromine, and iodine atoms in the atmosphere. Moreover, the results highlight the peculiar feature of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} as a source of both fluorine and hydrogen atoms and the characteristic formation of I{sub 2}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}{sup +} ions from the photofragmentation of the CH{sub 2}I{sub 2} molecule.

  9. Modeling and characterization of double resonant tunneling diodes for application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois

    2017-02-01

    Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.

  10. Electronic energy transfer through non-adiabatic vibrational-electronic resonance. II. 1D spectra for a dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivek; Jonas, David M.

    2018-02-01

    Vibrational-electronic resonance in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes invalidates Förster's adiabatic framework for interpreting spectra and energy transfer, thus complicating determination of how the surrounding protein affects pigment properties. This paper considers the combined effects of vibrational-electronic resonance and inhomogeneous variations in the electronic excitation energies of pigments at different sites on absorption, emission, circular dichroism, and hole-burning spectra for a non-degenerate homodimer. The non-degenerate homodimer has identical pigments in different sites that generate differences in electronic energies, with parameters loosely based on bacteriochlorophyll a pigments in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna protein. To explain the intensity borrowing, the excited state vibrational-electronic eigenvectors are discussed in terms of the vibrational basis localized on the individual pigments, as well as the correlated/anti-correlated vibrational basis delocalized over both pigments. Compared to those in the isolated pigment, vibrational satellites for the correlated vibration have the same frequency and precisely a factor of 2 intensity reduction through vibrational delocalization in both absorption and emission. Vibrational satellites for anti-correlated vibrations have their relaxed emission intensity reduced by over a factor 2 through vibrational and excitonic delocalization. In absorption, anti-correlated vibrational satellites borrow excitonic intensity but can be broadened away by the combination of vibronic resonance and site inhomogeneity; in parallel, their vibronically resonant excitonic partners are also broadened away. These considerations are consistent with photosynthetic antenna hole-burning spectra, where sharp vibrational and excitonic satellites are absent. Vibrational-excitonic resonance barely alters the inhomogeneously broadened linear absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra from those for a

  11. Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state

  12. Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state.

  13. Resonance absorption measurements of atom concentrations in reacting gas mixtures. II. Calibration of microwave sources over a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.; Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to calibrate three different microwave discharge lamps for analysis for D or H atoms, using Lyman-α absorption. Known concentrations of D atoms were produced in a shock tube by the reaction of 0.05--4 ppm D 2 with N 2 O in argon at 1800--3000 K. H atoms were produced by dissociation of 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (10 ppm in argon) at 980--1140 K. These absorption data were compared with the absorption calculated from Lyman-α line shapes reported in an earlier paper, good agreement being found. These experiments provide a sound basis for obtaining the temperature and concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient over a wide temperature range, for H and D concentrations between 10 -12 and 10 -10 mole/cc

  14. Beyond the Förster formulation for resonance energy transfer: the role of dark states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissa, C; Manna, A K; Terenziani, F; Painelli, A; Pati, S K

    2011-07-28

    Resonance Energy Transfer (RET) is investigated in pairs of charge-transfer (CT) chromophores. CT chromophores are an interesting class of π conjugated chromophores decorated with one or more electron-donor and acceptor groups in polar (D-π-A), quadrupolar (D-π-A-π-D or A-π-D-π-A) or octupolar (D(-π-A)(3) or A(-π-D)(3)) structures. Essential-state models accurately describe low-energy linear and nonlinear spectra of CT-chromophores and proved very useful to describe spectroscopic effects of electrostatic interchromophore interactions in multichromophoric assemblies. Here we apply the same approach to describe RET between CT-chromophores. The results are quantitatively validated by an extensive comparison with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, confirming that essential-state models offer a simple and reliable approach for the calculation of electrostatic interchromophore interactions. This is an important result since it sets the basis for more refined treatments of RET: essential-state models are in fact easily extended to account for molecular vibrations in truly non-adiabatic approaches and to account for inhomogeneous broadening effects due to polar solvation. Optically forbidden (dark) states of quadrupolar and octupolar chromophores offer an interesting opportunity to verify the reliability of the dipolar approximation. In striking contrast with the dipolar approximation that strictly forbids RET towards or from dark states, our results demonstrate that dark states can take an active role in RET with interaction energies that, depending on the relative orientation of the chromophores, can be even larger than those relevant to allowed states. Essential-state models, whose predictions are quantitatively confirmed by TDDFT results, allow us to relate RET interaction energies towards allowed and dark states to the supramolecular symmetry of the RET-pair, offering reliable design strategies to optimize RET-interactions. This

  15. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirazita, M.

    1998-03-01

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies

  16. Calibration of a large multi-element neutron counter in the energy range 85-430 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, J A; Esterling, R J; Garvey, J; Green, M G; Harnew, N; Jane, M R; Jobes, M; Mawson, J; McMahon, T; Robertson, A W; Thomas, D H

    1978-01-01

    Describes the calibration of a large 60 element neutron counter with a threshold of 2.7 MeV equivalent electron energy. The performance of the counter has been measured in the neutron kinetic energy range 8.5-430 MeV using a neutron beam at the CERN Synchrocyclotron. The results obtained for the efficiency as a function of energy are in reasonable agreement with a Monte Carlo calculation. (7 refs).

  17. Effect of membrane microheterogeneity and domain size on fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towles, Kevin B; Brown, Angela C; Wrenn, Steven P; Dan, Nily

    2007-07-15

    Studies of multicomponent membranes suggest lateral inhomogeneity in the form of membrane domains, but the size of small (nanoscale) domains in situ cannot be determined with current techniques. In this article, we present a model that enables extraction of membrane domain size from time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) data. We expand upon a classic approach to the infinite phase separation limit and formulate a model that accounts for the presence of disklike domains of finite dimensions within a two-dimensional infinite planar bilayer. The model was tested against off-lattice Monte Carlo calculations of a model membrane in the liquid-disordered (l(d)) and liquid-ordered (l(o)) coexistence regime. Simulated domain size was varied from 5 to 50 nm, and two fluorophores, preferentially partitioning into opposite phases, were randomly mixed to obtain the simulated time-resolved FRET data. The Monte Carlo data show clear differences in the efficiency of energy transfer as a function of domain size. The model fit of the data yielded good agreement for the domain size, especially in cases where the domain diameter is membrane domains using time-resolved FRET.

  18. Bound states, resonances and poles in the low-energy K-barN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The locations in the complex energy plane of the dynamic poles of the T matrix for the (K-bar N,Σπ) system are calculated. Investigated are a quark bag model and several potential models, including one which agrees with the strong interaction shift in kaonic hydrogen as well as scattering data. The parameters of the model are fit to K - p scattering and reaction cross sections, branching ratios, and mass spectra from K - p→ Σπππ, Λπππ. The Σ P1322 (1385) and Λ D03 (1520) resonances are found to be predominately elementary bag states with considerable dressing for the Σ P13 . The Λ S01 (1405) appears as a complicated composite systems arising from two poles. The model with certain parameter sets does predict two sign changes in the real part of the K-bar N scattering amplitude near threshold, but they are not quite at the correct energies to produce agreement with the sign of the strong interaction shift of kaonic hydrogen. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs

  19. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs

  20. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  1. Resonant Interaction, Approximate Symmetry, and Electromagnetic Interaction (EMI) in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2007-03-01

    Only recently (talk by P.A. Mosier-Boss et al, in this session) has it become possible to trigger high energy particle emission and Excess Heat, on demand, in LENR involving PdD. Also, most nuclear physicists are bothered by the fact that the dominant reaction appears to be related to the least common deuteron(d) fusion reaction,d+d ->α+γ. A clear consensus about the underlying effect has also been illusive. One reason for this involves confusion about the approximate (SU2) symmetry: The fact that all d-d fusion reactions conserve isospin has been widely assumed to mean the dynamics is driven by the strong force interaction (SFI), NOT EMI. Thus, most nuclear physicists assume: 1. EMI is static; 2. Dominant reactions have smallest changes in incident kinetic energy (T); and (because of 2), d+d ->α+γ is suppressed. But this assumes a stronger form of SU2 symmetry than is present; d+d ->α+γ reactions are suppressed not because of large changes in T but because the interaction potential involves EMI, is dynamic (not static), the SFI is static, and because the two incident deuterons must have approximate Bose Exchange symmetry and vanishing spin. A generalization of this idea involves a resonant form of reaction, similar to the de-excitation of an atom. These and related (broken gauge) symmetry EMI effects on LENR are discussed.

  2. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Teale, Andrew M; Toulouse, Julien; Helgaker, Trygve; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-10-07

    The alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] is explored in the context of multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory. The new decomposition of the short-range exchange-correlation energy relies on the auxiliary long-range interacting wavefunction rather than the Kohn-Sham (KS) determinant. The advantage, relative to the traditional KS decomposition, is that the wavefunction part of the energy is now computed with the regular (fully interacting) Hamiltonian. One potential drawback is that, because of double counting, the wavefunction used to compute the energy cannot be obtained by minimizing the energy expression with respect to the wavefunction parameters. The problem is overcome by using short-range optimized effective potentials (OEPs). The resulting combination of OEP techniques with wavefunction theory has been investigated in this work, at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and multi-configuration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) levels. In the HF case, an analytical expression for the energy gradient has been derived and implemented. Calculations have been performed within the short-range local density approximation on H2, N2, Li2, and H2O. Significant improvements in binding energies are obtained with the new decomposition of the short-range energy. The importance of optimizing the short-range OEP at the MCSCF level when static correlation becomes significant has also been demonstrated for H2, using a finite-difference gradient. The implementation of the analytical gradient for MCSCF wavefunctions is currently in progress.

  3. Influence of coated particle structure in thermal neutron spectrum energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U; Teuchert, E

    1971-02-15

    The heterogenity due to lumping the fuel in coated particles affects the thermal neutron spectrum. A calculation model is discussed which, apart from some simplifying assumptions about the statistical distribution, allows a rigorous computation of effective cross sections for all nuclides of the heterogeneous medium. It is based on an exact computation of the neutron penetration probability through coating and kernel. The model is incorporated in a THERMOS-code providing a double heterogeneous cell calculation, which can be repeated automatically at different time steps in the depletion code system MAFIA-V.S.O.P.. A discussion of the effects of the coated particle structure is given by a comparison of calculations for heterogeneous and homogeneous fuel zones in pebble bed reactor elements. This is performed for enriched UO{sub 2} fuel and for a ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixture in the grains. Depending on the energy dependent total sigmas in the kernels the changes of the cross sections are ranging from 0.1% up to 45%. The influence on the spectrum averaged sigmas of the nuclides in the fresh UO{sub 2} fuel is lower than 1%. For the emerging {sup 240}Pu it increases up to 3.3% during irradiation. For the ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} fuel the averaged sigmas of the isotopes vary from 0.5% to 5.7% depending on the state of irradiation. Correspondingly there is an influence on the plutonium isotopic composition, on breeding ratios, and on the tilt of k{sub eff} during burnup which will be discussed in detail.

  4. Charge-Shift Corrected Electronegativities and the Effect of Bond Polarity and Substituents on Covalent-Ionic Resonance Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew M; Laconsay, Croix J; Galbraith, John Morrison

    2017-07-13

    Bond dissociation energies and resonance energies for H n A-BH m molecules (A, B = H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na) have been determined in order to re-evaluate the concept of electronegativity in the context of modern valence bond theory. Following Pauling's original scheme and using the rigorous definition of the covalent-ionic resonance energy provided by the breathing orbital valence bond method, we have derived a charge-shift corrected electronegativity scale for H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na. Atomic charge shift character is defined using a similar approach resulting in values of 0.42, 1.06, 1.43, 1.62, 1.64, 1.44, 0.46, and 0.34 for H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na, respectively. The charge-shift corrected electronegativity values presented herein follow the same general trends as Pauling's original values with the exception of Li having a smaller value than Na (1.57 and 1.91 for Li and Na respectively). The resonance energy is then broken down into components derived from the atomic charge shift character and polarization effects. It is then shown that most of the resonance energy in the charge-shift bonds H-F, H 3 C-F, and Li-CH 3 and borderline charge-shift H-OH is associated with polarity rather than the intrinsic atomic charge-shift character of the bonding species. This suggests a rebranding of these bonds as "polar charge-shift" rather than simply "charge-shift". Lastly, using a similar breakdown method, it is shown that the small effect the substituents -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -OH, and -F have on the resonance energy (<10%) is mostly due to changes in the charge-shift character of the bonding atom.

  5. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  6. Förster resonance energy transfer demonstrates a flavonoid metabolon in living plant cells that displays competitive interactions between enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosby, K.C.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Winkel, B.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We have used Förster resonance energy transfer detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) to provide the first evidence from living plants cells for the existence of a flavonoid metabolon. The distribution of flux within this system may be regulated by the direct competition of

  7. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between perylene and riboflavin in micellar solution and analytical application on determination of vitamin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattar, S.L.; Kolekar, G.B.; Patil, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between perylene and riboflavin is studied in micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The fluorescence of perylene is quenched by riboflavin and quenching is in accordance with Stern-Volmer relation. The efficiency of energy transfer is found to depend on the concentration of riboflavin. The value of critical energy transfer distance (R 0 ) calculated by using Foster relation is 32.13 A, and as it is less than 50 A, it indicates efficient energy transfer in the present system. The analytical relation was established between extent of sensitization and concentration of riboflavin, which helped to estimate vitamin B 2 directly from pharmaceutical tablets

  8. Morphology of the spectral resonance structure of the electromagnetic background noise in the range of 0.1–4 Hz at L = 5.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yahnin

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous observations of fluctuations of the geomagnetic field at Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (L = 5.2 were used for a comprehensive morphological study of the spectral resonance structure (SRS seen in the background electromagnetic noise in the frequency range of 0.1–4.0 Hz. It is shown that the occurrence rate of SRS is higher in the nighttime than in the daytime. The occurrence rate is higher in winter than in summer. The SRS frequencies and the difference between neighbouring eigenfrequencies (the frequency scale increase towards nighttime and decrease towards daytime. Both frequency scale and occurrence rate exhibit a clear tendency to decrease from minimum to maximum of the solar activity cycle. It is found that the occurrence rate of SRS decreases when geomagnetic activity increases. The SRS is believed to be a consequence of a resonator for Alfvén waves, which is suggested to exist in the upper ionosphere. According to the theory of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR, characteristics of SRS crucially depend on electron density in the F-layer maximum, as well as on the altitudinal scale of the density decay above the maximum.We compared the SRS morphological properties with predictions of the IAR theory. The ionospheric parameters needed for calculation were obtained from the ionosphere model (IRI-95, as well as from measurements made with the ionosonde in Sodankylä. We conclude that, indeed, the main morphological properties of SRS are explained on the basis of the IAR theory. The measured parameters of SRS can be used for improving the ionospheric models.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; wave propagation – Radio Science (electromagnetic noise and interference

  9. SU-G-TeP1-02: Analytical Stopping Power and Range Parameterization for Therapeutic Energy Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, W [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Newhauser, W [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ziegler, J F [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a simple, analytic parameterization of stopping power and range, which covers a wide energy interval and is applicable to many species of projectile ions and target materials, with less than 15% disagreement in linear stopping power and 1 mm in range. Methods: The new parameterization was required to be analytically integrable from stopping power to range, and continuous across the range interval of 1 µm to 50 cm. The model parameters were determined from stopping power and range data for hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium ions incident on water, carbon, aluminum, lead and copper. Stopping power and range data was taken from SRIM. A stochastic minimization algorithm was used to find model parameters, with 10 data points per energy decade. Additionally, fitting was performed with 2 and 26 data points per energy decade to test the model’s robustness to sparse Results: 6 free parameters were sufficient to cover the therapeutic energy range for each projectile ion species (e.g. 1 keV – 300 MeV for protons). The model agrees with stopping power and range data well, with less than 9% relative stopping power difference and 0.5 mm difference in range. As few as, 4 bins per decade were required to achieve comparable fitting results to the full data set. Conclusion: This study successfully demonstrated that a simple analytic function can be used to fit the entire energy interval of therapeutic ion beams of hydrogen and heavier elements. Advantages of this model were the small number (6) of free parameters, and that the model calculates both stopping power and range. Applications of this model include GPU-based dose calculation algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations, where available memory is limited. This work was supported in part by a research agreement between United States Naval Academy and Louisiana State University: Contract No N00189-13-P-0786. In addition, this work was accepted for presentation at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting

  10. SU-G-TeP1-02: Analytical Stopping Power and Range Parameterization for Therapeutic Energy Intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, W; Newhauser, W; Ziegler, J F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a simple, analytic parameterization of stopping power and range, which covers a wide energy interval and is applicable to many species of projectile ions and target materials, with less than 15% disagreement in linear stopping power and 1 mm in range. Methods: The new parameterization was required to be analytically integrable from stopping power to range, and continuous across the range interval of 1 µm to 50 cm. The model parameters were determined from stopping power and range data for hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium ions incident on water, carbon, aluminum, lead and copper. Stopping power and range data was taken from SRIM. A stochastic minimization algorithm was used to find model parameters, with 10 data points per energy decade. Additionally, fitting was performed with 2 and 26 data points per energy decade to test the model’s robustness to sparse Results: 6 free parameters were sufficient to cover the therapeutic energy range for each projectile ion species (e.g. 1 keV – 300 MeV for protons). The model agrees with stopping power and range data well, with less than 9% relative stopping power difference and 0.5 mm difference in range. As few as, 4 bins per decade were required to achieve comparable fitting results to the full data set. Conclusion: This study successfully demonstrated that a simple analytic function can be used to fit the entire energy interval of therapeutic ion beams of hydrogen and heavier elements. Advantages of this model were the small number (6) of free parameters, and that the model calculates both stopping power and range. Applications of this model include GPU-based dose calculation algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations, where available memory is limited. This work was supported in part by a research agreement between United States Naval Academy and Louisiana State University: Contract No N00189-13-P-0786. In addition, this work was accepted for presentation at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting

  11. Features of the effect of the parameters of resonance systems with different configurations on the current-voltage characteristics of resonant-tunneling nanostructures in a subterahertz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.A.; Volchkov, N.A.; Dravin, V.A.; Kazakov, I.P.; Karuzskij, A.L.; Murzin, V.N.; Perestoronin, A.V.; Tskhovrebov, A.M.; Shmelev, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Features of the effect of a subterahertz microwave field on the current characteristics of a resonant-tunneling diode in resonance systems with different configurations have been studied. Changes in the current characteristics of the resonant-tunneling diode under variation of the electrophysical parameters of dielectric and microstrip resonators, in particular high-Q-factor superconducting microstrip resonators, have been experimentally studied and analyzed [ru

  12. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Lifetime-based optical sensor for high-level pCO2 detection employing fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltzingsloewen, Christoph von; McEvoy, Aisling K.; McDonagh, Colette; MacCraith, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    An optical sensor for the measurement of high levels of carbon dioxide in gas phase has been developed. It is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a long-lifetime ruthenium polypyridyl complex and the pH-active disazo dye Sudan III. The donor luminophore and the acceptor dye are both immobilised in a hydrophobic silica sol-gel/ethyl cellulose hybrid matrix material. Tetraoctylammonium hydroxide (TOA-OH) is used as an internal buffering system. Fluorescence lifetime is measured in the frequency domain, using low-cost phase modulation measurement technology. The use of Sudan III as an acceptor dye has enabled the sensor to have a dynamic range up to 100% carbon dioxide. The sensor displays 11.2 deg. phase shift between the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 and 100% CO 2 with a resolution of better than 2%. The encapsulation in the silica/polymer hybrid material has provided the sensor with good mechanical and chemical stability. The effect of molecular oxygen, humidity and temperature on the sensor performance was studied in detail

  14. Fis protein induced λF-DNA bending observed by single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Cheng, Fu; Wunshain, Fann; Yuan Hanna, S.

    2006-03-01

    Fis, a site-specific DNA binding protein, regulates many biological processes including recombination, transcription, and replication in E.coli. Fis induced DNA bending plays an important role in regulating these functions and bending angle range from ˜50 to 95 dependent on the DNA sequence. For instance, the average bending angle of λF-DNA (26 bp, 8.8nm long, contained λF binding site on the center) measured by gel mobility shift assays was ˜ 94 . But the traditional method cannot provide information about the dynamics and the angle distribution. In this study, λF-DNA was labeled with donor (Alexa Fluor 546) and acceptor (Alexa Fluor 647) dyes on its two 5' ends and the donor-acceptor distances were measured using single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer (sp-FRET) with and without the present of Fis protein. Combing with structure information of Fis-DNA complex, the sp-FRET results are used to estimate the protein induced DNA bending angle distribution and dynamics.

  15. Nucleic Acid Sandwich Hybridization Assay with Quantum Dot-Induced Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer for Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Chung; Huang, Yi-Han

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization assay with a quantum dot (QD)-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter system. Two label-free hemagglutinin H5 sequences (60-mer DNA and 630-nt cDNA fragment) of avian influenza viruses were used as the targets in this work. Two oligonucleotides (16 mers and 18 mers) that specifically recognize two separate but neighboring regions of the H5 sequences were served as the capturing and reporter probes, respectively. The capturing probe was conjugated to QD655 (donor) in a molar ratio of 10:1 (probe-to-QD), and the reporter probe was labeled with Alexa Fluor 660 dye (acceptor) during synthesis. The sandwich hybridization assay was done in a 20 μL transparent, adhesive frame-confined microchamber on a disposable, temperature-adjustable indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. The FRET signal in response to the sandwich hybridization was monitored by a homemade optical sensor comprising a single 400 nm UV light-emitting diode (LED), optical fibers, and a miniature 16-bit spectrophotometer. The target with a concentration ranging from 0.5 nM to 1 μM was successfully correlated with both QD emission decrease at 653 nm and dye emission increase at 690 nm. To sum up, this work is beneficial for developing a portable QD-based nucleic acid sensor for on-site pathogen detection. PMID:23211753

  16. Development of a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Based DNA Biosensor for Detection of Synthetic Oligonucleotide of Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bakhori, Noremylia; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2013-12-01

    An optical DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) utilizing synthesized quantum dot (QD) has been developed for the detection of specific-sequence of DNA for Ganoderma boninense, an oil palm pathogen. Modified QD that contained carboxylic groups was conjugated with a single-stranded DNA probe (ssDNA) via amide-linkage. Hybridization of the target DNA with conjugated QD-ssDNA and reporter probe labeled with Cy5 allows for the detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense gene based on FRET signals. Detection of FRET emission before and after hybridization was confirmed through the capability of the system to produce FRET at 680 nm for hybridized sandwich with complementary target DNA. No FRET emission was observed for non-complementary system. Hybridization time, temperature and effect of different concentration of target DNA were studied in order to optimize the developed system. The developed biosensor has shown high sensitivity with detection limit of 3.55 × 10(-9) M. TEM results show that the particle size of QD varies in the range between 5 to 8 nm after ligand modification and conjugation with ssDNA. This approach is capable of providing a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense.

  17. Electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer system between GNRs and Ru(bpy)32+: Application in magnetic aptasensor for β-amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hong; Sha, Haifeng; Wang, Yinfang; Guo, Weiwei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhiming; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2018-02-15

    Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay has gradually drawn increasing interest in the biomedical analysis. This paper proposed a new methodology for ultrasensitive and facile detection of Alzheimer's disease marker β-amyloid (Aβ) by fabricating a sandwich-type ECL sensing platform. Herein, electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) was employed to determine Aβ concentration, which can be attributed to the quenching effect from RET between Ru(bpy) 3 2+ and gold nanorods (GNRs) acting as ECL-RET electron donor and acceptor, respectively. In this protocol, mesoporous carbon nanospheres were adopted to immobilize ECL reactant Ru(bpy) 3 2+ and antibody via nafion to acquire the RET donor nanocomposites (MOCs/nafion/Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /antibody), which were tightly interconnected with epoxy group functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. It is of vital importance that GNRs with exquisite rod shape were synthesized and exhibited a typical absorption peak at 650nm to quench ECL signal of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ effectively. In addition, the ECL emission decreased linearly with the logarithm of Aβ concentration in a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10 -5 to 100ng/mL with a detection limit of 4.2 × 10 -6 ng/mL. Furthermore, distinctive and desirable properties were verified to declare the promise for being applicable to analyze the Aβ content in real Alzheimer's cerebrospinal fluid samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilizing microfluidics to synthesize polyethylene glycol microbeads for Förster resonance energy transfer based glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Chaitanya; Zhu, Qingdi; Beyer, Sebastian; Bansal, Tushar; Trau, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Here, we utilize microfluidic droplet technology to generate photopolymerizeable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microbeads incorporating a fluorescence-based glucose bioassay. A microfluidic T-junction and multiphase flow of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran, tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate concanavalin A, and PEG in water were used to generate microdroplets in a continuous stream of hexadecane. The microdroplets were photopolymerized mid-stream with ultraviolet light exposure to form PEG microbeads and were collected at the outlet for further analysis. Devices were prototyped in PDMS and generated highly monodisperse 72 ± 2 μm sized microbeads (measured after transfer into aqueous phase) at a continuous flow rate between 0.04 ml/h—0.06 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to analyze and confirm microbead integrity and surface morphology. Glucose sensing was carried out using a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based assay. A proportional fluorescence intensity increase was measured within a 1–10 mM glucose concentration range. Microfluidically synthesized microbeads encapsulating sensing biomolecules offer a quick and low cost method to generate monodisperse biosensors for a variety of applications including cell cultures systems, tissue engineering, etc. PMID:22655010

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine in professional wrestlers and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M; Sheng, J; Kang, Z; Zou, L; Guo, J; Sun, P

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in male professional wrestlers and healthy untrained men. A total of 14 wrestlers (22.9±3.4 years) and 11 controls (24.4±1.6 years) were studied cross-sectionally. Body composition and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine was examined in a sagittal T1-weighted (T1-w) spin-echo (SE) sequence. The averaged bone marrow signal intensity (SI) of L2-L4 was related to the signal of an adjacent nondegenerative disk. Mean SI of T1-w SE in wrestlers was lower than controls (P=0.001), indicating L2-L4 BMAT in wrestlers was lower compared to controls. L2-L4 BMD in wrestlers was higher than controls (PBMAT and BMD was confirmed in this relatively small subject sample with narrow age range, which implies that exercise training is an important determinant of this association.

  20. Development of a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET-Based DNA Biosensor for Detection of Synthetic Oligonucleotide of Ganoderma boninense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noremylia Mohd Bakhori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An optical DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET utilizing synthesized quantum dot (QD has been developed for the detection of specific-sequence of DNA for Ganoderma boninense, an oil palm pathogen. Modified QD that contained carboxylic groups was conjugated with a single-stranded DNA probe (ssDNA via amide-linkage. Hybridization of the target DNA with conjugated QD-ssDNA and reporter probe labeled with Cy5 allows for the detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense gene based on FRET signals. Detection of FRET emission before and after hybridization was confirmed through the capability of the system to produce FRET at 680 nm for hybridized sandwich with complementary target DNA. No FRET emission was observed for non-complementary system. Hybridization time, temperature and effect of different concentration of target DNA were studied in order to optimize the developed system. The developed biosensor has shown high sensitivity with detection limit of 3.55 × 10−9 M. TEM results show that the particle size of QD varies in the range between 5 to 8 nm after ligand modification and conjugation with ssDNA. This approach is capable of providing a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense.

  1. Efficient Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles Based on Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lv, Jie; Jia, Zhenhong

    2017-05-10

    A novel assembled biosensor was prepared for detecting 16S rRNA, a small-size persistent specific for Actinobacteria. The mechanism of the porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal biosensor is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through DNA hybridization, where QDs act as an emission donor and AuNPs serve as a fluorescence quencher. Results showed that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of PS photonic crystal was drastically increased when the QDs-conjugated probe DNA was adhered to the PS layer by surface modification using a standard cross-link chemistry method. The PL intensity of QDs was decreased when the addition of AuNPs-conjugated complementary 16S rRNA was dropped onto QDs-conjugated PS. Based on the analysis of different target DNA concentration, it was found that the decrease of the PL intensity showed a good linear relationship with complementary DNA concentration in a range from 0.25 to 10 μM, and the detection limit was 328.7 nM. Such an optical FRET biosensor functions on PS-based photonic crystal for DNA detection that differs from the traditional FRET, which is used only in liquid. This method will benefit the development of a new optical FRET label-free biosensor on Si substrate and has great potential in biochips based on integrated optical devices.

  2. Subwavelength dielectric nanorod chains for energy transfer in the visible range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Changchun; Xu, Zhengji; Zhang, Dao Hua

    2017-10-15

    We report a new type of energy transfer device, formed by a dielectric nanorod array embedded in a silver slab. Such dielectric chain structures allow surface plasmon wave guiding with large propagation length and highly suppressed crosstalk between adjacent transmission channels. The simulation results show that our proposed design can be used to enhance the energy transfer along the waveguide-like dielectric nanorod chains via coupled plasmons, where the energy spreading is effectively suppressed, and superior imaging properties in terms of resolution and energy transfer distance can be achieved.

  3. Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Manero, F.

    1996-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO 2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV have been measured with experimental errors of ∼3%. The present results have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the total cross sections on electron energy shows an asymptotic behavior with increasing energies, in agreement with the Born-Bethe approximation. In addition, an analytical formula is provided to extrapolate total cross sections to higher energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Multiple resonant absorber with prism-incorporated graphene and one-dimensional photonic crystals in the visible and near-infrared spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, X. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.; Lai, M.

    2018-04-01

    A multi-band absorber constructed from prism-incorporated one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) containing graphene defects is achieved theoretically in the visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectral range. By means of the transfer matrix method (TMM), the effect of structural parameters on the optical response of the structure has been investigated. It is possible to achieve multi-peak and complete optical absorption. The simulations reveal that the light intensity is enhanced at the graphene plane, and the resonant wavelength and the absorption intensity can also be tuned by tilting the incidence angle of the impinging light. In particular, multiple graphene sheets are embedded in the arrays, without any demand of manufacture process to cut them into periodic patterns. The proposed concept can be extended to other two-dimensional (2D) materials and engineered for promising applications, including selective or multiplex filters, multiple channel sensors, and photodetectors.

  5. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Extended Temperature Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Borregaard, L.M.; Lei, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a batch of MEMS-based vibration energy harvesters consisting of a silicon/PZT thick film ntilever with integrated proof mass is characterized. The purpose of a vibration energy harvester is to convert low grade vibrations to useful electrical power. Optimally, the natural frequency...

  6. Strategy and perspective on future energy systems, technological range potentials for gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Bernard, P.; Pochon, E.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past century, energy consumption worldwide has increased more than ten-fold and, by the year 2050, is likely to be twice what it is today. This increase of energy demand seems inescapable, in view of the growth of the world population and the right to energy access and development for all countries around the world. The pursuit of energy production in the current conditions, essentially based on fossil fuels, would result in the depletion of all the known oil and gas sources in the world with the risks of scarcity of supply. The economies of many countries, particularly countries who do not have natural fossil resources, could suffer under hardships and uncertainties relating to the oil and gas prices. Another consequence would be a doubling of the annual emissions of greenhouse gases by the year 2050 with its consequences over climate change. Energy savings and renewable energy sources shall contribute to avoid such risks, however it will not be enough, by far, to meet the energy consumption of 9 billion inhabitants across the planet. Nuclear energy has unique advantages as to sustainable development, and could offer a safe and economic solution, with long-term resources and no greenhouse effect

  7. Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Soufli, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Traditional multilayer reflective optics that have been used in the past for imaging at x-ray photon energies as high as 200 keV are governed by classical wave phenomena. However, their behavior at higher energies is unknown, because of the increasing effect of incoherent scattering and the disag...

  8. Cost of living in free-ranging degus (Octodon degus) : seasonal dynamics of energy expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozinovic, F; Bacigalupe, LD; Vasquez, RA; Visser, GH; Veloso, C; Kenagy, GJ

    Animals process and allocate energy at different seasons at variable rates, depending on their breeding season and changes in environmental conditions and resulting physiological demands. Overall total energy expenditure, in turn, should either increase in some seasons due to special added demands

  9. Low-energy modes and medium-range correlated motions in Pd79Ge21 alloy glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kaoru; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that there are excess modes over the sound wave in low energy region below about 10 meV in glass materials, which do not exist in corresponding crystalline materials. We examined the low energy modes in a Pd 79 Ge 21 alloys glass by means of inelastic neutron scattering. Measurements were performed on the crystal analyzer type time-of-flight spectrometer LAM-40 with PG(002) and Ge(311) analyzer mirror, which is installed at KENS. The dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) was obtained over the wide momentum range from 0.5 to 5.2A -1 . The measured S(Q,ω)'s have almost same momentum (Q) dependence at each energy (ℎω) in the energy range from 2.0 to 8.0 meV. In the energy region below 3 meV, we found a small shoulder peak at Q = 1.7A -1 in the momentum dependence of S(Q,ω). It corresponds to a prepeak in S(Q). Therefore it is concluded that the low energy modes in Pd 79 Ge 21 alloy glass is mainly contributed from medium-range correlated motions in the cluster consisting of a few chemical short-range structure units of Pd 6 Ge trigonal prism. (author)

  10. How does Germany's green energy policy affect electricity market volatility? An application of conditional autoregressive range models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a dynamic model for the high/low range of electricity prices, this article analyses the effects of Germany's green energy policy on the volatility of the electricity market. Using European Energy Exchange data from 2000 to 2015, we find rather high volatility in the years 2000–2009 but also that the weekly price range has significantly declined in the period following the year 2009. This period is characterised by active regulation under the Energy Industry Law (EnWG), the EU Emissions Trading Directive (ETD) and the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). In contrast to the preceding period, price jumps are smaller and less frequent (especially for day-time hours), implying that current policy measures are effective in promoting renewable energies while simultaneously upholding electricity market stability. This is because the regulations strive towards a more and more flexible and market-oriented structure which allows better integration of renewable energies and supports an efficient alignment of renewable electricity supply with demand. - Highlights: • We estimate a CARR model for German electricity price data. • We augment the model by dummies capturing important regulations. • We find a significant decline in the price range after the year 2009. • This implies effective price stabilisation by German energy policy.

  11. Tables of range and rate of energy loss of charged particles of energy 0,5 to 150 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, C; Boujot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of ranges and rates of energy loss of charged particles is very important for physicists working with nuclear accelerators. The tabulations of Aron, Hoffmann, and Williams and later of Madey and Rich have proved extremely useful. However, recent experimental range measurements have indicated the need for a new tabulation of the range-energy relation. It was felt that a useful purpose would be served by performing the calculations for a large number of stopping materials distributed throughout the periodic table, including the materials most commonly used as targets, detectors, and entrance foils. (authors)

  12. Effect of enhanced Renilla luciferase and fluorescent protein variants on the Foerster distance of Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacres, Helen, E-mail: helen.dacres@csiro.au [CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra (Australia); Michie, Michelle; Wang, Jian [CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra (Australia); Pfleger, Kevin D.G. [Laboratory for Molecular Endocrinology-GPCRs, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research (WAIMR) and Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Trowell, Stephen C. [CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First experimental determination of Foerster distance (R{sub 0}) for enhanced BRET systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of brighter BRET components RLuc2, RLuc8 and Venus was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using brighter BRET components substantially increased (25%) R{sub 0} of the BRET{sup 1} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using brighter BRET components marginally increased (2-9%) R{sub 0} of the BRET{sup 2} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brighter BRET components improve the different weaknesses of BRET{sup 1} and BRET{sup 2} systems. -- Abstract: Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is an important tool for monitoring macromolecular interactions and is useful as a transduction technique for biosensor development. Foerster distance (R{sub 0}), the intermolecular separation characterized by 50% of the maximum possible energy transfer, is a critical BRET parameter. R{sub 0} provides a means of linking measured changes in BRET ratio to a physical dimension scale and allows estimation of the range of distances that can be measured by any donor-acceptor pair. The sensitivity of BRET assays has recently been improved by introduction of new BRET components, RLuc2, RLuc8 and Venus with improved quantum yields, stability and brightness. We determined R{sub 0} for BRET{sup 1} systems incorporating novel RLuc variants RLuc2 or RLuc8, in combination with Venus, as 5.68 or 5.55 nm respectively. These values were approximately 25% higher than the R{sub 0} of the original BRET{sup 1} system. R{sub 0} for BRET{sup 2} systems combining green fluorescent proteins (GFP{sup 2}) with RLuc2 or RLuc8 variants was 7.67 or 8.15 nm, i.e. only 2-9% greater than the original BRET{sup 2} system despite being {approx}30-fold brighter.

  13. Interfacial transduction of nucleic acid hybridization using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, W Russ; Krull, Ulrich J

    2009-01-06

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as energy donors was explored as a transduction method for the detection of nucleic acid hybridization at an interface. This research was motivated by the success of the QD-FRET-based transduction of nucleic acid hybridization in solution-phase assays. This new work represents a fundamental step toward the assembly of a biosensor, where immobilization of the selective chemistry on a surface is desired. After immobilizing QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates on optical fibers, a demonstration of the retention of selectivity was achieved by the introduction of acceptor (Cy3)-labeled single-stranded target oligonucleotides. Hybridization generated the proximity required for FRET, and the resulting fluorescence spectra provided an analytical signal proportional to the amount of target. This research provides an important framework for the future development of nucleic acid biosensors based on QDs and FRET. The most important findings of this work are that (1) a QD-FRET solid-phase hybridization assay is viable and (2) a passivating layer of denatured bovine serum albumin alleviates nonspecific adsorption, ultimately resulting in (3) the potential for a reusable assay format and mismatch discrimination. In this, the first incarnation of a solid-phase QD-FRET hybridization assay, the limit of detection was found to be 5 nM, and the dynamic range was almost 2 orders of magnitude. Selective discrimination of the target was shown using a three-base-pairs mismatch from a fully complementary sequence. Despite a gradual loss of signal, reuse of the optical fibers over multiple cycles of hybridization and dehybridization was possible. Directions for further improvement of the analytical performance by optimizing the design of the QD-probe oligonucleotide interface are identified.

  14. On the energy emission by a Kerr black hole in the superradiant range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curir, A.

    1985-01-01

    A new redefined ''Unruh vacuum'' has been used in order to obtain the thermal Hawkin emission in a Kerr geometry in the superradiant range. It is also shown that a new type of vacuum is needed to obtain the global emission from a rotating black hole in the superradiant range. The formula describing such global emission is given. (orig.)

  15. Experimental Validation of a Theory for a Variable Resonant Frequency Wave Energy Converter (VRFWEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minok; Virey, Louis; Chen, Zhongfei; Mäkiharju, Simo

    2016-11-01

    A point absorber wave energy converter designed to adapt to changes in wave frequency and be highly resilient to harsh conditions, was tested in a wave tank for wave periods from 0.8 s to 2.5 s. The VRFWEC consists of a closed cylindrical floater containing an internal mass moving vertically and connected to the floater through a spring system. The internal mass and equivalent spring constant are adjustable and enable to match the resonance frequency of the device to the exciting wave frequency, hence optimizing the performance. In a full scale device, a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator will convert the relative motion between the internal mass and the floater into electricity. For a PMLG as described in Yeung et al. (OMAE2012), the electromagnetic force proved to cause dominantly linear damping. Thus, for the present preliminary study it was possible to replace the generator with a linear damper. While the full scale device with 2.2 m diameter is expected to generate O(50 kW), the prototype could generate O(1 W). For the initial experiments the prototype was restricted to heave motion and data compared to predictions from a newly developed theoretical model (Chen, 2016).

  16. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for High-Throughput Screening of ADAMTS1 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motifs-1 (ADAMTS1 plays a crucial role in inflammatory joint diseases and its inhibitors are potential candidates for anti-arthritis drugs. For the purposes of drug discovery, we reported the development and validation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assay for high-throughput screening (HTS of the ADAMTS1 inhibitors. A FRET substrate was designed for a quantitative assay of ADAMTS1 activity and enzyme kinetics studies. The assay was developed into a 50-µL, 384-well assay format for high throughput screening of ADAMTS1 inhibitors with an overall Z’ factor of 0.89. ADAMTS1 inhibitors were screened against a diverse library of 40,960 total compounds with the established HTS system. Four structurally related hits, naturally occurring compounds, kuwanon P, kuwanon X, albafuran C and mulberrofuran J, extracted from the Chinese herb Morus alba L., were identified for further investigation. The results suggest that this FRET assay is an excellent tool, not only for measurement of ADAMTS1 activity but also for discovery of novel ADAMTS1 inhibitors with HTS.

  17. Semiconductor quantum dots as Förster resonance energy transfer donors for intracellularly-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Lauren D.; Walper, Scott A.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Oh, Eunkeu; Medintz, Igor L.; Delehanty, James B.

    2017-02-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assemblies currently comprise a significant portion of intracellularly based sensors. Although extremely useful, the fluorescent protein pairs typically utilized in such sensors are still plagued by many photophysical issues including significant direct acceptor excitation, small changes in FRET efficiency, and limited photostability. Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are characterized by many unique optical properties including size-tunable photoluminescence, broad excitation profiles coupled to narrow emission profiles, and resistance to photobleaching, which can cumulatively overcome many of the issues associated with use of fluorescent protein FRET donors. Utilizing QDs for intracellular FRET-based sensing still requires significant development in many areas including materials optimization, bioconjugation, cellular delivery and assay design and implementation. We are currently developing several QD-based FRET sensors for various intracellular applications. These include sensors targeting intracellular proteolytic activity along with those based on theranostic nanodevices for monitoring drug release. The protease sensor is based on a unique design where an intracellularly expressed fluorescent acceptor protein substrate assembles onto a QD donor following microinjection, forming an active complex that can be monitored in live cells over time. In the theranostic configuration, the QD is conjugated to a carrier protein-drug analogue complex to visualize real-time intracellular release of the drug from its carrier in response to an external stimulus. The focus of this talk will be on the design, properties, photophysical characterization and cellular application of these sensor constructs.

  18. Radiation of transient high-current arcs: energy measurements in the optical range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchire, J M; Hong, D; Rabat, H; Riquel, G

    2012-01-01

    When no protection is used, the radiation emitted by a high-power electric arc can be dangerous for the eyes and the skin of a person. To ensure effective protection, it is first necessary to know the energy emitted by such arcs. The aim of our work was to experimentally determine the energy emitted by high-current (from 4 to 40 kA) transient arcs, for two different (10 cm and 2 m) lengths and for electrodes in copper or steel. These experiments enabled the radiative energy of the arcs to be quantified and also showed the influence of metal vapors in the spectral distribution of the radiation.

  19. How Energy Metabolism Supports Cerebral Function: Insights from 13C Magnetic Resonance Studies In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sonnay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral function is associated with exceptionally high metabolic activity, and requires continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood stream. Since the mid-twentieth century the idea that brain energy metabolism is coupled to neuronal activity has emerged, and a number of studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, brain energy metabolism was demonstrated to be compartmentalized in neurons and astrocytes, and astrocytic glycolysis was proposed to serve the energetic demands of glutamatergic activity. Shedding light on the role of astrocytes in brain metabolism, the earlier picture of astrocytes being restricted to a scaffold-associated function in the brain is now out of date. With the development and optimization of non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, several groups have worked on assessing cerebral metabolism in vivo. In this context, 1H MRS has allowed the measurements of energy metabolism-related compounds, whose concentrations can vary under different brain activation states. 1H-[13C] MRS, i.e., indirect detection of signals from 13C-coupled 1H, together with infusion of 13C-enriched glucose has provided insights into the coupling between neurotransmission and glucose oxidation. Although these techniques tackle the coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism, they lack chemical specificity and fail in providing information on neuronal and glial metabolic pathways underlying those processes. Currently, the improvement of detection modalities (i.e., direct detection of 13C isotopomers, the progress in building adequate mathematical models along with the increase in magnetic field strength now available render possible detailed compartmentalized metabolic flux characterization. In particular, direct 13C MRS offers more detailed dataset acquisitions and provides information on metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, and their role in supporting neurotransmission. Here

  20. Andromede project: Surface analysis and modification with probes from hydrogen to nano-particles in the MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Michael J.; Cottereau, Evelyne; Rasser, Bernard; Verzeroli, Elodie; Agnus, Benoit; Gaubert, Gabriel; Donzel, Xavier; Delobbe, Anne; Della-Negra, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The Andromede project is the center of a multi-disciplinary team which will build a new instrument for surface modification and analysis using the impact of probes from hydrogen to nano-particles (Au 400 +4 ) in the MeV range. For this new instrument a series of atomic, polyatomic, molecular and nano-particle ion beams will be delivered using two ion sources in tandem, a liquid metal ion source and an electron cyclotron resonance source. The delivered ion beams will be accelerated to high energy with a 4 MeV van de Graaff type accelerator. By using a suite of probes in the MeV energy range, ion beam analysis techniques, MeV atomic and cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry can all be performed in one location. A key feature of the instrument is its ability to produce an intense beam for injection into the accelerator. The commissioning of the two sources shows that intense beams from atomic ions to nano-particles can be delivered for subsequent acceleration. The calculations and measurements for the two sources are presented.