Sample records for range py74-62 experimental

  1. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen


    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  2. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen


    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  3. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  4. Cultural resources of the Santa Rita Experimental Range (United States)

    John H. Madsen


    The Santa Rita Experimental Range is a vast open space with few signs of houses or human habitation, but at one time it was quite the opposite scene. Archaeological surface inspections reveal heavy use of the Range dating back hundreds of years. This paper will review the history of cultural resource management on the Range and provide a timeline of local cultural...

  5. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53) (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research timeperiods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  6. Experimental forests and ranges : 100 years of research success stories (United States)

    Gail Wells; Deborah Hayes; Katrina Krause; Ann Bartuska; Susan LeVan-Green; Jim Anderson; Tivoli Gough; Mary Adams; Thomas Schuler; Randy Kolka; Steve Sebestyen; Laura Kenefic; John Brissette; Susan Stout; Keith Kanoti; Fred Swanson; Sarah Greene; Margaret Herring; Martin Ritchie; Carl Skinner; Tom Lisle; Elizabeth Keppeler; Leslie Reid; Peter Wohlegemuth; Stanley Kitchen; Ward McCaughey; Jim Guldin; Don Bragg; Michael Shelton; David Loftis; Cathryn Greenberg; Julia Murphy


    In 2008, Forest Service Research and Development celebrated the Centennial Anniversary of these Experimental Forests and Ranges. This publication celebrates the many scientists who over the course of decades conducted the long-term studies that began and are continuing to shed light on important natural resource issues. Story suggestions were solicited from the...

  7. Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions. (United States)

    Fronhofer, E A; Gut, S; Altermatt, F


    Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. Although it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of increased movement at low densities at range margins using highly replicated and controlled range expansion experiments across multiple genotypes of the protist model system Tetrahymena thermophila. Although rare, we found evolutionary changes during range expansions even in the absence of initial standing genetic variation. Range expansions led to the evolution of negatively density-dependent movement at range margins. In addition, we report the evolution of increased intrastrain competitive ability and concurrently decreased population growth rates in range cores. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding movement and dispersal as evolving reaction norms and plastic life-history traits of central relevance for range expansions, biological invasions and the dynamics of spatially structured systems in general. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. PROVE Surface albedo of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variations in field measurements of broadband albedo as related to the ground cover and under a range of...

  9. Experimental characterization of micromilled surfaces by large range AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    of workpiece material, particularly when sub-micrometer chip thicknesses are considered and when machining hard materials. Quantification of surface topography is of fundamental importance for the evaluation of the generated surface; high resolution and wide measuring range being highly desirable...... was achieved by the use of an atomic force microscope mounted on a CMM, which takes advantage of the small radius of curvature of its tip. Its limitation on the scanning range is overcome by taking multiple scans and stitching procedures. Other measuring techniques such as, stylus profilometry, optical...

  10. Great Basin cold desert shrublands and the Desert Experimental Range (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen; Stephanie L. Carlson


    The Great Basin is a vast, internally drained region of the Western United States, bounded by the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountain ranges to the west and the Wasatch Mountains and western rim of the Colorado Plateau to the east. Although less discrete, northern and southern boundaries are generally defined by the drainages of the Columbia and Colorado Rivers...

  11. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  12. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre


    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  13. A network of experimental forests and ranges: Providing soil solutions for a changing world (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams


    The network of experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service represents significant opportunities to provide soil solutions to critical issues of a changing world. This network of 81 experimental forests and ranges encompasses broad geographic, biological, climatic and physical scales, and includes long-term data sets, and long-term experimental...

  14. US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges: an untapped resource for social science (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Lee K. Cerveny


    For a century, US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) have been a resource for scientists conducting long-term research relating to forestry and range management social science research has been limited, despite the history of occupation and current use of these sites for activities ranging from resource extraction and recreation to public education....

  15. PROVE GOES-8 Images of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the Prototype Validation Experiment (PROVE) at the Jornada Experimental Range, GOES-8 images were collected every 30 minutes for 15 days overlapping the...

  16. Protocols for care and handling of deer and elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range. (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Mary M. Rowland; James H. Noyes


    Several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) inhabit a fenced, 25,000-acre enclosure at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Research there requires handling...

  17. Spectral reflectance and soil morphology characteristics of Santa Rita Experimental Range soils (United States)

    A. Karim Batchily; Donald F. Post; R. B. Bryant; Donald J. Breckenfeld


    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) soils are mostly transported alluvial sediments that occur on the piedmont slope flanking the Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona. The major geomorphic land forms are alluvial fans or fan terraces, but there are also areas of residual soils formed on granite and limestone bedrock, basin floor, stream terraces, and flood plains. The...

  18. Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1988 supplement. (United States)

    T. Blinn; F.J. Swanson; A. McKee


    This bibliography updates the list of publications, abstracts, theses, and unpublished reports included in "Research Publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon, 1948 to 1986," General Technical Report PNW-GTR-201. Citations are referenced under appropriate keywords.

  19. Experimental forests and ranges as a network for for long-term data (United States)

    Martin Vavra; John Mitchell


    In the new millennium, national leaders and policymakers are facing profound issues regarding people and the environment. Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs), managed by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), form a network of locations amenable to the development of long-term data collection across many major ecosystems of the continental United...

  20. Archive and laboratory embedded in the landscape: Future of the Santa Rita Experimental Range (United States)

    Thomas E. Sheridan


    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) is both an archive of past ecological research and a laboratory for continuing research embedded in the southern Arizona landscape. The scientific questions being asked there have changed over the last 100 years, but SRER with its monitoring stations and its legacy of repeat photography still offers a unique opportunity to study...

  1. Expanding the vision of the Experimental Forest and Range network to urban areas (United States)

    J. Morgan. Grove


    After 100 years, the USDA Forest Service has emerging opportunities to expand the Experimental Forest and Range (EFR) network to urban areas. The purpose of this expansion would be to broaden the types of ecosystems studied, interdisciplinary approaches used, and relevance to society of the EFR network through long-term and large-scale social-ecological projects in...

  2. Experimental study on stabilizing range extension of diamagnetic levitation under modulated magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, T C S; Wong, P L; Liu, K P, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)


    The real energy-free levitation exists with the help of diamagnetic material. Its ultra-high sensitivity to force is particularly attractive to micro/nano force sensing. A key parameter: Levitation Stabilizing Local Range, LR (allowable moving range of the floater) is critical to the load and self-rotating performance. Besides, larger LR reduces the energy loss due to the eddy current and has greater application potential. Recently, an idea of extending the LR by a modulating coil array has been validated using numerical simulation. This paper takes the next move to carry out an experimental study on the shape effect of stacked coil arrays with different currents on LR.

  3. Technical Note: Experimental carbon ion range verification in inhomogeneous phantoms using prompt gammas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; Krimmer, J.; Ray, C.; Testa, E., E-mail:; Testa, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 |(France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); De Rydt, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Freud, N.; Létang, J. M. [CREATIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to experimentally assess the possibility to monitor carbon ion range variations—due to tumor shift and/or elongation or shrinking—using prompt-gamma (PG) emission with inhomogeneous phantoms. Such a study is related to the development of PG monitoring techniques to be used in a carbon ion therapy context. Methods: A 95 MeV/u carbon ion beam was used to irradiate phantoms with a variable density along the ion path to mimic the presence of bone and lung in homogeneous humanlike tissue. PG profiles were obtained after a longitudinal scan of the phantoms. A setup comprising a narrow single-slit collimator and two detectors placed at 90° with respect to the beam axis was used. The time of flight technique was applied to allow the selection between PG and background events. Results: Using the positions at 50% entrance and 50% falloff of the PG profiles, a quantity called prompt-gamma profile length (PGPL) is defined. It is possible to observe shifts in the PGPL when there are absolute ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. Quantitatively, for an ion range shift of −1.33 ± 0.46 mm (insertion of a Teflon slab), a PGPL difference of −1.93 ± 0.58 mm and −1.84 ± 1.27 mm is obtained using a BaF{sub 2} and a NaI(Tl) detector, respectively. In turn, when an ion range shift of 4.59 ± 0.42 mm (insertion of a lung-equivalent material slab) is considered, the difference is of 4.10 ± 0.54 and 4.39 ± 0.80 mm for the same detectors. Conclusions: Herein, experimental evidence of the usefulness of employing PG to monitor carbon ion range using inhomogeneous phantoms is presented. Considering the homogeneous phantom as reference, the results show that the information provided by the PG emission allows for detecting ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. When considering the expected PG emission from an energy slice in a carbon ion therapy scenario, the experimental setup would allow to retrieve the same PGPL as the high statistics of

  4. The evaluation of experimental data in fast range for n + 56Fe(n,inl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jing


    Full Text Available Iron is one of the five materials selected for evaluation within the pilot international evaluation project CIELO. Analysis of experimental data for n+56Fe reaction is the basis for constraining theoretical calculations and eventual creation of the evaluated file. The detail analysis was performed for inelastic cross sections of neutron induced reactions with 56Fe in the fast range up to 20 MeV where there are significant differences among the main evaluated libraries, mainly caused by the different inelastic scattering cross section measurements. Gamma-ray production cross sections provide a way to gain experimental information about the inelastic cross section. Large discrepancies between experimental data for the 847-keV gamma ray produced in the 56Fe(n,n1'γ reaction were analyzed. In addition, experimental data for elastic scattering cross section between 9.41∼11 MeV were used to deduce the inelastic cross section from the unitarity constrain.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Wide Range Optical Fiber Turbine Flow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Du


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel fiber turbine flow sensor was proposed and demonstrated for liquid measurement with optical fiber, using light intensity modulation to measure the turbine rotational speed for converting to flow rate. The double-circle-coaxial (DCC fiber probe was introduced in frequency measurement for the first time. Through the divided ratio of two rings light intensity, the interference in light signals acquisition can be eliminated. To predict the characteristics between the output frequency and flow in the nonlinear range, the turbine flow sensor model was built. Via analyzing the characteristics of turbine flow sensor, piecewise linear equations were achieved in expanding the flow measurement range. Furthermore, the experimental verification was tested. The results showed that the flow range ratio of DN20 turbine flow sensor was improved 2.9 times after using piecewise linear in the nonlinear range. Therefore, combining the DCC fiber sensor and piecewise linear method, it can be developed into a strong anti-electromagnetic interference(anti-EMI and wide range fiber turbine flowmeter.

  6. Long-term avian research at the San Joaquin Experimental Range: recommendations for monitoring and managing oak woodlands (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell


    Experimental forests and ranges are living laboratories that provide opportunities for conducting scientific research and transferring research results to partners and stakeholders. They are invaluable for their long-term data and capacity to foster collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The San Joaquin Experimental Range (SJER) was established to develop...

  7. Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves with increasing cooperativity in an experimental microbial population (United States)

    Gandhi, Saurabh; Yurtsev, Eugene; Korolev, Kirill; Gore, Jeff

    Range expansions are becoming more frequent due to environmental changes and rare long distance dispersal, often facilitated by anthropogenic activities. Simple models in theoretical ecology explain many emergent properties of range expansions, such as a constant expansion velocity, in terms of organism-level properties such as growth and dispersal rates. Testing these quantitative predictions in natural populations is difficult because of large environmental variability. Here, we used a controlled microbial model system to study range expansions of populations with and without intra-specific cooperativity. For non-cooperative growth, the expansion dynamics were dominated by population growth at the low-density front, which pulled the expansion forward. We found these expansions to be in close quantitative agreement with the classical theory of pulled waves by Fisher and Skellam, suitably adapted to our experimental system. However, as cooperativity increased, the expansions transitioned to being pushed, i.e. controlled by growth in the bulk as well as in the front. Although both pulled and pushed waves expand at a constant velocity and appear otherwise similar, their distinct dynamics leads to very different evolutionary consequences. Given the prevalence of cooperative growth in nature, understanding the effects of cooperativity is essential to managing invading species and understanding their evolution.

  8. A Simple Experimental Model to Investigate Force Range for Membrane Nanotube Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lor, Chai; Mattson-Hoss, Michelle K; Xu, Jing; Hirst, Linda S


    The presence of membrane tubules in living cells is essential to many biological processes. In cells, one mechanism to form nanosized lipid tubules is via molecular motor induced bilayer extraction. In this paper, we describe a simple experimental model to investigate the forces required for lipid tube formation using kinesin motors anchored to DOPC vesicles. Previous related studies have used molecular motors actively pulling on the membrane to extract a nanotube. Here, we invert the system geometry; molecular motors are used as static anchors linking DOPC vesicles to a two-dimensional microtubule network and an external flow is introduced to generate nanotubes facilitated by the drag force. We found that a drag force of ~7 pN was sufficient for tubule extraction for vesicles ranging from 1 to 2 um in radius. By our method, we found that the force generated by a single molecular motor was sufficient for membrane tubule extraction from a spherical lipid vesicle.

  9. Studies for the ion cyclotron range of frequency heating in a tokamak fusion experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment


    Ion cyclotron range of frequency heating has been investigated as an efficient additional plasma heating and non-inductive current driving methods in a tokamak type fusion experimental device. At first, an ICRF antenna coupling code was developed for the estimation of the coupling properties of phased antenna array, so that the ICRF antennas were designed for JT-60 and JT-60U ICRF heating systems using the coupling codes. The ICRF heating experiments had been performed in JT-60 and JT-60U. The coupling properties of ICRF antenna, the physics of peripheral plasma and energy confinement by ICRF heating in various heating regimes have been investigated. Next, the Toroidicity induced Alfven Eigen (TAE) mode have been studied using minority ICRF heating for producing energetic ions which can excite TAE mode. The TAE mode could be suppressed by current profile control using current ramp operation and lower hybrid current drive. (author) 74 refs.

  10. Experimental evaluation of a miniature MR device for a wide range of human perceivable haptic sensations (United States)

    Yang, Tae-Heon; Koo, Jeong-Hoi


    Humans can experience a realistic and vivid haptic sensations by the sense of touch. In order to have a fully immersive haptic experience, both kinaesthetic and vibrotactile information must be presented to human users. Currently, little haptic research has been performed on small haptic actuators that can covey both vibrotactile feedback based on the frequency of vibrations up to the human-perceivable limit and multiple levels of kinaesthetic feedback rapidly. Therefore, this study intends to design a miniature haptic device based on MR fluid and experimentally evaluate its ability to convey vibrotactile feedback up to 300 Hz along with kinaesthetic feedback. After constructing a prototype device, a series of testing was performed to evaluate its performance of the prototype using an experimental setup, consisting of a precision dynamic mechanical analyzer and an accelerometer. The kinaesthetic testing results show that the prototype device can provide the force rate up to 89% at 5 V (360 mA), which can be discretized into multiple levels of ‘just noticeable difference’ force rate, indicating that the device can convey a wide range of kinaesthetic sensations. To evaluate the high frequency vibrotactile feedback performance of the device, its acceleration responses were measured and processed using the FFT analysis. The results indicate that the device can convey high frequency vibrotactile sensations up to 300 Hz with the sufficiently large intensity of accelerations that human can feel.

  11. Experimental Adaptation of Burkholderia cenocepacia to Onion Medium Reduces Host Range ▿ † ‡ (United States)

    Ellis, Crystal N.; Cooper, Vaughn S.


    It is unclear whether adaptation to a new host typically broadens or compromises host range, yet the answer bears on the fate of emergent pathogens and symbionts. We investigated this dynamic using a soil isolate of Burkholderia cenocepacia, a species that normally inhabits the rhizosphere, is related to the onion pathogen B. cepacia, and can infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. We hypothesized that adaptation of B. cenocepacia to a novel host would compromise fitness and virulence in alternative hosts. We modeled adaptation to a specific host by experimentally evolving 12 populations of B. cenocepacia in liquid medium composed of macerated onion tissue for 1,000 generations. The mean fitness of all populations increased by 78% relative to the ancestor, but significant variation among lines was observed. Populations also varied in several phenotypes related to host association, including motility, biofilm formation, and quorum-sensing function. Together, these results suggest that each population adapted by fixing different sets of adaptive mutations. However, this adaptation was consistently accompanied by a loss of pathogenicity to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; by 500 generations most populations became unable to kill nematodes. In conclusion, we observed a narrowing of host range as a consequence of prolonged adaptation to an environment simulating a specific host, and we suggest that emergent pathogens may face similar consequences if they become host-restricted. PMID:20154121

  12. Natural host-range and experimental transmission of Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). (United States)

    Kumar, T Sathish; Krishnan, P; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, A; Purushothaman, C S; Rajendran, K V


    Slow growth caused by viral diseases has become a major constraint in shrimp aquaculture. Laem-Singh virus (LSNV), a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus, has been identified in Penaeus monodon showing slow growth syndrome. To examine the host-range and transmission modes of the virus, 6 species of penaeid shrimp of varying life stages, sourced from the wild and from farms, as well as juvenile mud crabs Scylla serrata, were screened using RT-nested PCR. LSNV was detected in P. monodon, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis, Metapenaeus dobsoni, and Litopenaeus vannamei, but not in E indicus, Marsupenaeus japonicus or S. serrata. LSNV was most prevalent in P. monodon followed by M. dobsoni, F. merguiensis, and L. vannamei, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that LSNV infection loads were highest in P. monodon, followed by L. vannamei, M. dobsoni, and E merguiensis. The nucleotide sequence of the LSNV RdRP gene fragment amplified by RT-nested PCR was highly conserved (99% identity) across these 4 penaeid species. LSNV was detected in both small and normal-sized P. monodon collected from the same pond. In experimental infections of both P. monodon and S. serrata, LSNV infection loads increased over time. The present study extends the known natural penaeid host-range and geographical distribution of LSNV and shows for the first time the potential susceptibility of S. serrata.

  13. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research [Chapter 17 (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles Rhoades


    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  14. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles. Rhoades


    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  15. NPP Grassland: Central Plains Experimental Range (SGS), USA, 1939-1990, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set records the productivity of a semiarid shortgrass prairie steppe located in the Central Plains Experimental Reserve (CPER)/Pawnee National Grassland in...

  16. Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1948 to 1986. (United States)

    A. McKee; G.M. Stonedahl; J.F. Franklin; F.J. Swanson


    A list of publications resulting from research at th H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Willamette National Forest, Oregon, from 1948 to 1986 is presented. Nearly 600 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and abstracts. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  17. Experimental study on the 1550 nm all fiber heterodyne laser range finder. (United States)

    Yang, Fu; He, Yan; Shang, Jianhua; Chen, Weibiao


    In this paper, a 1550 nm all fiber monostatic laser range finder system based on linear chirp modulation and heterodyne detection is presented. The fiber end face signal is used as a range starting indicator. The transmitted laser power is 5 mW with a laser pulse length of 131 micros and a linear chirp bandwidth of 40 MHz. The telescope with an aperture of 3 cm couples the return light into a single mode fiber. Better than 14 cm distance accuracy and 26 dB SNR can be achieved for a wood target at a distance of about 43 m by using the above system setup. Several experiments with different system parameters are conducted. The system performance is tested under variable laser pulse length, linear chirp bandwidth, local oscillator power, and background noise. Finally, an application of the linear chirp modulation heterodyne laser range finder in a spaceborne ranging system is proposed.

  18. Experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds in the Northern Rocky Mountains: A compendium of outdoor laboratories in Utah, Idaho, and Montana (United States)

    Wyman C. Schmidt; Judy L. Friede


    This is a compendium of experimental forests, ranges, watersheds, and other outdoor laboratories, formally established by the Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the universities in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. The purposes, histories, natural resource bases, data bases, past and current studies, locations, and who...

  19. 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy: development, Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluation (United States)

    Simeonov, Yuri; Weber, Uli; Penchev, Petar; Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Schuy, Christoph; Brons, Stephan; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Bliedtner, Jens; Zink, Klemens


    The purpose of this work was to design and manufacture a 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy. The modulator is intended to create a highly conformal dose distribution with only one fixed energy, simultaneously reducing considerably the treatment time. As a proof of concept, a 3D range-modulator was developed for a spherical target volume with a diameter of 5 cm, placed at a depth of 25 cm in a water phantom. It consists of a large number of thin pins with a well-defined shape and different lengths to modulate the necessary shift of the Bragg peak. The 3D range-modulator was manufactured with a rapid prototyping technique. The FLUKA Monte Carlo package was used to simulate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and the resulting dose distribution. For that purpose, a special user routine was implemented to handle its complex geometrical contour. Additionally, FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To validate the simulation results, dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center with a 400.41 MeV/u 12C beam. The high resolution dosimetric measurements show a good agreement between simulated and measured dose distributions. Irradiation of the monoenergetic raster plan took 3 s, which is approximately 20 times shorter than a comparable plan with 16 different energies. The combination of only one energy and a 3D range-modulator leads to a tremendous decrease in irradiation time. ‘Interplay effects’, typical for moving targets and pencil beam scanning, can be immensely reduced or disappear completely, making the delivery of a homogeneous dose to moving targets more reliable. Combining high dose conformity, very good homogeneity and extremely short irradiation times, the 3D range-modulator is considered to become a clinically applicable method for very fast treatment of lung tumours.

  20. Experimental Demonstration of Long-Range Underwater Acoustic Communication Using a Vertical Sensor Array. (United States)

    Zhao, Anbang; Zeng, Caigao; Hui, Juan; Ma, Lin; Bi, Xuejie


    This paper proposes a composite channel virtual time reversal mirror (CCVTRM) for vertical sensor array (VSA) processing and applies it to long-range underwater acoustic (UWA) communication in shallow water. Because of weak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it is unable to accurately estimate the channel impulse response of each sensor of the VSA, thus the traditional passive time reversal mirror (PTRM) cannot perform well in long-range UWA communication in shallow water. However, CCVTRM only needs to estimate the composite channel of the VSA to accomplish time reversal mirror (TRM), which can effectively mitigate the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and reduce the bit error rate (BER). In addition, the calculation of CCVTRM is simpler than traditional PTRM. An UWA communication experiment using a VSA of 12 sensors was conducted in the South China Sea. The experiment achieves a very low BER communication at communication rate of 66.7 bit/s over an 80 km range. The results of the sea trial demonstrate that CCVTRM is feasible and can be applied to long-range UWA communication in shallow water.

  1. Comparison and experimental validation of two potential resonant viscosity sensors in the kilohertz range (United States)

    Lemaire, Etienne; Heinisch, Martin; Caillard, Benjamin; Jakoby, Bernhard; Dufour, Isabelle


    Oscillating microstructures are well established and find application in many fields. These include force sensors, e.g. AFM micro-cantilevers or accelerometers based on resonant suspended plates. This contribution presents two vibrating mechanical structures acting as force sensors in liquid media in order to measure hydrodynamic interactions. Rectangular cross section microcantilevers as well as circular cross section wires are investigated. Each structure features specific benefits, which are discussed in detail. Furthermore, their mechanical parameters and their deflection in liquids are characterized. Finally, an inverse analytical model is applied to calculate the complex viscosity near the resonant frequency for both types of structures. With this approach it is possible to determine rheological parameters in the kilohertz range in situ within a few seconds. The monitoring of the complex viscosity of yogurt during the fermentation process is used as a proof of concept to qualify at least one of the two sensors in opaque mixtures.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Zinc Antimonide Thin Film Thermoelectric Element over Wide Range of Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhosseini, Mojtaba; Rezania, Alireza; Blichfeld, Anders B.


    different resistive loads and over a wide range of operating temperatures from 160 °C to 350 °C. The results show that, at a hot side temperature equal to 275 °C, the Seebeck coefficient (α) reaches its maximum value (242 μV/K), which is comparable to that of bulk materials reported in the literature....... According to a variation of the load resistance, the maximum power output, that is a function of temperature, occurs at 170.25 Ω. The maximum power is 8.46 μW corresponding to a cold and hot side temperature of ≈ 30 °C and 350 °C, respectively....

  3. Experimental investigation of hypersonic buzz on a high cross-range shuttle configuration (United States)

    Goldman, R. L.; Obremski, H. J.


    A wind tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the nature of an unsteady hypersonic flow phenomenon, often referred to as hypersonic buzz, on a 1:100 scale model representative of a high cross-range shuttle configuration. The tests, conducted in helium at a nominal Mach number of 17.5, were specifically directed at obtaining a better understanding of the character of the hypersonic flow field in the vicinity of a deflected control surface. Power spectral densities and root mean squared values of surface pressure fluctuations are presented along with observations made from high speed motion pictures, schlieren and oil flow photographs. Flap deflections of 0, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 60 deg were tested at various angles of attack from 0 deg to 37 deg. It is quite clear from these tests that, under certain conditions, extremely unstable hypersonic flow patterns are formed.

  4. Experimental investigation of piercing of high-strength steels within a critical range of slant angle (United States)

    Senn, S.; Liewald, M.


    Deep drawn parts often do have complex designs and, therefore, must be trimmed or punched subsequently in a second stage. Due to the complex part geometry, most punching areas do reveal critical slant angle (angle between part surface and ram movement direction) different to perpendicular direction. Piercing within a critical range of slant angle may lead to severe damage of the cutting tool. Consequently, expensive cam units are required to transform the ram moving direction in order to perform the piercing process perpendicularly to the local part surface. For modern sheet metals, however, the described critical angle of attack has not been investigated adequately until now. Therefore, cam units are used in cases in which regular piercing with high slant angle wouldn’t be possible. Purpose of this study is to investigate influencing factors and their effect on punch damage during piercing of high strength steels with slant angles. Therefore, a modular shearing tool was designed, which allows to simply switch die parts to vary cutting clearance and cutting angle. The target size of the study is to measure the lateral deviation of the punch which is monitored by an eddy current sensor. The sensor is located in the downholder and measures the lateral punch deviation in-line during manufacturing. The deviation is mainly influenced by slant angle of workpiece surface. In relation to slang angle and sheet thickness the clearance has a small influence on the measured punch deflection.

  5. Experimental Study of High-Range-Resolution Medical Acoustic Imaging for Multiple Target Detection by Frequency Domain Interferometry (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru


    We employed frequency domain interferometry (FDI) for use as a medical acoustic imager to detect multiple targets with high range resolution. The phase of each frequency component of an echo varies with the frequency, and target intervals can be estimated from the phase variance. This processing technique is generally used in radar imaging. When the interference within a range gate is coherent, the cross correlation between the desired signal and the coherent interference signal is nonzero. The Capon method works under the guiding principle that output power minimization cancels the desired signal with a coherent interference signal. Therefore, we utilize frequency averaging to suppress the correlation of the coherent interference. The results of computational simulations using a pseudoecho signal show that the Capon method with adaptive frequency averaging (AFA) provides a higher range resolution than a conventional method. These techniques were experimentally investigated and we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of processing by FDI.

  6. Avian research on U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges: Emergent themes, opportunities, and challenges (United States)

    Stoleson, Scott H.; King, D.I.; Tomosy, M.


    Since 1908, U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges have been dedicated to long-term interdisciplinary research on a variety of ecological and management questions. They encompass a wide diversity of life zones and ecoregions, and provide access to research infrastructure, opportunities for controlled manipulations, and integration with other types of long-term data. These features have facilitated important advances in a number of areas of avian research, including furthering our understanding of population dynamics, the effects of forest management on birds, avian responses to disturbances such as fire and hurricanes, and other aspects of avian ecology and conservation. However, despite these contributions, this invaluable resource has been underutilized by ornithologists. Most of the Experimental Forests and Ranges have had no ornithological work done on them. We encourage the ornithological community, especially graduate students and new faculty, to take advantage of this largely untapped potential for long-term work, linkage with long-term data sets, multiple disciplines, and active forest management. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Modeling Short-Range Soil Variability and its Potential Use in Variable-Rate Treatment of Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moameni


    Full Text Available Abstract In Iran, the experimental plots under fertilizer trials are managed in such a way that the whole plot area uniformly receives agricultural inputs. This could lead to biased research results and hence to suppressing of the efforts made by the researchers. This research was conducted in a selected site belonging to the Gonbad Agricultural Research Station, located in the semiarid region, northeastern Iran. The aim was to characterize the short-range spatial variability of the inherent and management-depended soil properties and to determine if this variation is large and can be managed at practical scales. The soils were sampled using a grid 55 m apart. In total, 100 composite soil samples were collected from topsoil (0-30 cm and were analyzed for calcium carbonate equivalent, organic carbon, clay, available phosphorus, available potassium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese. Descriptive statistics were applied to check data trends. Geostatistical analysis was applied to variography, model fitting and contour mapping. Sampling at 55 m made it possible to split the area of the selected experimental plot into relatively uniform areas that allow application of agricultural inputs with variable rates. Keywords: Short-range soil variability, Within-field soil variability, Interpolation, Precision agriculture, Geostatistics

  8. Range shifts and global warming: ecological responses of Empetrum nigrum. to experimental warming at its northern (high Arctic) and southern (Atlantic) geographical range margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, B.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Greve Alsos, I.; Bronken Eidesen, P.; van Breda, J.; de Korte, M.; van Rijckevorsel, J.; Rozema, J.


    Global change is expected to lead to range shifts of plant species. The ecological mechanisms underpinning these shifts are currently not well understood. Here, we compared ecological responses possibly underlying southern range contraction and northern range expansion of Empetrum nigrum, a key

  9. Is it possible to determine firearm calibre and shooting range from the examination of gunshot residue in close range gunshot wounds? An experimental study


    Anisa Gradaščević; Emina Resić; Nermin Sarajlić; Bruno Franjić; Arif Salkić; Amira Džuzdanović-Pašalić


    Introduction: The aim of the study was determining the type of weapon and shooting distance depending on chemical analysis of inorganic gunshot residue from the skin gunshot wounds in experimental animals (pigs).Methods: Experimental study was conducted in order to determine components and their percentage in gunshot residue (GSR). In 60 samples, pig skin was shot by fi ring projectiles from four different weapons and from three different distances (contact wound and near contact wound from 5...

  10. Experimentally altered navigational demands induce changes in the cortical forebrain of free-ranging northern pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus o. oreganus). (United States)

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Taylor, Emily N; Strand, Christine R


    The hippocampus of birds and mammals plays a crucial role in spatial memory and navigation. The hippocampus exhibits plasticity in adulthood in response to diverse environmental factors associated with spatial demands placed on an animal. The medial and dorsal cortices of the telencephalon of squamate reptiles have been implicated as functional homologues to the hippocampus. This study sought to experimentally manipulate the navigational demands placed on free-ranging northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus o. oreganus) to provide direct evidence of the relationship between spatial demands and neuroplasticity in the cortical telencephalon of the squamate brain. Adult male rattlesnakes were radio-tracked for 2 months, during which time 1 of 3 treatments was imposed weekly, namely 225-meter translocation in a random direction, 225-meter walk and release at that day's capture site (handling control) or undisturbed (control). Snakes were then sacrificed and the brains were removed and processed for histological analysis of cortical features. The activity range was larger in the translocated (Tr) group compared to the handled (Hd) and undisturbed control (Cn) groups when measured via 95% minimum convex polygon (MCP). At the 100% MCP level, Tr snakes had larger activity ranges than the Cn snakes only. The volume of the medial cortex (MC) was larger in the Tr group compared to the Cn group. The MC of Hd snakes was not significantly different from that of either of the other groups. No differences in dorsal cortex (DC) or lateral cortex volumes were detected among the groups. Numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the MC and DC 3 weeks after BrdU injection were not affected by treatment. This study establishes a causal relationship between navigational demands and greater MC volume in a free-ranging reptile. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. WE-D-BRF-04: Experimental Investigations On Ion Radiography with Beam Scanning Using a Range Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, I; Magallanes, L [Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig Maximilian University Munich (Germany); Marcelos, T [Ludwig Maximilian University Munich (Germany); Takechi, M; Voss, B [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, GermanyGermany (Germany); Brons, S [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, O [Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Parodi, K [Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Purpose: Ion beams exhibit a finite range and an inverted depth-dose profile, the Bragg peak. These favorable properties allow superior tumordose conformality, but introduce sensitivity to range uncertainties. Hence, imaging techniques play an increasingly important role to support the treatment planning and the in-vivo monitoring of the actual ion beam treatment. Methods: This work presents the experimental investigations carried out to address the feasibility of ion transmission imaging at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy center using an active raster scanning beam delivery system and a prototype range telescope set-up based on a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) interleaved with 3 mm absorber plates of PMMA. Results: An extensive characterization of the set-up in terms of beam parameters and settings of the read-out electronics was performed and results will be presented. A data processing method to increase the range resolution (MIRR) of the PPIC stack was developed. In this approach, the position of the maximum of the Bragg curve is deduced from the ratio of measured signals in adjacent PPIC channels. MIRR evaluation is based on Bragg curves obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and validated with experimental data acquired with the PPIC stack using ion beams. MIRR was applied to the carbon ion radiography of an anthropomorphic Alderson head phantom yielding a resolution of 0.8 mm water equivalent thickness (WET) compared to the nominal value of 3.495 mm WET given by the thickness of the absorber slabs in the PPIC stack. An absolute comparison of the Alderson phantom carbon ion transmitted image with an X-ray digitally reconstructed radiography, both converted into WET, will also be shown. Conclusion: The obtained results are very promising and motivate further developments of the system towards an eventual clinical use.This work is supported by the German Research Foundation and the German Academic Exchange Service. This work is supported by the

  12. Performance analysis and experimental verification of mid-range wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Wang, Jingyu; Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, L.


    In this paper, the efficiency analysis of a mid-range wireless energy transfer system is performed through non-resonant magnetic coupling. It is shown that the self-resistance of the coils and the mutual inductance are critical in achieving a high efficiency, which is indicated by our theoretical...... formulation and verified in our experiments. It is experimentally shown that high efficiency, up to 65%, can be realized even in a non-resonant wireless energy system which employs a device part with moderate or low quality factor. We also address some aspects of a practical wireless energy transfer system...... and show that careful design of the de-tuned system can intrinsically minimize the power dissipated in the source part. Our non-resonant scheme presented in this paper allows flexible design and fabrication of a wireless energy transfer systems with transfer distance being several times of the coils...

  13. Characteristics of backspatter on the firearm and shooting hand--an experimental analysis of close-range gunshots. (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Brandtner, Herwig; Meyer, Harald J


    Contact and close-range gunshot injuries can produce bloodstains on the shooting hand and weapon. In this study, backspatter was analyzed in experimental horizontal pistol shots into blood-filled sponges. The shooting distances were set between 0 and 45 cm. With increasing shooting distance, there was a significant decrease in the degree of backspatter. Microspatter could be detected on the weapon and shooting hand up to a shooting distance of 40 cm. They were predominantly located on thumb and index finger as well as the radial dorsal aspects of the hand. Fine spray of microspatter combined with elongated droplets in the shape of exclamation marks was found at contact and 2-cm distance shots. An angular calculation based on the shape of the bloodstains was possible up to a shooting distance of 2 cm. No bloodstains were detected beyond 45 cm. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Phase equilibrium of liquid mixtures: experimental and modeled data using statistical associating fluid theory for potential of variable range approach. (United States)

    Giner, Beatriz; Bandrés, Isabel; López, M Carmen; Lafuente, Carlos; Galindo, Amparo


    A study of the phase equilibrium (experimental and modeled) of mixtures formed by a cyclic ether and haloalkanes has been derived. Experimental data for the isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium of mixtures formed by tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran and isomeric chlorobutanes at temperatures of 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15 K are presented. Experimental results have been discussed in terms of both molecular characteristics of pure compounds and potential intermolecular interaction between them using thermodynamic information of the mixtures obtained earlier. The statistical associating fluid theory for potential of variable range (SAFT-VR) approach together with standard combining rules without adjustable parameters has been used to model the phase equilibrium. Good agreement between experiment and the prediction is found with such a model. Mean absolute deviations for pressures are of the order of 1 kPa, while less than 0.013 mole fraction for vapor phase compositions. In order to improve the results obtained, a new modeling has been carried out by introducing a unique transferable parameter k(ij), which modifies the strength of the dispersion interaction between unlike components in the mixtures, and is valid for all the studied mixtures being not temperature or pressure dependent. This parameter together with the SAFT-VR approach provides a description of the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the mixtures that is in excellent agreement with the experimental data for most cases. The absolute deviations are of the order of 0.005 mole fraction for vapor phase compositions and less than 0.3 kPa for pressure, excepting for mixtures containing 2-chloro-2-methylpropane which deviations for pressure are larger. Results obtained in this work in the modeling of the phase equilibrium with the SAFT-VR equation of state have been compared to the ones obtained in a previous study when the approach was used to model similar mixtures with clear differences in the thermodynamic behavior

  15. Efficiency of liming in controlling the mobility of lead in shooting range soils as assessed by different experimental approaches. (United States)

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H


    Shooting range soils contaminated by lead (Pb) are a great environmental risk. Reducing mobility and leaching of Pb by liming, for example, has produced contradictory results. This laboratory study compares the efficiency of two liming agents differing in their reactivity, CaCO(3) and blast furnace slag (BFS), in diminishing the mobility of Pb. In a batch test, contaminated humic soil samples were incubated in closed vessels without and with liming materials added in quantities to correspond additions of 5 t ha(-1). Water soluble Pb (Pb(w)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and substrate induced respiration (SIR) in soils were monitored for 21 days. In the experiment carried out with freely drained vessels, contaminated humic soil treated without and with liming agents was leached five times during the experimental period of 141 days. Leachates were analyzed for pH, DOC and Pb. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were analyzed for pH, DOC, Pb(w), and SIR. In both systems, CaCO(3) raised pH and DOC more than BFS. The liming agents did not significantly differ in their effect on Pb chemistry. Neither had any effect on SIR: however, liming agents markedly reduced the leaching of Pb in the open system, while in the closed system they increased rather than reduced the extractability of Pb. Incubation in a closed vessel proved not to be a suitable experimental system for Pb mobility estimation, since the ionic strength may be raised to abnormal levels, resulting from accumulated reaction products of liming agents.

  16. The Utilization of Historical Data and Geospatial Technology Advances at the Jornada Experimental Range to Support Western America Ranching Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Havstad


    Full Text Available By the early 1900s, concerns were expressed by ranchers, academicians, and federal scientists that widespread overgrazing and invasion of native grassland by woody shrubs were having severe negative impacts upon normal grazing practices in Western America. Ranchers wanted to reverse these trends and continue their way of life and were willing to work with scientists to achieve these goals. One response to this desire was establishment of the USDA Jornada Experimental Range (783 km2 in south central New Mexico by a Presidential Executive Order in 1912 for conducting rangeland investigations. This cooperative effort involved experiments to understand principles of proper management and the processes causing the woody shrub invasion as well as to identify treatments to eradicate shrubs. By the late 1940s, it was apparent that combining the historical ground-based data accumulated at Jornada Experimental Range with rapidly expanding post World War II technologies would yield a better understanding of the driving processes in these arid and semiarid ecosystems which could then lead to improved rangeland management practices. One specific technology was the use of aerial photography to interpret landscape resource conditions. The assembly and utilization of long-term historical aerial photography data sets has occurred over the last half century. More recently, Global Positioning System (GPS techniques have been used in a myriad of scientific endeavors including efforts to accurately locate historical and contemporary treatment plots and to track research animals including livestock and wildlife. As an incredible amount of both spatial and temporal data became available, Geographic Information Systems have been exploited to display various layers of data over the same locations. Subsequent analyses of these data layers have begun to yield new insights. The most recent technological development has been the deployment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

  17. Is it possible to determine firearm calibre and shooting range from the examination of gunshot residue in close range gunshot wounds? An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Gradaščević


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was determining the type of weapon and shooting distance depending on chemical analysis of inorganic gunshot residue from the skin gunshot wounds in experimental animals (pigs.Methods: Experimental study was conducted in order to determine components and their percentage in gunshot residue (GSR. In 60 samples, pig skin was shot by fi ring projectiles from four different weapons and from three different distances (contact wound and near contact wound from 5 cm and 10 cm. The methodology included determining the presence of inorganic material: antimony, barium, lead, nickel, zinc and copper in the skin and subcutaneous tissue using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Results: Formula for determining weapon type was provided cutt-off points for different weapons, with 78.6% of original grouped cases being correctly classifi ed. Formula for determining weapon type was provided cutt-off points for different distances, with 58.9% of original grouped cases being correctly classified, which was slightly less reliable compared to weapon type discrimination analysis.Conclusion: The presented study showed that chemical analysis of GSR in entrance wound with AAS could be useful in determining the type of weapon, as well as the shooting distance, i.e. in our study, determiningwhether the wound is contact or near contact. This could be particularly useful in postmortally putrefi ed or charred bodies with gunshot wounds.

  18. Universal experimental test for the role of free charge carriers in the thermal Casimir effect within a micrometer separation range (United States)

    Bimonte, G.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.


    We propose a universal experiment to measure the differential Casimir force between a Au-coated sphere and two halves of a structured plate covered with a P-doped Si overlayer. The concentration of free charge carriers in the overlayer is chosen slightly below the critical one, for which the phase transition from dielectric to metal occurs. One half of the structured plate is insulating, while the second half is made of gold. For the former we consider two structures, one consisting of bulk high-resistivity Si and the other of a layer of SiO 2 followed by bulk high-resistivity Si. The differential Casimir force is computed within the Lifshitz theory using four approaches that have been proposed in the literature to account for the role of free charge carriers in metallic and dielectric materials interacting with quantum fluctuations. According to these approaches, Au at low frequencies is described by either the Drude or the plasma model, whereas the free charge carriers in dielectric materials at room temperature are either taken into account or disregarded. It is shown that the values of differential Casimir forces, computed in the micrometer separation range using these four approaches, are widely distinct from each other and can be easily discriminated experimentally. It is shown that for all approaches the thermal component of the differential Casimir force is sufficiently large for direct observation. The possible errors and uncertainties in the proposed experiment are estimated and its importance for the theory of quantum fluctuations is discussed.

  19. Genotyping of Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs and Trypanosoma rangeli genetic groups in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus by PCR-RFLP. (United States)

    Sá, Amanda R N; Dias, Greicy B M; Kimoto, Karen Y; Steindel, Mário; Grisard, Edmundo C; Toledo, Max Jean O; Gomes, Mônica L


    The specific detection and genetic typing of trypanosomes that infect humans, mammalian reservoirs, and vectors is crucial for diagnosis and epidemiology. We utilized a PCR-RFLP assay that targeted subunit II of cytochrome oxidase and 24Sα-rDNA to simultaneously detect and discriminate six Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) and two genetic groups of Trypanosoma rangeli (KP1+/KP1-) in intestinal contents of experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus. The PCR assays showed that in 23 of 29 (79.4%) mixed infections with the six T. cruzi DTUs and mixed infections with individual DTUs and/or groups KP1+ and KP1-, both parasites were successfully detected. In six mixed infections that involved TcIII, the TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI DTUs predominated to the detriment of TcIII, indicating the selection of genetic groups. Interactions between different genetic groups and vectors may lead to genetic selection over TcIII. The elimination of this DTU by the immune system of the vector appears unlikely because TcIII was present in other mixed infections (TcIII/TcIV and TcIII/KP1+). Both molecular markers used in this study were sensitive and specific, demonstrating their usefulness in a wide geographical area where distinct genotypes of these two species are sympatric. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in parasite-vector interactions are still poorly understood, our results indicate a dynamic selection toward specific T. cruzi DTUs in R. prolixus during mixed genotype infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus. (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar


    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses.

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Optical Switching of Tbit/s Data Packets for High Capacity Short-Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Kamchevska, Valerija; Hu, Hao


    Record-high 1.28-Tbit/s optical data packets are experimentally switched in the optical domain using a LiNbO3 switch. An in-band notch-filter labeling scheme scalable to 65,536 labels is employed and a 3-km transmission distance is demonstrated.......Record-high 1.28-Tbit/s optical data packets are experimentally switched in the optical domain using a LiNbO3 switch. An in-band notch-filter labeling scheme scalable to 65,536 labels is employed and a 3-km transmission distance is demonstrated....

  2. An experimental comparison of leaf decomposition rates in a wide range of temperate plant species and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J. H.C.


    1 An experimental multispecies screening of leaf decomposition rates was undertaken in order to identify and quantify general patterns in leaf decomposition rates in functional plant types and taxa. Functional species groups were characterized using whole-plant and whole-leaf features relevant to

  3. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990. (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny. Blinn


    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  4. Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3 (United States)


    Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3...spectroscopy (EELS) measurements that the long range ferromagnetic (FM) order in vanadium (V)-doped topological insulator Sb2Te3 has the nature of van...Vleck-type ferromagnetism . The positions and the relative amplitudes of two core-level peaks (L3 and L2) of the V EELS spectrum show unambiguous change

  5. Experimental techniques for characterising water in wood covering the range from dry to fully water-saturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund; Kymäläinen, Maija; Rautkari, Lauri


    Water plays a central role in wood research, since it affects all material properties relevant to the performance of wood materials. Therefore, experimental techniques for characterising water within wood are an essential part of nearly all scientific investigations of wood materials. This review...... focuses on selected experimental techniques that can give deeper insights into various aspects of water in wood in the entire moisture domain from dry to fully water-saturated. These techniques fall into three broad categories: (1) gravimetric techniques that determine how much water is absorbed, (2......) fibre saturation techniques that determine the amount of water within cell walls, and (3) spectroscopic techniques that provide insights into chemical wood–water interactions as well as yield information on water distribution in the macro-void wood structure. For all techniques, the general measurement...

  6. Experimental study on a wide range of wave and current conditions of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study that was performed on small scale model that was a replication of the full-scale Weptos WEC intended for DanWEC. The tests were performed in the circular basin at FloWave at Edinburgh University in October 2014. The laboratory facilities had...... the capabilities to have simultaneously currents and waves from any possible direction and also to produce advanced wave specifications....

  7. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods. (United States)

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter


    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  8. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An Annotated List of Insects and Other Arthropods (United States)

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter


    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  9. Numerical Investigation and Experimental Demonstration of Chaos from Two-Stage Colpitts Oscillator in the Ultrahigh Frequency Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bumeliene, S.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.


    A hardware prototype of the two-stage Colpitts oscillator employing the microwave BFG520 type transistors with the threshold frequency of 9 GHz and designed to operate in the ultrahigh frequency range (300–1000 MHz) is described. The practical circuit in addition to the intrinsic two...

  10. Experimental verification of a thermal equivalent circuit dynamic model on an extended range electric vehicle battery pack (United States)

    Ramotar, Lokendra; Rohrauer, Greg L.; Filion, Ryan; MacDonald, Kathryn


    The development of a dynamic thermal battery model for hybrid and electric vehicles is realized. A thermal equivalent circuit model is created which aims to capture and understand the heat propagation from the cells through the entire pack and to the environment using a production vehicle battery pack for model validation. The inclusion of production hardware and the liquid battery thermal management system components into the model considers physical and geometric properties to calculate thermal resistances of components (conduction, convection and radiation) along with their associated heat capacity. Various heat sources/sinks comprise the remaining model elements. Analog equivalent circuit simulations using PSpice are compared to experimental results to validate internal temperature nodes and heat rates measured through various elements, which are then employed to refine the model further. Agreement with experimental results indicates the proposed method allows for a comprehensive real-time battery pack analysis at little computational expense when compared to other types of computer based simulations. Elevated road and ambient conditions in Mesa, Arizona are simulated on a parked vehicle with varying quiescent cooling rates to examine the effect on the diurnal battery temperature for longer term static exposure. A typical daily driving schedule is also simulated and examined.

  11. Experimental determination of rotational constants of low-lying vibrational levels in the 0g- pure long-range state of ultracold Cs2 molecule (United States)

    Wu, Jizhou; Liu, Wenliang; Li, Yuqing; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang


    We report an accurate experimental determination of rotational constants of the lowest vibrational levels in the purely long-range state of ultracold cesium molecules (Cs2). We engineer a precise reference of the frequency difference through double photoassociation spectroscopy (PAS). The PAS for the lowest vibrational levels, v=0-3, has been obtained with an enhanced sensitivity and accuracy, according to which the binding energies have been corrected. As deduced from the reference, the frequency intervals between neighboring rotational levels are fitted to a non-rigid rotor model, thus the rotational constants are precisely obtained. The experimental results show good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  12. Experimental Forests and climate change: views of long-term employees on ecological change and the role of Experimental Forests and Ranges in understanding and adapting to climate change (United States)

    Laurie Yung; Mason Bradbury; Daniel R. Williams


    In this project, we examined the views of 21 long-term employees on climate change in 14 Rocky Mountain Research Station Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs). EFRs were described by employees as uniquely positioned to advance knowledge of climate change impacts and adaptation strategies due to the research integrity they provide for long-term studies, the ability to...

  13. Critical zone properties control the fate of nitrogen during experimental rainfall in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn S.; Ebel, Brian A.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Anderson, Suzanne P.


    Several decades of research in alpine ecosystems have demonstrated links among the critical zone, hydrologic response, and the fate of elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Less research has occurred in mid-elevation forests, which may be important for retaining atmospheric N deposition. To explore the fate of N in the montane zone, we conducted plot-scale experimental rainfall events across a north–south transect within a catchment of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Rainfall events mimicked relatively common storms (20–50% annual exceedance probability) and were labeled with 15N-nitrate (NO3−">NO−3NO3−) and lithium bromide tracers. For 4 weeks, we measured soil–water and leachate concentrations of Br−, 15NO3−,">15NO−3,15NO3−, and NO3−">NO−3NO3− daily, followed by recoveries of 15N species in bulk soils and microbial biomass. Tracers moved immediately into the subsurface of north-facing slope plots, exhibiting breakthrough at 10 and 30 cm over 22 days. Conversely, little transport of Br− or 15NO3−">15NO−315NO3− occurred in south-facing slope plots; tracers remained in soil or were lost via pathways not measured. Hillslope position was a significant determinant of soil 15N-NO3−">NO−3NO3− recoveries, while soil depth and time were significant determinants of 15N recovery in microbial biomass. Overall, 15N recovery in microbial biomass and leachate was greater in upper north-facing slope plots than lower north-facing (toeslope) and both south-facing slope plots in August; by October, 15N recovery in microbial N biomass within south-facing slope plots had increased substantially. Our results point to the importance of soil properties in controlling the fate of N in mid-elevation forests during the summer season.

  14. A combined experimental study of vivianite and As (V) reactivity in the pH range 2-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinnappan, V. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Merrifield, C.M. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Islam, F.S. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Polya, D.A.; Wincott, P. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wogelius, R.A. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Four different sets of experiments were completed in order to constrain vivianite [Fe{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} . 8H{sub 2}O] reactivity under conditions pertinent to As(V)-bearing groundwater systems. Firstly, titration experiments were undertaken in the pH range 4-9 to determine the zero point of charge (ZPC) of vivianite; showing that the ZPC lies at a pH of approximately 5.3. Secondly, the steady state dissolution rates of vivianite far from equilibrium were measured in aqueous solutions in the pH range 2-10 at 18.5 {sup d}eg. C ({+-}3 deg. C) using a fluidized bed reactor. The rate of vivianite dissolution, R, is given by (1)R(moless{sup -1}cm{sup -2})=1.18x10{sup -10}a{sub H+}{sup 0.77}+1x10{sup -15}+6.92x10{sup -24}a{sub H+}{sup -1} The dissolution rate exhibits an exponential increase with increase in the activity of the H{sup +} ion (a{sub H+}) in solution at 2 < pH < 5, is apparently pH independent at 5 < pH < 8, and increases with increasing pH at pH > 8. Thirdly, the sorption of arsenate [As(V)] onto natural well-crystallized vivianite in the pH range 3-11 under static flow conditions was determined. 25-40% of As(V) from a starting concentration (C{sub 0}) of 100 {mu}M was adsorbed onto vivianite. Static adsorption experiments were also completed at two lower As(V) concentrations (C{sub 0} = 10 and 1 {mu}M). Sorption was determined to be only weakly dependent on pH. Fourthly, the final part of this study investigated the sorption of As(V) onto vivianite at pH 9 under dynamic flow conditions. An input solution of 4 mM As(V) was applied to water saturated columns, followed by leaching with deionised water (DIW). Breakthrough curves show that the retention and exchangeability of As within the column is enhanced with vivianite present, consistent with solid phase analysis of unreacted and reacted solid materials. A simple calculation based on a model shallow Bengal sediment having about 0.2 wt% of vivianite and total initial dissolved As concentrations of

  15. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV. (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V


    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental integrative muscular movement technique enhances cervical range of motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study. (United States)

    Rohe, Benjamin G; Carter, Ronald; Thompson, William R; Duncan, Randall L; Cooper, Carlton R


    Neck pain presents a tremendous physical and financial burden. This study compared the efficacy of the complementary and alternative medical treatments of integrative muscular movement technique (IMMT) and Swedish massage on neck pain in women of occupation age, the largest demographic group with neck pain. A total of 38 women were assigned to IMMT (n=28) or Swedish massage (n=10) in a blinded manner. Both groups received eight 30-minute treatments over 4 weeks. Cervical range of motion (ROM) in flexion, extension, sidebending, and rotation was measured before and after treatment. Each patient's pain was assessed by using an analogue pain scale of 0-10. Compared with the Swedish massage group, patients receiving IMMT experienced a significant increase in ROM in cervical flexion (ppain for IMMT was -1.75 units compared with -0.3 units for Swedish massage (pneck pain may lead to decreased pain and increased cervical ROM. These positive effects of the IMMT intervention may have a role in enhancing functional outcomes in patients with neck pain.

  17. Experimental increase of testosterone levels in free-ranging juvenile male African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) induces physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes. (United States)

    Raynaud, Julien; Müller, Karin; Schradin, Carsten


    Testosterone influences sexual differentiation in early development, and activates sexual maturation and sex-related behavior in males during puberty. Testosterone can also influence the expression of male alternative reproductive tactics, by either organizational effects (fixed tactics) or by activational effects (plastic tactics). However, the roles of testosterone in sexual maturation and at the same time the expression of alternative reproductive tactics have been little investigated experimentally, and studies of free-ranging mammals are lacking. We conducted a field experiment in free-ranging juvenile African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), a species with alternative reproductive tactics. Juvenile male striped mice reaching puberty can remain in their family as philopatric group-living males with low testosterone levels, or they can disperse and become solitary living roamers with much higher testosterone levels. We tested whether experimentally increased testosterone levels in non-scrotal juvenile males induces puberty and leads to the expression of the roaming tactic. Testosterone-treated males received the hormone for 15days by silastic implants which were empty in control-treated males. When compared to control-treated males, testosterone-treated males had higher testosterone levels, lower corticosterone levels, and became scrotal with descended testes. Testosterone-treated males also had larger testes, larger epididymides, and showed indication of spermatogenesis. Testosterone-treated males did not become solitary-living roamers, but had larger home ranges than control males. We conclude that testosterone can induce sexual maturation and causes juvenile males to increase their home ranges, maybe to search for dispersal opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The stable orientations of the net magnetic moment within single-domain particles: Experimental evidence for a range of stable states and implications for rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism (United States)

    Potter, David K.; Stephenson, Alan


    An idealised stable uniaxial single-domain (SD) particle permits only two possible stable positions in which the magnetic moment can lie, either closely parallel or anti-parallel to the particle long (easy) axis. In real acicular SD particles, which have generally been regarded as uniaxial, this implicit two state feature has never been challenged, whilst there has been considerable debate concerning the mechanism of moment reversal between the two states. We present experimental results suggesting that acicular SD particles may actually have a range of several quantifiable stable (or metastable) orientations of the net magnetic moment. In order to help explain our experimental observations we present a new simple model of acicular SD particles, which gives quantitative predictions verified by further experiments. The model also appears to be relevant to other SD particle morphologies and crystal structures (such as hematite). A possible physical basis for our model in acicular particles may lie in non-uniform SD structures (such as the flower or vortex states). Small variations in the non-uniform SD structures available to a particle might allow a range of stable positions of the net moment. The results have several implications for rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism. Firstly, the new model can quantitatively account for several previously unexplained diverse phenomena exhibited by real acicular SD particles. These include the acquisition of gyroremanences and field-impressed anisotropy in dilute dispersions of such particles, as well as observations of transverse components of remanence in individual acicular SD particles. All these phenomena are theoretically impossible in idealised uniaxial SD particles. Interestingly, it appears that these phenomena could now be used to quantify the deviation of real acicular SD particles from ideal uniaxial behaviour and also, therefore, the deviation from a uniform SD structure. In hematite, observations of large field

  19. Experimental-numerical evaluation of a new butterfly specimen for fracture characterisation of AHSS in a wide range of stress states (United States)

    Peshekhodov, I.; Jiang, S.; Vucetic, M.; Bouguecha, A.; Berhens, B.-A.


    Results of an experimental-numerical evaluation of a new butterfly specimen for fracture characterisation of AHHS sheets in a wide range of stress states are presented. The test on the new butterfly specimen is performed in a uniaxial tensile machine and provides sufficient data for calibration of common fracture models. In the first part, results of a numerical specimen evaluation are presented, which was performed with a material model of a dual-phase steel DP600 taken from literature with plastic flow and fracture descriptions. In the second part, results of an experimental-numerical specimen evaluation are shown, which was conducted on another dual-phase steel DP600, which was available with a description of plastic flow only and whose fracture behaviour was characterised in the frame of this work. The overall performance of the new butterfly specimen at different load cases with regard to characterisation of the fracture behaviour of AHSS was investigated. The dependency of the fracture strain on the stress triaxiality and Lode angle as well as space resolution is quantified. A parametrised CrachFEM ductile shear fracture model and modified Mohr-Coloumb ductile shear fracture model are presented as a result of this quantification. The test procedure and results analysis are believed to contribute to current discussions on requirements to AHSS fracture characterisation.

  20. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1 (United States)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg


    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigation of silver-coated ZnO nanorod arrays as antennas for the visible and near-IR spectral range (United States)

    Kaidashev, E. M.; Lyanguzov, N. V.; Lerer, A. M.; Raspopova, E. A.


    A new design of optical antennas consisting of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods covered by a thin metal film is proposed. Arrays of highly oriented ZnO nanorods perpendicular to a substrate and covered by a thin silver film have been obtained using methods of carbothermal synthesis and magnetron sputtering. The problems of electromagnetic wave diffraction on a single metal/dielectric nanovibrator (situated at the interface of dielectrics) and on a two-dimensional periodic array of these nanovibrators have been solved. The results of calculations of the electrodynamic characteristics of optical antennas with various lengths have been compared to experimental data.

  2. Transscleral and indirect ophthalmoscope diode laser retinal photocoagulation: experimental quantification of the therapeutic range for their application in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. (United States)

    Obana, A; Lorenz, B; Birngruber, R


    Laser indirect ophthalmoscope (LIO) photocoagulation and transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were performed in the fundus of chinchilla gray rabbits using various exposure times and powers, and the thresholds for retinal blanching and choroidal hemorrhage were determined. The therapeutic range was described for both applications as the ratio between energy values to produce grayish white lesions and hemorrhage at 50% probability. The therapeutic range appeared to remain almost constant with different exposure times. The mean ratio with LIO was 3.2 +/- 0.28, similar to that with slit-lamp delivery reported in our previous study. The mean ratio with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were 2.48 +/- 0.28 and 2.38 +/- 0.26, respectively. The variability of LIO appeared to be a little lower than with transscleral photocoagulation. There was no significant difference between the variability with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva.

  3. Experimental determination of Poisson's ratio of a single crystal nickel heat-resistant alloy in the temperature range of 20-1000°C (United States)

    Golynets, S. A.; Toloraiya, V. N.; Nekrasov, S. N.; Khvatskii, K. K.


    This work is devoted to the experimental determination of Poisson's ratio at temperatures of 20-1000°C, which was carried out on cylindrical samples of a single-crystal heat-resistant nickel alloy with crystallographic orientations of (CGOs) [001], [011], and [111]. The modulus of elasticity for the samples of these orientations has also been determined. It has been established that, in samples of heat-resistant nickel singlecrystal alloy with CGO [011], Poisson's ratio can vary from negative to positive values depending on the azimuthal orientation, i.e., on the crystallographic directions that lie in the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the sample. To control the azimuthal CGO of cylindrical samples [011], a special metallographic procedure was developed based on the determination of the dendritic structure on the butt ends of these samples using etching. The data on the azimuthal orientation were subsequently used to place a sensor in order to determine the transverse deformation in these directions.

  4. Experimental studies on the proton-induced activation reactions of molybdenum in the energy range 22-67 MeV. (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Hagiwara, M; Tarkanyi, F; Ditroi, F; Baba, M


    The production cross-sections of (99,93m)Mo, (96,95,95m,94)Tc, (96,95,92m,90)Nb, (89,88,86)Zr and (88,87,86)Y radionuclides for proton-induced reactions on molybdenum were measured with molybdenum targets of natural isotopic composition using a stacked-foil activation technique in the energy range 22-67 MeV. The thick target integral yields were also deduced for each reaction using the measured cross-sections from the respective threshold up to 67 MeV. The results have given new data for all of the investigated radionuclides. The results of the present experiment showed excellent agreement with the earlier reported data in the lower energy region.

  5. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV. (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V


    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Experimental investigation of ice nucleation in water droplets and sulphate particles in the temperature range between -30 C and -65 C; Experimente zur Eisnukleation von Wassertroepfchen und Sulfatpartikeln bei Temperaturen zwischen -65 C und -30 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, S.


    High altitude cirrus clouds influence the climate by scattering and absorption of radiation. The cloud and aerosol chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe allows generation and observation of ice clouds in laboratory at realistic conditions. Experiments were carried out to investigate the ice formation in clouds of supercooled liquid water droplets and in sulphate aerosols. The homogeneous ice nucleation rate, given as the product of the number of critical ice germs to initiate the freezing and the rate at which additional molecules are incorporated into a critical germ, was measured at typical cloud conditions in the temperature range between -36 C and -37 C for supercooled water droplets with diameters smaller than 10 {mu}m. The comparison of the results shows good agreement both with recent data from literature gained from considerably larger droplets and with classical ice nucleation theory. Thereby, the hypothesis that a critical germ is formed preferentially near the surface of a supercooled droplet could not be confirmed. The ice formation from ammonium sulphate aerosol was examined in the temperature range from -50 C to -65 C. It was shown that ammonium sulphate solution particles, which were produced by neutralization of sulphuric acid solution particles by gaseous ammonia, freeze homogeneously at conditions comparable to sulphuric acid solution particles. If ammonium sulphate particles crystallize they start to form ice at comparatively low supersaturation values (10-20%) by direct deposition of water vapour onto the solid particles. Ammonia, which is highly anthropogenically affected, may influence the properties of upper tropospheric ice clouds. (orig.)

  7. Photogrammetric measurement of 3D freeform millimetre-sized objects with micro features: an experimental validation of the close-range camera calibration model for narrow angles of view (United States)

    Percoco, Gianluca; Sánchez Salmerón, Antonio J.


    The measurement of millimetre and micro-scale features is performed by high-cost systems based on technologies with narrow working ranges to accurately control the position of the sensors. Photogrammetry would lower the costs of 3D inspection of micro-features and would be applicable to the inspection of non-removable micro parts of large objects too. Unfortunately, the behaviour of photogrammetry is not known when photogrammetry is applied to micro-features. In this paper, the authors address these issues towards the application of digital close-range photogrammetry (DCRP) to the micro-scale, taking into account that in literature there are research papers stating that an angle of view (AOV) around 10° is the lower limit to the application of the traditional pinhole close-range calibration model (CRCM), which is the basis of DCRP. At first a general calibration procedure is introduced, with the aid of an open-source software library, to calibrate narrow AOV cameras with the CRCM. Subsequently the procedure is validated using a reflex camera with a 60 mm macro lens, equipped with extension tubes (20 and 32 mm) achieving magnification of up to 2 times approximately, to verify literature findings with experimental photogrammetric 3D measurements of millimetre-sized objects with micro-features. The limitation experienced by the laser printing technology, used to produce the bi-dimensional pattern on common paper, has been overcome using an accurate pattern manufactured with a photolithographic process. The results of the experimental activity prove that the CRCM is valid for AOVs down to 3.4° and that DCRP results are comparable with the results of existing and more expensive commercial techniques.

  8. Neutron Resonance Parameters of 238U and the Calculated Cross Sections from the Reich-Moore Analysis of Experimental Data in the Neutron Energy Range from 0 keV to 20 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H


    The neutron resonance parameters of {sup 238}U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990, and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 pcm to 200 pcm.

  9. Analysis of experimental data on doublet neutron-deuteron scattering at energies below the deuteron-breakup threshold on the basis of the pole approximation of the effective-range function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M., E-mail: [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine)


    On the basis of the Bargmann representation of the S matrix, the pole approximation is obtained for the effective-range function k cot {delta}. This approximation is optimal for describing the neutron-deuteron system in the doublet spin state. The values of r{sub 0} = 412.469 fm and v{sub 2} = -35 495.62 fm{sup 3} for the doublet low-energy parameters of neutron-deuteron scattering and the value of D = 172.678 fm{sup 2} for the respective pole parameter are deduced by using experimental results for the triton binding energy E{sub T}, the doublet neutron-deuteron scattering length a{sub 2}, and van Oers-Seagrave phase shifts at energies below the deuteron-breakup threshold. With these parameters, the pole approximation of the effective-range function provides a highly precise description (the relative error does not exceed 1%) of the doublet phase shift for neutron-deuteron scattering at energies below the deuteron-breakup threshold. Physical properties of the triton in the ground (T) and virtual (v) states are calculated. The results are B{sub v} = 0.608 MeV for the virtuallevel position and C{sub T}{sup 2} = 2.866 and C{sub v}{sup 2} = 0.0586 for the dimensionless asymptotic normalization constants. It is shown that, in the Whiting-Fuda approximation, the values of physical quantities characterizing the triton virtual state are determined to a high precision by one parameter, the doublet neutron-deuteron scattering length a{sub 2}. The effective triton radii in the ground ({rho}{sub T} = 1.711 fm) and virtual ({rho}{sub v} = 74.184 fm) states are calculated for the first time.

  10. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)


    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  11. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  12. Design, experimental verification, and analysis of a 1.8-V-input-range voltage-to-current converter using source degeneration for low-noise multimodal CMOS biosensor array (United States)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ikeda, Kei; Muto, Keita; Nakazato, Kazuo


    A multimodal complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) biosensor array manufactured using measurement methods such as potentiometry, amperometry, and impedimetry improves its cost competitiveness and measurement accuracy. In addition, it provides a wider range of application because it can obtain signals from multiple aspects. To develop high-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) multimodal biosensor arrays, time-domain current integration was proposed in the literature and found to be effective. In addition to amperometry and impedimetry, it is possible to perform current integration using the potentiometry output by employing a voltage-to-current converter (VCC). However, a conventional VCC with a fixed transconductance mode does not provide a sufficient input range (<0.6 V) and its noise property has not been investigated. In this work, we investigate the design and noise property of a newly proposed VCC with source degeneration that enhances the input range. For evaluating the proposed method, a test chip was fabricated in a 0.6 µm CMOS. The measured results successfully demonstrate that the input range was enhanced from 0.6 to 1.8 V. Autonomous current limitation was also confirmed. The measured total input-referred noise was 0.445 mV (from 10 Hz to 10 kHz, assuming current integration at every 1 ms).

  13. Study of the virtual Compton scattering in the deep inelastic range (DVCS) with the COMPASS installation; Etude de la diffusion compton virtuelle dans le regime profondement inelastique pour le dispositif experimental COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosse, L


    The experimental and theoretical aspects of the deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) are presented in the first chapter. The prevailing amplitude of DVCS is developed to lead to the introduction of the generalized distributions of partons. The second chapter is centered on the measurement campaigns performed throughout the world concerning DVCS processes and meson production. The experimental achieving of DVCS is difficult because it is an exclusive process that requires a perfect identification and moreover its cross-section is low. In the third chapter the author presents a feasibility study of a DVCS experiment using Compass installation in CERN, this experiment requires the designing of a recoil detector. By developing the theoretical studies presented in the first chapter, the author has computed an estimation of the expected counting rate. The main difficulty of this work is to be able to discriminate some events that lead to the same final state as DVCS. It is the case of the event characterized by the production of pions with very low impulse, the fourth chapter is dedicated to determination of the value of the cross-section of that event. A prototype of a recoil detector has been designed and tested and the first preliminary results are presented in the last chapter. (A.C.)

  14. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (sulfolane + benzene + n-hexane), (N-formylmorpholine + benzene + n-hexane), and (sulfolane + N-formylmorpholine + benzene + n-hexane) at temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 318.15) K: Experimental results and correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Jafar [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader, E-mail: [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) properties for two ternary systems containing (N-formylmorpholine + benzene + n-hexane), (sulfolane + benzene + n-hexane) and a quaternary mixed solvent system (sulfolane + N-formylmorpholine + benzene + n-hexane) were measured at temperature ranging from (298.15 to 318.15) K and at an atmospheric pressure. The experimental distribution coefficients and selectivity factors are presented to evaluate the efficiency of the solvents for extraction of benzene from n-hexane. The LLE results obtained indicate that increasing temperature decreases selectivity for all solvents. The LLE results for the systems studied were used to obtain binary interaction parameters in the UNIQUAC model by minimizing the root mean square deviations (RMSD) between the experimental and calculated results. Using the interaction parameters obtained, the phase equilibria in the systems were calculated and plotted. The calculated compositions based on the UNIQUAC model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values. The result of the RMSD obtained by comparing the calculated and experimental two-phase compositions is 0.0163 for (N-formylmorpholine + benzene + n-hexane) system and is 0.0120 for (sulfolane + benzene + n-hexane) system.

  15. Range management visual impacts (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel


    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  16. Minnesota Pheasant Range (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  17. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  18. PROVE Surface albedo of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variations in field measurements of broadband albedo as related to the ground cover and under a...

  19. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  20. Compact Antenna Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  1. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  2. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  3. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.


    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  4. Home range and travels (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  5. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions


    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramirez Suarez, Oscar Leonardo; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc


    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Pad\\'e expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Thir...

  6. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...


    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.


    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  8. Atlantic Test Range (ATR) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  9. Light Detection And Ranging (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  10. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  11. Radio pill antenna range test (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.


    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  12. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green


    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  13. Electric vehicles: Driving range (United States)

    Kempton, Willett


    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  14. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark


    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  15. Experimental philosophy. (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler


    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  16. Lightning detection and ranging (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.


    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  17. Animal experimentation. (United States)

    Kolar, Roman


    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  18. Experimental macroevolution† (United States)

    Bell, Graham


    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  19. Compact ranges in antenna and RCS measurements (United States)

    Audone, B.


    With the increased complexity and extended frequency range of operation model measurements and far field test ranges are no longer suitable to satisfy the demand of accurate testing. Moreover plane wave test conditions are required for Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements which represent a key point in stealth technology. Compact ranges represent the best test facilities available presently since they allow for indoor measurements under far field conditions in real time without any calculation effort. Several types of compact ranges are described and compared discussing their relevant advantages with regard to RCS and antenna measurements. In parallel to measuring systems sophisticated computer models were developed with such a high level of accuracy that it is questionable whether experiments give better results than theory. Tests performed on simple structures show the correlation between experimental results and theoretical ones derived on the basis of GTD computer codes.

  20. Free Space Ranging Utilizing Chaotic Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhao


    Full Text Available We report our recent works on free space ranging with chaotic light. Using a laser diode with optical feedback as chaotic source, a prototype of chaotic lidar has been developed and it can achieve a range-independent resolution of 18 cm and measurable distance of 130 m at least. And its antijamming performance is presented experimentally and numerically. Finally, we, respectively, employ the wavelet denoising method and the correlation average discrete-component elimination algorithm to detect the chaotic signal in noisy environment and suppress the side-lobe noise of the correlation trace.

  1. Experimental macroevolution. (United States)

    Bell, Graham


    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino


    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  3. Trends in animal experimentation. (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M


    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  4. Extended range interferometry based on wavefront shaping (United States)

    Szczupak, M. L.; Salbut, L.


    There are many cases when absolute measurements of objects with large height differences or height discontinuity is needed. These measurements can not be covered by classical interferometry since the range of non-ambiguity is limited to half the optical wavelength. Several techniques have been already developed for extending of non-ambiguity range. However most of them is based on multi-wavelength methods which demands expensive light sources and special environment conditions. In this work the new interferometric technique for absolute measurements of large steps discontinuities is proposed. Variable wavefront of the illuminating beam and special procedure for calibration of the measurement volume are used for extending of the measurement range without using multispectral sources. Additionally, calibration of the measurement area simplifies fringe processing and quicken measures. Theoretical analysis of this technique, its numerical simulations and experimental verification are presented and discussed.

  5. Target Image Matching Algorithm Based on Binocular CCD Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li


    Full Text Available This paper proposed target image in a subpixel level matching algorithm for binocular CCD ranging, which is based on the principle of binocular CCD ranging. In the paper, firstly, we introduced the ranging principle of the binocular ranging system and deduced a binocular parallax formula. Secondly, we deduced the algorithm which was named improved cross-correlation matching algorithm and cubic surface fitting algorithm for target images matched, and it could achieve a subpixel level matching for binocular CCD ranging images. Lastly, through experiment we have analyzed and verified the actual CCD ranging images, then analyzed the errors of the experimental results and corrected the formula of calculating system errors. Experimental results showed that the actual measurement accuracy of a target within 3 km was higher than 0.52%, which meet the accuracy requirements of the high precision binocular ranging.

  6. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles (United States)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen


    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo


    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens. (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  9. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.


    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  11. Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas


    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm...... of achieving a full bandgap (in the surface plane) for LR-SPPs are also discussed....

  12. Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    We present an experimental study of guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along the nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded in a polymer via excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) in a very broad wavelength range from 1000 to 1650 mn. For straight...

  13. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  14. Fast Range Covariance Estimation using CONRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Habert, B.; Noguere, G.; Archier, P.; Litaize, O.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13 - St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    One of the initial goals of the CONRAD code development was to properly take into account various uncertainties propagations. First developments were performed to treat adequately nuisance parameters (such as experimental parameters), in the resolved and unresolved resonance region by using a marginalization technique. A generalization of these methodologies to higher energy range is presented in this paper. We will first present in detail the mathematics involved in this technique. The interface of CONRAD with ECIS will be presented, especially, the way optical model were parameterized in CONRAD from the classical RIPL database. Then, some applications of CONRAD (wrapping ECIS) will be presented. (authors)

  15. Foraging optimally for home ranges (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.


    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  16. Reference Ranges & What They Mean (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  17. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  18. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)


    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  19. A Computational Approach to Competitive Range Expansions (United States)

    Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine


    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Environmental conditions and microbial interactions determine whether a bacterial strain survives an expansion to new territory. In our work, we studied competitive range expansions in a model system of three Escherichia coli strains. In this system, a colicin producing strain competed with a colicin resistant, and with a colicin sensitive strain for new territory. Genetic engineering allowed us to tune the strains' growth rates and to study their expansion in distinct ecological scenarios (with either cyclic or hierarchical dominance). The control over growth rates also enabled us to construct and to validate a predictive computational model of the bacterial dynamics. The model rested on an agent-based, coarse-grained description of the expansion process and we conducted independent experiments on the growth of single-strain colonies for its parametrization. Furthermore, the model considered the long-range nature of the toxin interaction between strains. The integration of experimental analysis with computational modeling made it possible to quantify how the level of biodiversity depends on the interplay between bacterial growth rates, the initial composition of the inoculum, and the toxin range.

  20. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis (United States)


    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  1. A trunk ranging system based on binocular stereo vision (United States)

    Zhao, Xixuan; Kan, Jiangming


    Trunk ranging is an essential function for autonomous forestry robots. Traditional trunk ranging systems based on personal computers are not convenient in practical application. This paper examines the implementation of a trunk ranging system based on the binocular vision theory via TI's DaVinc DM37x system. The system is smaller and more reliable than that implemented using a personal computer. It calculates the three-dimensional information from the images acquired by binocular cameras, producing the targeting and ranging results. The experimental results show that the measurement error is small and the system design is feasible for autonomous forestry robots.

  2. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R.S. Martins


    Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infecção e doença por Macrorhabdus

  3. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.


    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  4. Anatomy of a Mountain Range. (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley


    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  5. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station (United States)

    Intellect, 1977


    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  6. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar (United States)


    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  7. Mandibular movement range in children. (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de


    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  8. Experimental toxicology: Issues of statistics, experimental design, and replication. (United States)

    Briner, Wayne; Kirwan, Jeral


    The difficulty of replicating experiments has drawn considerable attention. Issues with replication occur for a variety of reasons ranging from experimental design to laboratory errors to inappropriate statistical analysis. Here we review a variety of guidelines for statistical analysis, design, and execution of experiments in toxicology. In general, replication can be improved by using hypothesis driven experiments with adequate sample sizes, randomization, and blind data collection techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-range communication system (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)


    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  10. Countering short range ballistic missiles


    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  11. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?) (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.


    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  12. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas


    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Belov


    Full Text Available Monitoring of the earth’s surface by remote sensing in the short-wave band can provide quick identification of some characteristics of natural systems. This band range allows one to diagnose subsurface aspects of the earth, as the scattering parameter is affected by irregularities in the dielectric permittivity of subsurface structures. The new method is suggested. This method based on the organization of the monitoring probe may detect changes in these environments, for example, to assess seismic hazard, hazardous natural phenomena, changes ecosystems, as well as some man-made hazards and etc. The problem of measuring and accounting for the scattering power of the earth’s surface in the short-range of radio waves is important for a number of purposes, such as diagnosing properties of the medium, which is of interest for geological, environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the parameters of incoherent signal/noise ratio. The paper presents the results of comparison of the measurement method from the point of view of their admissible relative analytical errors. A comparative analysis and shows that the analytical (relative accuracy of the determination of this parameter new method on the order exceeds the widely-used standard method. Analysis of admissible relative analytical error of estimation of this parameter allowed to recommend new method instead of standard method

  14. Short-range order in undercooled metallic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Moritz, D.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Bellissent, R.; Convert, P.; Hansen, T.; Herlach, D.M


    The containerless processing technique of electromagnetic levitation was combined with elastic neutron scattering in order to study the short-range order (SRO) of stable and deeply undercooled liquids of the pure elements Ni, Fe and Zr and of the quasicrystal-forming alloy Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Co{sub 10}. The results deliver experimental evidence for an icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) prevailing in the investigated metallic melts.

  15. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  16. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John


    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  17. Perceptual Contrast Enhancement with Dynamic Range Adjustment (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Yuecheng; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui


    Recent years, although great efforts have been made to improve its performance, few Histogram equalization (HE) methods take human visual perception (HVP) into account explicitly. The human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to edges than brightness. This paper proposes to take use of this nature intuitively and develops a perceptual contrast enhancement approach with dynamic range adjustment through histogram modification. The use of perceptual contrast connects the image enhancement problem with the HVS. To pre-condition the input image before the HE procedure is implemented, a perceptual contrast map (PCM) is constructed based on the modified Difference of Gaussian (DOG) algorithm. As a result, the contrast of the image is sharpened and high frequency noise is suppressed. A modified Clipped Histogram Equalization (CHE) is also developed which improves visual quality by automatically detecting the dynamic range of the image with improved perceptual contrast. Experimental results show that the new HE algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art algorithms in improving perceptual contrast and enhancing details. In addition, the new algorithm is simple to implement, making it suitable for real-time applications. PMID:24339452

  18. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. Long-range depletion forces induced by associating small molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, W.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.


    This is the first report of experimental observations of depletion interactions in solutions of a (hydrogen-bonded) reversible supramolecular polymer. Depletion forces were measured directly by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. The range of the depletion force is consistent with existing

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease: Host range and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Mowat, N.


    In this chapter the host range of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) under natural and experimental conditions is reviewed. The routes and sites of infection, incubation periods and clinical and pathological findings are described and highlighted in relation to progress in understanding the pathogenesis...... of FMD....

  1. Range Estimation for Indoor Positioning via Drifting Clocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Schiøler, Henrik; Borre, Kai


    This paper presents results from the “Indoor Positioning” project conducted at Danish GPS Center (DGC), Aalborg University. We focus on creating theoretical background and experimental verification for a software based indoor positioning solution. We present a novel theory to improve the ranging...

  2. Wide-Range Probing of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Yoo, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Yun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Choe, Sug-Bong


    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in magnetic objects is of enormous interest, because it generates built-in chirality of magnetic domain walls (DWs) and topologically protected skyrmions, leading to efficient motion driven by spin-orbit torques. Because of its importance for both potential applications and fundamental research, many experimental efforts have been devoted to DMI investigation. However, current experimental probing techniques cover only limited ranges of the DMI strength and have specific sample requirements. Thus, there are no versatile methods to quantify DMI over a wide range of values. Here, we present such an experimental scheme, which is based on the angular dependence of asymmetric DW motion. This method can be used to determine values of DMI much larger than the maximum strength of the external magnetic field strength, which demonstrates that various DMI strengths can be quantified with a single measurement setup. This scheme may thus prove essential to DMI-related emerging fields in nanotechnology.

  3. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian


    data structure for answering range α-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where α ε (0,1). Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in O((lg n)/α) time, and updates in O((lg n)/α) amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to O......((lg n/(α lglg n)). For constant values of α, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for d ≥ 2, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry...

  4. HIRENASD Experimental Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental Data for HIRENASD configuration Zip files below contain the experimental data for the pressure coefficients, both the static and the forced oscillation...

  5. Tracking of Humans and Robots Using Laser Range Finders (United States)

    Bršcic, Drazen; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    There exist various applications where tracking of humans or robots in an area is needed. An example of such applications are Intelligent Spaces, where humans and robots share a common space and their positions are tracked by a system of sensors in the space. In this paper a system for tracking both humans and robots that utilizes laser range finders as sensing devices is described. The details of the extraction of objects from the laser scan, data association and estimation are given, and results of tracking humans and robots are described. Calibration of the distributed laser range finders, which is important for the operation of the tracking system is also described, both in a manual and automated variant and experimental results are given. Finally, the inclusion of a laser range finder onboard the mobile robot in the tracking process is described and accompanied with experimental results. The distributed fusion of static and onboard sensors is also discussed.

  6. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun


    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  7. Ethics in Animal Experimentation


    Yusuf Ergun


    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  8. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation). (United States)

    Burton Meis, Roberto


    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  9. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhatt, J


    ... or in human volunteers. Thus, an experimental pharmacology using animal models continues to be the starting point for a new drug research. The book Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology by Dr. M. N. Ghosh has really been a cornerstone for postgraduate students and researchers engaged in animal experimentation. It has always been useful for pos...

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of the static and dynamic crack growth resistance behaviour of structural steels in the temperature range from 20 C to 350 C; Experimentelle und numerische Untersuchungen des statischen und dynamischen Risswiderstandsverhaltens verschiedener hoeherfester Baustaehle im Temperaturbereich von 20 C bis 350 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurich, D.; Gerwien, P.; Huenecke, J.; Klingbeil, D.; Krafka, H.; Kuenecke, G.; Ohm, K.; Veith, H.; Wossidlo, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Haecker, R.; 1


    The crack growth resistance behaviour of the steels StE 460 and 22NiMoCr3-7 was determined in the temperature range from 23 C to 350 C by means of C(T), M(T), and ISO-V specimens tested under quasistatic and dynamic loads. The Russian steel 15Ch2NMFA-A was tested at room temperature and 50 C. In the steels StE 460 and 22 NiMoCr3-7, the minimum crack growth resistance is observed at about 250 C, with measured values always being higher for the latter steel type. The crack growth resistance behaviour of the tested materials correlates with the behaviour of flow curve, yield strength, and notch impact toughness as a function of temperature. Impact tests of ISO-V specimens give higher crack resistance values than quasistatic load tests, and the temperature dependence is significantly lower than those of specimens tested under static loads. A metallurgical analysis of the materials shows the causes of the dissimilar behaviour. The stretching zones determined for the C(T) specimen correspond to the toughness of the steels examined, and they are not much influenced by the temperature. The numerical analysis using damaging models for simulation of ductile crack growth is reported for all specimen types and two different temperatures each. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Mit C(T)-, M(T)- sowie quasistatisch und dynamisch geprueften ISO-V-Proben wurde das Risswiderstandsverhalten fuer die Staehle StE 460 und 22NiMoCr3-7 im Temperaturbereich von 23 C bis 350 C ermittelt, waehrend der russische Stahl 15Ch2NMFA-A fuer Raumtemperatur und fuer 50 C untersucht wurde. Das Minimum der Risszaehigkeit stellt sich bei StE 460 und 22 NiMoCr3-7 um etwa 250 C ein, wobei die Werte fuer den 22NiMoCr3-7 bei allen Temperaturen wesentlich hoeher liegen als beim StE 460. Dabei korreliert das Risswiderstandsverhalten der untersuchten Werkstoffe mit dem Verhalten von Fliesskurven, Streckgrenzen und Kerbschlagzaehigkeiten in Abhaengigkeit von der Temperatur. Schlagartig beanspruchte ISO-V-Proben liefern

  11. 2016 International Symposium on Experimental Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Khatib, Oussama; Venture, Gentiane


    Experimental Robotics XV is the collection of papers presented at the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan on October 3-6, 2016. 73 scientific papers were selected and presented after peer review. The papers span a broad range of sub-fields in robotics including aerial robots, mobile robots, actuation, grasping, manipulation, planning and control and human-robot interaction, but shared cutting-edge approaches and paradigms to experimental robotics. The readers will find a breadth of new directions of experimental robotics. The International Symposium on Experimental Robotics is a series of bi-annual symposia sponsored by the International Foundation of Robotics Research, whose goal is to provide a forum dedicated to experimental robotics research. Robotics has been widening its scientific scope, deepening its methodologies and expanding its applications. However, the significance of experiments remains and will remain at the center of the discipline. The ISER gatherings are...

  12. Ranging Consistency Based on Ranging-Compensated Temperature-Sensing Sensor for Inter-Satellite Link of Navigation Constellation. (United States)

    Meng, Zhijun; Yang, Jun; Guo, Xiye; Zhou, Yongbin


    Global Navigation Satellite System performance can be significantly enhanced by introducing inter-satellite links (ISLs) in navigation constellation. The improvement in position, velocity, and time accuracy as well as the realization of autonomous functions requires ISL distance measurement data as the original input. To build a high-performance ISL, the ranging consistency among navigation satellites is an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, we focus on the variation in the ranging delay caused by the sensitivity of the ISL payload equipment to the ambient temperature in space and propose a simple and low-power temperature-sensing ranging compensation sensor suitable for onboard equipment. The experimental results show that, after the temperature-sensing ranging compensation of the ISL payload equipment, the ranging consistency becomes less than 0.2 ns when the temperature change is 90 °C.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi


    Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.

  14. Survivial Strategies in Bacterial Range Expansions (United States)

    Frey, Erwin


    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Different environmental conditions as well as bacterial interactions determine the establishment and sustainability of bacterial diversity. In this talk we discuss the competition of three Escherichia coli strains during range expansions on agar plates. In this bacterial model system, a colicin E2 producing strain C competes with a colicin resistant strain R and with a colicin sensitive strain S for new territory. Genetic engineering allows us to tune the growth rates of the strains and to study distinct ecological scenarios. These scenarios may lead to either single-strain dominance, pairwise coexistence, or to the coexistence of all three strains. In order to elucidate the survival mechanisms of the individual strains, we also developed a stochastic agent-based model to capture the ecological scenarios in silico. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach we are able to show that the level of biodiversity depends crucially on the composition of the inoculum, on the relative growth rates of the three strains, and on the effective reach of colicin toxicity.

  15. Chaotic Colpitts Oscillator for the Ultrahigh Frequency Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.; Bumeliene, S.


    . Simulations indicate that chaotic oscillations observed experimentally at higher frequencies, e.g., at about 1000MHz are caused by parasites, like wiring inductances, loss resistance appearing due to skin effect, and collector-emitter capacitance of the transistor. Reliable and reproducible chaos can......PSpice simulation and experimental results demonstrating chaotic performance of the Colpitts oscillator in the ultrahigh frequency (300–1000 MHz) range are presented.Various combinations of the resonance tank parameters are considered to achieve a fundamental frequency as high as possible...... be generated at fundamental frequencies up to about 500MHz with the single-stage Colpitts oscillator using the microwave 9 GHz bipolar junction transistors....

  16. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. Robot vision is a key technology to remotely monitor structural safety in radiation area of nuclear industry. Especially, visualization technique in low-visibility areas, such as smoking and fog areas, is essential to monitor structural safety in emergency smoking areas. In this paper, a range acquisition technique to discriminate objects is developed. The developed technique to acquire object range images is adapted to a range-gated vision system. Visualization experiments are carried out to detect objects in low-visibility fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper.

  17. Is animal experimentation fundamental? (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli


    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  18. Transonic Experimental Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  19. Zadoff-Chu coded ultrasonic signal for accurate range estimation

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed H.


    This paper presents a new adaptation of Zadoff-Chu sequences for the purpose of range estimation and movement tracking. The proposed method uses Zadoff-Chu sequences utilizing a wideband ultrasonic signal to estimate the range between two devices with very high accuracy and high update rate. This range estimation method is based on time of flight (TOF) estimation using cyclic cross correlation. The system was experimentally evaluated under different noise levels and multi-user interference scenarios. For a single user, the results show less than 7 mm error for 90% of range estimates in a typical indoor environment. Under the interference from three other users, the 90% error was less than 25 mm. The system provides high estimation update rate allowing accurate tracking of objects moving with high speed.

  20. Real-time extended dynamic range imaging in shearography. (United States)

    Groves, Roger M; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang


    Extended dynamic range (EDR) imaging is a postprocessing technique commonly associated with photography. Multiple images of a scene are recorded by the camera using different shutter settings and are merged into a single higher dynamic range image. Speckle interferometry and holography techniques require a well-modulated intensity signal to extract the phase information, and of these techniques shearography is most sensitive to different object surface reflectivities as it uses self-referencing from a sheared image. In this paper the authors demonstrate real-time EDR imaging in shearography and present experimental results from a difficult surface reflectivity sample: a wooden panel painting containing gold and dark earth color paint.

  1. Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide in the visible spectral range (United States)

    Melentiev, P. N.; Kuzin, A. A.; Balykin, V. I.; Ignatov, A. I.; Merzlikin, A. M.


    Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon‑polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) are a practically valuable type of plasmonic waveguide. The properties of DLSPPWs at telecommunication wavelengths have been studied in detail. However, the efficient optical excitation of DLSPPWs in the visible spectral range has still not been realized. In this work, we present the results of our experimental investigations of DLSPPWs in the visible spectral range. In addition, a new configuration for the excitation and detection of the DLSPPW mode has been proposed and realized. The propagation of plasmon wave up to a distance of 45 µm in the DLSPPW has been demonstrated.

  2. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.


    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  3. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  4. Impacts of diurnal temperature range on ecosystem carbon balance: an experimental test in grassland mesocosms (United States)

    Phillips, C. L.; Gregg, J. W.; Wilson, J. K.; Pangle, L. A.; Bailey, D.


    Although extensive research has determined ecosystem responses to equal increases in day and night temperatures, current temperature increases have generally been asymmetrical, with increases in minimum temperature (Tmin) exceeding increases in maximum temperature (Tmax), or vice versa, depending on location. We conducted an ecosystem warming experiment in a perennial grassland to determine the effects of asymmetrically elevated diel temperature profiles using precision climate-controlled sunlit environmental chambers. Asymmetrically warmed chambers (+5/+2°C, Tmin/Tmax) were compared with symmetrically warmed (+3.5°C continuously) and control chambers (ambient). We tested three alternative hypotheses comparing the carbon balance under symmetric (SYM) and asymmetric (ASYM) warming: H1) SYM ASYM, because warmer nights in the ASYM treatment increase respiration more then photosynthesis, reducing plant growth; H3) SYM = ASYM, due to a combination of effects. Results from the third growing season support H3, that carbon balance is the same under the two elevated diel temperature profiles. During the early part of the growing season, asymmetric warming resulted in higher nighttime respiratory losses than symmetric warming, but these greater loses were compensated by increased early morning photosynthesis. As a result, carbon balance was not different in the two warming treatments at daily time steps. Furthermore, declines in soil moisture over the growing season may have important modulating impacts on the temperature sensitivity of carbon fluxes. As soils dried, carbon fluxes became less sensitive to diel temperature fluctuations, and more similar in the symmetric and asymmetric treatments.

  5. PROVE Land Cover and Leaf Area of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Field measurement of shrubland ecological properties is important for both site monitoring and validation of remote-sensing information. During the PROVE exercise on...

  6. On the search for new long-range forces

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich


    The hypothesis is discussed of the existence of new long-range forces in addition to gravitational and electromagnetic forces. It is assumed that the forces act between massive elementary particles of a new type which have not been observed hitherfore experimentally. A search for such particles could be carried out by means of exact and systematic gravimetric measurements on the surface of the Earth as well as in the solar system. (11 refs).

  7. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira


    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial compo...... visible errors on contrast reduction. This information is subsequently analyzed via fuzzy clustering to enable a probabilistic interpretation. To evaluate the proposed approach, we performed an experimental study on a large set of publicly available HDR images....

  8. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, M


    ... to its unique approach in comparison to other books available on Experimental pharmacology. The main purpose of this book was to give a theoretical background followed by the appropriate experimental techniques. The late Prof. H. O. Schild, then Professor of Pharmacology, University College London in his brief introduction to the first editi...

  9. Theory-laden experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Samuel


    The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental p...

  10. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri


    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  11. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  12. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use. (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C


    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (Paccessed the range with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  13. Experimental methods in behavioral teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, G.


    Efforts are made to develop toxicological techniques with which new behavioral teratogens can be recognized. The review describes the most important experimental methods which are presently explored, and which are based on a rich body of knowledge accumulated by experimental psychologists. Most of the tests were developed with small animals, mostly with rats. They range from the rather straightforward determination of various reflexes to complex behavioral situations involving mechanical devices, operant conditioning techniques and procedures evaluating social behavior. In applying these methods in routine toxicology, it is important to remember, that many behavioral effects determined in newborn and adult animals are subtle. Moreover, they are influenced by a large variety of environmental factors affecting the health and the behavior of the mothers and of the offspring in the early and later phases of development. Therefore, the experiments must be conducted under highly standardized conditions and must be controlled rigorously. It is concluded that the best experimental strategy for the evaluation of potential behavioral teratogens is not yet established. Therefore, it would be premature to decide on a fixed protocol to be included in routine animal safety experiments for drugs and other chemical substances.

  14. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    The earths atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  15. Energy based correlation criteria in the mid-frequency range (United States)

    Biedermann, J.; Winter, R.; Wandel, M.; Böswald, M.


    Aircraft structures are characterized by their lightweight design. As such, they are prone to vibrations. Numerical models based on the Finite Element Method often show significant deviations when the mid-frequency range is considered, where strong interaction between vibrations and acoustics is present. Model validation based on experimental modal data is often not possible due to the high modal density that aircraft fuselage structures exhibit in this frequency range. Classical correlation criteria like the Modal Assurance Criterion require mode shapes and can therefore not be applied. Other correlation criteria using frequency response data, such as the Frequency Domain Assurance Criterion, are highly sensitive to even small structural modifications and fail to indicated the correlation between test and analysis data in the mid-frequency range. Nevertheless, validated numerical models for the mid- to high-frequency ranges are a prerequisite for acoustic comfort predictions of aircraft cabin. This paper presents a new method for the correlation of response data from test and analysis in the mid-frequency range to support model validation in the mid-frequency range and to enable the usage of finite element models in this frequency range. The method is validated on a stiffened cylindrical shell structure, which represents a scale-model of an aircraft fuselage. The correlation criterion presented here is inspired by Statistical Energy Analysis and is based on kinetic energies integrated over frequency bands and spatially integrated over surface areas of the structure. The objective is to indicate frequency bands where the finite element model needs to be adjusted to better match with experimental observations and to locate the areas where these adjustments should be applied.

  16. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd


    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  17. Experimental semiotics: a review. (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon


    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  18. Experimental economics in antitrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normann, H.T.; Müller, W.; Blair, R.D.; Sokol, D.D.


    This chapter assesses the scope and the specific contribution of laboratory experiments for antitrust. It reviews experiments that have addressed specific antitrust issues, problems, and institutions. The chapter mainly covers experimental studies on collusion (tacit and explicit, conscious

  19. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)


    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  20. What determines a species' geographical range? Thermal biology and latitudinal range size relationships in European diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). (United States)

    Calosi, Piero; Bilton, David T; Spicer, John I; Votier, Stephen C; Atfield, Andrew


    1. The geographical range sizes of individual species vary considerably in extent, although the factors underlying this variation remain poorly understood, and could include a number of ecological and evolutionary processes. A favoured explanation for range size variation is that this result from differences in fundamental niche breadths, suggesting a key role for physiology in determining range size, although to date empirical tests of these ideas remain limited. 2. Here we explore relationships between thermal physiology and biogeography, whilst controlling for possible differences in dispersal ability and phylogenetic relatedness, across 14 ecologically similar congeners which differ in geographical range extent; European diving beetles of the genus Deronectes Sharp (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Absolute upper and lower temperature tolerance and acclimatory abilities are determined for populations of each species, following acclimation in the laboratory. 3. Absolute thermal tolerance range is the best predictor of both species' latitudinal range extent and position, differences in dispersal ability (based on wing size) apparently being less important in this group. In addition, species' northern and southern range limits are related to their tolerance of low and high temperatures respectively. In all cases, absolute temperature tolerances, rather than acclimatory abilities are the best predictors of range parameters, whilst the use of independent contrasts suggested that species' thermal acclimation abilities may also relate to biogeography, although increased acclimatory ability does not appear to be associated with increased range size. 4. Our study is the first to provide empirical support for a relationship between thermal physiology and range size variation in widespread and restricted species, conducted using the same experimental design, within a phylogenetically and ecologically controlled framework.

  1. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl


    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  2. The Experimental Art School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised......The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised...

  3. Frozen waves: experimental generation


    Vieira, TA; Gesualdi, MRR; Zamboni-Rached, M


    Frozen waves (FWs) are very interesting particular cases of nondiffracting beams whose envelopes are static and whose longitudinal intensity patterns can be chosen a priori. We present here for the first time (that we know of) the experimental generation of FWs. The experimental realization of these FWs was obtained using a holographic setup for the optical reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGH), based on a 4-f Fourier filtering system and a nematic liquid crystal spatial light ...

  4. Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads


    There is a widespread belief that the increasing use of dynamic range compression in music mastering (the loudnesswar) deteriorates sound quality but experimental evidence of perceptual effects is lacking. In this study, normal hearing listeners were asked to evaluate popular music recordings...... of response consistency between different presentations of the same music suggests that listeners are less sensitive to even high levels of dynamic range compression than often argued....... in original versions and in remastered versions with higher levels of dynamic range compression. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of preference for the less compressed music. We also failed to find differences in ratings of perceived "depth" between the original and more compressed audio. A low degree...

  5. Aerial Triangulation Close-range Images with Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong


    Full Text Available A new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion is presented. Using dual quaternion to represent the spiral screw motion of the beam in the space, the real part of dual quaternion represents the angular elements of all the beams in the close-range area networks, the real part and the dual part of dual quaternion represents the line elements corporately. Finally, an aerial triangulation adjustment model based on dual quaternion is established, and the elements of interior orientation and exterior orientation and the object coordinates of the ground points are calculated. Real images and large attitude angle simulated images are selected to run the experiments of aerial triangulation. The experimental results show that the new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion can obtain higher accuracy.

  6. Bearing fault detection in the acoustic emission frequency range (United States)

    Tavakoli, Massoud S.

    The effectiveness of using bearing fault detection in the acoustic-emission frequency range is demonstrated using a vertical milling machine as the testbed. The experimental testbed is monitored by an accelerometer and an acoustic emission sensor, and the signals are demodulated by rms enveloping and then fast-Fourier-transformed. The analytical computation of the defect characteristic frequency is explained, and the time histories are given of the enveloped signal and its spectrum. The method is shown to be useful for extracting the repetition rate of the repetitive component of the general signal, and the signal generated by the bearing defect is identified in the frequency ranges of mechanical vibration and acoustic emission. The signal in the acoustic-emission frequency range is shown to be helpful for detecting bearing defects because it not affected by repetitive mechanical noise.

  7. Biaxial tension on polymer in thermoforming range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billon N.


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental characterization of mechanical properties of a polyethylene terephtalate (PET resin classically used in stretch blow moulding process. We have applied on such a material a well established experimental protocol at CEMEF, including new and relevant biaxial tensile tests. The experimental set-up relative to biaxial tension will be presented and described in a first part of the paper. Furthermore, we will focus on the experimental DMTA preliminary tests which are required to estimate the resin sensibility to temperature and strain rate in linear viscoelasticity domain. Finally, we will be interested in the material large strain behaviour: biaxial tensile results are presented and discussed. Finally, such an experimental approach should allow a relevant modelling of polymer physics and mechanics; this point will not be discussed here because of a lack of time.

  8. The SPOrt Project: an Experimental Overview


    Cortiglioni, S.; Cecchini, S.; Carretti, E.; Orsini, M.; Fabbri, R.; Boella, G.; Sironi, G.; Monari, J.; Orfei, A.; Tascone, R.; Pisani, U.; Ng, K. W.; Nicastro, L.; Popa, L.; Strukov, I. A.


    The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt) is presented as a project aimed to measure the diffuse sky polarized emission, from the International Space Station, in the frequency range 20-90 GHz with 7 degrees of HPBW. The SPOrt experimental configuration is described with emphasis on the aspects that make SPOrt the first European scientific payload operating at microwave wavelengths.

  9. An experimental study of passive regenerator geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini


    experimental uncertainty associated with magnetocaloric material properties, all regenerators are made of aluminum. The performance of corrugated plates and dimpled plates are compared to traditional flat plate regenerators for a range of cycle times and utilizations. Each regenerator is built using 18...

  10. Range image registration using a photometric metric under unknown lighting. (United States)

    Thomas, Diego; Sugimoto, Akihiro


    Based on the spherical harmonics representation of image formation, we derive a new photometric metric for evaluating the correctness of a given rigid transformation aligning two overlapping range images captured under unknown, distant, and general illumination. We estimate the surrounding illumination and albedo values of points of the two range images from the point correspondences induced by the input transformation. We then synthesize the color of both range images using albedo values transferred using the point correspondences to compute the photometric reprojection error. This way allows us to accurately register two range images by finding the transformation that minimizes the photometric reprojection error. We also propose a practical method using the proposed photometric metric to register pairs of range images devoid of salient geometric features, captured under unknown lighting. Our method uses a hypothesize-and-test strategy to search for the transformation that minimizes our photometric metric. Transformation candidates are efficiently generated by employing the spherical representation of each range image. Experimental results using both synthetic and real data demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed metric.

  11. WPC's Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin. The Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin describes the expected locations of high and low pressure centers, surface frontal...

  12. Range-Based Auto-Focus Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maracel Systems and Software Technologies, LLC proposes a revolutionary Range-Based Auto Focus (RBAF) system that will combine externally input range, such as might...

  13. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2008 (United States)


    Air Facility Quantico in FY2008. RAICUZ studies at Townsend Range, Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range, and Barry M Goldwater Range-West are on...representatives from Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah and other interested stakeholders. Part of the working group’s tactical

  14. Compressed Data Structures for Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vind, Søren Juhl


    matrices and web graphs. Our contribution is twofold. First, we show how to compress geometric repetitions that may appear in standard range searching data structures (such as K-D trees, Quad trees, Range trees, R-trees, Priority R-trees, and K-D-B trees), and how to implement subsequent range queries......We study the orthogonal range searching problem on points that have a significant number of geometric repetitions, that is, subsets of points that are identical under translation. Such repetitions occur in scenarios such as image compression, GIS applications and in compactly representing sparse...... that supports range searching....

  15. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez


    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  16. Self-experimentation. (United States)

    Davis, John K


    Except in certain cases of unusual risk, self-experimentation should not be encouraged. It is usually scientifically inadequate for lack of proper controls and sufficient subjects to generate meaningful results. It is also inadequate as an ethical test because even if lay persons are also enrolled, self-experimentation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish that they may participate. It is not necessary to establish that lay persons may participate because institutional ethics review and informed consent are better ways to determine this. It is not sufficient because the investigator may be more risk accepting or not medically typical. Moreover, because scientific research is now done in teams, self-experimentation may involve undue influence when junior investigators participate as research subjects.

  17. Observation of prethermalization in long-range interacting spin chains (United States)

    Neyenhuis, Brian; Zhang, Jiehang; Hess, Paul W.; Smith, Jacob; Lee, Aaron C.; Richerme, Phil; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Monroe, Christopher


    Although statistical mechanics describes thermal equilibrium states, these states may or may not emerge dynamically for a subsystem of an isolated quantum many-body system. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale, and instead relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics, when approximately conserved quantities are included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-range interactions, the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. However, the prethermal state in this case cannot be described by a standard GGE; it rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions. PMID:28875166

  18. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)


    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  19. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose-dependent h......The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose...

  20. An Experimental Introduction to Acoustics (United States)

    Black, Andy Nicholas; Magruder, Robert H.


    Learning and understanding physics requires more than studying physics texts. It requires doing physics. Doing research is a key opportunity for students to connect physical principles with their everyday experience. A powerful way to introduce students to research and technique is through subjects in which they might find interest. Presented is an experiment that serves to introduce an advanced undergraduate or high school student to conducting research in acoustics via an experiment involving a standard dreadnought acoustic guitar, recording industry-related equipment, and relevant industrial analysis software. This experimental process is applicable to a wide range of acoustical topics including both acoustic and electric instruments. Also, the student has a hands-on experience with relevant audio engineering technology to study physical principles.

  1. Range imager performance comparison in homodyne and heterodyne operating modes (United States)

    Conroy, Richard M.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Künnemeyer, Rainer; Cree, Michael J.


    Range imaging cameras measure depth simultaneously for every pixel in a given field of view. In most implementations the basic operating principles are the same. A scene is illuminated with an intensity modulated light source and the reflected signal is sampled using a gain-modulated imager. Previously we presented a unique heterodyne range imaging system that employed a bulky and power hungry image intensifier as the high speed gain-modulation mechanism. In this paper we present a new range imager using an internally modulated image sensor that is designed to operate in heterodyne mode, but can also operate in homodyne mode. We discuss homodyne and heterodyne range imaging, and the merits of the various types of hardware used to implement these systems. Following this we describe in detail the hardware and firmware components of our new ranger. We experimentally compare the two operating modes and demonstrate that heterodyne operation is less sensitive to some of the limitations suffered in homodyne mode, resulting in better linearity and ranging precision characteristics. We conclude by showing various qualitative examples that demonstrate the system's three-dimensional measurement performance.

  2. How the range effect contaminates control scores in studies of visual illusions. (United States)

    Hotopf, W H; Brown, S A


    The relationship between mean control scores and mean experimental scores in 23 experiments on alignment illusions has been examined. Evidence is presented to show that, through the operation of the range effect, control scores are biased to a significant degree in the direction of experimental scores. The implications of this are considered, not only as regards the value of control scores in psychophysical studies, but also as further evidence of the dangers of within-subjects experimental designs when issues depend upon the values of extreme points in a range of values.

  3. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation. (United States)

    Irvine, George W.


    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  4. Outsourcing of experimental work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik


    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase...

  5. Aspects of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 6, 1974 ... The remaining articles in this series are: Part Il-Hyperplastic nodules; Part Ill-Iron overload and hepatocarcinogenesis; Part IV-Changes in the liver fol- lowing cessation of carcinogen administration; Part V-. The ultrastructural morphology of early hepatocellular carcinomas. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD.

  6. Experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Paula, L


    A summary of the contributions on experimental high energy physics to the XXIV Brazilian National Meeting on Particle and Fields is presented. There were 5 invited talks and 32 submitted contributions. The active Brazilian groups are involved in several interesting projects but suffer from the lack of funding and interaction with Brazilian theorists.

  7. Experimental status of physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from -factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of -physics. After a quick description of -facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and ...

  8. Experimental Search for Pentaquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, K


    The experimental evidence for pentaquarks, both old an new, is discussed. Constraints due to $K^+N$ scattering data from previous decades is first reviewed, followed by experiments with positive evidence and those with null results. Finally, the problem of the narrow width of the Theta+ pentaquark is discussed, along with theoretical implications.

  9. Dr Ahmed Experimental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    possible to directly determine the infection rates from the flies caught off the experimental animals. This was estimated through the dissection of 180 flies trapped from several sites within the. LGA using Nitse trap (Omoogun 1994) and Biconical trap. (Challier & Larvessiere 1973). The trypanosoma species were identified by ...

  10. Network Science Experimentation Vision (United States)


    capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . This report outlines and discusses an experimentation vision that...has been shown to depend upon the capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . Such a collection of networks ...well as tactical military networks . In particular, wireless tactical networks can be simulated with high fidelity, using off the shelf simulation

  11. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci


    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  12. Experimental modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system...

  13. Strategic Experimentation : A Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, P.; Harris, C.


    This paper extends the classic two-armed bandit problem to a many-agent setting in which I players each face the same experi- mentation problem.The main change from the single-agent prob- lem is that an agent can now learn from the current experimentation of other agents.Information is therefore a

  14. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.


    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  15. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2010 (United States)


    Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat...range; some means of facilitating IO play but no organic capability. NTTR continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service to deploy at UOC organic capability. Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the UOC . Collective Ranges Information

  16. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2015 (United States)


    no organic capability. HQ NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ...NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic... UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat Support h The range lacks a complete electronic target set. EA platforms do not get real-time feedback on their

  17. Range contraction in large pelagic predators. (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P


    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range-abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11-29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range.

  18. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Oregon Spotted Frog Range - CWHR [ds597 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  20. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  1. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  2. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  3. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Bank Swallow Range - CWHR [ds606 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Northern Leopard Frog Range - CWHR [ds593 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  7. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  8. Great Egret Range - CWHR [ds610 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Cascades Frog Range - CWHR [ds591 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. Western spadefoot Range - CWHR [ds590 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  12. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  13. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB


    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  14. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael


    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  15. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  16. Snowy Egret Range - CWHR [ds611 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Giant Garter Snake Range - CWHR [ds599 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  18. Photonic band gap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas


    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm...... of achieving a full bandgap (in the surface plane) for LR-SPPs are also discussed....

  19. Near field phased array DOA and range estimation of UHF RFID tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiting, J.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    This paper presents a near field localization system based on a phased array for UHF RFID tags. To estimate angle and range the system uses a two-dimensional MUSIC algorithm. A four channel phased array is used to experimentally verify the estimation of angle and range for an EPC gen2 tag. The

  20. Methanol adsorption by amorphous silica alumina in the critical temperature range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczynski, M.; van Ooteghem, A.; Westerterp, K.R.


    The methanol adsorption capacity of an amorphous silica-alumina was measured using an equilibrium technique. The experimental temperature range was of 140 to 260°C and the pure methanol pressure range was 0.1 to 1.2 MPa. A multilayer adsorption was found, also for temperatures above the critical

  1. OAM-enhanced transmission for multimode short-range links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    We propose, experimentally demonstrate, and evaluate the performance of a multimode (MM) transmission fiber data link which is based on orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. The proposed scheme uses OAM modes to increase capacity or reach without recurring to mode division multiplexing (MDM......) or special fibers: we first excite an OAM mode and couple it to a 50 m, 100 m, 200 m and 400m MM fibers. We compare three OAM modes and a conventional optical multimode under the same launch and received optical power conditions. The proposed OAM based solution is a promising candidate for the data centers...... interconnects and short range links that employ the existing multimode fiber infrastructure....

  2. Long-range measurement system using ultrasonic range sensor with high-power transmitter array in air. (United States)

    Kumar, Sahdev; Furuhashi, Hideo


    A long-range measurement system comprising an ultrasonic range sensor with a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array in air was investigated. The system is simple in construction and can be used under adverse conditions such as fog, rain, darkness, and smoke. However, due to ultrasonic waves are well absorbed by air molecules, the measurable range is limited to a few meters. Therefore, we developed a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array consisting of 144 transmitting elements. All elements are arranged in the form of a 12×12 array pattern. The sound pressure level at 5m from the transmitter array was >30dB higher than that of a single element. A measuring range of over 25m was achieved using this transmitter array in conjunction with a receiver array having 32 receiving elements. The characteristics of the transmitter array and range sensor system are discussed by comparing simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Probing General Relativity and New Physics with Lunar Laser Ranging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Agnello, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Maiello, M., E-mail: [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Currie, D.G. [University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, MD (United States); Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Intaglietta, N.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) dell' INFN, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vittori, R. [Aeronautica Militare Italiana (AMI), Rome (Italy); Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), Rome (Italy); Bianco, G. [ASI-Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, Matera (Italy); Coradini, A. [INAF-Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Dionisio, C. [Rheinmetall Italia S.p.A., Via Affile 102, 00131 Rome (Italy); March, R. [INFN-LNF and CNR-Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo (IAC), Viale del Policlinico 137, 00161 Rome (Italy); Bellettini, G. [INFN-LNF and Department of Mathematics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); and others


    Over the past 40 years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR, developed by the Univ. of Maryland (PI) and INFN-LNF (Co-PI)) to the Apollo Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) arrays have supplied almost all the significant tests of General Relativity (Currie et al., 2009 [12]). LLR can evaluate the PPN (Post Newtonian Parameters), addressing this way both the possible changes in the gravitational constant and the self-energy properties of the gravitational field. In addition, the LLR has provided significant information on the composition and origin of the Moon. This is the only Apollo experiment that is still in operation. Initially the Apollo LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Over the decades, the ranging capabilities of the ground stations have improved by more than two orders of magnitude. Now, because of the lunar librations, the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays contribute a significant fraction of the limiting errors in the range measurements. We built a new experimental apparatus (the 'Satellite/Lunar Laser Ranging Characterization Facility', SCF) and created a new test procedure (the SCF-Test) to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of cube corner laser retroreflectors in space for industrial and scientific applications (Dell'Agnello et al., 2011 [13]). Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP) and the temperature distribution of the SLR retroreflector payload under thermal conditions produced with a close-match solar simulator. The apparatus includes infrared cameras for non-invasive thermometry, thermal control and real-time movement of the payload to experimentally simulate satellite orientation on orbit with respect to both solar illumination and laser interrogation beams. These unique capabilities provide experimental validation of the space segment for SLR and Lunar Laser Ranging

  4. Probing General Relativity and New Physics with Lunar Laser Ranging (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Maiello, M.; Currie, D. G.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Intaglietta, N.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Vittori, R.; Bianco, G.; Coradini, A.; Dionisio, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Chandler, J.


    Over the past 40 years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR, developed by the Univ. of Maryland (PI) and INFN-LNF (Co-PI)) to the Apollo Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) arrays have supplied almost all the significant tests of General Relativity (Currie et al., 2009 [12]). LLR can evaluate the PPN (Post Newtonian Parameters), addressing this way both the possible changes in the gravitational constant and the self-energy properties of the gravitational field. In addition, the LLR has provided significant information on the composition and origin of the Moon. This is the only Apollo experiment that is still in operation. Initially the Apollo LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Over the decades, the ranging capabilities of the ground stations have improved by more than two orders of magnitude. Now, because of the lunar librations, the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays contribute a significant fraction of the limiting errors in the range measurements. We built a new experimental apparatus (the ‘Satellite/Lunar Laser Ranging Characterization Facility', SCF) and created a new test procedure (the SCF-Test) to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of cube corner laser retroreflectors in space for industrial and scientific applications (Dell'Agnello et al., 2011 [13]). Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP) and the temperature distribution of the SLR retroreflector payload under thermal conditions produced with a close-match solar simulator. The apparatus includes infrared cameras for non-invasive thermometry, thermal control and real-time movement of the payload to experimentally simulate satellite orientation on orbit with respect to both solar illumination and laser interrogation beams. These unique capabilities provide experimental validation of the space segment for SLR and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). The

  5. Tunable and Broadband Differential Phase Sections in Terahertz Frequency Range (United States)

    Kosiak, O. S.; Bezborodov, V. I.; Kuleshov, Ye. M.; Nesterov, P. K.


    Purpose: Studying the quasioptical tunable and broadband differential phase section (DPS) consisting of several birefringent elements (BE) on the basis of form birefringence effect. Design/methodology/approach: Using the polarization scattering matrix method, the impact of the mutual rotation axis of anisotropy of several BE by the amount of phase shift and the position of the plane of anisotropy of resulting DPS is considered. Findings: The DPS tunable in a wide range are shown to be possibly implemented in the case of quarter- wave DPS of two, and in the case of half-wave DPS of three, identical non-tunable BE. The analysis has shown to the possibility of creating a broadband quarter-wave and half-wave DPS. Conclusions: Experimental research has confirmed the possibility of constructing a tunable and broadband DPS. On this basis, tunable and broadband polarization converters, rotators of polarization plane, polarization phase shifters and frequency shifters in the terahertz frequency range can be created.

  6. Ozone formation in pulsed SDBD in a wide pressure range (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Nudnova, Maryia; mipt Team


    Ozone concentration in surface anode-directed DBD for wide pressure range (150 - 1300 torr) was experimentally measured. Voltage and pressure effect were investigated. Reduced electric field was measured for anode-directed and cathode-directed SDBD. E/n values in cathode-directed SDBD is higher than in cathode-directed on 50 percent at atmospheric pressure. E/n value increase leads to decrease the rate of oxygen dissociation and Ozone formation at lower pressures. Radiating region thickness of sliding discharge was measured. Typical thickness of radiating zone is 0.4-1.0 mm within pressure range 220-740 torr. It was shown that high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge due to high E/n value produces less Ozone with compare to other discharges. Kinetic model was proposed to describe Ozone formation in the pulsed nanosecond SDBD.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Robert L.; Boor, R.A.; Cole, W.M.; Elder, G.E.


    A brief statement of the mission of the White Sands Missile Range Nuclear Effects Laboratory is given. The new Nuclear Effects Laboratory Facility is described. This facility consists of two buildings-a laboratory and a reactor building. The White Sands Missile Range bare critical assembly, designated as the MoLLY-G, is described. The MoLLY-G, an unreflected, unmoderated right circular cylinder of uranium-molybdenum alloy designed for pulsed operation, will have a maximum burst capability of approximately 2 x 10/sup 17/ fissions with a burst width of 50 microseconds. The reactor construction and operating procedures are described. As designed, the MoLLY-G will provide an intense source of pulsed neutron and gamma radiation for a great variety of experimental and test arrangements. (auth)

  8. Phase model analysis of the long-range excitation in the hippocampal CA1 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Gui [Nonlinear and Complex Systems Lab., Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung-Kee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Hyung-Tae [Kyungwon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The synchronization of rhythms in various frequency ranges over participating cortical areas is one of the important issues in neuroscience. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that rhythms of the beta frequency range have a dynamical structure distinct from that of the gamma rhythms. To elucidate the mechanism of synchronization, the role of the long-range excitatory connection which is incorporated with finite conduction delay time needs to be analyzed. This work attempts such analysis, utilizing the reduced phase oscillator model. It is shown that the long-range gamma rhythm remains unstable, regardless of the presence of the excitatory connection. However, the beta rhythm is stable over a broad range of conduction time delay, which cannot apparently be tolerated by the long-range gamma rhythm. These synchronization features are consistent with experimental observations which imply that gamma rhythms are used for local computations, whereas beta rhythms are used for higher level interactions involving more distant structures.

  9. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.


    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is

  10. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...

  11. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia (United States)


    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  12. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges (United States)


    Laysan Albatrosses , and the recovery of a shoreline/littoral zone when human traffic is limited to security vehicles and personnel. This range...Requirements Module (ARRM) and feed the Installation Status C-8 July 2007 2007 SUSTAINABLE RANGES REPORT Report-Natural Infrastructure (see

  13. On the validity range of piston theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C


    Full Text Available as the analytical validity range for linear piston theory as based in potential flows. The range of validity of single-term nonlinear extensions to the linear potential equation into the transonic and hypersonic regions is treated. A brief review of the development...

  14. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014 (United States)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  15. Selected Bibliography On Southern Range Management (United States)

    R. S. Campbell; L. K. Halls; H. P. Morgan


    The purpose of this bibliography is to list important publications relating directly to southern ranges, the domestic livestock and wildlife produced thereon, and the management of these lands, livestock, and wildlife. Range is defined as natural grassland, savannah, or forest that supports native grasses, forbs, or shrubs suitable as forage for livestock and game....

  16. New data structures for orthogonal range searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis


    We present new general techniques for static orthogonal range searching problems in two and higher dimensions. For the general range reporting problem in R3, we achieve query time O(log n+k) using space O(n log1+ε n), where n denotes the number of stored points and k the number of points to be re...

  17. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz


    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  18. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation. (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup


    Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15% of all range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter (p < 0.05). Identifying the causes of inter-individual variation in ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.

  19. Birds and mammals of Manitou Experimental Forest, Colorado (United States)

    Meredith J. Morris; Vincent H. Reld; Richard E. Pillmore; Mary C. Hammer


    Seasonal occurrence, relative abundance, and habitat preference are listed for 90 bird and 41 mammal species that can be found at Manitou Experimental Forest. An annotated list is given also for an additional 70 casual or accidental bird species. Manitou Experimental Forest is located near Colorado Springs in the montane zone of the Colorado Front Range.

  20. Experimental determination of the degree of polarization of quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothe-Termén, Christian; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund


    We demonstrate experimental excitation-manifold-resolved polarization characterization of quantum states of light ranging from the few-photon to the many-photon level. In contrast to the traditional characterization of polarization that is based on the Stokes parameters, we experimentally determi...

  1. Long-Range Persistence Techniques Evaluated (United States)

    Witt, A.; Malamud, B. D.


    Many time series in the Earth Sciences exhibit persistence (memory) where large values (small values) `cluster' together. Here we examine long-range persistence, where one value is correlated with all others in the time series. A time series is long-range persistent (a self-affine fractal) if the power spectral density scales with a power law. The scaling exponent beta characterizes the `strength' of persistence. We compare five common analysis techniques for quantifying long-range persistence: (a) Power-spectral analysis, (b) Wavelet variance analysis, (c) Detrended Fluctuation analysis, (d) Semivariogram analysis, and (e) Rescaled-Range (R/S) analysis. To evaluate these methods, we construct 26,000 synthetic fractional noises with lengths between 512 and 4096, different persistence strengths, different distributions (normal, log-normal, levy), and using different construction methods: Fourier filtering, discrete wavelets, random additions, and Mandelbrot `cartoon' Brownian motions. We find: (a) Power-spectral and wavelet analyses are the most robust for measuring long-range persistence across all beta, although `antipersistence' is over-estimated for non- Gaussian time series. (b) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength beta between -0.2 and 2.8 and has very large 95% confidence intervals for non-Gaussian signals. (c) Semivariograms are appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength between 1.0 and 2.8; it has large confidence intervals and systematically underestimates log-normal noises in this range. (d) Rescaled- Range Analysis is only accurate for beta of about 0.7. We conclude some techniques are much better suited than others for quantifying long-range persistence, and the resultant beta (and associated error bars on them) are sensitive to the one point probability distribution, the length of the time series, and the techniques used.

  2. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts. (United States)

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise


    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  3. TOP2017 Experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    Giammanco, Andrea


    Thanks to the unprecedentedly fast accumulation of high-energy data at the LHC during the ongoing Run~2, most of the traditional top-quark analyses are experiencing the luxury of having to worry about how to punch through the ``Systematics Wall'', and think about new ways to maximize the utility of their data. New processes involving top quarks are being studied for the first time, and the good old pair-production processes are being explored in unusual settings, such as collisions involving heavy ions, or ``reference data'' collected by the LHC at relatively low centre-of-mass energy. The TOP2017 conference featured 37 talks delivered by experimental physicists, including seven in the ``Young Scientists Forum'' where young colleagues were given the opportunity to elaborate more deeply than usual on their own work. As it is impossible to do justice to all the experimental resu...

  4. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  5. Experimental Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun


    Full Text Available It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which have to be used”. In this context, animal welfare and well-being have been referred to the concept of refinement. In the present review, general principles relating to experimental animal welfare will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(1.000: -

  6. Short range DFT combined with long-range local RPA within a range-separated hybrid DFT framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chermak, E; Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos


    Selecting excitations in localized orbitals to calculate long-range correlation contributions to range-separated density-functional theory can reduce the overall computational effort significantly. Beyond simple selection schemes of excited determinants, the dispersion-only approximation, which avoids counterpoise-corrected monomer calculations, is shown to be particularly interesting in this context, which we apply to the random-phase approximation. The approach has been tested on dimers of formamide, water, methane and benzene.

  7. The CMS experimental cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    These images taken in early September 2005 show the cathedral-like cavern into which the CMS experiment will be installed. The 26X26X60 cubic metre hall is the largest underground cavern at CERN, located under the town of Cessy in France. Weighing 12 500 tonnes, the huge CMS detector will be assembled in a specially constructed hall above ground before being lowered into the experimental hall ready for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  8. The Massabesic Experimental Forest (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith


    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  9. Ingratiation: Experimental Evidence


    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire


    We investigate experimentally ingratiatory behavior expressed by opinion conformity. Both individuals' performance at a task and their opinions on various topics can be observed before unequal payoffs are assigned by a second mover. In some treatments, first movers can change their opinion after learning that held by the second mover. We find evidence of high ingratiation indices, as opinion conformity is rewarded. However, second movers reward conformity less when it is common knowledge that...

  10. Methods of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley


    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  11. Comparison of methods of measuring active cervical range of motion. (United States)

    Whitcroft, Katherine L; Massouh, Laura; Amirfeyz, Rouin; Bannister, Gordon


    Experimental study. Cervical range of motion (CROM) was measured using different clinical methods. To compare the reliability and accuracy of visual estimation, tape measurement, and the universal goniometer (UG) with that of the CROM goniometer in measuring active CROM in healthy volunteers. The secondary objective was to identify the single neck movement that best represents overall range of motion. Neck movement is affected by pathology in the spine and shoulder. A reliable and accurate measurement of neck movement is required to quantify injury, recovery, and disability. Various methods of measuring neck movement have been described of which radiography remains the accepted reference standard. However, radiography is impractical for routine clinical assessment. Visual estimation, tape measurement, and the UG are convenient alternatives. To date, the accuracy and reliability of these methods have not been compared in healthy subjects, and the single neck movement that best reflects overall range has not yet been identified. Active cervical flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexion and rotation were measured in 100 healthy volunteers. Visual estimation, tape measurement between fixed landmarks, and the UG aligned on fixed and anatomic landmarks were compared with the CROM goniometer, which was used as the reference standard. Compared with the CROM goniometer, the UG aligned on fixed landmarks was the most accurate method, followed by the UG on anatomic landmarks. The reliability of the UG was between substantial and perfect. Visual estimation was reproducible but measured range of movement inaccurately. Tape measurement was inaccurate. Extension best reflected overall range. The UG aligned on a fixed landmark is most reliable method of measuring neck movement clinically. Where range must be quickly assessed, extension should be measured.

  12. Storm surge and tidal range energy (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon


    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  13. 2008 NASA Range Safety Annual Report (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Richard W.


    Welcome to the 2008 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This year, along with full length articles concerning various subject areas, we have provided updates to standard subjects with links back to the 2007 original article. Additionally, we present summaries from the various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year, as well as information on several special projects that may have a profound impact on the way we will do business in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2008 highlights of Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments and Common Risk Analysis Tools Development; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging Range Safety-related technologies; Special Interests Items that include recent changes in the ELV Payload Safety Program and the VAS explosive siting study; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. We have made a great effort to include the most current information available. We recommend that this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. This is the third year we have utilized this web-based format for the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition, and we hope you enjoy this year's product as well. It has been a very busy and productive year on many fronts as you will note as you review this report. Thank you to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the

  14. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ


    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  15. Remote sensing applications for range management (United States)

    Haas, R. H.


    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  16. Kenai National Moose Range : Narrative report : 1968 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai National Moose Range outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  18. Arctic National Wildlife Range, Annual Narrative Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR) was established by executive order in 1960 for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness and recreational...

  19. Range ecosystem management for natural areas (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes methods for managing range ecosystems in natural areas. Preserved natural areas on rangeland may, in a short time, be only those which received...

  20. Mountain ranges favour vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bablu Sinha; Adam T. Blaker; Joël J.-M. Hirschi; Sarah Bonham; Matthew Brand; Simon Josey; Robin S. Smith; Jochem Marotzke


      We use a global Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM) to show that the major mountain ranges of the world have a significant role in maintenance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC...

  1. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Botdorf, Charles


    This Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement presents the impacts associated with the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of mission diversification and changes to land use for Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona...

  2. VT E911 road address range geocoder (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  3. Worst-Case Efficient Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan


    In this tutorial we will describe some of the recent advances in the development of worst-case efficient range search indexing structures, that is, structures for storing a set of data points such that the points in a axis-parallel (hyper-) query rectangle can be found efficiently (with as few disk...... discuss the external priority search tree [8], which solves a restricted version of the two-dimensional version of the problem where the query rectangle is unbounded on one side. This structure is then used in a range tree index structure [8, 21] that answers general two-dimensional queries in the same......, 17], as well as recent index structures for higher-dimensional range search indexing [1]. We end by mentioning various R-tree variant [7, 18, 15] that can be used to solve the extended version of range search indexing where the queries as well as the data are (hyper-) rectangles. More comprehensive...

  4. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.


    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  5. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas


    ]. •We give an O(n loglog n)-space data structure for approximate 2-D orthogonal range counting that can compute a (1+δ)-factor approximation to the count in O(loglog n) time for any fixed constant δ>0. Again, our bounds match the state of the art for the 2-D orthogonal range emptiness problem. •Lastly...

  6. Vehicle Based Laser Range Finding in Crops


    Hans-Juergen Horn; Rolf Adamek; Detlef Ehlert


    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinder...

  7. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  8. High Dynamic Range Digital Imaging of Spacecraft (United States)

    Karr, Brian A.; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt


    The ability to capture engineering imagery with a wide degree of dynamic range during rocket launches is critical for post launch processing and analysis [USC03, NNC86]. Rocket launches often present an extreme range of lightness, particularly during night launches. Night launches present a two-fold problem: capturing detail of the vehicle and scene that is masked by darkness, while also capturing detail in the engine plume.

  9. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob


    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  10. Models of experimental epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ekici


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological conditionin the world, with an estimated prevalence of 1% ofthe population. A large number of experimental modelsof seizure and epilepsy have been developed. These experimentalmodels are elicited by chemical convulsants,electrical stimulation, genetic models, structural lesions,physical stimuli (cold, pressure, hyperthermia, electricalin animals. Well-characterized animal models may allowthe understanding of the basic mechanisms underlyingepileptogenesis (it refers to the alteration of a normalneuronal network into a hyperexcitable network in whichrecurrent, spontaneous seizures occur. Moreover, thesemodels might also prove useful in identifying novel therapeuticapproaches to treatment of epilepsy. J Clin ExpInvest 2011; 2(1: 118-123

  11. Experimental Axion Review

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Axions are a natural consequence of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, the most compelling solution to the strong-CP problem. Similar axion-like particles (ALPs) also appear in a number of possible extensions of the Standard Model, notably in string theories. Both axions and ALPs are very well motivated candidates for the Dark Matter, and in addition would be copiously produced at the stellar cores. Some anomalous astrophysical observations could be hinting the existence of these particles. They are object of increasing interest by experimentalists. I will briefly review the motivation to search for axions and ALPs, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experimental landscape.

  12. Outsourcing of experimental work. (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik


    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  13. Experimental Blade Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report....

  14. Embryo manipulation and experimentation. (United States)

    Warren, M A


    I have argued that early human embryos are not human beings, and do not have normal rights. Like human sperm and ova, they are both alive and biologically human. However, they lack the physiological development necessary to sustain a capacity for sentience. If Ford is right, then they are not yet individual human organisms. But the more important point is that their lack of a capacity for sentience makes them inappropriate candidates for the ascription of moral rights. Thus, research on human embryos produced in vitro is not a wrong against them--at least so long as experimentally manipulated embryos are not returned to the womb, or artificially gestated to a stage at which they might become sentient. Some of the more difficult issues about embryo experimentation involve the rights of women as experimental subject and donors. The consent of both male and female gamete donors should normally be required for the production or experimental use of IVF embryos. (Possible exceptions might include cases in which one or both progenitors have died, and the survivor or other responsible family member wished to donate the (frozen) IVF embryos for research or other uses.) However, it is women's rights that are most apt to be endangered, for example, if the large scale therapeutic or commercial use of human embryos leads to a demand for large numbers of ova. Thus, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers heed feminist concerns about embryo research and the new biomedical technologies it may yield. Given adequate information and appropriate procedural protections, women are capable of making autonomous decisions about donating ova or embryos for biomedical research. But regulatory safeguards are needed to ensure against their being coerced, deceived, or manipulated into becoming ovum or embryo donors. As Daniel Callahan has detailed, biomedical technology has reached the point where we can no longer afford to provide everyone with all of the innovative therapies that might

  15. Microprocessor realizations of range and range-rate filters in radar systems (United States)

    Fleischer, D.; Aronhime, P.


    This paper describes the implementation of digital radar range-rate filters on a microprocessor-based system. A range-rate filter processes a digitized noisy range signal to recover smoothed range data and its derivative, range rate. Two filter designs are implemented. Considerations aiding their efficient operation on an 8-bit microprocessor are discussed. The filters are subjected to a noisy range input signal of known variance, and the associated output signals are statistically analysed to determine noise-rejection characteristics. These results are compared to analytical predictions.

  16. Reticle level compensation for long range effects (United States)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Browning, Clyde; Thornton, Martin J.; Vannufel, Cyril; Schiavone, Patrick


    Proximity Effects in electron beam lithography impact feature dimensions, pattern fidelity and uniformity. Electron scattering effects are commonly addressed using a mathematical model representing the radial exposure intensity distribution induced by a point electron source, commonly named Point Spread Function (PSF). PSF models are usually employed for correcting "short-range" and "long-range" backscattering effects up to 10μm to 15μm. It is well known that there are also some process related phenomena impacting pattern uniformity that have a wider range (fogging, chemical mechanical polishing -CMP- effects, etc.) which impacts up to a few millimeters or more. There are a number of commercial strategies for mitigating such long range effects based on data density. However, those traditional ones are usually performed within a single chip on a reticle field and ignore the presence of adjacent fields, neglecting their influence. Full field reticles can contain several different designs or arrayed chips in a multitude of layout placements. Reticle level jobdeck placing each design at specific sites, independent of each other can be used to account for the density of each pattern that has a relative impact on its neighbors, even if they are several millimeters away from offending data. Therefore, full field density analysis accounting for scribe frames and all neighboring patterns is required for reaching fidelity control requirements such as critical dimension (CD) and line end shortening (LES) on the full plate. This paper describes a technique to compensate long range effects going across chip boundaries to the full reticle exposure field. The extreme long range effects are also represented with a model that is calibrated according to the characteristics of the user's process. Data correction can be based on dose and geometry modulation. Uniform pattern dimensional control matching the user's specific process long range variability can be achieved with the

  17. Experimental realization of a broadband illusion optics device


    Li, Chao; Meng, Xiankun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Fang; Fang, Guangyou; Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.


    We experimentally demonstrate the first metamaterial "illusion optics" device - an "invisible gateway" by using a transmission-line medium. The device contains an open channel that can block electromagnetic waves at a particular frequency range. We also demonstrate that such a device can work in a broad frequency range.

  18. [Animal experimentation in Israel]. (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah


    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  19. Whither Experimental Semantics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt


    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

  20. Individual differences in BEV drivers' range stress during first encounter of a critical range situation. (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Krems, Josef F


    It is commonly held that range anxiety, in the form of experienced range stress, constitutes a usage barrier, particularly during the early period of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage. To better understand factors that play a role in range stress during this critical period of adaptation to limited-range mobility, we examined individual differences in experienced range stress in the context of a critical range situation. In a field experiment, 74 participants drove a BEV on a 94-km round trip, which was tailored to lead to a critical range situation (i.e., small available range safety buffer). Higher route familiarity, trust in the range estimation system, system knowledge, subjective range competence, and internal control beliefs in dealing with technology were clearly related to lower experienced range stress; emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) was partly related to lower range stress. These results can inform strategies aimed at reducing range stress during early BEV usage, as well as contribute to a better understanding of factors that drive user experience in low-resource systems, which is a key topic in the field of green ergonomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optics At White Sands Missile Range (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.


    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  2. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian


    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  3. Upgrades and Modifications of the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.; Cornelison, Charles J.; Perez, Alfredo J.


    The NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility ballistic range is described. The various configurations of the shadowgraph stations are presented. This includes the original stations with film and configurations with two different types of digital cameras. Resolution tests for the 3 shadowgraph station configurations are described. The advantages of the digital cameras are discussed, including the immediate availability of the shadowgraphs. The final shadowgraph station configuration is a mix of 26 Nikon cameras and 6 PI-MAX2 cameras. Two types of trigger light sheet stations are described visible and IR. The two gunpowders used for the NASA Ames 6.251.50 light gas guns are presented. These are the Hercules HC-33-FS powder (no longer available) and the St. Marks Powder WC 886 powder. The results from eight proof shots for the two powders are presented. Both muzzle velocities and piston velocities are 5 9 lower for the new St. Marks WC 886 powder than for the old Hercules HC-33-FS powder (no longer available). The experimental and CFD (computational) piston and muzzle velocities are in good agreement. Shadowgraph-reading software that employs template-matching pattern recognition to locate the ballistic-range model is described. Templates are generated from a 3D solid model of the ballistic-range model. The accuracy of the approach is assessed using a set of computer-generated test images.

  4. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.


    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  5. Dynamic range and sensitivity adaptation in a silicon spiking neuron. (United States)

    Shin, J; Koch, C


    We here propose an adaptive procedure that enables a spiking neuron, whether artificial or biological, to make optimal use of its dynamic range and gain.We discuss an analog electronic circuit implementation of this algorithm using a biologically realistic artificial "silicon" neuron. The adaptation procedure adapts the neuron's firing threshold and the sensitivity (or gain) of its current-frequency relationship to match the dc offset (or mean) and the dynamic range (or variance) of the time-varying somatic input current. The neuron extracts the minimum and maximum levels of the reconstructed somatic current signals from the cell's own spike trains. These are used to regulate the somatic leak conductance in order to shift the somatic current-frequency relation and to adjust a calcium-activated potassium conductance to change the dynamic range of the cell's somatic current-frequency relationship. We report experimental data from a test neuron--built using analog subthreshold CMOS VLSI technology--that shows the expected behavior.

  6. Global stereo matching algorithm based on disparity range estimation (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei


    The global stereo matching algorithms are of high accuracy for the estimation of disparity map, but the time-consuming in the optimization process still faces a curse, especially for the image pairs with high resolution and large baseline setting. To improve the computational efficiency of the global algorithms, a disparity range estimation scheme for the global stereo matching is proposed to estimate the disparity map of rectified stereo images in this paper. The projective geometry in a parallel binocular stereo vision is investigated to reveal a relationship between two disparities at each pixel in the rectified stereo images with different baselines, which can be used to quickly obtain a predicted disparity map in a long baseline setting estimated by that in the small one. Then, the drastically reduced disparity ranges at each pixel under a long baseline setting can be determined by the predicted disparity map. Furthermore, the disparity range estimation scheme is introduced into the graph cuts with expansion moves to estimate the precise disparity map, which can greatly save the cost of computing without loss of accuracy in the stereo matching, especially for the dense global stereo matching, compared to the traditional algorithm. Experimental results with the Middlebury stereo datasets are presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Joint focus stacking and high dynamic range imaging (United States)

    Qian, Qinchun; Gunturk, Bahadir K.; Batur, Aziz U.


    Focus stacking and high dynamic range (HDR) imaging are two paradigms of computational photography. Focus stacking aims to produce an image with greater depth of field (DOF) from a set of images taken with different focus distances, whereas HDR imaging aims to produce an image with higher dynamic range from a set of images taken with different exposure settings. In this paper, we present an algorithm which combines focus stacking and HDR imaging in order to produce an image with both higher dynamic range and greater DOF than any of the input images. The proposed algorithm includes two main parts: (i) joint photometric and geometric registration and (ii) joint focus stacking and HDR image creation. In the first part, images are first photometrically registered using an algorithm that is insensitive to small geometric variations, and then geometrically registered using an optical flow algorithm. In the second part, images are merged through weighted averaging, where the weights depend on both local sharpness and exposure information. We provide experimental results with real data to illustrate the algorithm. The algorithm is also implemented on a smartphone with Android operating system.

  8. Range conditions for a spherical mean transform

    KAUST Repository

    Agranovsky, Mark


    The paper is devoted to the range description of the Radon type transform that averages a function over all spheres centered on a given sphere. Such transforms arise naturally in thermoacoustic tomography, a novel method of medical imaging. Range descriptions have recently been obtained for such transforms, and consisted of smoothness and support conditions, moment conditions, and some additional orthogonality conditions of spectral nature. It has been noticed that in odd dimensions, surprisingly, the moment conditions are superfluous and can be eliminated. It is shown in this text that in fact the same happens in any dimension.

  9. Distributed chaos and inertial ranges in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A


    It is shown that appearance of inertial range of scales, adjacent to distributed chaos range, results in adiabatic invariance of an energy correlation integral for isotropic homogeneous turbulence and for buoyancy driven turbulence (with stable or unstable stratification, including Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone). Power spectrum of velocity field for distributed chaos dominated by this adiabatic invariant has a stretched exponential form $\\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{3/5}$. Results of recent direct numerical simulations have been used in order to support these conclusions.

  10. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.


    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  11. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud


    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  12. New range of heavy electric vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A new range of electrically-powered vehicles is announced in the UK. The vehicles are a joint venture between the Electric Vehicle Division of Hydrotechniek and its Dutch associate, Creusen Elektro-Mechanische Industrie BV. The 867S and 968S are three-axle vehicles with four-wheel drive on the rear four wheels. At present the vehicles go 20 km/h and have an 80-km range. The speed is to be extended in the near future and a diesel-electric hybrid may be introduced. An 867S is to be fitted out as a mobile library.

  13. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham


    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  14. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging (United States)


    TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessarv and identify WIock numberl FIELD GROUP’ SUB- GIR Air to Air RangingRange Estimationt Min..a simtr uarget rnge sad direction or by observer motion in the statistical behavior of the 4.2 &Awo 0*l LA Sqvwnr. Rmng IoiamIin. Since it hu alredy bin...lengths, sad while they indicate irreularty in the estimation processt, they do nix explain its source. Figure 22, whMc as typical of whet can arise

  15. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability. (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup


    Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total of 7.9 ± 1.0 min/day). Seasonal differences were only marginally explained by weather conditions and may reflect the reduction in range exposure between seasons (number of days, hours per day, and time of day). Specific times of the day (p < 0.01) and pop-holes were favoured (p < 0.05). We provide evidence of relationships between ranging and external factors that may explain ranging preferences.

  16. Range-based covariance estimation using high-frequency data: The realized co-range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bannouh (Karim); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); M.P.E. Martens (Martin)


    textabstractWe introduce the realized co-range, utilizing intraday high-low price ranges to estimate asset return covariances. Using simulations we find that for plausible levels of bid-ask bounce and infrequent and non-synchronous trading the realized co-range improves upon the realized covariance,

  17. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning


    Francescantonio Della Rosa; Mauro Pelosi; Jari Nurmi


    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors intr...

  18. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)


    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  19. Experimental Multiport Bicone Antenna (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ylinen, Juhana


    A practical, easily manufactured multiport bicone antenna suitable for many receiving tasks such as direction finding systems can be made by using sharp-edged metal fins on the feeding coax center conductor to provide a tapered transition and connection path to coaxial probes. This construction resembles an arrow's tail. Already four mutually orthogonal fins can give full 360 degree azimuth coverage with suitable -3 dB port pattern overlap. Five experimental constructions working at Ku and Ka bands, each with fractional bandwidths of 23 to 31 per cent, are shown with full dimensional details. Suitable fin tapering is close to the full air gap in the coax and fin thickness should be less than 1/16th of the outer conductor diameter.

  20. Management an experimental approach. (United States)

    Reed, J C; Aspy, V H


    An experimental teaching procedure was devised and tested for integrating the nursing process, nursing care plans, the research process and management principals. The integration defined as the problem oriented process (POP) was tested with 16 students over two semesters. The results indicated that the POP was a successful integration that aided the student in "getting it all together." As one of the students put it: This experience will give future students, as it did me, a better understanding of how research is best utilized. The students can use almost all their past learning experiences, bringing it all together in one situation. He (the student) can use his communication skills to detect a problem, his research skills to design planned intervention and evaluation and his interpersonal skills to measure his effectiveness as a change agent. Finally, he can use his nursing skills and knowledge of pathophysiology in a setting most like what he will find upon graduation.

  1. Experimental animal models of osteonecrosis. (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Peng, Jiang; Qin, Ling; Lu, Shibi


    Osteonecrosis (ON) or avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common bone metabolic disorder, mostly affecting femoral head. Although many biological, biophysical, and surgical methods have been tested to preserve the femoral head with ON, none has been proven fully satisfactory. It lacks consensus on an optimal approach for treatment. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of ability to systematically compare treatment efficacy using an ideal animal model that mimics full-range osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) in humans with high incidence of joint collapse accompanied by reparative reaction adjacent to the necrotic bone in a reproducible and accessible way. A number of preclinical animal ON models have been established for testing potential efficacy of various modalities developed for prevention and treatment of ON before introduction into clinics for potential applications. This paper describes a number of different methods for creating animal experimental ON models. Advantages and disadvantages of such models are also discussed as reference for future research in battle against this important medical condition.

  2. Long-range beam-beam experiments in the relativistic heavy ion collider

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Milas, N; Robert-Demolaize, G


    Long-range beam-beam effects are a potential limit to the LHC performance with the nominal design parameters, and certain upgrade scenarios under discussion. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed and space is reserved in the LHC for such wires. Two current carrying wires were installed in RHIC to study the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects in a collider, as well as test the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The experimental data were used to benchmark simulations. We summarize this work.

  3. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges. (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W


    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts (United States)

    Smith, Waldo E.


    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  5. Medium-range fire weather forecasts (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka


    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  6. Optimal Static Range Reporting in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis


    a query interval, we present an optimal data structure with linear space cost and with query time linear in the number of integers reported. This result holds in the unit cost RAM model with word size w and a standard instruction set. We also present a linear space data structure for approximate range...



    Crom, Richard J.


    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  8. Short range radio research in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Arjan


    The research and education by the Telecommunication Engineering Group at the University of Twente is dedicated to physical layer topics in communications. Three research tracks have prominence: Short Range Radio, Microwave Photonics, and Electromagnetic Compatibility. Arjan is active in the Short

  9. African Journal of Range and Forage Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Range & Forage Science (previously known as Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa and Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa) is the leading rangeland and pastoral journal in Africa, and serves as an important reference for anyone interested in the management and ...

  10. Controlling a wide range of flow rates (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.


    Servo-operated valve and two flowmeters allow accurate control over 1,900:1 flow-rate range. It was developed as part of laboratory instrument for measuring properties of confined fluids under conditions analogous to those encountered in deep drilling operations.

  11. Demonstration of the Colour Range of Indicators (United States)

    Woods, G. T.


    Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete colour range of the indicator is observable. (GS)

  12. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery


    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  13. Extended-range order in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Egami, T.; Hu, Rui-Zhong [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Howells, W.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)


    A new type of order is identified in complex glasses, characterized by diffraction peaks at values of the wave vector below those typical of intermediate-range order. Combined neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction studies of one glass exhibiting this behavior, vitreous rubidium germanate, indicate it to be associated with chemical ordering of the two cations with respect to each other.

  14. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2013 (United States)


    research, tsunami warning/verification, and seismic / earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique types `` Completed Phases 1 (Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress

  15. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges (United States)


    research, climate research, tsunami warning/ verification, and seismic /earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique...Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress continuing into 2014. 252014 Sustainable

  16. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars (United States)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.


    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  17. Host range evaluation and morphological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 29 isolates of Pseudoperonospora cubensis were collected from various cucurbit farms in West Malaysia. Sporangia of 13 isolates had the ability to germinate at 14°C and were used for host range (pathotype) study using leaf disc assay on a set of twelve cucurbit cultivars. Twelve different pathotypes of P. cubensis ...

  18. Engineering Biosensors with Dual Programmable Dynamic Ranges. (United States)

    Wei, Benmei; Zhang, Juntao; Ou, Xiaowen; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis


    Although extensively used in all fields of chemistry, molecular recognition still suffers from a significant limitation: host-guest binding displays a fixed, hyperbolic dose-response curve, which limits its usefulness in many applications. Here we take advantage of the high programmability of DNA chemistry and propose a universal strategy to engineer biorecognition-based sensors with dual programmable dynamic ranges. Using DNA aptamers as our model recognition element and electrochemistry as our readout signal, we first designed a dual signaling "signal-on" and "signal-off" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor composed of a ferrocene-labeled ATP aptamer in complex to a complementary, electrode-bound, methylene-blue labeled DNA. Using this simple "dimeric" sensor, we show that we can easily (1) tune the dynamic range of this dual-signaling sensor through base mutations on the electrode-bound DNA, (2) extend the dynamic range of this sensor by 2 orders of magnitude by using a combination of electrode-bound strands with varying affinity for the aptamers, (3) create an ultrasensitive dual signaling sensor by employing a sequestration strategy in which a nonsignaling, high affinity "depletant" DNA aptamer is added to the sensor surface, and (4) engineer a sensor that simultaneously provides extended and ultrasensitive readouts. These strategies, applicable to a wide range of biosensors and chemical systems, should broaden the application of molecular recognition in various fields of chemistry.

  19. Inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in wider size range and aspect ratio range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hong


    Full Text Available The non-spherical particle sizing is very important in the aerosol science, and it can be determined by the light extinction measurement. This paper studies the effect of relationship of the size range and aspect ratio range on the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution by the dependent mode algorithm. The T matrix method and the geometric optics approximation method are used to calculate the extinction efficiency of the spheroids with different size range and aspect ratio range, and the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in these different ranges is conducted. Numerical simulation indicates that a fairly reasonable representation of the spheroid particle size distribution can be obtained when the size range and aspect ratio range are suitably chosen.

  20. Comparison of range migration correction algorithms for range-Doppler processing (United States)

    Uysal, Faruk


    The next generation digital radars are able to provide high-range resolution by the advancement of radar hardware technologies. These systems take advantage of coherent integration and Doppler processing technique to increase the target's signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the high-range resolution (small range cells) and fast target motion, a target migrates through multiple range cells within a coherent processing interval. Range cell migration (also known as range walk) occurs and degrades the coherent integration gain. There are many approaches in the literature to correct these unavoidable effects and focus the target in the range-Doppler domain. We demonstrate some of these methods on an operational frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and point out practical issues in the application.

  1. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging (United States)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.


    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time.

  2. Experimental Analysis of Algorithms. (United States)


    0.82. 0.82, and 0.8 for n a 32000, -V --V ° 31 a b 0 140 I I- - - .7 .6 1 .9 15. a xii 2-:EpySaebo ayn 640, n 180. hseetiae d otispr onienebeas000men d...the algorithm implemented as a C macro. The 55.e!ement array Rand was initialized by 55 calls to the BSD Unix 4 1 system random number generator, a...linear congruential generator producing integers in the range (0 2’:- 1]. #define Maxrand (1 << 30) int Rand [55]; int KJ; #define RAND (X) X Rand [K

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Pulses in Gold Strip Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Olivier, Nicolas


    We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third-order nonl......We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third...

  4. Demographic Responses To Climate Manipulations Across a Species Range (United States)

    Oldfather, M. F.


    Species biogeographic responses to climate change will occur through the local extinction and establishment of populations. The overall performance of populations across a species range is shaped by the idiosyncratic sensitivities of demographic rates to the changing climate conditions. Heterogeneous topography partially decouples temperature and soil moisture presenting an opportunity to disentangle demographic sensitivity to multiple local climate variables and refine range shift predictions in response to complex climate change. Since 2013, I have monitored 16 populations of a long-lived alpine plant, Ivesia lycopodioides var. scandularis (Rosaceae) across the entirety of its altitudinal range in the arid White Mountains, CA (3350 - 4420m). I quantified microclimatic soil moisture and temperature, and the demographic rates of over 4,000 individuals. Demographic rates exhibited sensitivity to accumulated degree-days (ex. reproduction), soil volumetric water content (ex. germination), or the interaction between these climate variables (ex. survival). These observations motivated an experimental test of the relationship between demography and local climate with manipulations of increased summertime temperature and precipitation in nine populations. All demographic rates were sensitive to the climate manipulations and the magnitude of the demographic response depended on the population's location within the range. However, the modeled population growth rate was only minimally affected by the manipulations in most populations. The inverse responses of many of the demographic rates may allow populations to demographically buffer against the climate manipulations. However, in one low elevation edge population the negative effect of heating on survival overwhelmed the positive effect on germination, indicating that the capacity of populations to demographically buffer may have a limit.

  5. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina


    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  6. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li


    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  7. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli


    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  8. Visual Control of Robots Using Range Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres


    Full Text Available In the last years, 3D-vision systems based on the time-of-flight (ToF principle have gained more importance in order to obtain 3D information from the workspace. In this paper, an analysis of the use of 3D ToF cameras to guide a robot arm is performed. To do so, an adaptive method to simultaneous visual servo control and camera calibration is presented. Using this method a robot arm is guided by using range information obtained from a ToF camera. Furthermore, the self-calibration method obtains the adequate integration time to be used by the range camera in order to precisely determine the depth information.

  9. Orthogonal Range Searching on the RAM, Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Larsen, Kasper Green; Patrascu, Mihai


    We present a number of new results on one of the most extensively studied topics in computational geometry, orthogonal range searching. All our results are in the standard word RAM model: We present two data structures for 2-d orthogonal range emptiness. The first achieves O(n lg lg n) space and O...... the output size. This resolves two open problems (both appeared in Preparata and Shamos' seminal book): given a set of n axis-aligned rectangles in the plane, we can report all k enclosure pairs (i.e., pairs (r1,r2) where rectangle r1 completely encloses rectangle r2) in O(n lg n + k) expected time; given...

  10. Space Weather Effects on Range Operations (United States)


    War II, with heavy reliance on radar and radio as war-fighting tools, we encountered unexplained outages. You may have seen movies showing soldiers...individual meteorology offices, and the issues that each range might possibly encounter. You may have radars that can be directly affected by solar radio...may interact with atomic nuclei thus imparting a certain recoil energy and generating secondary particles. Both the recoiling nucleus and secondary

  11. Ranges of bimodule projections and conditional expectations

    CERN Document Server

    Pluta, Robert


    The algebraic theory of corner subrings introduced by Lam (as an abstraction of the properties of Peirce corners eRe of a ring R associated with an idempotent e in R) is investigated here in the context of Banach and C*-algebras. We propose a general algebraic approach which includes the notion of ranges of (completely) contractive conditional expectations on C*-algebras and on ternary rings of operators, and we investigate when topological properties are consequences of the algebraic assumpt...

  12. Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range


    Nikolay GORBACHUK; Mikhail LARIONOV; Aleksey FIRSOV; Nikolay SHATIL


    Prototype sensors are described that are applicable for pressure, position, temperature, and field measurements in the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. The strain gauges utilize the silicon substrate and thin film technology. The tensosensitivity of strain sensors is 40 µV/mln-1 or better depending on metrological characteristics of semiconductor films, orientation, and current. The temperature sensors (thermistors) make use of the germanium powder bulk. The temperature coefficient of resis...

  13. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After complete assay, the data were subjected to both parametric and non parametric statistics for analyses with 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles considered as the lower and upper limits of reference ranges. Results: There were 331(66.1%) males and 170(33.9) females, with 359(71.7%) and 142(28.3) of them residing in the urban ...

  14. Short Rayleigh Range Free Electron Laser Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, L H; Murphy, J B; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Wang, X J; Watanabe, T


    An important requirement for a high average power laser system is a manageable power density on the first optical element. One possibility to achieve this is a single pass amplifier which generates a short Rayleigh range (SRL) light beam. We present design parameters and calculated performances for several SRL configurations. These include a simulation of the optically guided (pinched) MW class FEL [1], the scalloped beam FEL amplifier [2] and high gain TOK amplifiers we propose to explore at our SDL facility.

  15. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  16. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2011 (United States)


    Services (IGI&S) data proponency, Common Installation Picture, and Quality Assurance Plans ( QAPs ). Based on this guidance, all Army installations are...Sustainable Ranges Report July 2011 Support Center are defined in each layer’s geospatial data QAP . QAPs provide the definition, information about the...requirements for each of the data layers. QAPs are living documents and are maintained by the HQDA proponent with input from the installation data

  17. On the ranges of discrete exponentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Caragiu


    Full Text Available Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp.

  18. On the ranges of discrete exponentials


    Florin Caragiu; Mihai Caragiu


    Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X) in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p)=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp).

  19. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain. (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W


    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, Richard Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The University of Washington (UW) HEP neutrino group performed experimental research on the physics of neutrinos, using the capabilities offered by the T2K Experiment and the Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Observatory. The UW group included senior investigator R. J. Wilkes, two PhD students, four MS degree students, and a research engineer, all of whom are members of the international scientific collaborations for T2K and Super-Kamiokande. During the period of support, within T2K we pursued new precision studies sensitive to new physics, going beyond the limits of current measurements of the fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters (mass differences and mixing angles). We began efforts to measure (or significantly determine the absence of) 1 the CP-violating phase parameter δCP and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector we pursued newly increased precision in measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos, and extended the current reach in searches for proton decay, in addition to running the most sensitive supernova watch instrument [Scholberg 2012], performing other astrophysical neutrino studies, and analyzing beam-induced events from T2K. Overall, the research addressed central questions in the field of particle physics. It included the training of graduate students (both PhD and professional MS degree students), and postdoctoral researchers. Undergraduate students also participated as laboratory assistants.

  1. Experimental microdosimetry; Experimentele microdosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, M.; Bos, A.J.J.; Zoetelief, J.; Van Eijk, C.W.E. [Afdeling Stralingstechnologie, Interfacultair Reactor Instituut IRI, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)


    In the exchange between ionizing radiation and matter radiation energy is emitted in discrete portions. The discipline that studies the statistical distribution of energy deposition on a microscopic level is microdosimetry. The aim of microdosimetry is to find the correlation between the distribution of energy depositions (microdosimetry spectra) and the biological damage caused by radiation. In experimental microdosimetry use is made of a Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), the subject of this article. [Dutch] Bij wisselwerking van ioniserende straling met materie wordt de stralingsenergie afgegeven in discrete porties. Het vakgebied dat de statistische distributie van die energiedeposities op microscopisch niveau onderzoekt wordt aangeduid met microdosimetrie. Het uiteindelijke doel daarbij is om een samenhang te vinden tussen de distributie van energiedeposities (de microdosimetrische spectra) en de schade die optreedt als biologisch materiaal wordt blootgesteld aan straling. In de experimentele microdosimetrie wordt meestal gebruik gemaakt van een Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC). Van microdosimetrische spectra gemeten met een TEPC blijkt dat deze gerelateerd zijn aan het effect van straling in biologisch materiaal. Ze kunnen daarom worden gebruikt voor het experimenteel bepalen van de kwaliteitsfactor van de straling.

  2. Experimental quantum data locking (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei


    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  3. Long-range order in canary song. (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J


    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  4. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range. (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju


    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  5. Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip


    Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  6. Effect of dispersal at range edges on the structure of species ranges (United States)

    Bahn, V.; O'Connor, R.J.; Krohn, W.B.


    Range edges are of particular interest to ecology because they hold key insights into the limits of the realized niche and associated population dynamics. A recent feature of Oikos summarized the state of the art on range edge ecology. While the typical question is what causes range edges, another important question is how range edges influence the distribution of abundances across a species geographic range when dispersal is present. We used a single species population dynamics model on a coupled-lattice to determine the effects of dispersal on peripheral populations as compared to populations at the core of the range. In the absence of resource gradients, the reduced neighborhood and thus lower connectivity or higher isolation among populations at the range edge alone led to significantly lower population sizes in the periphery of the range than in the core. Lower population sizes mean higher extinction risks and lower adaptability at the range edge, which could inhibit or slow range expansions, and thus effectively stabilize range edges. The strength of this effect depended on the potential population growth rate and the maximum dispersal distance. Lower potential population growth rates led to a stronger effect of dispersal resulting in a higher difference in population sizes between the two areas. The differential effect of dispersal on population sizes at the core and periphery of the range in the absence of resource gradients implies that traditional, habitat-based distribution models could result in misleading conclusions about the habitat quality in the periphery. Lower population sizes at the periphery are also relevant to conservation, because habitat removal not only eliminates populations but also creates new edges. Populations bordering these new edges may experience declines, due to their increased isolation. ?? OIKOS.

  7. Does this range suit me? Range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle users. (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F


    User satisfaction is a vital design criterion for sustainable systems. The present research aimed to understand factors relating to individually perceived range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle (BEV) users. Data from a large-scale BEV field trial (N = 72) were analyzed. Apart from an initial drop in range satisfaction, increasing practical experience was related to increased range satisfaction. Classical indicators of users' mobility profiles (daily travel distances) were only weakly related to lower range satisfaction (not significant), after controlling for practical experience and preferred coverage of mobility needs. The regularity/predictability of users' mobility patterns, the percentage of journeys not coverable because of range issues, and users' individual comfortable range accounted for variance in range satisfaction. Finally, range satisfaction was related to key indicators of general BEV acceptance (e.g., purchase intentions). These results underline the complex dynamics involved in individual range satisfaction, as well as its central role for BEV acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le


    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  9. Acupuncture on experimental epilepsies. (United States)

    Chen, R C; Huang, Y H


    The therapeutic effect of acupuncture on epilepsies was evaluated in 4 experimental models. 24 acupuncture points were tried. In electroconvulsive threshold model, square wave electrical stimulus of 0.2 msec and 6 Hz was applied through a pair of cotton electrodes at the cornea of mice for 3 sec. The stimulus intensity to induce stun reaction of the mouse was compared. In 86 control animals, the stimulus threshold was 0.70 +/- 0.22 mA. In the acupuncture treated group (N = 80), the threshold was 0.75 +/- 0.14 mA. In maximal electroshock model, the stimulus parameters were 60 Hz, 0.4 sec and 75 mA. The tonic extensor response of the hindlimbs of the mice was observed. 75.7% of the 115 control mice and 77.5% of the 80 acupuncture treated mice were observed to have tonic extensor response. In the focal cortical penicillin model, penicillin was applied at the subpial space over the exposed cortex of 24 cats. After the appearance of repeated spikes in ECoG, acupuncture was performed. In 175 trials the interictal spikes were decreased in 16 times, increased in 82 times. In 99 trials during seizures, the ictal activity was decreased in 4 times, increased in 79 times. In the intravenous penicillin model, high dose penicillin (1,000,000-1,500,000 U/kg) was given to 20 cats. It induced repetitive spikes and frequently even seizure discharges in EEG. Acupuncture was then tried. In 192 instances, acupuncture reduced the spikes in 13, increased the spikes in 103 times. In 74 trials during seizures, the ictal activity was suppressed in 4 times and aggravated in 66 times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M. Hussein


    Full Text Available Solid particles dispersed in a liquid with sizes no larger than 100nm, known as nanofluids, are used to enhance Thermophysical properties compared to the base fluid. Preparations of alumina (Al2O3, titania (TiO2 and silica (SiO2 in water have been experimentally conducted in volume concentrations ranging between 1 and 2.5%. Thermal conductivity is measured by the hot wire method and viscosity with viscometer equipment. The results of thermal conductivity and viscosity showed an enhancement (0.5–20% and 0.5–60% respectively compared with the base fluid. The data measured agreed with experimental data of other researchers with deviation of less than 5%. The study showed that alumina has the highest thermal conductivity, followed silica and titania, on the other hand silica has the highest viscosity followed alumina and titania.

  11. Experimental Performance of a Novel Trochoidal Propeller (United States)

    Roesler, Bernard; Epps, Brenden


    In the quest for energy efficiency in marine transportation, a promising marine propulsor concept is the trochoidal propeller. We have designed and tested a novel trochoidal propeller using a sinusoidal blade pitch function. The main results presented are measurements of thrust and torque, as well as the calculated efficiency, for a range of advance coefficients. The experimental data show narrow 95% confidence bounds, demonstrating high accuracy and repeatability in the experimental methods. We compare our sinusoidal-pitch trochoidal propeller with prior cross-flow propellers, as well as a representative screw propeller. While the efficiency of our propeller exceeds that of the cycloidal-pitch trochoidal propeller, it is slightly lower than the efficiencies of the other propellers considered. We also present a theoretical model that can be used to further explore and optimize such trochoidal propellers, leading to new avenues for improvements in marine propulsion systems.

  12. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models. (United States)

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Cha, Chae Y; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A; Jeneson, Jeroen A L


    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these models rely on the analysis and integration of experimental data. As such, the success of VPH depends on the availability of physiologically realistic experimental models (E-Models) of human organ function that can be parametrized to test the numerical models. Here, the current state of suitable E-models, ranging from in vitro non-human cell organelles to in vivo human organ systems, is discussed. Specifically, challenges and recent progress in improving the physiological realism of E-models that may benefit the VPH project are highlighted and discussed using examples from the field of research on cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and Parkinson's disease.

  13. Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu


    A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...... with a smooth bed. The boundary layer process is described over the entire range of the Reynolds number (Re from practically nil to Re = O(107)), from the laminar regime to the transitional regime and to the fully developed turbulent regime. The third section focuses on the effect of the boundary roughness...

  14. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system (United States)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.


    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  15. Limited Range Sesame EOS for Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burakovsky, Leonid [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A new Sesame EOS table for Ta has been released for testing. It is a limited range table covering T ≤ 26, 000 K and ρ ≤ 37.53 g/cc. The EOS is based on earlier analysis using DFT phonon calculations to infer the cold pressure from the Hugoniot. The cold curve has been extended into compression using new DFT calculations. The present EOS covers expansion into the gas phase. It is a multi-phase EOS with distinct liquid and solid phases. A cold shear modulus table (431) is included. This is based on an analytic interpolation of DFT calculations.

  16. Tracking capabilities of SPADs for laser ranging (United States)

    Zappa, F.; Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Lacaita, A.; Cova, Sergio; Samori, C.


    The spatial sensitivity of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) can be exploited in laser ranging measurements to finely tune the laser spot in the center of the detector sensitive area. We report the performance of a SPAD with l00 micron diameter. It features a time resolution better than 80 ps rms when operated 4V above V(b) at minus 30 C, and a spatial sensitivity better than 20 microns to radial displacements of the laser spot. New SPAD structures with auxiliary delay detectors are proposed. These improved devices could allow a two dimensional sensitivity, that could be employed for the design of pointing servos.

  17. Sensitivity and working range of backside calibration potentiometry. (United States)

    Ngeontae, Wittaya; Xu, Yida; Xu, Chao; Aeungmaitrepirom, Wanlapa; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Pretsch, Ernö; Bakker, Eric


    A new direction in potentiometric sensing, termed backside calibration potentiometry, was recently introduced. It makes use of the fact that the stir effect disappears in the absence of an ion-ionophore complex concentration gradient across supported liquid ion-selective membranes. This method is especially suitable for measurements in which recalibration in the sample is not feasible, such as in remote monitoring applications. Here, a theoretical model is established to predict the working concentration range of the method. Lead(II)-selective Celgard membranes were used here with H+ as the dominant interfering ions. The emf difference for stirred and unstirred solutions was measured, and the magnitude of this emf change as a function of the sample Pb2+ concentration was found to exhibit a bell shape that spans approximately 3 orders of magnitude. The concentration of interfering ions and the selectivity of the membrane were demonstrated to be important factors that affect the working range. Smaller ratios of primary ion concentrations at both aqueous sides of the membrane gave smaller emf difference values, and emf changes could still be observed with a logarithmic concentration ratio of 0.05. All experimental results correlated satisfactorily with the theoretical model.

  18. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.


    The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

  19. Broadband laser ranging development at the DOE Labs (United States)

    Bennett, Corey V.; La Lone, Brandon M.; Younk, Patrick W.; Daykin, Ed P.; Rhodes, Michelle A.


    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a new diagnostic being developed in collaboration across multiple USA Dept. of Energy (DOE) facilities. Its purpose is to measure the precise position of surfaces and particle clouds moving at speeds of a few kilometers per second. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to encode distance into a modulation in the spectrum of pulses from a mode-locked fiber laser and uses a dispersive Fourier transformation to map the spectral modulation into time. This combination enables recording of range information in the time domain on a fast oscilloscope every 25-80 ns. Discussed here are some of the hardware design issues, system tradeoffs, calibration issues, and experimental results. BLR is being developed as an add-on to conventional Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) systems because PDV often yields incomplete information when lateral velocity components are present, or when there are drop-outs in the signal amplitude. In these cases, integration of the velocity from PDV can give incorrect displacement results. Experiments are now regularly fielded with over 100 channels of PDV, and BLR is being developed in a modular way to enable high channel counts of BLR and PDV recorded from the same probes pointed at the same target location. In this way instruments, will independently record surface velocity and distance information along the exact same path.

  20. Human reactions to electromagnetic radiation in millimeter range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, E.A.; Belyy, M.U.; Sit' ko, S.P.


    The article deals with a problem that is on the boundary of different disciplines. The authors discovered previously unknown effects of low-energy electromagnetic radiation on the human body. A total of 188 subjects, both healthy and sick in terms of medical diagnosis, were submitted to sensory tests. The vast majority of healthy subjects did not react to radiation in the range of 27-78 GHz and power density of up to 10 mW/cm/sup 2/. The same situation was also observed in many cases with patients. However, exposure of very specific parts of the body of sick subjects to electromagnetic waves at a fixed frequency in the range of 45-65 GHz elicited a sensory reaction in the region of the organ with a marked impairment, and this was an organ that was spatially remote from the irradiated region. It was established that the zones on the surface of the body that are the most sensitive to radiation coincide with acupuncture zones that are known in reflex acupuncture therapy. In addition to presentation of experimental results, the authors also propose a theoretical interpretation of the demonstrated effects.

  1. Tilt displacement range testing for a piezoelectric deformable mirror (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Cheng, Xuemin; Fan, Fan; Li, Heng


    In our previous works, we presented a zoom system and image stabilization design based on deformable mirrors (DMs). According to the high bandwidth and free edge characteristics of the piezoelectric deformable mirror (PDM), we tested the system's image-stable capability. We found the PDM could realize some tilt displacements while keeping a certain stable surface shape, it could obtain higher image stabilizing precision when integrated with the traditional mechanical image stabilization systems. In the design of the image stabilization system, the PDM's tilt displacement range is a key factor for consideration. So in this paper, we carried out a tilt displacement range testing experiment by using the OKO's 37-channel PDM. We measured and analyzed the variation of the tilt displacements in optical image stabilization process, and calculated the maximum tilt angle as the PDM surface shape was stabilized. We built an experimental platform consisting of a fixed target, an imaging system based on PDM, and a CCD camera. We used the ZYGO interferometer as an evaluation instrument to measure the surface shape stability. When the PDM surface had a tilt displacement, the image point of the fixed target on the camera sensor shifted correspondingly. The tilt angle of the PDM could be obtained by calculating this shift. The results showed that the maximum tilt angle of the PDM was 0.2mrad. The paper also analyzed the experiment errors when concerning about the off-axis error of the PDM deflection center.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garattini


    Full Text Available Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR to the Apollo Cube Corner Reflector (CCR arrays has supplied several significant tests of gravity: Geodetic Precession, the Strong and Weak Equivalence Principle (SEP, WEP, the Parametrized Post Newtonian (PPN parameter , the time change of the Gravitational constant (G, 1/r2 deviations and new gravitational theories beyond General Relativity (GR, like the unified braneworld theory (G. Dvali et al., 2003. Now a new generation of LLR can do better using evolved laser retroreflectors, developed from tight collaboration between my institution, INFN–LNF (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, and Douglas Currie (University of Maryland, USA, one of the fathers of LLR. The new lunar CCR is developing and characterizing at the “Satellite/Lunar laser ranging Characterization Facility” (SCF, in Frascati, performing our new industry standard space test procedure, the “SCF-Test”; this work contains the experimental results of the SCF-Test applied to the new lunar CCR, and all the new payload developments, including the future SCF tests. The International Lunar Network (ILN research project considers our new retroreflector as one of the possible “Core Instruments”

  3. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada (United States)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.


    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  4. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A


    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  5. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida: models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Langer

    Full Text Available Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1, and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  6. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida): models of current and predicted future ranges. (United States)

    Langer, Martin R; Weinmann, Anna E; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M; Rödder, Dennis


    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1), and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  7. Enhanced dynamic range x-ray imaging. (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A; Morrison, Logan Dain-Kelley; Sharma, Ajay; Burke, Emily


    X-ray images can suffer from excess contrast. Often, image exposure is chosen to visually optimize the region of interest, but at the expense of over- and underexposed regions elsewhere in the image. When image values are interpreted quantitatively as projected absorption, both over- and underexposure leads to the loss of quantitative information. We propose to combine multiple exposures into a composite that uses only pixels from those exposures in which they are neither under- nor overexposed. The composite image is created in analogy to visible-light high dynamic range photography. We present the mathematical framework for the recovery of absorbance from such composite images and demonstrate the method with biological and non-biological samples. We also show with an aluminum step-wedge that accurate recovery of step thickness from the absorbance values is possible, thereby highlighting the quantitative nature of the presented method. Due to the higher amount of detail encoded in an enhanced dynamic range x-ray image, we expect that the number of retaken images can be reduced, and patient exposure overall reduced. We also envision that the method can improve dual energy absorptiometry and even computed tomography by reducing the number of low-exposure ("photon-starved") projections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vehicle based laser range finding in crops. (United States)

    Ehlert, Detlef; Adamek, Rolf; Horn, Hans-Juergen


    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinders will have a reduced measuring accuracy in small sized crops and when measuring far distances. These problems are caused by target areas smaller than the beam and by the beam striking the edges of crop objects. Lab tests under defined conditions and a real field test were performed to assess the measuring properties under such difficult conditions of a chosen low cost sensor. Based on lab tests it was shown that the accuracy was reduced, but the successful use of the sensor under field conditions demonstrated the potential to meet the demands for agricultural applications, Insights resulting from investigations made in the paper contribute to facilitating the choice or the development of laser rangefinder sensors for vehicle based measurement of crop parameters for optimisation of production processes.

  9. SVSVGMKPSPRP: a broad range adhesion peptide. (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Dao, Jérôme; Saab, Marie-Belle; Panayotov, Ivan; Martin, Marta; Larroque, Christian; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Levallois, Bernard


    A combinatorial phage display approach was previously used to evolve a 12-mer peptide (SVSVGMKPSPRP) with the highest affinity for different semiconductor surfaces. The discovery of the multiple occurrences of the SVSVGMKPSPRP sequence in an all-against-all basic local alignment search tool search of PepBank sequences was unexpected, and a Google search using the peptide sequence recovered 58 results concerning 12 patents and 16 scientific publications. The number of patent and articles indicates that the peptide is perhaps a broad range adhesion peptide. To evaluate peptide properties, we conducted a study to investigate peptide adhesion on different inorganic substrates by mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy for gold, carbon nanotubes, cobalt, chrome alloy, titanium, and titanium alloy substrates. Our results showed that the peptide has a great potential as a linker to functionalize metallic surfaces if specificity is not a key factor. This peptide is not specific to a particular metal surface, but it is a good linker for the functionalization of a wide range of metallic materials. The fact that this peptide has the potential to adsorb on a large set of inorganic surfaces suggests novel promising directions for further investigation. Affinity determination of SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide would be an important issue for eventual commercial uses.

  10. Perceived glossiness in high dynamic range scenes. (United States)

    Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T; Boyaci, Huseyin


    We investigated how spatial pattern, background, and dynamic range affect perceived gloss in brightly lit real scenes. Observers viewed spherical objects against uniform backgrounds. There were three possible objects. Two were black matte spheres with circular matte white dots painted on them (matte-dot spheres). The third sphere was painted glossy black (glossy black sphere). Backgrounds were either black or white matte, and observers saw each of the objects in turn on each background. Scenes were illuminated by an intense collimated source. On each trial, observers matched the apparent albedo of the sphere to an albedo reference scale and its apparent gloss to a gloss reference scale. We found that matte-dot spheres and the black glossy sphere were perceived as glossy on both backgrounds. All spheres were judged to be significantly glossier when in front of the black background. In contrast with previous research using conventional computer displays, we find that background markedly affects perceived gloss. This finding is surprising because darker surfaces are normally perceived as glossier (F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, & D. P. Greenberg, 2000). We conjecture that there are cues to surface material signaling glossiness present in high dynamic range scenes that are absent or weak in scenes presented using conventional computer displays.

  11. Normal values for cervical range of motion. (United States)

    Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Swinkels-Meewisse, Ilse E J C M


    Cohort study. To generate normal values for active range of motion (ACROM) of the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons. There is a lack of normal values for ACROM based on large groups and stratified for different age categories. Four hundred asymptomatic persons were included, 100 for each decade of age from 20 years to 60 years and in each subgroup 50 males and 50 females. ACROM was measured with the cervical range of motion (CROM) device. Analysis of variance and the Scheffé post hoc test was used to investigate the differences of ACROM between the decades of age. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of age and sex on ACROM. The results of this study show that the ACROM decreases significantly in persons older than 50 years for all directions except extension and side flexion compared with that in the subgroup aged 40 to 50. Age had an overall significant effect on the ACROM for all directions. Sex proved to have no significant effect on the ACROM. Normal values were established for ACROM in a group of 400 persons without neck complaints. It was demonstrated that age has a significant influence on the ACROM, but sex has no influence. N/A.

  12. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...

  13. An Observability Metric for Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Range Measurements (United States)

    Arrichiello, Filippo; Antonelli, Gianluca; Aguiar, Antonio Pedro; Pascoal, Antonio


    The paper addresses observability issues related to the general problem of single and multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) localization using only range measurements. While an AUV is submerged, localization devices, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, are ineffective, due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves. AUV localization based on dead reckoning techniques and the use of affordable motion sensor units is also not practical, due to divergence caused by sensor bias and drift. For these reasons, localization systems often build on trilateration algorithms that rely on the measurements of the ranges between an AUV and a set of fixed transponders using acoustic devices. Still, such solutions are often expensive, require cumbersome calibration procedures and only allow for AUV localization in an area that is defined by the geometrical arrangement of the transponders. A viable alternative for AUV localization that has recently come to the fore exploits the use of complementary information on the distance from the AUV to a single transponder, together with information provided by on-board resident motion sensors, such as, for example, depth, velocity and acceleration measurements. This concept can be extended to address the problem of relative localization between two AUVs equipped with acoustic sensors for inter-vehicle range measurements. Motivated by these developments, in this paper, we show that both the problems of absolute localization of a single vehicle and the relative localization of multiple vehicles can be treated using the same mathematical framework, and tailoring concepts of observability derived for nonlinear systems, we analyze how the performance in localization depends on the types of motion imparted to the AUVs. For this effect, we propose a well-defined observability metric and validate its usefulness, both in simulation and by carrying out experimental tests with a real marine vehicle during which the performance of an

  14. An Observability Metric for Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Arrichiello


    Full Text Available The paper addresses observability issues related to the general problem of single and multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV localization using only range measurements. While an AUV is submerged, localization devices, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, are ineffective, due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves. AUV localization based on dead reckoning techniques and the use of affordable motion sensor units is also not practical, due to divergence caused by sensor bias and drift. For these reasons, localization systems often build on trilateration algorithms that rely on the measurements of the ranges between an AUV and a set of fixed transponders using acoustic devices. Still, such solutions are often expensive, require cumbersome calibration procedures and only allow for AUV localization in an area that is defined by the geometrical arrangement of the transponders. A viable alternative for AUV localization that has recently come to the fore exploits the use of complementary information on the distance from the AUV to a single transponder, together with information provided by on-board resident motion sensors, such as, for example, depth, velocity and acceleration measurements. This concept can be extended to address the problem of relative localization between two AUVs equipped with acoustic sensors for inter-vehicle range measurements. Motivated by these developments, in this paper, we show that both the problems of absolute localization of a single vehicle and the relative localization of multiple vehicles can be treated using the same mathematical framework, and tailoring concepts of observability derived for nonlinear systems, we analyze how the performance in localization depends on the types of motion imparted to the AUVs. For this effect, we propose a well-defined observability metric and validate its usefulness, both in simulation and by carrying out experimental tests with a real marine vehicle during which the

  15. Friederike Range: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012


    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Friederike Range for outstanding contributions to the understanding of the complex social minds of nonhuman animals. Through ingenious experimental approaches,…

  16. Measurement of dragging of inertial frames and gravitomagnetic field using laser-ranged satellites. (United States)

    Ciufolini, I.; Lucchesi, D.; Vespe, F.; Mandiello, A.


    By analysing the observations of the orbits of the laser-ranged satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, using the program GEODYN, the authors have obtained the first direct measurement of the Lense-Thirring effect, or dragging of inertial frames and the first direct experimental evidence for the gravitomagnetic field. The accuracy of their measurement is of about 30%.

  17. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millan, Mario; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Budgell, Brian


    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been shown to have an effect on spine-related pain, both clinically and in experimentally induced pain. However, it is unclear if it has an immediate noticeable biomechanical effect on spinal motion that can be measured in terms of an increased range of motion...

  18. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan


    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  19. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds (United States)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.


    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range

  20. Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. D. Nagle


    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown. Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000–6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07 for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55% were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30% while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05 higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24% and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt

  1. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel


    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  2. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments.

  3. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman


    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  4. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie


    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  5. Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko


    Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.

  6. Broader range of skills distinguishes successful CFOs. (United States)

    Doody, M F


    In recent years, healthcare CFOs have seen their role expand significantly beyond traditional financial duties. A series of trended surveys on CFO roles and responsibilities reveals that today's healthcare CFO requires a broad new range of traits and skills in the areas of leadership, operations, and healthcare strategy. CFOs regard strategic thinking and the ability to communicate clearly as the most important of their essential leadership traits and skills, respectively. Among operational and strategic skills, CFOs most often cite the importance of being able to improve organizational performance and benchmark. Healthcare CFOs can enhance their chances of success by focusing self-improvement efforts on five key areas: implementing the organization's vision; developing tactics that stimulate change; enhancing communication skills; focusing on managing and leading; and strengthening relationships.

  7. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José


    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  8. Principles of digital dynamic-range compression. (United States)

    Kates, James M


    This article provides an overview of dynamic-range compression in digital hearing aids. Digital technology is becoming increasingly common in hearing aids, particularly because of the processing flexibility it offers and the opportunity to create more-effective devices. The focus of the paper is on the algorithms used to build digital compression systems. Of the various approaches that can be used to design a digital hearing aid, this paper considers broadband compression, multi-channel filter banks, a frequency-domain compressor using the FFT, the side-branch design that separates the filtering operation from the frequency analysis, and the frequency-warped version of the side-branch approach that modifies the analysis frequency spacing to more closely match auditory perception. Examples of the compressor frequency resolution, group delay, and compression behavior are provided for the different design approaches.

  9. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi


    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  10. Range-preserving AE(0-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.W. Comfort


    Full Text Available All spaces here are Tychonoff spaces. The class AE(0 consists of those spaces which are absolute extensors for compact zero-dimensional spaces. We define and study here the subclass AE(0rp, consisting of those spaces for which extensions of continuous functions can be chosen to have the same range. We prove these results. If each point of T 2 AE(0 is a G-point of T , then T 2 AE(0rp. These are equivalent: (a T 2 AE(0rp; (b every compact subspace of T is metrizable; (c every compact subspace of T is dyadic; and (d every subspace of T is AE(0. Thus in particular, every metrizable space is an AE(0rp-space.

  11. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.


    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  12. Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay GORBACHUK


    Full Text Available Prototype sensors are described that are applicable for pressure, position, temperature, and field measurements in the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. The strain gauges utilize the silicon substrate and thin film technology. The tensosensitivity of strain sensors is 40 µV/mln-1 or better depending on metrological characteristics of semiconductor films, orientation, and current. The temperature sensors (thermistors make use of the germanium powder bulk. The temperature coefficient of resistance is within 50-100 % /K at 4.2 K. The magnetic field sensors use GaAs films that offer weak temperature dependence of parameters at high sensitivity (up to 300-400 mV/T.

  13. Research on the application of multifunctional firearm test equipment in range testing technology (United States)

    Zhang, Chijun; Ma, Hong; Zhai, Xuhua


    This paper studies on the application of multifunctional firearm test equipment in range testing technology. Its objevtive is to improve the level of firearm test technology in conventional range, to fill the gap of the test technology in our country. In this paper, it mainly discusses the principle and method of measurement on firearm size, sighting angle, locking force and loading force. Furthermore, it comprehensively analyzes test accuracy of sighting angle and the locking force. In addition, it finds out the problems in the current experimentation, which makes a good technical basis for improving the range test ability.

  14. Design and implementation of range-gated underwater laser imaging system (United States)

    Ge, Wei-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui


    A range-gated underwater laser imaging system is designed and implemented in this article, which is made up of laser illumination subsystem, photoelectric imaging subsystem and control subsystem. The experiment of underwater target drone detection has been done, the target of distance 40m far from the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can be imaged in the pool which water attenuation coefficient is 0.159m-1. Experimental results show that the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can detect underwater objects effectively.

  15. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha


    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  16. Experimental Determination of Stress Intensity in a Cracked Cylindrical Specimen, (United States)


    CRACKED CYLINDRICAL SPEC IMEN 7 ABSTRACT The range of stress intensity at the tip of a fatigue crack is the major factor controlling the crack growth...of this report will be similarly clesiied): The range of stress intensity at the tip of a fatigue crack is the major factor controlling the crack...EXPERIMENTAL STRESS INTENSITY CALIBRATION 3 3. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS 4 3.1 Specimen Geometries 4 3.2 Material 5 3.3 Fatigue Loading 5 3.4 Crack Length

  17. Summary of recent experimental results on strangeness production (United States)

    Kalweit, Alexander


    This article summarises the highlights of the recent experimental findings on strangeness production presented at the 16th edition of the International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter in Berkeley. Results obtained by eight large experimental collaborations (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, HADES, LHCb, NA-61, PHENIX, STAR) spanning a large range in centre-of-mass energy and a variety of collision systems were presented at the conference. The article does not aim at being a complete review, but rather at connecting the experimental highlights of the different collaborations and at pointing towards questions which should be addressed by these experiments in future.

  18. Summary of recent experimental results on strangeness production

    CERN Document Server

    Kalweit, Alexander


    This article summarises the highlights of the recent experimental findings on strangeness production presented at the 16th edition of the {\\it International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter} in Berkeley. Results obtained by eight large experimental collaborations (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, HADES, LHCb, NA-61, PHENIX, STAR) spanning a large range in centre-of-mass energy and a variety of collision systems were presented at the conference. The article does not aim at being a complete review, but rather at connecting the experimental highlights of the different collaborations and at pointing towards questions which should be addressed by these experiments in future.

  19. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada


    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  20. Open source in Experimental Psychology


    Dalmaijer, Edwin


    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group ( at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  1. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.


    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  2. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  3. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'. (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E


    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  4. Aterosclerose experimental em coelhos Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas


    Full Text Available Numerosas pesquisas têm sido realizadas utilizando modelos experimentais para estudar o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose com dieta induzindo hiperlipidemia. Devido ao fato de que coelhos são muito sensíveis a dietas ricas em colesterol e acumulam grandes quantidades no plasma, a utilização destes animais como modelo experimental para avaliar o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose é de grande relevância, trazendo informação sobre fatores que contribuem para progressão e regressão aplicadas a situações humanas. Sendo assim, nessa revisão a função aterogênica do colesterol é mostrada em trabalhos que incluem o coelho como modelo experimental, uma vez que este animal tornou-se o mais popular modelo experimental de aterosclerose.Many researches have been conducted in experimental models in order to study the development of atherosclerosis from hyperlipidemia-inducing diets. Since rabbits are very sensitive to cholesterol-rich diets and accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their plasma, their use as experimental models to evaluate the development of atherosclerosis is highly relevant and brings information on factors that contribute to the progression and regression of this condition that can be applied to humans. As such, this review includes studies on the atherogenic function of cholesterol based on rabbits as the experimental model, since they have become the most largely used experimental model of atherosclerosis.

  5. Experimental Evolution with Caenorhabditis Nematodes (United States)

    Teotónio, Henrique; Estes, Suzanne; Phillips, Patrick C.; Baer, Charles F.


    The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis as model systems. We then review three exemplars of Caenorhabditis experimental evolution studies, underlining representative evolution experiments that have addressed the: (1) maintenance of genetic variation; (2) role of natural selection during transitions from outcrossing to selfing, as well as the maintenance of mixed breeding modes during evolution; and (3) evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its role in adaptation to variable environments, including host–pathogen coevolution. We conclude by suggesting some future directions for which experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis would be particularly informative. PMID:28592504

  6. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.


    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  7. Meeting current and future conservation challenges through the synthesis of long-term silviculture and range management research (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Joe NcNeel; Carlos. Rodriguez-Franco


    The Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture were established to represent major forest vegetation types of the United States, to provide guidelines for management of those forests and ranges, and to serve as "outdoor classrooms" for land managers to learn how to better manage their forests. Research data...

  8. Genetic mixture of multiple source populations accelerates invasive range expansion. (United States)

    Wagner, Natalie K; Ochocki, Brad M; Crawford, Kerri M; Compagnoni, Aldo; Miller, Tom E X


    A wealth of population genetic studies have documented that many successful biological invasions stem from multiple introductions from genetically distinct source populations. Yet, mechanistic understanding of whether and how genetic mixture promotes invasiveness has lagged behind documentation that such mixture commonly occurs. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the influence of genetic mixture on the velocity of invasive range expansion. The mechanistic basis for effects of genetic mixture could include evolutionary responses (mixed invasions may harbour greater genetic diversity and thus elevated evolutionary potential) and/or fitness advantages of between-population mating (heterosis). If driven by evolution, positive effects of source population mixture should increase through time, as selection sculpts genetic variation. If driven by heterosis, effects of mixture should peak following first reproductive contact and then dissipate. Using a laboratory model system (beetles spreading through artificial landscapes), we quantified the velocity of range expansion for invasions initiated with one, two, four or six genetic sources over six generations. Our experiment was designed to test predictions corresponding to the evolutionary and heterosis mechanisms, asking whether any effects of genetic mixture occurred in early or later generations of range expansion. We also quantified demography and dispersal for each experimental treatment, since any effects of mixture should be manifest in one or both of these traits. Over six generations, invasions with any amount of genetic mixture (two, four and six sources) spread farther than single-source invasions. Our data suggest that heterosis provided a 'catapult effect', leaving a lasting signature on range expansion even though the benefits of outcrossing were transient. Individual-level trait data indicated that genetic mixture had positive effects on local demography (reduced extinction risk and enhanced

  9. Application of long-range order to predict unfolding rates of two-state proteins. (United States)

    Harihar, B; Selvaraj, S


    Predicting the experimental unfolding rates of two-state proteins and models describing the unfolding rates of these proteins is quite limited because of the complexity present in the unfolding mechanism and the lack of experimental unfolding data compared with folding data. In this work, 25 two-state proteins characterized by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616) using a consensus set of experimental conditions were taken, and the parameter long-range order (LRO) derived from their three-dimensional structures were related with their experimental unfolding rates ln(k(u)). From the total data set of 30 proteins used by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616), five slow-unfolding proteins with very low unfolding rates were considered to be outliers and were not included in our data set. Except all beta structural class, LRO of both the all-alpha and mixed-class proteins showed a strong inverse correlation of r = -0.99 and -0.88, respectively, with experimental ln(k(u)). LRO shows a correlation of -0.62 with experimental ln(k(u)) for all-beta proteins. For predicting the unfolding rates, a simple statistical method has been used and linear regression equations were developed for individual structural classes of proteins using LRO, and the results obtained showed a better agreement with experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Wide Range Multiscale Entropy Changes through Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R. Polizzotto


    Full Text Available How variability in the brain’s neurophysiologic signals evolves during development is important for a global, system-level understanding of brain maturation and its disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. In the current study, we use multiscale entropy (MSE, a measure that has been related to signal complexity, to investigate how this variability evolves during development across a broad range of temporal scales. We computed MSE, standard deviation (STD and standard spectral analyses on resting EEG from 188 healthy individuals aged 8–22 years old. We found age-related increases in entropy at lower scales (<~20 ms and decreases in entropy at higher scales (~60–80 ms. Decreases in the overall signal STD were anticorrelated with entropy, especially in the lower scales, where regression analyses showed substantial covariation of observed changes. Our findings document for the first time the scale dependency of developmental changes from childhood to early adulthood, challenging a parsimonious MSE-based account of brain maturation along a unidimensional, complexity measure. At the level of analysis permitted by electroencephalography (EEG, MSE could capture critical spatiotemporal variations in the role of noise in the brain. However, interpretations critically rely on defining how signal STD affects MSE properties.

  11. Frequency ranges and attenuation of macroseismic effects (United States)

    Tosi, Patrizia; De Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola


    Macroseismic intensity is assessed on the basis of the effects caused by an earthquake. These effects reflect the expression of both the intensity and frequency of the ground motion, thus complicating prediction equation modelling. Here we analysed data of several macroseismic transitory effects caused by recent Italian earthquakes in order to study their attenuation as a function of magnitude and hypocentral distance and to obtain a specific prediction equation, of simple functional form, that could be applied to each of the effects under analysis. We found that the different attenuation behaviours could be clearly defined by the values of the specially formulated magnitude-distance scaling ratio (S), thus allowing to group the effects on the basis of the S value. The oscillation of hanging objects and liquids, together with the feeling of dizziness, were separated from most other variables, such as the effects of the earthquake on small objects, china and windows, which were caused by a vibration of higher frequency. Besides, the greater value of S, associated with the perception of the seismic sound, explained the peculiarity of this phenomenon. As a result, we recognized the frequency range associated with each effect through comparisons with the ground motion prediction equations and, in particular, with the 5 per cent damped horizontal response spectra. Here we show the importance of appropriately selecting the diagnostic elements to be used for intensity assessment in order to improve the correlation with ground motion.

  12. Stochastic processes and long range dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady


    This monograph is a gateway for researchers and graduate students to explore the profound, yet subtle, world of long-range dependence (also known as long memory). The text is organized around the probabilistic properties of stationary processes that are important for determining the presence or absence of long memory. The first few chapters serve as an overview of the general theory of stochastic processes which gives the reader sufficient background, language, and models for the subsequent discussion of long memory. The later chapters devoted to long memory begin with an introduction to the subject along with a brief history of its development, followed by a presentation of what is currently the best known approach, applicable to stationary processes with a finite second moment. The book concludes with a chapter devoted to the author’s own, less standard, point of view of long memory as a phase transition, and even includes some novel results. Most of the material in the book has not previously been publis...

  13. Relativistic tests with lunar laser ranging (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Müller, J.


    This paper presents the recent version of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) analysis model at the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover and highlights a few tests of Einstein’s theory of gravitation using LLR data. Investigations related to a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant, the equivalence principle, the PPN parameters β and γ as well as the geodetic precession were carried out. The LLR analysis model was updated by gravitational effects of the Sun and planets with the Moon as extended body. The higher-order gravitational interaction between Earth and Moon as well as effects of the solid Earth tides on the lunar motion were refined. The basis for the modeled lunar rotation is now a 2-layer core/mantle model according to the DE430 ephemeris. The validity of Einstein’s theory was studied using this updated analysis model and an LLR data set from 1970 to January 2015. Within the estimated accuracies, no deviations from Einstein’s theory are detected. A relative temporal variation of the gravitational constant is estimated as \\dot{G}/G_0=(7.1+/-7.6)×10-14~yr-1 , the test of the equivalence principle gives Δ(m_g/m_i)EM=(-3+/-5)×10-14 and the Nordtvedt parameter \

  14. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop


    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  15. Edge insulating topological phases in a two-dimensional superconductor with long-range pairing (United States)

    Lepori, L.; Giuliano, D.; Paganelli, S.


    We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of a two-dimensional square lattice loaded by spinless fermions, with nearest-neighbor hopping and algebraically decaying pairing. We find that for sufficiently long-range pairing, new phases occur, not continuously connected with any short-range phase and not belonging to the standard families of topological insulators/superconductors. These phases are signaled by the violation of the area law for the von Neumann entropy, by semi-integer Chern numbers, and by edge modes with nonzero mass. The latter feature results in the absence of single-fermion edge conductivity, present instead in the short-range limit. The definition of a bulk-topology and the presence of a bulk-boundary correspondence is suggested also for the long-range phases. Recent experimental proposals and advances open the possibility to probe the described long-range effects in near-future realistic setups.

  16. Tube-side mass transfer for hollow fibre membrane contactors operated in the low Graetz range. (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Mercer, E; Kamranvand, F; Williams, L; Kolios, A; Parker, A; Tyrrel, S; Cartmell, E; McAdam, E J


    Transformation of the tube-side mass transfer coefficient derived in hollow fibre membrane contactors (HFMC) of different characteristic length scales (equivalent diameter and fibre length) has been studied when operated in the low Graetz range (Gzmass transfer is generally described by the Graetz problem (Sh=3.67) which assumes that the concentration profile comprises a constant shape over the fibre radius. In this study, it is experimentally evidenced that this assumption over predicts mass transfer within the low Graetz range. Furthermore, within the low Gz range (below 2), a proportional relationship between the experimentally determined mass transfer coefficient (Kov ) and the Graetz number has been identified. For Gz numbers below 2, the experimental Sh number approached unity, which suggests that mass transfer is strongly dependent upon diffusion. However, within this diffusion controlled region of mass transfer, tube-side fluid velocity remained important. For Gz numbers above 2, Sh could be satisfactorily described by extension to the Lévêque solution, which can be ascribed to the constrained growth of the concentration boundary layer adjacent to the fibre wall. Importantly this study demonstrates that whilst mass transfer in the low Graetz range does not explicitly conform to either the Graetz problem or classical Lévêque solution, it is possible to transform the experimentally derived overall mass transfer coefficient (Kov ) between characteristic length scales (dh and L). T h is was corroborated by comparison of the empirical relationship determined in this study (Sh=0.36Gz) with previously published studies operated in the low Gz range. This analysis provides important insight for process design when slow tube-side flows, or low Schmidt numbers (coincident with gases) constrain operation of hollow fibre membrane contactors to the low Gz range.

  17. Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) females. (United States)

    Alfred, Raymond; Ahmad, Abd Hamid; Payne, Junaidi; Williams, Christy; Ambu, Laurentius Nayan; How, Phua Mui; Goossens, Benoit


    Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2) in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2) in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

  18. Are fish outside their usual ranges early indicators of climate-driven range shifts? (United States)

    Fogarty, Hannah E; Burrows, Michael T; Pecl, Gretta T; Robinson, Lucy M; Poloczanska, Elvira S


    Shifts in species ranges are a global phenomenon, well known to occur in response to a changing climate. New species arriving in an area may become pest species, modify ecosystem structure, or represent challenges or opportunities for fisheries and recreation. Early detection of range shifts and prompt implementation of any appropriate management strategies is therefore crucial. This study investigates whether 'first sightings' of marine species outside their normal ranges could provide an early warning of impending climate-driven range shifts. We examine the relationships between first sightings and marine regions defined by patterns of local climate velocities (calculated on a 50-year timescale), while also considering the distribution of observational effort (i.e. number of sampling days recorded with biological observations in global databases). The marine trajectory regions include climate 'source' regions (areas lacking connections to warmer areas), 'corridor' regions (areas where moving isotherms converge), and 'sink' regions (areas where isotherms locally disappear). Additionally, we investigate the latitudinal band in which first sightings were recorded, and species' thermal affiliations. We found that first sightings are more likely to occur in climate sink and 'divergent' regions (areas where many rapid and diverging climate trajectories pass through) indicating a role of temperature in driving changes in marine species distributions. The majority of our fish first sightings appear to be tropical and subtropical species moving towards high latitudes, as would be expected in climate warming. Our results indicate that first sightings are likely related to longer-term climatic processes, and therefore have potential use to indicate likely climate-driven range shifts. The development of an approach to detect impending range shifts at an early stage will allow resource managers and researchers to better manage opportunities resulting from range

  19. Experimental charge density from electron microscopic maps. (United States)

    Wang, Jimin


    The charge density (CD) distribution of an atom is the difference per unit volume between the positive charge of its nucleus and the distribution of the negative charges carried by the electrons that are associated with it. The CDs of the atoms in macromolecules are responsible for their electrostatic potential (ESP) distributions, which can now be visualized using cryo-electron microscopy at high resolution. CD maps can be recovered from experimental ESP density maps using the negative Laplacian operation. CD maps are easier to interpret than ESP maps because they are less sensitive to long-range electrostatic effects. An ESP-to-CD conversion involves multiplication of amplitudes of structure factors as Fourier transforms of these maps in reciprocal space by 1/d2 , where d is the resolution of reflections. In principle, it should be possible to determine the charges carried by the individual atoms in macromolecules by comparing experimental CD maps with experimental ESP maps. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  20. Experimental characterization of piezoelectric THUNDER actuator shape (United States)

    Harris, Paul


    A new type of piezoelectric composite actuator called THUNDER, which was originally developed by NASA, has potential applications in micro robotics, aeronautics, acoustics and hydraulics. The manufacturing process produces internal stresses with accompanying structural deformation. It is the aim of this research to characterize these deformations. Detailed measurements were taken by a motion control LabView data acquisition system and measured with a laser micrometer on several different types of actuators. Several functional forms were used in an attempt to fit the data. The data was best fit by a circular segment function. We also used a transcendental equation to be able to compare to other single point published values. We found the range of dome heights to be between 10.15 mm and 1.45 mm. For one particular model, the manufacturing difference was found to be 16% with an experimental error of 0.5%. The robust experimental data is vital to the development of our finite elements models. Preliminary experimental results of voltage induced deformations will be presented.

  1. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.


    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  2. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.


    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  3. Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, D. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Becker, P., E-mail: [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Pastore, A. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, Y010 5DD (United Kingdom); Navarro, J. [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), Apartado Postal 22085, E-46.071-Valencia (Spain)


    We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin–orbit terms from the spin–isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin–orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.

  4. Novel paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kurth

    Full Text Available The zoonotic potential of paramyxoviruses is particularly demonstrated by their broad host range like the highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses originating from bats. But while so far all bat-borne paramyxoviruses have been identified in fruit bats across Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia, we describe the detection and characterization of the first paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. Moreover, we examined the possible impact of paramyxovirus infection on individual animals by comparing histo-pathological findings and virological results. Organs from deceased insectivorous bats of various species were sampled in Germany and tested for paramyxovirus RNA in parallel to a histo-pathological examination. Nucleic acids of three novel paramyxoviruses were detected, two viruses in phylogenetic relationship to the recently proposed genus Jeilongvirus and one closely related to the genus Rubulavirus. Two infected animals revealed subclinical pathological changes within their kidneys, suggestive of a similar pathogenesis as the one described in fruit bats experimentally infected with Hendra virus.Our findings indicate the presence of bat-born paramyxoviruses in geographic areas free of fruit bat species and therefore emphasize a possible virus-host co-evolution in European bats. Since these novel viruses are related to the very distinct genera Rubulavirus and Jeilongvirus, a similarly broad genetic diversity among paramyxoviruses in other Microchiroptera compared to Megachiroptera can be assumed. Given that the infected bats were either found in close proximity to heavily populated human habitation or areas of intensive agricultural use, a potential risk of the emergence of zoonotic paramyxoviruses in Europe needs to be considered.

  5. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela


    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  6. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans. (United States)

    Pluhar, Evelyn B


    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic "argument from marginal cases" against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections against that argument, I contend that moral agents are logically required to accord basic moral rights to every sentient being. I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation.

  7. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN


    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as `` exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  8. A study of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation Jason de Villiersa,b, Fintan Wilsona and Fred Nicollsb aCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; bUniversity of Cape Town, Cape Town, South... and not scintillation and remove it from the list. 6. Interpolate between identified matches to create a complete de-warping mesh for the image. 7. Use de-warping mesh to create stabilised image. 6. RESULTS The resultant depth images in this paper are small in order...

  9. Predicting Long-Range Traversability from Short-Range Stereo-Derived Geometry (United States)

    Turmon, Michael; Tang, Benyang; Howard, Andrew; Brjaracharya, Max


    Based only on its appearance in imagery, this program uses close-range 3D terrain analysis to produce training data sufficient to estimate the traversability of terrain beyond 3D sensing range. This approach is called learning from stereo (LFS). In effect, the software transfers knowledge from middle distances, where 3D geometry provides training cues, into the far field where only appearance is available. This is a viable approach because the same obstacle classes, and sometimes the same obstacles, are typically present in the mid-field and the farfield. Learning thus extends the effective look-ahead distance of the sensors.

  10. Efficient Wide Range Converters (EWiRaC): A new family of high efficient AC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    suffers a major penalty in efficiency when used at the low end of the voltage range (90VAC) in a universal voltage range application (90-270VAC). This paper addresses this problem by suggesting a new family of converters that effectively reduces the apparent voltage range with a factor of 2 by changing...... the converter topology according to the input voltage. This new converter type has been named: efficient wide range converter (EWiRaC). The performance of the EWiRaC is experimental verified in a universal input range (90-270VAC) application with an output voltage of 185VDC capable of 500W output power. The EWi...

  11. Active deformation offshore the Western Transverse Ranges (United States)

    Ucarkus, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Kent, G.; Rockwell, T. K.


    The Transverse Ranges within the structural province of southern California, an east-west trending active fold and thrust belt system, has rapid uplift rates that are capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis. This system to the west consists of north and south dipping reverse faults offshore Santa Barbara and Ventura (i.e., Pitas Point fault, Red Mountain fault, Rincon Creek fault). Ventura Avenue Anticline (VAA) is one of the fastest uplifting structure within this system has experienced nearly 2.7 km of structural uplift since fold initiation about 200-300 thousand years ago, yielding an average uplift rate of 9-13 mm/yr. Mapped and dated Holocene marine terraces between Ventura and Carpenteria reveal that large uplift events occurred at 0.8 ka and 1.9 ka; a recurrence interval of approximately a thousand years. The VAA trends offshore to the west and is buried by sediment from Rincon Creek. This sediment completely obscures the surficial expression of the fold between Rincon Point and Punta Gorda, indicating that Holocene sedimentation has kept pace with fold growth. Given the high sedimentation rate, each uplift event should be captured by stratigraphic rotation and onlap, and formation of angular unconformities. With that perspective, we acquired ~240 km-long very high-resolution (decimeter) CHIRP seismic reflection data from offshore Santa Barbara in the west to Ventura in the east, in order to examine discrete folding/uplift events that are preserved in the Holocene sediment record. CHIRP data together with re-processed USGS sparker profiles provide new constraints on timing and architecture of deformation offshore. A transgressive surface that dates back to ~9.5 kyr B.P is identified in seismic reflection data and dips landward; bending of the transgressive surface appears to be due to active folding and faulting. Observed onlapping sediments together with the deformation of the transgressive surface mark the onset of deformation while periods

  12. Effect of three types of flexibility training on active and passive hip range of motion. (United States)

    López-Bedoya, J; Vernetta-Santana, M; Robles-Fuentes, A; Ariza-Vargas, L


    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of 3 types of flexibility training, hold-relax (HR, N.=9), active isolated stretching (AIS, N.=9) and passive static stretching (PSS, N.=11) on passive and active range of motion of hip flexion after 9 weeks of flexibility training. The subjects were physical education college students (14 men and 15 women) whose ages ranged between 20 and 24 years (age mean 21.79, SD: 2.45). A multigroup pre- post-test design with three experimental groups was used. The range of movement was measured by digitalization of pre-test and post-test images. Significant differences were found among the pre- and post-test for the three groups (P<0.05) on passive range of motion of the hip flexion, although there were no significant post-test differences between experimental groups. However, on the active range of motion of hip flexion there was only significant improvement among the pre-test and post-tests for PSS group (P<0.05). The results suggest that PSS is the best option for the improvement of both active and passive range of motion.

  13. Experimental Search for Hidden Photon CDM in the eV mass range with a Dish Antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, J; Inoue, Y; Minowa, M


    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$ of $\\sim 6\\times 10^{-12}$ for the hidden photon mass $m_\\gamma = 3.1 \\pm 1.2$ eV.

  14. Importance Has Been Considered in Satisfaction Evaluation: An Experimental Examination of Locke's Range-of-Affect Hypothesis (United States)

    Wu, Chia-huei; Yao, Grace


    Importance weighting is a common practice in quality of life (QOL) measurement research. Based on the widespread idea that important domains should make a greater contribution to individuals' QOL total score, the weighting procedure of multiplying item satisfaction by an item's importance has been adopted in many QOL instruments. Locke's [1969,…

  15. Multi-Directional Experimental Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ATLSS Multi-directional Experimental Laboratory was constructed in 1987 under funding from the National Science Foundation to be a major facility for large-scale...

  16. HIRENASD Experimental Data - matlab format (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This resource contains the experimental data that was included in tecplot input files but in matlab files. dba1_cp has all the results is dimensioned (7,2) first...

  17. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando


    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  18. Animal Experimentation in High Schools (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.


    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  19. An Experimental Text-Commentary (United States)

    O'Brien, Joan


    An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

  20. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng


    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA–RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. PMID:26554032

  1. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change. (United States)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon


    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  2. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing. (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng


    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA-RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. © 2015 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Electron scattering from neon via effective range theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedus, Kamil, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun (Poland)


    Elastic cross-sections for electron scattering on neon from 0 energy up to 16 eV are analyzed by an analytical approach to the modified effective range theory (MERT). It is shown that energy and angular variations of elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections can be accurately parameterized by six MERT coefficients up to the energy threshold for the first Feshbach resonance. MERT parameters are determined empirically by numerical comparison with large collection of available experimental data of elastic total (integral) cross-sections. The present analysis is validated against numerous electron beams and swarm experiments. The comparison of derived MERT parameters with those found for other noble gases, helium, argon and krypton, is done. The derived scattering length (for the s-partial wave) in neon, 0.227a0, agrees well with recent theories; it is small but, differently from Ar and Kr, still positive. Analogue parameters for the p-wave and the d-wave are negative and positive respectively for all the four gases compared. (author)

  4. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert


    of points in the query range. As a corollary, we also obtain the first approximate 3-d halfspace range counting and 3-d dominance counting data structures with a worst-case query time of O(log(N/K)) in internal memory. An easy but important consequence of our main result is the existence of -space cache...... counting queries. This class includes three-sided range counting in the plane, 3-d dominance counting, and 3-d halfspace range counting. The constructed data structures use linear space and answer queries in the optimal query bound of O(logB(N/K)) block transfers in the worst case, where K is the number......-oblivious data structures with an optimal query bound of O(logBN+K/B) block transfers for the reporting versions of the above problems. Using standard reductions, these data structures allow us to obtain the first cache-oblivious data structures that use almost linear space and achieve the optimal query bound...

  5. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Short-range Lattice Distortions with Long-range Cubic Order (United States)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Shi, Chenyang; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Puma, Eric; Bang, Sun Hwi; Bean, Nathaniel J. H.; de Sugny, Jean-Claude; Gambee, Robert G.; Hightower, Adrian; Monson, Todd C.

    Small barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles (atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). Fits to PDFs at temperatures of 20° to 220°C suggest that Ti atom displacements from the center of the unit cell are comparable to or even greater than those in the bulk material and persist at temperatures well above 120°C where the tetragonal to pseudo-cubic phase transition occurs in the bulk. Raman spectra acquired over a temperature range of 20° to 220°C confirm that small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a distorted unit cell even above 120°C. On the other hand, small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a long-range order consistent with a cubic lattice as recorded by laboratory XRD Bragg reflections at temperatures of 20° to 150°C. We have reconciled these seemingly contradictory data sets by fitting the PDFs over their full range of 6 nm to reveal a long-range structure with a reduced lattice distortion that still manages to support tetragonal Raman lines but is sufficiently close to cubic to yield apparent Bragg peak singlets. US DOE NNSA contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and US DOE Office of Science contract DE-SC00112704.

  6. Environment Assessment for Grand Bay Range, Bemiss Field, and Moody Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range Operations (United States)


    longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), and slash pine (Moody AFB 2007a). The Grand Bay Range impact area and Bemiss Field are managed to provide a Bahia ...Bemiss Field or immigration has occurred in this area. No confirmed sightings of indigo snakes have occurred since 1996, despite intensive monitoring

  7. Persuasion in experimental ultimatum games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Hoppe, Tim


    We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates.......We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates....

  8. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall

    CERN Multimedia


    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  9. [The ethics of animal experimentation]. (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves


    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  10. Experimental aspects of colour reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, M F


    This report summarises experimental aspects of the phenomena of colour reconnection in W+W- production, concentrating on charged multiplicity and event shapes, which were carried out as part of the Phenomenology Workshop on LEP2 Physics, Oxford, Physics Department and Keble College, 14-18 April, 1997. The work includes new estimates of the systematic uncertainty which may be attributed to colour reconnection effects in experimental measurements of Mw.

  11. Radioactive source localization inside pipes using a long-range alpha detector (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Mei; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Li, Zhe; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Dong, Xiang-Long; Li, Ping-Chuan


    Long-range alpha detectors (LRADs) are attracting much attention in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities because of some problems in obtaining source positions on an interior surface during pipe decommissioning. By utilizing the characteristic that LRAD detects alphas by collecting air-driving ions, this article applies a method to localize the radioactive source by ions' fluid property. By obtaining the ion travel time and the airspeed distribution in the pipe, the source position can be determined. Thus this method overcomes the ion's lack of periodic characteristics. Experimental results indicate that this method can approximately localize the source inside the pipe. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Design and testing of magnetorheological valve with fast force response time and great dynamic force range (United States)

    Kubík, M.; Macháček, O.; Strecker, Z.; Roupec, J.; Mazůrek, I.


    The paper deals with design, simulation and experimental testing of a magnetorheological (MR) valve with short response time. The short response time is achieved by a suitable design of an active zone in combination with use of a ferrite material for magnetic circuit. The magneto-static model and the simplified hydraulic model of the MR valve are examined and experimentally verified. The development the MR valve achieves an average response time 4.1 ms and the maximum dynamic force range of eight.

  13. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari


    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...

  14. CFD Simulations of the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) Ballistic Range Tests (United States)

    Brock, Joseph; Stern, Eric; Wilder, Michael


    A series of ballistic range tests were performed on a scaled model of the Supersonic Flight Demonstration Test (SFDT) intended to test the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) geometry. The purpose of these experiments were to provide aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle to aid in mission and vehicle design. The experimental data spans the moderate Mach number range, $3.8-2.0$, with a total angle of attack ($alpha_T$) range, $10o-20o$. These conditions are intended to span the Mach-$alpha$ space for the majority of the SFDT experiment. In an effort to validate the predictive capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for free-flight aerodynamic behavior, numerical simulations of the ballistic range experiment are performed using the unstructured finite volume Navier-Stokes solver, US3D. Comparisons to raw vehicle attitude, and post-processed aerodynamic coefficients are made between simulated results and experimental data. The resulting comparisons for both raw model attitude and derived aerodynamic coefficients show good agreement with experimental results. Additionally, near body pressure field values for each trajectory simulated are investigated. Extracted surface and wake pressure data gives further insights into dynamic flow coupling leading to a potential mechanism for dynamic instability.

  15. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.


    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  16. [The effects of the taping therapy on range of motion, pain and depression in stroke patient]. (United States)

    Kwon, Seon-Suk


    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Taping therapy on Range of Motion, pain, and depression in stroke patients in the home without complete recovery as a means of nursing intervention. Twenty seven subjects out of fifty four people who were attending in the stroke self-help group in one community health center in S city were asked to participate in this Quai-experimental study. The Taping therapy was a method that stick to the illness area and the point of pressure pain, the elastic and cross tape without medicine treatment with domestic products. Nursing intervention was independently completed by researcher once a week over two period of 12 weeks from September 2001 to March 2002 year. Data were analyzed using the SPSS win. The homogeneity between the experimental group and control group was test by chi2 and t-test. The difference of experimental before and after were tested by the unpaired t-test. The shoulder joint flexion and abduction, the elbow joint flexion and extension, the hip joint flexion, and the flexion of knee joint in the ROM of the experimental group were significantly improved over those of the control group. In difference of pain, rest and painful movement, the experimental group were significantly decreased over those of the control group. The difference of depression in experimental before and after was significantly decreased in the experimental group over those of the control group. The Taping therapy intervention proved effect pain relief and depression decrease as well as promote of range of motion.

  17. A micromachined capacitive incremental position sensor: part 2. experimental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.A.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Part 2 of this two-part paper presents the experimental assessment of a micromachined capacitive incremental position sensor for nanopositioning of microactuator systems with a displacement range of 100 μm or more. Incremental sensing in combination with quadrature detection reduces the requirements

  18. Silvicultural activities in Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Central Oregon (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Kim Johnson; Jim Schlaich; Boyd Wickman


    Pringle Falls Experimental Forest has been a center for research in ponderosa pine forests east of the crest of the Cascade Range since 1931. Long-term research facilities, sites, and future research opportunities are currently at risk from stand-replacement wildfire because of changes in stand structure resulting from past fire exclusion. At the same time, many of the...

  19. Hydrological processes of reference watersheds in Experimental Forests, USA (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Pete Wohlgemuth; Kelly Elder; Stephen Sebestyen; Sherri Johnson; Elizabeth Keppeler; Mary Beth Adams; Peter Caldwell; D. Misra


    Long-term research at small, gauged, forested watersheds within the USDA Forest Service, Experimental Forest and Range network (USDA-EFR) has contributed substantially to our current understanding of relationships between forests and streamflow (Vose et al., 2014). Many of these watershed studies were established in the early to mid-20th century and have been used to...

  20. Quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization and its experimental implementation. (United States)

    Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng


    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in a NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. In the range that our classical computer could simulate, the quantum adiabatic algorithm works well, providing evidence that the running time of this algorithm scales polynomially with the problem size.