WorldWideScience

Sample records for range provide evidence

  1. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact.

  2. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha eVij

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Asian seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer is an important food fish with commercial value and a wide geographic distribution. Though some reports based on molecular and/or morphological data exist, a comprehensive effort to establish species identity across its range is lacking. In order to address this issue and especially to ascertain whether the wide-spread distribution has resulted in bifurcation of the species, we collected Asian seabass samples from various locations representing the Western and Eastern Coastline of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh and Australia. Samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore were collected as part of a previous study. DNA sequence variations, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI, 16S rDNA and the highly variable D-loop (or control region, were examined to establish species delineation. Data from all the sequences analyzed concordantly point to the existence of at least two distinct species - one representing the Indian subcontinent plus Myanmar, and a second, representing Southeast Asia (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia plus Northern Australia. These data are useful for conservation ecology, aquaculture management, for establishing the extent of genetic diversity in the Asian seabass and implementing selective breeding programs for members of this species complex.

  3. 20 CFR 220.45 - Providing evidence of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Providing evidence of disability. 220.45... DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.45 Providing evidence of disability. (a) General. The claimant for a disability annuity is responsible for providing evidence of the claimed disability and the...

  4. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence.

  5. Triparental plants provide direct evidence for polyspermy induced polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakel, Thomas; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Mao, Yanbo; Fuchert, Golo; Vo, Dieu; Groß-Hardt, Rita

    2017-10-18

    It is considered an inviolable principle that sexually reproducing organisms have no more than two parents and fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm (polyspermy) is lethal in many eukaryotes. In flowering plants polyspermy has remained a hypothetical concept, due to the lack of tools to unambiguously identify and trace this event. We established a high-throughput polyspermy detection assay, which uncovered that supernumerary sperm fusion does occur in planta and can generate viable polyploid offspring. Moreover, polyspermy can give rise to seedlings with one mother and two fathers, challenging the bi-organismal concept of parentage. The polyspermy derived triploids are taller and produce bigger organs than plants resulting from a regular monospermic fertilization. In addition, we demonstrate the hybridization potential of polyspermy by instantly combining three different Arabidopsis accessions in one zygote. Our results provide direct evidence for polyspermy as a route towards polyploidy, which is considered a major plant speciation mechanism.

  6. A network of experimental forests and ranges: Providing soil solutions for a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2010-01-01

    The network of experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service represents significant opportunities to provide soil solutions to critical issues of a changing world. This network of 81 experimental forests and ranges encompasses broad geographic, biological, climatic and physical scales, and includes long-term data sets, and long-term experimental...

  7. Tycho's Remnant Provides Shocking Evidence for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    miles per hour. This rapid expansion has created two X-ray emitting shock waves - one moving outward into the interstellar gas, and another moving inward into the stellar debris. These shock waves, analogous to the sonic boom produced by supersonic motion of an airplanes, produce sudden, large changes in pressure, and temperature behind the wave. According to the standard theory, the outward-moving shock should be about two light-years ahead of the stellar debris (that's half the distance from our sun to the nearest star). What Chandra found instead is that the stellar debris has kept pace with the outer shock and is only about half a light-year behind. "The most likely explanation for this behavior is that a large fraction of the energy of the outward-moving shock wave is going into the acceleration of atomic nuclei to speeds approaching the speed of light," said Jessica Warren, also of Rutgers University, and the lead author of the report in the Astrophysical Journal. Previous observations with radio and X-ray telescopes had established that the shock wave in Tycho's remnant was accelerating electrons to high energies. However, since high-speed atomic nuclei produce very weak radio and X-ray emission also, it was not known whether the shock wave was accelerating nuclei as well. The Chandra observations provide the strongest evidence yet that nuclei are indeed accelerated, and that the energy contained in high-speed nuclei is about 100 times that in the electrons. Hughes also pointed out that the Chandra result for Tycho's remnant significantly changes astronomers' view of the evolution of supernova remnants. A large component of cosmic ray nuclei alters the dynamics of the shock wave, and may require changing the way that astronomers estimate the explosive energy of a supernova from the properties of its remnant. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian

  8. Doped silicene: Evidence of a wide stability range

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2011-06-17

    The effects of doping on the lattice structure, electronic structure, phonon spectrum, and electron-phonon coupling of low-buckling silicene are studied by first-principles calculations. Although the lattice is found to be very sensitive to the carrier concentration, it is stable in a wide doping range. The frequencies of the E2g-Γ and A′-K Raman modes can be used to probe the carrier concentration. In addition, the phonon dispersion displays Kohn anomalies at the Γ and K points which are reduced by doping. This implies that the electron-phonon coupling cannot be neglected in field-effect transistor applications. Copyright © 2011 EPLA.

  9. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Models to Provide Predicted Ranges for Building-Human Interfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Schott, M.

    2013-09-01

    Most building energy consumption dashboards provide only a snapshot of building performance; whereas some provide more detailed historic data with which to compare current usage. This paper will discuss the Building Agent(tm) platform, which has been developed and deployed in a campus setting at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as part of an effort to maintain the aggressive energyperformance achieved in newly constructed office buildings and laboratories. The Building Agent(tm) provides aggregated and coherent access to building data, including electric energy, thermal energy, temperatures, humidity, and lighting levels, and occupant feedback, which are displayed in various manners for visitors, building occupants, facility managers, and researchers. This paper focuseson the development of visualizations for facility managers, or an energy performance assurance role, where metered data are used to generate models that provide live predicted ranges of building performance by end use. These predicted ranges provide simple, visual context for displayed performance data without requiring users to also assess historical information or trends. Several energymodelling techniques were explored including static lookup-based performance targets, reduced-order models derived from historical data using main effect variables such as solar radiance for lighting performance, and integrated energy models using a whole-building energy simulation program.

  11. Chandra Survey of Distant Galaxies Provides Evidence for Vigorous Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have made the first long-duration X-ray survey of the Hubble Deep Field North. They detected X rays from six of the galaxies in the field, and were surprised by the lack of X rays from some of the most energetic galaxies in the field. The X-ray emitting objects discovered by the research team are a distant galaxy thought to contain a central giant black hole, three elliptically shaped galaxies, an extremely red distant galaxy, and a nearby spiral galaxy. "We were expecting about five X-ray sources in this field,"said Professor Niel Brandt of Penn State University, University Park, and one of the leaders of the research team that conducted the survey. "However, it was very surprising to find that none of the X-ray sources lined up with any of the submillimeter sources." The submillimeter sources are extremely luminous, dusty galaxies that produce large amounts of infrared radiation. Because they are over ten billion light years from Earth, their infrared radiation is shifted to longer, submillimeter wavelengths as it traverses the expanding universe. The primary source of the large power of the submillimeter sources is thought to be an unusually high rate of star formation, or the infall, or accretion of matter into a giant black hole in the center of the galaxy. X-ray observations provide the most direct measure of black hole accretion power. X rays, because of their high-energy, would be expected to pass through the gas and dust in these galaxies, unlike visible light. "With Chandra we have been able to place the best X-ray constraints ever on submillimeter sources," said Ann Hornschemeier, also of Penn State, and the lead author of an upcoming Astrophysical Journal paper describing the discovery. "Our results indicate that less than 15 percent of the submillimeter sources can be luminous X-ray sources." "That means," Brandt explains, "Either there is an enormous amount of star formation in those galaxies, or

  12. Do public nursing home care providers deliver higher quality than private providers? Evidence from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, Ulrika; Blomqvist, Paula; Karlsson, Andreas

    2017-07-14

    Swedish nursing home care has undergone a transformation, where the previous virtual public monopoly on providing such services has been replaced by a system of mixed provision. This has led to a rapidly growing share of private actors, the majority of which are large, for-profit firms. In the wake of this development, concerns have been voiced regarding the implications for care quality. In this article, we investigate the relationship between ownership and care quality in nursing homes for the elderly by comparing quality levels between public, for-profit, and non-profit nursing home care providers. We also look at a special category of for-profit providers; private equity companies. The source of data is a national survey conducted by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2011 at 2710 nursing homes. Data from 14 quality indicators are analyzed, including structure and process measures such as staff levels, staff competence, resident participation, and screening for pressure ulcers, nutrition status, and risk of falling. The main statistical method employed is multiple OLS regression analysis. We differentiate in the analysis between structural and processual quality measures. The results indicate that public nursing homes have higher quality than privately operated homes with regard to two structural quality measures: staffing levels and individual accommodation. Privately operated nursing homes, on the other hand, tend to score higher on process-based quality indicators such as medication review and screening for falls and malnutrition. No significant differences were found between different ownership categories of privately operated nursing homes. Ownership does appear to be related to quality outcomes in Swedish nursing home care, but the results are mixed and inconclusive. That staffing levels, which has been regarded as a key quality indicator in previous research, are higher in publicly operated homes than private is consistent with earlier

  13. Evidence-based training in the era of evidence-based practice: Challenges and opportunities for training of PTSD providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Ruzek, Josef I; Karlin, Bradley E

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing global need for trained and competent mental health clinicians to deliver evidence-based psychological therapies to millions of trauma survivors in need of care. Three model, large-scale training programs were initiated a decade ago, one in the United Kingdom (U.K.), and two in the United States (U.S.), to disseminate high-quality, evidence-based psychological care to traumatized children and adults in need of assistance. Milestone contributions to implementation science have been made by each of these training programs, although limitations and challenges remain to be considered. In contrast, culturally adapted and simplified PTSD interventions and therapy training programs have also been developed and tested during the past decade, three of which show particular promise for broader implementation. These simplified but evidence-based interventions have been developed for use by lay counsellors or health technicians with minimal or no prior mental health training. Finally, a growing range of technology-based and technology-assisted training models for PTSD providers have also been developed and disseminated in the past decade. This trend is expected to accelerate as more providers become accustomed to acquiring clinical training in this modality or format, although significant barriers to technology-based training will need to be overcome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Semiconductor sharpeners providing a subnanosecond voltage rise time of GW-range pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. I.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.; Tsyranov, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    The article describes semiconductor sharpeners providing a subnanosecond voltage rise time of GW-range pulses. The sharpeners are made as stacks of series-connected dynistor structures built into an oil-filled coaxial line with 48 Ω wave impedance at the place of an inner conductor. Two sequential sections of pulse sharpening are used. An input voltage pulse has the amplitude of 540 kV with the rise time of ˜1.2 ns at 0.2-0.9 level from the amplitude and voltage rise rate of ˜0.3 MV/ns. After pulse propagation through the sharpening sections, its rise time is reduced down to 360 ps, and the voltage rise rate is increased up to ˜0.95 MV/ns. Peak power of the sharpened pulse is within the range of 4.5-5.5 GW. The sharpeners are tested at a pulse repetition frequency of up to 1 kHz. Sharpener operation is studied by numerical simulation methods. Experimental waveforms of output pulses and the corresponding calculated voltage-time dependences are in statistical agreement.

  15. Intravehicular, Short- and Long-Range Communication Information Fusion for Providing Safe Speed Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior. PMID:26805839

  16. Intravehicular, Short- and Long-Range Communication Information Fusion for Providing Safe Speed Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS, access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications. Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers’ behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.

  17. Intravehicular, Short- and Long-Range Communication Information Fusion for Providing Safe Speed Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio; Serradilla, Francisco; Pérez, Elisa; Hernández, María Jose; Ruiz, Trinidad; Anaya, José Javier; Díaz, Alberto

    2016-01-21

    Inappropriate speed is a relevant concurrent factor in many traffic accidents. Moreover, in recent years, traffic accidents numbers in Spain have fallen sharply, but this reduction has not been so significant on single carriageway roads. These infrastructures have less equipment than high-capacity roads, therefore measures to reduce accidents on them should be implemented in vehicles. This article describes the development and analysis of the impact on the driver of a warning system for the safe speed on each road section in terms of geometry, the presence of traffic jams, weather conditions, type of vehicle and actual driving conditions. This system is based on an application for smartphones and includes knowledge of the vehicle position via Ground Positioning System (GPS), access to intravehicular information from onboard sensors through the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, vehicle data entry by the driver, access to roadside information (short-range communications) and access to a centralized server with information about the road in the current and following sections of the route (long-range communications). Using this information, the system calculates the safe speed, recommends the appropriate speed in advance in the following sections and provides warnings to the driver. Finally, data are sent from vehicles to a server to generate new information to disseminate to other users or to supervise drivers' behaviour. Tests in a driving simulator have been used to define the system warnings and Human Machine Interface (HMI) and final tests have been performed on real roads in order to analyze the effect of the system on driver behavior.

  18. Evidence for shifts to faster growth strategies in the new ranges of invasive alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Michelle R; Cooke, Julia; Richardson, David M; Newman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Understanding the processes underlying the transition from introduction to naturalization and spread is an important goal of invasion ecology. Release from pests and pathogens in association with capacity for rapid growth is thought to confer an advantage for species in novel regions. We assessed leaf herbivory and leaf-level traits associated with growth strategy in the native and exotic ranges of 13 invasive plant species from 256 populations. Species were native to either the Western Cape region of South Africa, south-western Australia or south-eastern Australia and had been introduced to at least one of the other regions or to New Zealand. We tested for evidence of herbivore release and shifts in leaf traits between native and exotic ranges of the 13 species. Across all species, leaf herbivory, specific leaf area and leaf area were significantly different between native and exotic ranges while there were no significant differences across the 13 species found for leaf mass, assimilation rate, dark respiration or foliar nitrogen. Analysis at the species- and region-level showed that eight out of 13 species had reduced leaf herbivory in at least one exotic region compared to its native range. Six out of 13 species had significantly larger specific leaf area (SLA) in at least one exotic range region and five of those six species experienced reduced leaf herbivory. Increases in SLA were underpinned by increases in leaf area rather than reductions in leaf mass. No species showed differences in the direction of trait shifts from the native range between different exotic regions. This suggests that the driver of selection on these traits in the exotic range is consistent across regions and hence is most likely to be associated with factors linked with introduction to a novel environment, such as release from leaf herbivory, rather than with particular environmental conditions. Synthesis. These results provide evidence that introduction of a plant species into a

  19. Northward range expansion of Ixodes scapularis evident over a short timescale in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M Clow

    Full Text Available The invasion of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis into Ontario, Canada poses a significant risk to public health because it is a vector for numerous pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Baseline field sampling in 2014 and 2015 detected I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi at sites across southern, eastern and central Ontario, including a hot spot in eastern Ontario. A "speed of spread" model for I. scapularis developed by Leighton and colleagues (2012 estimated that the tick's range was expanding northward at 46 km/year. In 2016, we revisited a subset of sites sampled in 2014 and 2015 to understand the changing nature of risk, and assess whether the rate of tick invasion is consistent with the speed of spread estimate. Ticks were collected via tick dragging at 17 out of 36 sites, 5 of which were new sites for I. scapularis. Samples were positive for B. burgdorferi at 8 sites. No other I. scapularis-borne pathogens were detected. Centrographic statistics revealed an increase in the dispersion of I. scapularis positive sites in eastern Ontario. Field data for each site were then compared to the model's predicted year of establishment for each census subdivision. Our findings illustrate that the range expansion of I. scapularis and the emergence of B. burgdorferi is ongoing, and provide short timescale evidence of the processes associated with I. scapularis spread. The range front appears to be moving at a rate of ~46 km/year, with colonization of the tick behind this range front occurring at a slower and heterogeneous rate. Assessment of site-level ecological factors did not provide any insight into the underlying processes that may be influencing the colonization of I. scapularis in specific areas. Ongoing field sampling is needed to monitor this dynamic process. This study highlights the current geographic risk associated with Lyme disease, which can be used to target public health

  20. Resource Selection Probability Functions for Gopher Tortoise: Providing a Management Tool Applicable Across the Species' Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Virginia A.; Schmolke, Amelie; Kanagaraj, Rajapandian; Bruggeman, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus) is protected by conservation policy throughout its range. Efforts to protect the species from further decline demand detailed understanding of its habitat requirements, which have not yet been rigorously defined. Current methods of identifying gopher tortoise habitat typically rely on coarse soil and vegetation classifications, and are prone to over-prediction of suitable habitat. We used a logistic resource selection probability function in an information-theoretic framework to understand the relative importance of various environmental factors to gopher tortoise habitat selection, drawing on nationwide environmental datasets, and an existing tortoise survey of the Ft. Benning military base. We applied the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as an index of vegetation density, and found that NDVI was strongly negatively associated with active burrow locations. Our results showed that the most parsimonious model included variables from all candidate model types (landscape features, topography, soil, vegetation), and the model groups describing soil or vegetation alone performed poorly. These results demonstrate with a rigorous quantitative approach that although soil and vegetation are important to the gopher tortoise, they are not sufficient to describe suitable habitat. More widely, our results highlight the feasibility of constructing highly accurate habitat suitability models from data that are widely available throughout the species' range. Our study shows that the widespread availability of national environmental datasets describing important components of gopher tortoise habitat, combined with existing tortoise surveys on public lands, can be leveraged to inform knowledge of habitat suitability and target recovery efforts range-wide.

  1. Rat tibial osteotomy model providing a range of normal to impaired healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Joan D; Weinhold, Paul; Brimmo, Olubusola; Dahners, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive and easily implemented rat tibial osteotomy model capable of producing a range of healing outcomes. A saw blade was used to create a transverse osteotomy of the tibia in 89 Sprague-Dawley rats. A 0.89 mm diameter stainless steel wire was then inserted as an intramedullary nail to stabilize the fracture. To impair healing, 1, 2, or 3 mm cylindrical polyetheretherketone (PEEK) spacer beads were threaded onto the wires, between the bone ends. Fracture healing was evaluated radiographically, biomechanically, and histologically at 5 weeks. Means were compared for statistical differences by one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak multiple comparison testing. The mean number of "cortices bridged" for the no spacer group was 3.4 (SD ± 0.8), which was significantly greater than in the 1 mm (2.3 ± 1.4), 2 mm (0.8 ± 0.7), and 3 mm (0.3 ± 0.4) groups (p < 0.003). Biomechanical results correlated with radiographic findings, with an ultimate torque of 172 ± 53, 137 ± 41, 90 ± 38, and 24 ± 23 N/mm with a 0, 1, 2, or 3 mm defect, respectively. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that this inexpensive, technically straightforward model can be used to create a range of outcomes from normal healing to impaired healing, to nonunions. This model may be useful for testing new therapeutic strategies to promote fracture healing, materials thought to be able to heal critical-sized defects, or evaluating agents suspected of impairing healing. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  2. The evidence provided by a single trial is less reliable than its statistical analysis suggests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Lemmers, F.A.M.O.; Fransen, J.; Donders, A.R.T.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single trial can provide sufficiently robust evidence to warrant clinical implementation of its results. Trial-specific factors, such as subject selection, study design, and execution strategy, have an impact on the outcome of trials. In multiple trials, they may

  3. African American Preschoolers' Emotion Explanations Can Provide Evidence of Their Pragmatic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides qualitative and quantitative evidence of how an emotion explanation task can reflect African American preschoolers' pragmatic skills. We used an emotion explanation task to assess pragmatic skills among 19 children (aged 3-5 years) related to (1) engaging in conversational turn-taking, (2) answering "Wh-" questions,…

  4. Preliminary evidence that DEXA provides an accurate assessment of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, W M

    1998-01-01

    It was previously found that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) underestimated central body fat. The purposes of this study were to determine whether an updated version (enhanced version 5.64) of the analysis program corrected this problem (experiment 1) and to compare body composition assessed by DEXA and hydrodensitometry (HD) in women (n = 225) and men (n = 110) across a 21- to 81-yr age range (experiment 2). For experiment 1, 10 subjects underwent DEXA procedures in a control condition and with packets of lard positioned over either the thighs or the truncal region. DEXA accurately quantified the additional mass as approximately 96% fat, regardless of position. For experiment 2, DEXA yielded higher (P fatness than did HD (32.1 +/- 12.0 vs. 31.2 +/- 10.1%). The mean difference between the two methods was similar in young, middle-aged, and older subjects, but was different in men (HD-DEXA, 1.6 +/- 3.4% of body wt) than in women (-2.1 +/- 3.8% of body wt). Correcting the density of fat-free mass for variance in the bone mineral fraction of fat-free mass reduced the difference between the methods in men from 1.6 +/- 3.4 to -0.7 +/- 2.9% but widened it in women from -2.1 +/- 3.8 to -3.5 +/- 3.4%. A second correction procedure that adjusted for variance in water, protein, and mineral fractions of fat-free mass eliminated the differences in estimates of fat content by DEXA and HD in both men (21.1 +/- 9.3 vs. 20.6 +/- 8.4%, respectively) and women (37.5 +/- 9.3 vs. 36.8 +/- 8.0%, respectively). These results provide encouraging, but not definitive, evidence that the assessment of body composition by DEXA is accurate under the specified conditions.

  5. First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, Annika; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Wachter, Bettina; Willi, Barbara; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-03-23

    Infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynxes (Lynx lynx), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African lions (Panthera leo) in Tanzania and domestic cats in South Africa. The prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern Africa. In this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheetahs in central Namibia for the presence of hemoplasmas using quantitative real-time PCR. One of the cheetahs tested PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and RNAse P genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the Mycoplasma haemofelis/haemocanis group. This is the first molecular evidence of a hemoplasma infection in a free-ranging cheetah. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fractality Evidence and Long-Range Dependence on Capital Markets: a Hurst Exponent Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprean, Camelia; Tănăsescu, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Since the existence of market memory could implicate the rejection of the efficient market hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to find any evidence that selected emergent capital markets (eight European and BRIC markets, namely Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Czech Republic, Brazil, Russia, India and China) evince long-range dependence or the random walk hypothesis. In this paper, the Hurst exponent as calculated by R/S fractal analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is our measure of long-range dependence in the series. The results reinforce our previous findings and suggest that if stock returns present long-range dependence, the random walk hypothesis is not valid anymore and neither is the market efficiency hypothesis.

  7. Evidence provided for the use of oscillating instruments in restorative dentistry: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntovas, Panagiotis; Doukoudakis, Spyridon; Tzoutzas, John; Lagouvardos, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    Oscillating diamond instruments are considered gentle sources for the removal of demineralized tooth hard tissues and the preparation of cavity angles and margins needed in minimally invasive dentistry. However, there is a question if literature provides enough evidence for their efficacy in restorative dentistry procedures. A literature search until May 2016 was conducted, using PubMed, Scopus, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The quality of the studies was assessed using the recommendation of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. Fifty-five studies were finally included in the study. Of which, 78.2% of them were laboratory studies and only 21.8% were clinical studies. The strength of recommendation was 5 for most of them and D their grade of evidence. Bond strength of adhesives on surfaces prepared with these instruments, effective caries removal and cutting characteristics of the oscillating instruments were the main targets of the studies. Conventional diamond, steel, and chemical vapor deposition diamond tips and systems based on abrasive slurry were the oscillating tips, used in different studies. The strength of recommendation and grade of evidence of the studies were low. Although these devices seem to be useful for many clinical situations, there is a need for more well-structured evidence-based studies with more widely accepted procedures and common devices, to have more meaningful results and conclusions of higher strength. PMID:28729806

  8. A rapid evidence-based service by librarians provided information to answer primary care clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo

    2010-03-01

    A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.

  9. Additional specimen of Microraptor provides unique evidence of dinosaurs preying on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jingmai; Zhou, Zhonghe; Xu, Xing

    2011-12-06

    Preserved indicators of diet are extremely rare in the fossil record; even more so is unequivocal direct evidence for predator-prey relationships. Here, we report on a unique specimen of the small nonavian theropod Microraptor gui from the Early Cretaceous Jehol biota, China, which has the remains of an adult enantiornithine bird preserved in its abdomen, most likely not scavenged, but captured and consumed by the dinosaur. We provide direct evidence for the dietary preferences of Microraptor and a nonavian dinosaur feeding on a bird. Further, because Jehol enantiornithines were distinctly arboreal, in contrast to their cursorial ornithurine counterparts, this fossil suggests that Microraptor hunted in trees thereby supporting inferences that this taxon was also an arborealist, and provides further support for the arboreality of basal dromaeosaurids.

  10. Integrity of Evidence-Based Practice: Are Providers Modifying Practice Content or Practice Sequencing?

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Alayna L.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Regan, Jennifer; Weisz, John R

    2014-01-01

    This study examined patterns of evidence-based treatment (EBT) implementation within community settings by evaluating integrity along separate dimensions of practice content (PC; a session included the prescribed procedure) and practice sequencing (a session occurred in the prescribed sequence) within a recent randomized effectiveness trial. We measured whether sessions showed integrity to PC and to flexible or linear practice sequences. Findings revealed that providers tended to incorporate ...

  11. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  12. Value-at-risk modeling and forecasting with range-based volatility models: empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro dos Santos Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article considers range-based volatility modeling for identifying and forecasting conditional volatility models based on returns. It suggests the inclusion of range measuring, defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum price of an asset within a time interval, as an exogenous variable in generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH models. The motivation is evaluating whether range provides additional information to the volatility process (intraday variability and improves forecasting, when compared to GARCH-type approaches and the conditional autoregressive range (CARR model. The empirical analysis uses data from the main stock market indexes for the U.S. and Brazilian economies, i.e. S&P 500 and IBOVESPA, respectively, within the period from January 2004 to December 2014. Performance is compared in terms of accuracy, by means of value-at-risk (VaR modeling and forecasting. The out-of-sample results indicate that range-based volatility models provide more accurate VaR forecasts than GARCH models.

  13. Training medical providers in evidence-based approaches to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHay, Tamara; Ross, Sarah; McFaul, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue in the United States and worldwide, and its prevention is a public health imperative. Primary care practices are an important setting for suicide prevention, as primary care providers have more frequent contact with patients at risk for suicide than any other type of health-care provider. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, in partnership with the Suicide Prevention Resource Center, has developed a Suicide Prevention Toolkit and an associated training curriculum. These resources support the education of primary care providers in evidence-based strategies for identifying and treating patients at risk for suicide. The application of this curriculum to post-graduate medical training is presented here. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Assessing the Impact of the Realized Range on the (EGARCH Volatility: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bello Accioly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether the inclusion of the realized range as regressor in the (EGARCH volatility equation would add information to the process improving out - of - sample forecasts performance and providing more accurate estimates of the volatility persistence. Sixteen range measures at eleven data frequencies are tested using Brazilian stock market data. Several measures for assessing the improvements in the fits were used including the likelihood ratio test, the persistence percentage de crease, and a formal statistical test for comparing forecasts errors from competing models. We found that for both the GARCH and EGARCH models there are always some realized range type at some frequencies bringing information to the volatility process with considerable persistence reduction.

  15. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulotte, Nadine M; Dalton, Steven J; Carroll, Andrew G; Harrison, Peter L; Putnam, Hollie M; Peplow, Lesa M; van Oppen, Madeleine Jh

    2016-11-01

    Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals.

  16. Are internet sites providing evidence-based information for patients suffering with Trigeminal Neuralgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Andreas K; Alg, Varinder Singh; Hardwidge, Carl

    2014-05-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia has a variety of treatments with variable efficacy. Sufferers present to a spectrum of disciplines. While traditional delivery of medical information has been by oral/printed communication, up to 50-80% patients access the internet for information. Confusion, therefore, may arise when seeking treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. We evaluated the quality of information on the internet for trigeminal neuralgia using the DISCERN© instrument. Only 54% websites had clear objectives; 42% delivered on these. A total of 71% provided relevant information on trigeminal neuralgia, 54% being biased/unbalanced; 71% not providing clear sources of information. No website detailed the side-effect profile of treatments; 79% did not inform patients of the consequences/natural history if no treatment was undertaken; it was unclear if patients could anticipate symptoms settling or when treatment would be indicated. Internet information on trigeminal neuralgia is of variable quality; 83% of sites assessed were of low-to-moderate quality, 29% having 'serious shortcomings.' Only two sites scored highly, only one being in the top 10 search results. Websites on trigeminal neuralgia need to appreciate areas highlighted in the DISCERN© instrument, in order to provide balanced, reliable, evidence-based information. To advise patients who may be misguided from such sources, neurosurgeons should be aware of the quality of information on the internet.

  17. Depression Treatment by Non-Mental-Health Providers: Incremental Evidence for the Effectiveness of Listening Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Segre, Lisa S

    2017-03-01

    Maternal depression is a prevalent public health problem, particularly for low-income mothers of young children. Intervention development efforts, which often focus on surmounting instrumental barriers to care, have not successfully engaged and retained women in treatment. Task-sharing approaches like Listening Visits (LV) could overcome key instrumental and psychological barriers by leveraging the access of trusted, community caregivers to deliver treatment. A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated the efficacy of LV delivered by non-mental-health providers as compared to usual care. The present report presents results from a follow-up phase of that RCT during which participants who had completed LV were followed for an additional 8 weeks and completed measures of depression and quality of life. In addition, participants who were initially randomized to the wait-list control group received LV and were assessed. Treatment gains previously observed in participants completing LV were enhanced during the 8-week follow-up period. Participants receiving LV during the follow-up period experienced significant improvement in depressive symptoms. Results demonstrate the sustainability of LV delivered by non-mental-health providers, and provide preliminary evidence for the replicability of this approach in a sample of predominately low-income pregnant women and mothers of young children. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  18. Administrative data provide vital research evidence for maximizing health-system performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Although the quality of administrative data is frequently questioned, these data are vital for health-services evaluation and complement data from trials, other research studies and registries for research. Trials generally provide the strongest evidence of outcomes in research settings but results may not apply in many service environments. High-quality observational research has a complementary role where trials are not applicable and for assessing whether trial results apply to groups excluded from trials. Administrative data have a broader system-wide reach, enabling system-wide health-services research and monitoring of performance markers. Where administrative data raise questions about service outcomes, follow-up enquiry may be required to investigate validity and service implications. Greater use should be made of administrative data for system-wide monitoring and for research on service effectiveness and equity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  20. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bornstein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP, developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. Methods As an integrated knowledge translation (KT method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. Results CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. Conclusions By asking the health

  1. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Stephen; Baker, Rochelle; Navarro, Pablo; Mackey, Sarah; Speed, David; Sullivan, Melissa

    2017-11-02

    The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP), developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. As an integrated knowledge translation (KT) method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. By asking the health system to identify its own priorities and to participate directly in

  2. Contracting with private providers for primary care services: evidence from urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the role of the private sector in health service delivery, including primary care and population health services. China’s recent health reforms call for non-discrimination against private providers and emphasize strengthening primary care, but formal contracting-out initiatives remain few, and the associated empirical evidence is very limited. This paper presents a case study of contracting with private providers for urban primary and preventive health services in Shandong Province, China. The case study draws on three primary sources of data: administrative records; a household survey of over 1600 community residents in Weifang and City Y; and a provider survey of over 1000 staff at community health stations (CHS) in both Weifang and City Y. We supplement the quantitative data with one-on-one, in-depth interviews with key informants, including local officials in charge of public health and government finance. We find significant differences in patient mix: Residents in the communities served by private community health stations are of lower socioeconomic status (more likely to be uninsured and to report poor health), compared to residents in communities served by a government-owned CHS. Analysis of a household survey of 1013 residents shows that they are more willing to do a routine health exam at their neighborhood CHS if they are of low socioeconomic status (as measured either by education or income). Government and private community health stations in Weifang did not statistically differ in their performance on contracted dimensions, after controlling for size and other CHS characteristics. In contrast, the comparison City Y had lower performance and a large gap between public and private providers. We discuss why these patterns arose and what policymakers and residents considered to be the main issues and concerns regarding primary care services. PMID:23327666

  3. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  4. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Abbasi

    Full Text Available Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros and desert zones (Kavir, with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU. At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was

  5. Localized adenosine signaling provides fine-tuned negative feedback over a wide dynamic range of neocortical network activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170

  6. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tian Tang

    Full Text Available Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.. To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC, central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC and southwestern China (SWC based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago.

  7. Relationship of Evidence-Based Practice and Treatments: A Survey of Community Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeo, Michelle A.; Moore, G. Kurt; Lichtenstein, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are "interventions" that have been proven effective through rigorous research methodologies. Evidence-based practice (EBP), however, refers to a "decision-making process" that integrates the best available research, clinician expertise, and client characteristics. This study examined community mental health service…

  8. Microscale spatial analysis provides evidence for adhesive monopolization of dietary nutrients by specific intestinal bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nagara

    Full Text Available Each species of intestinal bacteria requires a nutritional source to maintain its population in the intestine. Dietary factors are considered to be major nutrients; however, evidence directly explaining the in situ utilization of dietary factors is limited. Microscale bacterial distribution would provide clues to understand bacterial lifestyle and nutrient utilization. However, the detailed bacterial localization around dietary factors in the intestine remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we explored microscale habitats in the murine intestine by using histology and fluorescent in situ hybridization, focusing on dietary factors. This approach successfully revealed several types of bacterial colonization. In particular, bifidobacterial colonization and adhesion on granular starch was frequently and commonly observed in the jejunum and distal colon. To identify the bacterial composition of areas around starch granules and areas without starch, laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing-based 16S rRNA microbial profiling was performed. It was found that Bifidobacteriaceae were significantly enriched by 4.7 fold in peri-starch areas compared to ex-starch areas. This family solely consisted of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. In contrast, there was no significant enrichment among the other major families. This murine intestinal B. pseudolongum had starch-degrading activity, confirmed by isolation from the mouse feces and in vitro analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate the significance of starch granules as a major habitat and potential nutritional niche for murine intestinal B. pseudolongum. Moreover, our results suggest that colonizing bifidobacteria effectively utilize starch from the closest location and maintain the location. This may be a bacterial strategy to monopolize solid dietary nutrients. We believe that our analytical approach could possibly be applied to other nutritional factors, and can be a powerful tool to investigate

  9. Sleep EEG Provides Evidence that Cortical Changes Persist into Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Van Reen, Eliza; LeBourgeois, Monique; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine developmental changes in the human sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) during late adolescence. Setting: A 4-bed sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen adolescents (5 boys) were studied at ages 15 or 16 (initial) and again at ages 17 to 19 (follow-up). Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: All-night polysomnography was recorded at each assessment and scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales. A 27% decline in duration of slow wave sleep, and a 22% increase of stage 2 sleep was observed from the initial to the follow-up session. All-night spectral analysis of 2 central and 2 occipital leads revealed a significant decline of NREM and REM sleep EEG power with increasing age across frequencies in both states. Time-frequency analysis revealed that the decline in power was consistent across the night for all bands except the delta band. The decreases in power were most pronounced over the left central (C3/A2) and right occipital (O2/A1) derivations. Conclusions: Using longitudinal data, we show that the developmental changes to the sleeping EEG that begin in early adolescence continue into late adolescence. As with early adolescents, we observed hemispheric asymmetry in the decline of sleep EEG power. This decline was state and frequency nonspecific, suggesting that it may be due to the pruning of synapses known to occur during adolescence. Citation: Tarokh L; Van Reen E; LeBourgeois M; Seifer R; Carskadon MA. Sleep EEG provides evidence that cortical changes persist into late adolescence. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1385–1393. PMID:21966070

  10. Fossil Fishes from China Provide First Evidence of Dermal Pelvic Girdles in Osteichthyans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Choo, Brian; Qu, Qingming; Jia, Liantao; Zhao, Wenjin; Qiao, Tuo; Lu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background The pectoral and pelvic girdles support paired fins and limbs, and have transformed significantly in the diversification of gnathostomes or jawed vertebrates (including osteichthyans, chondrichthyans, acanthodians and placoderms). For instance, changes in the pectoral and pelvic girdles accompanied the transition of fins to limbs as some osteichthyans (a clade that contains the vast majority of vertebrates – bony fishes and tetrapods) ventured from aquatic to terrestrial environments. The fossil record shows that the pectoral girdles of early osteichthyans (e.g., Lophosteus, Andreolepis, Psarolepis and Guiyu) retained part of the primitive gnathostome pectoral girdle condition with spines and/or other dermal components. However, very little is known about the condition of the pelvic girdle in the earliest osteichthyans. Living osteichthyans, like chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes), have exclusively endoskeletal pelvic girdles, while dermal pelvic girdle components (plates and/or spines) have so far been found only in some extinct placoderms and acanthodians. Consequently, whether the pectoral and pelvic girdles are primitively similar in osteichthyans cannot be adequately evaluated, and phylogeny-based inferences regarding the primitive pelvic girdle condition in osteichthyans cannot be tested against available fossil evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first discovery of spine-bearing dermal pelvic girdles in early osteichthyans, based on a new articulated specimen of Guiyu oneiros from the Late Ludlow (Silurian) Kuanti Formation, Yunnan, as well as a re-examination of the previously described holotype. We also describe disarticulated pelvic girdles of Psarolepis romeri from the Lochkovian (Early Devonian) Xitun Formation, Yunnan, which resemble the previously reported pectoral girdles in having integrated dermal and endoskeletal components with polybasal fin articulation. Conclusions/Significance The new findings reveal

  11. New horned dinosaurs from Utah provide evidence for intracontinental dinosaur endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Scott D; Loewen, Mark A; Farke, Andrew A; Roberts, Eric M; Forster, Catherine A; Smith, Joshua A; Titus, Alan L

    2010-09-22

    During much of the Late Cretaceous, a shallow, epeiric sea divided North America into eastern and western landmasses. The western landmass, known as Laramidia, although diminutive in size, witnessed a major evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs. Other than hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs), the most common dinosaurs were ceratopsids (large-bodied horned dinosaurs), currently known only from Laramidia and Asia. Remarkably, previous studies have postulated the occurrence of latitudinally arrayed dinosaur "provinces," or "biomes," on Laramidia. Yet this hypothesis has been challenged on multiple fronts and has remained poorly tested. Here we describe two new, co-occurring ceratopsids from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of Utah that provide the strongest support to date for the dinosaur provincialism hypothesis. Both pertain to the clade of ceratopsids known as Chasmosaurinae, dramatically increasing representation of this group from the southern portion of the Western Interior Basin of North America. Utahceratops gettyi gen. et sp. nov.-characterized by short, rounded, laterally projecting supraorbital horncores and an elongate frill with a deep median embayment-is recovered as the sister taxon to Pentaceratops sternbergii from the late Campanian of New Mexico. Kosmoceratops richardsoni gen. et sp. nov.-characterized by elongate, laterally projecting supraorbital horncores and a short, broad frill adorned with ten well developed hooks-has the most ornate skull of any known dinosaur and is closely allied to Chasmosaurus irvinensis from the late Campanian of Alberta. Considered in unison, the phylogenetic, stratigraphic, and biogeographic evidence documents distinct, co-occurring chasmosaurine taxa north and south on the diminutive landmass of Laramidia. The famous Triceratops and all other, more nested chasmosaurines are postulated as descendants of forms previously restricted to the southern portion of Laramidia. Results further suggest the presence of

  12. Evidence of Long Range Dependence and Self-similarity in Urban Traffic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Gautam S [ORNL; Helmy, Ahmed [University of Florida, Gainesville; Hui, Pan [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Transportation simulation technologies should accurately model traffic demand, distribution, and assignment parame- ters for urban environment simulation. These three param- eters significantly impact transportation engineering bench- mark process, are also critical in realizing realistic traffic modeling situations. In this paper, we model and charac- terize traffic density distribution of thousands of locations around the world. The traffic densities are generated from millions of images collected over several years and processed using computer vision techniques. The resulting traffic den- sity distribution time series are then analyzed. It is found using the goodness-of-fit test that the traffic density dis- tributions follows heavy-tail models such as Log-gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull in over 90% of analyzed locations. Moreover, a heavy-tail gives rise to long-range dependence and self-similarity, which we studied by estimating the Hurst exponent (H). Our analysis based on seven different Hurst estimators strongly indicate that the traffic distribution pat- terns are stochastically self-similar (0.5 H 1.0). We believe this is an important finding that will influence the design and development of the next generation traffic simu- lation techniques and also aid in accurately modeling traffic engineering of urban systems. In addition, it shall provide a much needed input for the development of smart cities.

  13. The impact of shifts in marine biodiversity hotspots on patterns of range evolution: Evidence from the Holocentridae (squirrelfishes and soldierfishes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Alex; Moore, Jon; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Eytan, Ron I; Near, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    One of the most striking biodiversity patterns is the uneven distribution of marine species richness, with species diversity in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) exceeding all other areas. However, the IAA formed fairly recently, and marine biodiversity hotspots have shifted across nearly half the globe since the Paleogene. Understanding how lineages have responded to shifting biodiversity hotspots represents a necessary historic perspective on the formation and maintenance of global marine biodiversity. Such evolutionary inferences are often challenged by a lack of fossil evidence that provide insights into historic patterns of abundance and diversity. The greatest diversity of squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Holocentridae) is in the IAA, yet these fishes also represent some of the most numerous fossil taxa in deposits of the former West Tethyan biodiversity hotspot. We reconstruct the pattern of holocentrid range evolution using time-calibrated phylogenies that include most living species and several fossil lineages, demonstrating the importance of including fossil species as terminal taxa in ancestral area reconstructions. Holocentrids exhibit increased range fragmentation following the West Tethyan hotspot collapse. However, rather than originating within the emerging IAA hotspot, the IAA has acted as a reservoir for holocentrid diversity that originated in adjacent regions over deep evolutionary time scales. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory demonstrated with justification provided by legal evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn P. Curley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In forecasting and decision making, people can and often do represent a degree of belief in some proposition. At least two separate constructs capture such degrees of belief: likelihoods capturing evidential balance and support capturing evidential weight. This paper explores the weight or justification that evidence affords propositions, with subjects communicating using a belief function in hypothetical legal situations, where justification is a relevant goal. Subjects evaluated the impact of sets of 1--3 pieces of evidence, varying in complexity, within a hypothetical legal situation. The study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this evidential weight measure as an alternative or complement to the more-studied probability measure. Subjects' responses indicated that weight and likelihood were distinguished; that subjects' evidential weight tended toward single elements in a targeted fashion; and, that there were identifiable individual differences in reactions to conflicting evidence. Specifically, most subjects reacted to conflicting evidence that supported disjoint sets of suspects with continued support in the implicated sets, although an identifiable minority reacted by pulling back their support, expressing indecisiveness. Such individuals would likely require a greater amount of evidence than the others to counteract this tendency in support. Thus, the study identifies the value of understanding evidential weight as distinct from likelihood, informs our understanding of the psychology of individuals' judgments of evidential weight, and furthers the application and meaningfulness of belief functions as a communication language.

  15. Validation and adaptation of the hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems in Arabic context: Evidence from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Mohammed R; Alamry, Ahmed; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    One of the main purposes of healthcare organizations is to serve patients by providing safe and high-quality patient-centered care. Patients are considered the most appropriate source to assess the quality level of healthcare services. The objectives of this paper were to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey for Arabic speaking populations, examine the degree of equivalence between the original English version and the Arabic translated version, and estimate and report the validity and reliability of the translated Arabic HCAHPS version. The translation process had four main steps: (1) qualified bilingual translators translated the HCAHPS from English to Arabic; (2) the Arabic version was translated back to English and reviewed by experts to ensure content accuracy (content equivalence); (3) both Arabic and English versions were verified for accuracy and validity of the translation, checking for the similarities and differences (semantic equivalence); (4) finally, two independent bilinguals reviewed and made the final revision of both the Arabic and English versions separately and agreed on one final version that is similar and equivalent to the original English version in terms of content and meaning. The study findings showed that the overall Cronbach's α for the Arabic HCAHPS version was 0.90, showing good internal consistency across the 9 separate domains, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.97 Cronbach's α. The correlation coefficient between each statement for each separate domain revealed a highly positive significant correlation ranging from 0.72 to 0.89. The results of the study show empirical evidence of validity and reliability of HCAHPS in its Arabic version. Moreover, the Arabic version of HCAHPS in our study presented good internal consistency and it is highly recommended to be replicated and applied in the context of other Arab countries. Copyright © 2017

  16. Radical-Scavenging Activity of a Sunscreen Enriched by Antioxidants Providing Protection in the Whole Solar Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ex vivo penetration profiles were determined using confocal Raman microscopy on porcine ear skin at different time points after application. Compared to the untreated skin, the sunscreen decreased the skin radical formation in the UV and VIS regions. Additional protection in the VIS and NIR ranges was observed for the sunscreen containing antioxidants (AO). The penetration depth of the cream was less than 11.2 ± 3.0 µm for all time points. A sunscreen containing AO improved the photoprotection in the VIS and NIR ranges. The sunscreen was retained in the stratum corneum. Therefore, these results show the possibility of the development of effective and safer sunscreen products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices among Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Shopshire, Michael; Tajima, Barbara; Gruber, Valerie; Guydish, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted at a Substance Abuse Forum designed to address local community needs by focusing on Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) in addiction treatment. The purpose of the study was to assess substance abuse treatment professionals' readiness to adopt EBPs, experience with EBPs, and attitudes toward EBPs, as well as agency support…

  18. Specific ranges of anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count correlate to provide a prognostic indicator for IVF outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Kevin; Cruzat, Vincius Fernandes; Wagle, Susbin; Chaudhary, Nitin; Newsholme, Philip; Yovich, John

    2017-03-01

    Advanced female age correlates with reduced ovarian reserve (OR) and is the primary factor underlying the limitation of success rates in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Currently, predicted ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation is determined using transvaginal ultrasound to measure antral follicle count (AFC), an indirect measure of OR. However, assessing the level of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has more recently been shown to correlate with OR, and its application has been adopted widely. This retrospective study was designed to determine the relationship between novel ranges of AMH and AFC in patients undergoing ART. There was a positive correlation between AMH and AFC category (r=0.458, P0.05), but even more reliant on female age. Finally, the number of oocytes collected was positively correlated with AMH and AFC grading, while oocyte and embryo utilization rates were negatively correlated. Overall, both OR markers were positively and strongly related with each other, and when individual AMH readings were categorised into specific novel ranges, they demonstrated a more robust correlation with AFC groupings. Taken together, applying patient AMH within specific ranges may lead to a better estimation of OR and IVF outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  19. Information exchange networks of health care providers and evidence-based cardiovascular risk management: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, Naomi; van Lieshout, Jan; Wensing, Michel

    2017-01-13

    Although a wide range of preventive and clinical interventions has targeted cardiovascular risk management (CVRM), outcomes remain suboptimal. Therefore, the question is what additional determinants of CVRM and outcomes can be identified and addressed to optimize CVRM. In this study, we aimed to identify new perspectives for improving healthcare delivery and explored associations between information exchange networks of health care providers and evidence-based CVRM. This observational study was performed parallel to a randomized clinical trial which aimed to improve professional performance of practice nurses in the Netherlands. Information exchange on medical policy for CVRM ("general information networks") and CVRM for individual patients ("specific information networks") of 180 health professionals in 31 general practices was measured with personalized questionnaires. Medical record audit was performed concerning 1620 patients in these practices to document quality of care delivery and two risk factors (systolic blood pressure (SBP) and LDL cholesterol level). Hypothesized effects of five network characteristics (density, frequency of contact, centrality of CVRM-coordinators, homophily on positive attitudes for treatment target achievement, and presence of an opinion leader for CVRM) constructed on both general and specific information exchange networks were tested and controlled for practice and patient factors using logistic multilevel analyses. Odds for adequate performance were enhanced in practices with an opinion leader for CVRM (OR 2.75, p based CVRM is associated with homophily of clinical attitudes and presence of opinion leaders in primary care teams. These results signal the potential of social networks to be taken into account in further attempts to improve the implementation of evidence-based care for CVRM. Future research is needed to identify and formulate optimal strategies for using opinion leaders to improve CVRM. Future interventions may be

  20. Simple Indices Provide Insight to Climate Attributes Delineating the Geographic Range of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Prior to Worldwide Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Motoyoshi; Armbruster, Peter; Tuno, Nobuko; Campos, Raúl; Eritja, Roger

    2015-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) has expanded its distribution worldwide during the past decades. Despite attempts to explain and predict its geographic occurrence, analyses of the distribution of Ae. albopictus in the context of broad climatic regions (biomes) has not been performed. We analyzed climate conditions at its distribution sites in the range before the worldwide invasions (from the easternmost Hawaii through westernmost Madagascar) by using thermal and aridity-humidity indices descriptive of major biomes. A significant advantage of this approach is that it uses simple indices clearly related to the population dynamics of Ae. albopictus. Although Ae. albopictus has been regarded as a forest species preferring humid climate, in areas with significant human habitation, the distribution sites extended from the perhumid, rain forest zone to the semiarid, steppe zone. This pattern was common from the tropics through the temperate zone. Across the distribution range, there was no seasonal discordance between temperature and precipitation; at sites where winter prevents Ae. albopictus reproduction (monthly meanswarm months (>10°C) under the Asian summer monsoon. Absence of the species in northern and eastern coastal Australia and eastern coastal Africa was not attributable solely to climate conditions. However, Asia west of the summer monsoon range was climatically unsuitable because of low precipitation throughout the year or in warm months favorable to reproduction (concentration of precipitation in winter). We hypothesized that Ae. albopictus originated in continental Asia under the monsoon climate with distinct dry seasons and hot, wet summer, enabling rapid population growth. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evidence of long range dependence in Asian equity markets: the role of liquidity and market restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, the efficient market hypothesis is tested for China, Hong Kong and Singapore by means of the long memory dependence approach. We find evidence suggesting that Hong Kong is the most efficient market followed by Chinese A type shares and Singapore and finally by Chinese B type shares, which suggests that liquidity and capital restrictions may play a role in explaining results of market efficiency tests.

  2. Evidence for coral range expansion accompanied by reduced diversity of Symbiodinium genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupstra, Carsten G. B.; Coma, Rafel; Ribes, Marta; Leydet, Karine Posbic; Parkinson, John Everett; McDonald, Kelly; Catllà, Marc; Voolstra, Christian R.; Hellberg, Michael E.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    2017-09-01

    Zooxanthellate corals are threatened by climate change but may be able to escape increasing temperatures by colonizing higher latitudes. To determine the effect of host range expansion on symbiont genetic diversity, we examined genetic variation among populations of Symbiodinium psygmophilum associated with Oculina patagonica, a range-expanding coral that acquires its symbionts through horizontal transmission. We optimized five microsatellite primer pairs for S. psygmophilum and tested them on Oculina spp. samples from the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. We then used them to compare symbiont genotype diversity between an Iberian core and an expansion front population of O. patagonica. Only one multilocus S. psygmophilum genotype was identified at the expansion front, and it was shared with the core population, which harbored seven multilocus genotypes. This pattern suggests that O. patagonica range expansion is accompanied by reduced symbiont genetic diversity, possibly due to limited dispersal of symbionts or local selection.

  3. Evidence for coral range expansion accompanied by reduced diversity of Symbiodinium genotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Grupstra, Carsten G. B.

    2017-05-15

    Zooxanthellate corals are threatened by climate change but may be able to escape increasing temperatures by colonizing higher latitudes. To determine the effect of host range expansion on symbiont genetic diversity, we examined genetic variation among populations of Symbiodinium psygmophilum associated with Oculina patagonica, a range-expanding coral that acquires its symbionts through horizontal transmission. We optimized five microsatellite primer pairs for S. psygmophilum and tested them on Oculina spp. samples from the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. We then used them to compare symbiont genotype diversity between an Iberian core and an expansion front population of O. patagonica. Only one multilocus S. psygmophilum genotype was identified at the expansion front, and it was shared with the core population, which harbored seven multilocus genotypes. This pattern suggests that O. patagonica range expansion is accompanied by reduced symbiont genetic diversity, possibly due to limited dispersal of symbionts or local selection.

  4. Providing evidence for use of Echinacea supplements in Hajj pilgrims for management of respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmehr, Mohammad Ali; Tafazoli, Ali

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate potential applicability of Echinacea use for management of respiratory tract infections in Hajj travelers. The PubMed database was explored with Mesh terms "Echinacea" and "Respiratory Tract Infections". A hundred journal articles were yielded but only 66 most relevant ones used for the review. There is a considerable amount of evidence that shows effectiveness of Echinacea products in prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in this setting. Although there are some controversial findings, utilization of standardized products with adequate dose or combinations with other immune-stimulants in controlled and well-designed trials will be highly encouraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical elemental distribution and soil DNA fingerprints provide the critical evidence in murder case investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Concheri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scientific contribution to the solution of crime cases, or throughout the consequent forensic trials, is a crucial aspect of the justice system. The possibility to extract meaningful information from trace amounts of samples, and to match and validate evidences with robust and unambiguous statistical tests, are the key points of such process. The present report is the authorized disclosure of an investigation, carried out by Attorney General appointment, on a murder case in northern Italy, which yielded the critical supporting evidence for the judicial trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportional distribution of 54 chemical elements and the bacterial community DNA fingerprints were used as signature markers to prove the similarity of two soil samples. The first soil was collected on the crime scene, along a corn field, while the second was found in trace amounts on the carpet of a car impounded from the main suspect in a distant location. The matching similarity of the two soils was proven by crossing the results of two independent techniques: a elemental analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES approaches, and b amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis by gel electrophoresis (ARDRA. CONCLUSIONS: Besides introducing the novel application of these methods to forensic disciplines, the highly accurate level of resolution observed, opens new possibilities also in the fields of soil typing and tracking, historical analyses, geochemical surveys and global land mapping.

  6. Physicians cite hurdles ranging from lack of coverage to poor communication in providing high-quality care to latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Jie

    2011-10-01

    We surveyed physicians about their ability to provide high-quality care to patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Primarily, we wanted to explore the challenges faced by physicians treating Latino patients compared to physicians whose patients were primarily white and non-Latino. We found that physicians treating Latinos, particularly those who worked in primary care in comparison to specialists, were less likely than physicians treating primarily white patients to believe in their ability to provide high-quality care. They cited problems of inadequate time with patients, patients' ability to pay, patients' nonadherence to recommended treatment, difficulties communicating with patients, relative lack of specialist availability, and lack of timely transmission of reports among physicians. Insurance expansions and complementary reforms mandated by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and other recent legislation should aid physicians in closing some of these gaps in quality.

  7. Redefining the bureaucratic encounter between service providers and service users: evidence from the Norwegian HUSK projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The HUSK projects, involving collaboration between service users, providers, educators, and researchers, coincided with the reorganization of national government services (NAV). The NAV reorganization brought together employment services, social insurance, and municipal social service benefits, and called for a service model where users would be empowered to influence the provision of services. In this analysis of the HUSK cases the authors focus on the relationship between the service user and the service provider, identifying themes in two broad domains: concepts of the individual that included the service user and the service provider and concepts of the relationship that included power, role, activity, interaction, and communication. Within each theme, the analysis highlights the transition from a traditional or historical state to a new or desired state and draws upon some of the classic literature that frames the encounters between service users and providers.

  8. 372 Profound Lack of Nonclinical Health Care Aptitude Across a Range of Health Care Providers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Gary R

    2016-08-01

    American health care continues to undergo profound changes at a breakneck speed. Future challenges show no signs of abating. We feel the next generation of health care providers and administrators should be well informed on the many facets of nonclinical health care (regulation, delivery, socioeconomics) to guide health care systems and public servants toward better, more efficient care. We suspect that few possess even rudimentary knowledge in these fields. We constructed a 40-question Nonclinical Health Care Delivery aptitude test covering diverse subjects such as economics, finance, public health, governmental oversight, insurance, coding/billing, study design and interpretation, and more. The test was administered to over 150 medical students, residents, young physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, administrators, and results tallied. There was, across the board, low aptitude in fundamental principles of nonclinical health care subjects. No single group performed particularly better than others. Almost all subjects showed profound gaps in knowledge. We found that aptitude for fundamental nonclinical health care subjects was profoundly lacking across all major groups of health care providers and administrators. We feel this indicates a need for a far more robust curriculum in health care delivery and socioeconomics. Failure to elevate the educational standards in this realm will jeopardize health care providers' seat at the table in changes in health care public policy.

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament bracing: evidence in providing stability and preventing injury or graft re-rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodendorfer, Blake M; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Feeley, Brian T; Gallo, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Ligamentous knee injuries are common and costly, both in financial terms and time missed from work and recreational activities. Furthermore, ligamentous injuries appear to predispose patients to future osteoarthritis and other morbidities. Therefore, prevention strategies are important in limiting the potential impact of these injuries. Knee braces are one of the most often prescribed devices in the billion-dollar orthotic industry. Despite widespread use of prophylactic and functional knee braces, the evidence supporting their efficacy in reducing and/or preventing injury remains limited. Knee braces have been shown to be more effective in preventing medial collateral ligament injuries than anterior cruciate ligament injuries in both cadaveric and clinical studies. The use of functional braces after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been supported and refuted in both postoperative and long-term studies.

  10. Nanodiamonds do not provide unique evidence for a Younger Dryas impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H; Schryvers, D; Claeys, Ph

    2011-01-04

    Microstructural, δ(13)C isotope and C/N ratio investigations were conducted on excavated material from the black Younger Dryas boundary in Lommel, Belgium, aiming for a characterisation of the carbon content and structures. Cubic diamond nanoparticles are found in large numbers. The larger ones with diameters around or above 10 nm often exhibit single or multiple twins. The smaller ones around 5 nm in diameter are mostly defect-free. Also larger flake-like particles, around 100 nm in lateral dimension, with a cubic diamond structure are observed as well as large carbon onion structures. The combination of these characteristics does not yield unique evidence for an exogenic impact related to the investigated layer.

  11. Integrating Primary Care Providers in the Care of Cancer Survivors: Gaps in Evidence and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; O’Malley, Denalee M.; Hudson, Shawna V.

    2017-01-01

    For over a decade since the release of the Institute of Medicine report, From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition, there has been a focus on providing coordinated, comprehensive care for cancer survivors that emphasized the role of primary care. Several models of care have been described which primarily focused on primary care providers (PCPs) as receivers of cancer survivors and specific types of information (e.g. survivorship care plans) from oncology based care, and not as active members of the cancer survivorship team. In this paper, we reviewed survivorship models that have been described in the literature, and specifically focused on strategies aiming to integrate primary care providers in caring for cancer survivors across different settings. We offer insights differentiating primary care providers’ level of expertise in cancer survivorship and how such expertise may be utilized. We provide recommendations for education, clinical practice, research and policy initiatives that may advance the integration of primary care providers in the care of cancer survivors in diverse clinical settings. PMID:28049575

  12. The relationship between innovation in services and standardization : Emperical evidence of service providers' involvement in standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wakke (Paul); K. Blind (Knut); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractExtant research suggests a positive and bidirectional relation between innovation and standardization. Focusing on the service industries, this paper relates the theory of innovation in services to the participation of service providers in standardization committees. For this purpose, we

  13. Performance assessment in health care providers: a critical review of evidence and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Karen E Stc; Coates, Vivien; Kelly, Billy; Boore, Jennifer R P; Cundell, Jill H; Gracey, Jacquie; McFetridge, Brian; McGonigle, Mary; Sinclair, Marlene

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate methods of performance assessment through an international literature review and a survey of current practice. Over the past two decades health care organizations have focussed on promoting high quality care in conjunction with retaining motivated staff. Cognisant of such initiatives, we sought to evaluate assessment methods for qualified staff according to their utility in the working environment. A systematic literature search was completed and each paper independently reviewed. All health care organizations in Northern Ireland submitted details of their performance assessments. Each was critically appraised using a utility index. Performance was not universally defined. A broad range of assessments were identified, each method had advantages and disadvantages. Although many lacked rigorous testing, areas of good practice were also noted. No single method is appropriate for assessing clinical performance. Rather, this study endorses proposals for a multi-method strategy to ensure that performance assessment demonstrates all attributes required for effective nursing and midwifery practice.

  14. Following up infant bronchiolitis patients provided new evidence for and against the united airway disease hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauhkonen, Eero; Koponen, Petri; Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Helminen, Merja; Paassilta, Marita; Toikka, Jyri; Korppi, Matti

    2016-11-01

    The united airway disease (UAD) hypothesis suggests that allergic rhinitis and asthma develop together. We evaluated the evidence for and against the UAD hypothesis at five to seven years of age after hospitalisation for bronchiolitis at less than six months. This study used prospective follow-up data for 102 children hospitalised for bronchiolitis under the age of six months. We included the presence of previous and current asthma, prolonged rhinitis and skin prick tests (SPT) to common inhaled allergens and lung function by impulse oscillometry (IOS) at five to seven years of age. Bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) was assessed using the exercise challenge test and bronchodilation test. Current asthma, but not previous transient asthma, was associated with prolonged rhinitis and a positive SPT. BHR, which reflected reactive airways, but not lung function, was associated with respiratory allergy, namely the combination of current asthma, prolonged rhinitis and a positive SPT. This post-bronchiolitis follow-up study suggested an association between respiratory allergy and reactive airways at five to seven years of age, which supported the UAD hypothesis. However, previous transient asthma and a reduction in lung function reduction did not support the hypothesis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  16. Northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska: new evidence for complex thin-skinned thrusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattey, R.P.

    1985-04-01

    Extensive fieldwork has shed new light on the style of deformation in the Franklin, Ramanzof, and British Mountains of the northeastern Brooks Range. Bedding-parallel thrusting controls the structure, and two major decollements are recognized. In the mountain belt, the lower one lies in the Lower Carboniferous Kayak Formation but often steps down to the base of the Upper Devonian Kanayut or Lower Carboniferous Kekiktuk Conglomerates. Near the Sadlerochit and Shublik Mountains, it steps down to its deepest level to the base of the Cambrian to Middle Devonian Katakturuk Dolomite. The upper decollement is poorly exposed in the mountains and lies in the Jurassic Kingak Shale. Locally, these are removed by Early Cretaceous erosion and the decollement steps unsequence. The two decollements separate three tectonic sequences that deform differently. First, basement below the lower decollement deforms into a set of thrust duplexes. The core of these is well exposed in the Franklin Mountains. The Sagavanirktok sidewall ramp is a major basement structure that causes the northern swing in the mountain front between the central and northeastern Brooks Range. Second, the lower cover between the two decollements deforms more complexly than basement by both passive drape over the underlying duplexes and by active thrust stacking. Large-scale buckle folding occurs in a shear zone above the Sagavanirktok sidewall ramp. Third, the upper cover above the upper decollement is poorly preserved in the mountains as allochthonous klippe in depressions in the basement and lower cover duplexes.

  17. Predicting utilization of evidence-based parenting interventions with organizational, service-provider and client variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Prinz, Ronald J; Shapiro, Cheri J

    2009-03-01

    Multidisciplinary service providers (N = 611) who underwent training in the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program participated in a structured interview 6 months following training to determine their level of post-training program use and to identify any facilitators and barriers to program use. Findings revealed that practitioners who had received training in Group Triple P, received positive client feedback, had experienced only minor barriers to implementation, and had consulted with other Triple P practitioners following training were more likely to become high users of the program. Practitioners were less likely to use the program when they had lower levels of confidence in delivering Triple P and in consulting with parents in general, had difficulties in incorporating Triple P into their work, and where there was low workplace support. These findings highlight the importance of considering the broader post training work environment of service providers as a determinant of subsequent program use.

  18. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soft and rigid collars provide similar restriction in cervical range of motion during fifteen activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher P; Bible, Jesse E; Jegede, Kola A; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-06-01

    Prospective cohort study. To evaluate the relative efficacies of soft and rigid collars for restricting both the full, active and functional ranges of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine during 15 activities of daily living (ADLs). Cervical collars are frequently used for the purpose of limiting cervical motion after surgical procedures or as a treatment for certain injuries. Rigid collars are generally believed to reduce cervical motion to a greater extent than soft collars but the latter are often preferred by patients because of their greater comfort. Although there are some data to suggest that soft collars restrict full, active ROM (i.e., the extremes of motion) to a lesser degree than rigid braces, there are currently no comparative studies that have assessed the effects of these 2 types of cervical collars on the functional ROM that is required to perform multiple ADLs. In this investigation, a previously validated electrogoniometer device was used to quantify both the full, active ROM of 10 subjects as well as the functional ROM they exhibited during a series of 15 ADLs. For each individual, these ROM measurements were repeated after the application of both a soft collar and a rigid orthosis. The soft collar limited flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation by 27.1%+/-9.9% (mean+/-standard deviation), 26.1%+/-4.8%, and 29.3%+/-10.3%, respectively. The corresponding reductions in ROM with a rigid collar were 53.7%+/-7.2%, 34.9%+/-6%, and 59.2%+/-5.3%, respectively. The rigid collar resulted in significantly lower full, active ROM in both the sagittal and axial planes but not in the lateral bending plane. Compared with the soft collar, the rigid collar afforded no difference in motion during 13 of the 15 simulated ADLs. Greater motion was only noted with backing up a car and sitting from a standing position. Although subjects exhibited less full, active ROM of the cervical spine when immobilized in a rigid collar than when they were placed in a soft

  20. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Hultsch

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior, but also 'how to sing' (the singing program, including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring experiments on nightingales that examined whether such 'chunking' was susceptible to experimental cueing. The experiments tested whether (1 'temporal phrasing' (silent intersong intervals spaced out at particular positions of a tutored string, or (2 'stimulus novelty' (groups of novel song-types added to a basic string, or (3 'pattern similarity' in the phonetic structure of songs (here: sharing of song initials would induce package boundaries (or chunking at the manipulated sequential positions. The results revealed cueing effects in experiments (1 and (2 but not in experiment (3. The finding that birds used temporal variables as cues for chunking does not require the assumption that package formation is a cognitive strategy. Rather, it points towards a mechanism of procedural memory operating in the song acquisition of birds.Há evidências crescentes de que, durante a aprendizagem do canto, as aves adquirem não somente ''o que cantar'' (o repertório comportamental, mas também ''como cantar'' (o programa do canto, incluindo regras de seqüência do canto. O Rouxinol-comum Luscinia megarhynchos adquire essas informações seriadas dividindo as longas cadeias de cantos ouvidos em segmentos ou pacotes menores através de um processo lembrando o corte (''chunking'' de informação como mecanismo codificador na memória de curto prazo. Aqui relatamos três experimentos de aprendizagem pelo rouxinol para ver se tal ''chunking'' é suscetível de marca

  1. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically

  2. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    Full Text Available Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010. 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan, Dai (Dehong, Dai (Yuxi and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses

  3. Species-specific markers provide molecular genetic evidence for natural introgression of bullhead catfishes in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béres, Beatrix; Kánainé Sipos, Dóra; Müller, Tamás; Staszny, Ádám; Farkas, Milán; Bakos, Katalin; Urbányi, Béla

    2017-01-01

    Since three bullhead catfish species were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, they have spread to most European countries. In Hungary, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) was more widespread in the 1970s–1980s, but the black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) has gradually supplanted since their second introduction in 1980. The introgressive hybridization of the two species has been presumed based on morphological examinations, but it has not previously been supported by genetic evidence. In this study, 11 different Hungarian habitats were screened with a new species-specific nuclear genetic, duplex PCR based, marker system to distinguish the introduced catfish species, Ameiurus nebulosus, Ameiurus melas, and Ameiurus natalis, as well as the hybrids of the first two. More than 460 specimens were analyzed using the above markers and additional mitochondrial sequence analyses were also conducted on >25% of the individuals from each habitat sampled. The results showed that only 7.9% of the specimens from two habitats belonged to Ameiurus nebulosus, and 92.1% were classified as Ameiurus melas of all habitats, whereas the presence of Ameiurus natalis was not detected. Two specimens (>0.4%) showed the presence of both nuclear genomes and they were identified as hybrids of Ameiurus melas and Ameiurus nebulosus. An additional two individuals showed contradicting results from the nuclear and mitochondrial assays as a sign of a possible footprint of introgressive hybridization that might have happened two or more generations before. Surprisingly, the level of hybridization was much smaller than expected based on the analyses of the North American continent’s indigenous stock from the hybrid zones. This phenomenon has been observed in several invasive fish species and it is regarded as an added level of complexity in the management of their rapid adaptation. PMID:28265489

  4. Evidence Based Digoxin Therapeutic Monitoring - A Lower and Narrower Therapeutic Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine BENLMOUDEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides have been used for congestive heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias for more than 200 years. Despite the introduction of a variety of new classes of drugs for the management of heart failure, specifically angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, b-adrenergic antagonists (bblockers, and the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone, digoxin continues to have an important role in long-term outpatient management. However, a narrow margin exists between therapeutic and toxic doses of digoxin, resulting in a high incidence of digoxin toxicity in clinical practice.A wide variety of placebo-controlled clinical trials have unequivocally shown that treatment with digoxin can improve symptoms, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with mild, moderate, or severe heart failure. The clinical relevance of digoxin therapeutic monitoring is also proved but the SDC (Serum Digoxin Conentrations required for optimal clinical efficacy and acceptable toxicity remains controversial. In the last years, international guidelines recommend 1.2 ng/mL as acceptable high level.In this bibliographic synthesis, we aim to collect pertinent informations from MedLine database about exposure-effect relationship in order to assess the evidence level scientific of new digoxin therapeutic monitoring. 

  5. Impact Crater Geometries Provide Evidence for Ice-rich Layers at Low Latitudes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Stewart, S. T.

    2005-01-01

    The impact cratering record documents the history of resurfacing events on Mars. The morphology and distribution of layered (rampart) ejecta blankets provide insights into the presence of volatiles in the upper crust [1-4]. The physical properties of the crust and history of water have been revealed through recent quantitative studies of the geometry of Martian craters [5-91. Here, we present the results from a study focused on impact craters in Utopia Planitia and the Elysium Mons province to infer the history and properties of resurfacing episodes.

  6. Dolphin genome provides evidence for adaptive evolution of nervous system genes and a molecular rate slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowen, Michael R.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans (dolphins and whales) have undergone a radical transformation from the original mammalian bodyplan. In addition, some cetaceans have evolved large brains and complex cognitive capacities. We compared approximately 10 000 protein-coding genes culled from the bottlenose dolphin genome with nine other genomes to reveal molecular correlates of the remarkable phenotypic features of these aquatic mammals. Evolutionary analyses demonstrated that the overall synonymous substitution rate in dolphins has slowed compared with other studied mammals, and is within the range of primates and elephants. We also discovered 228 genes potentially under positive selection (dN/dS > 1) in the dolphin lineage. Twenty-seven of these genes are associated with the nervous system, including those related to human intellectual disabilities, synaptic plasticity and sleep. In addition, genes expressed in the mitochondrion have a significantly higher mean dN/dS ratio in the dolphin lineage than others examined, indicating evolution in energy metabolism. We encountered selection in other genes potentially related to cetacean adaptations such as glucose and lipid metabolism, dermal and lung development, and the cardiovascular system. This study underlines the parallel molecular trajectory of cetaceans with other mammalian groups possessing large brains. PMID:22740643

  7. Computational analysis of two species C human adenoviruses provides evidence of a novel virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael P; Seto, Jason; Liu, Elizabeth B; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Hudson, Nolan R; Lukashev, Alexander N; Ivanova, Olga; Chodosh, James; Dyer, David W; Jones, Morris S; Seto, Donald

    2011-10-01

    Human adenovirus C (HAdV-C) species are a common cause of respiratory infections and can occasionally produce severe clinical manifestations. A deeper understanding of the variation and evolution in species HAdV-C is especially important since these viruses, including HAdV-C6, are used as gene delivery vectors for human gene therapy and in other biotechnological applications. Here, the full-genome analysis of the prototype HAdV-C6 and a recently identified virus provisionally termed HAdV-C57 are reported. Although the genomes of all species HAdV-C members are very similar to each other, the E3 region, hexon and fiber (ten proteins total) present a wide range of identity values at the amino acid level. Studies of these viruses in comparison to the other three HAdV-C prototypes (1, 2, and 5) comprise a comprehensive analysis of the diversity and conservation within HAdV-C species. HAdV-C6 contains a recombination event within the constant region of the hexon gene. HAdV-C57 is a recombinant virus with a fiber gene nearly identical to HAdV-C6 and a unique hexon distinguished by its loop 2 motif.

  8. Dolphin genome provides evidence for adaptive evolution of nervous system genes and a molecular rate slowdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowen, Michael R; Grossman, Lawrence I; Wildman, Derek E

    2012-09-22

    Cetaceans (dolphins and whales) have undergone a radical transformation from the original mammalian bodyplan. In addition, some cetaceans have evolved large brains and complex cognitive capacities. We compared approximately 10,000 protein-coding genes culled from the bottlenose dolphin genome with nine other genomes to reveal molecular correlates of the remarkable phenotypic features of these aquatic mammals. Evolutionary analyses demonstrated that the overall synonymous substitution rate in dolphins has slowed compared with other studied mammals, and is within the range of primates and elephants. We also discovered 228 genes potentially under positive selection (dN/dS > 1) in the dolphin lineage. Twenty-seven of these genes are associated with the nervous system, including those related to human intellectual disabilities, synaptic plasticity and sleep. In addition, genes expressed in the mitochondrion have a significantly higher mean dN/dS ratio in the dolphin lineage than others examined, indicating evolution in energy metabolism. We encountered selection in other genes potentially related to cetacean adaptations such as glucose and lipid metabolism, dermal and lung development, and the cardiovascular system. This study underlines the parallel molecular trajectory of cetaceans with other mammalian groups possessing large brains.

  9. Providing reviews of evidence to COPD patients: qualitative study of barriers and facilitating factors to patient-mediated practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melanie; Wildgoose, Deborah; Veale, Antony J; Smith, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitating factors to people with COPD performing the following actions: (a) reading a manual that contained summaries of evidence on treatments used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (b) at a medical consultation, asking questions that were provided in the manual and were designed to prompt doctors to review current treatments in the light of evidence. The manual was developed using current best practice and was designed to facilitate reading and discussion with doctors. In-depth interviews were held with patients who had received the manual. Of 125 intervention participants from a controlled clinical trial of the manual, 16 were interviewed in their homes in and around Adelaide, South Australia. Plain language writing and a simple layout facilitated reading of the manual by participants. Where the content matched the interests of participants this also facilitated reading. On the other hand, some participants showed limited interest in the evidence summaries. Participant comments indicated that they did not see it as possible or acceptable for patients to master research evidence or initiate discussions of evidence with doctors. These appeared to be the main barriers to effectiveness of the manual. If evidence summaries for patients are to be used in disease management, they should be understandable and relevant to patients and provide a basis for discussion between patients and doctors. Work is now needed so that we can both present evidence summaries in a way that is relevant to patients and reduce the barriers to patient-initiated discussions of evidence.

  10. Spatial Cues Provided by Sound Improve Postural Stabilization: Evidence of a Spatial Auditory Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandemer, Lennie; Parseihian, Gaetan; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Bourdin, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    It has long been suggested that sound plays a role in the postural control process. Few studies however have explored sound and posture interactions. The present paper focuses on the specific impact of audition on posture, seeking to determine the attributes of sound that may be useful for postural purposes. We investigated the postural sway of young, healthy blindfolded subjects in two experiments involving different static auditory environments. In the first experiment, we compared effect on sway in a simple environment built from three static sound sources in two different rooms: a normal vs. an anechoic room. In the second experiment, the same auditory environment was enriched in various ways, including the ambisonics synthesis of a immersive environment, and subjects stood on two different surfaces: a foam vs. a normal surface. The results of both experiments suggest that the spatial cues provided by sound can be used to improve postural stability. The richer the auditory environment, the better this stabilization. We interpret these results by invoking the “spatial hearing map” theory: listeners build their own mental representation of their surrounding environment, which provides them with spatial landmarks that help them to better stabilize. PMID:28694770

  11. Rectal cancer: An evidence-based update for primary care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Kwaan, Mary R; Madoff, Robert D; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Rectal adenocarcinoma is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and key anatomic differences between the rectum and the colon have significant implications for management of rectal cancer. Many advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of rectal cancer. These include clinical staging with imaging studies such as endorectal ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, operative approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery and laparoscopic and robotic assisted proctectomy, as well as refined neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. For stage II and III rectal cancers, combined chemoradiotherapy offers the lowest rates of local and distant relapse, and is delivered neoadjuvantly to improve tolerability and optimize surgical outcomes, particularly when sphincter-sparing surgery is an endpoint. The goal in rectal cancer treatment is to optimize disease-free and overall survival while minimizing the risk of local recurrence and toxicity from both radiation and systemic therapy. Optimal patient outcomes depend on multidisciplinary involvement for tailored therapy. The successful management of rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the involvement of enterostomal nurses, gastroenterologists, medical and radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and surgeons. The identification of patients who are candidates for combined modality treatment is particularly useful to optimize outcomes. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging and multimodal therapy of patients with rectal cancer for primary care providers. PMID:26167068

  12. Spatial Cues Provided by Sound Improve Postural Stabilization: Evidence of a Spatial Auditory Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandemer, Lennie; Parseihian, Gaetan; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Bourdin, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    It has long been suggested that sound plays a role in the postural control process. Few studies however have explored sound and posture interactions. The present paper focuses on the specific impact of audition on posture, seeking to determine the attributes of sound that may be useful for postural purposes. We investigated the postural sway of young, healthy blindfolded subjects in two experiments involving different static auditory environments. In the first experiment, we compared effect on sway in a simple environment built from three static sound sources in two different rooms: a normal vs. an anechoic room. In the second experiment, the same auditory environment was enriched in various ways, including the ambisonics synthesis of a immersive environment, and subjects stood on two different surfaces: a foam vs. a normal surface. The results of both experiments suggest that the spatial cues provided by sound can be used to improve postural stability. The richer the auditory environment, the better this stabilization. We interpret these results by invoking the "spatial hearing map" theory: listeners build their own mental representation of their surrounding environment, which provides them with spatial landmarks that help them to better stabilize.

  13. Spatial Cues Provided by Sound Improve Postural Stabilization: Evidence of a Spatial Auditory Map?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennie Gandemer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has long been suggested that sound plays a role in the postural control process. Few studies however have explored sound and posture interactions. The present paper focuses on the specific impact of audition on posture, seeking to determine the attributes of sound that may be useful for postural purposes. We investigated the postural sway of young, healthy blindfolded subjects in two experiments involving different static auditory environments. In the first experiment, we compared effect on sway in a simple environment built from three static sound sources in two different rooms: a normal vs. an anechoic room. In the second experiment, the same auditory environment was enriched in various ways, including the ambisonics synthesis of a immersive environment, and subjects stood on two different surfaces: a foam vs. a normal surface. The results of both experiments suggest that the spatial cues provided by sound can be used to improve postural stability. The richer the auditory environment, the better this stabilization. We interpret these results by invoking the “spatial hearing map” theory: listeners build their own mental representation of their surrounding environment, which provides them with spatial landmarks that help them to better stabilize.

  14. Mendelian randomisation analysis provides no evidence for a relationship between adult height and testicular cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M; Hall, D; Sud, A; Law, P; Litchfield, K; Dudakia, D; Haugen, T B; Karlsson, R; Reid, A; Huddart, R A; Grotmol, T; Wiklund, F; Houlston, R S; Turnbull, C

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies have suggested anthropometric traits, particularly increased height are associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer (testicular germ cell tumour). However, there is an inconsistency between study findings, suggesting the possibility of the influence of confounding factors. To examine the association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour using an unbiased approach, we performed a Mendelian randomisation study. We used genotype data from genome wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumour totalling 5518 cases and 19,055 controls. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were created and used to evaluate associations with testicular germ cell tumour risk per one standard deviation (s.d) increase in genetically-defined adult height, adult BMI, adult waist hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), adult hip circumference adjusted for BMI (HIPadjBMI), adult waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCadjBMI), birth weight (BW) and childhood obesity. Mendelian randomisation analysis did not demonstrate an association between any anthropometric trait and testicular germ cell tumour risk. In particular, despite good power, there was no global evidence for association between height and testicular germ cell tumour. However, three SNPs for adult height individually showed association with testicular germ cell tumour (rs4624820: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.41-1.55, p = 2.7 × 10-57 ; rs12228415: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22, p = 3.1 × 10-10 ; rs7568069: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07-1.18, p = 1.1 × 10-6 ). This Mendelian randomisation analysis, based on the largest testicular germ cell tumour genome wide association dataset to date, does not support a causal etiological association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour aetiology. Our findings are more compatible with confounding by shared environmental factors, possibly related to prenatal growth with exposure to these risk factors

  15. Long-range interactions in mammalian platelet aggregation. I. Evidence from kinetic studies in brownian diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, K.; Frojmovic, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Smoluchowski theory describing aggregation in suspensions of spherical colloidal particles due to Brownian diffusion-controlled two-body collisions, was used to obtain collision efficiencies, alpha B, for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from humans, dogs, and rabbits. For these diffusion studies, PRP was stirred with 10 microM ADP for 0.5 s, then kept nonstirred at 37 degrees C for varying times before fixation; the percent aggregation was computed from the decrease in particle concentration with time measured with a resistive particle counter. Up to 20% of rabbit platelets formed microaggregates within 60 s of ADP addition to such nonstirred suspensions, corresponding to mean alpha B values of approximately 0.9. However, human and dog platelets aggregated approximately 10 times and 2-3 times faster than rabbit platelets within the first 60 s of ADP addition, corresponding to alpha B approximately 8 and 2, respectively. These high alpha B (much greater than 1) for human platelets were independent of initial platelet count and were equally observed with the calcium ionophore A23187 as activator. In about one-third of human, dog, or rabbit PRP, comparable and lower values of alpha B (less than 0.5) were obtained for a slower second phase of aggregation seen for the nonstirred PRP over 60-300 s post ADP-addition. Platelet aggregability in continually stirred PRP was distinct from that observed in Brownian diffusion (nonstirred) because comparable aggregation was observed for all three species' stirred PRP, whereas greater than 3-8 times more ADP is required to yield 50% of maximal rates of aggregation for nonstirred than for stirred PRP. The above results point to the existence of long-range interactions mediating platelet aggregation in Brownian diffusion-controlled platelet collisions which varies according to human > dog > rabbit platelets. The roles for platelet pseudopods and adhesive sites in

  16. Reduction of (Formazanate)boron Difluoride Provides Evidence for an N-Heterocyclic B(I) Carbenoid Intermediate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Mu-Chieh; Otten, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the current interest in structure and reactivity of sub-valent main group compounds, neutral boron analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes have been elusive due to their high reactivity. Here we provide evidence that 2-electron reduction of a (formazanate)BF2 precursor leads to NaF elimination

  17. Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, MI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available , vol. 37(1): 205-209 Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid Mhlongo MI Piater LA Steenkamp PA Madala NE Dubery IA ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest...

  18. Asset Management Planning – providing the evidence to support robust and risk-based investment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Chrissy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the UK’s joint Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Research and Development programme has been developing methods to support a move to a risk-based approach to flood defence asset management. Looking to ensure investment is less ‘find and fix’ and made to those assets where the biggest risk reduction can be made for the money available. In addition, providing the capability to articulate the benefits of investing in these assets quantitatively and transparently. This paper describes how the Asset Performance Tools (APT project [1] is delivering practical methods, prototype tools and supporting guidance which, together with related initiatives such as the Environment Agency’s Creating Asset Management Capacity (CAMC strategic programme [2] and the ‘State of the Nation’ (SoN [3] supportive datasets, will enable a risk-based, ‘predict and protect’ approach to asset management. A key advance is the ability to bring in local knowledge to make national generic datasets locally relevant. The paper also highlights existing outputs that can already be used to support a more proactive approach to asset management. It will summarise the ongoing work which will further develop and fine tune performance assessment and investment decision processes within an integrated conceptual framework aligned with ISO55000, deliverable via CAMC and whose concepts can be used by all risk management authorities.

  19. Professional e-mail communication among health care providers: proposing evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, S Terez; Kessler, Chad S; Abraham, John; Emmet, Thomas W; Wilbur, Lee

    2015-01-01

    E-mail is now a primary method of correspondence in health care, and proficiency with professional e-mail use is a vital skill for physicians. Fundamentals of e-mail courtesy can be derived from lay literature, but there is a dearth of scientific literature that addresses the use of e-mail between physicians. E-mail communication between providers is generally more familiar and casual than other professional interactions, which can promote unprofessional behavior or misunderstanding. Not only e-mail content but also wording, format, and tone may influence clinical recommendations and perceptions of the e-mail sender. In addition, there are serious legal and ethical implications when unprofessional or unsecured e-mails related to patient-identifying information are exchanged or included within an electronic medical record. The authors believe that the appropriate use of e-mail is a vital skill for physicians, with serious legal and ethical ramifications and the potential to affect professional development and patient care. In this article, the authors analyze a comprehensive literature search, explore several facets of e-mail use between physicians, and offer specific recommendations for professional e-mail use.

  20. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1 energy metabolism; (2 signal transduction; (3 membrane; and (4 cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na+ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.

  1. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Mehr

    Full Text Available Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1 or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2. Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1. However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2, and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  2. Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction. PMID:24349171

  3. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  4. The use of interest rate swaps by nonprofit organizations: evidence from nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John

    2006-01-01

    Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks

  5. A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides compelling evidence for eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Wayne, Robert K; Springer, Mark S

    2003-08-01

    Higher-level relationships within, and the root of Placentalia, remain contentious issues. Resolution of the placental tree is important to the choice of mammalian genome projects and model organisms, as well as for understanding the biogeography of the eutherian radiation. We present phylogenetic analyses of 63 species representing all extant eutherian mammal orders for a new molecular phylogenetic marker, a 1.3kb portion of exon 26 of the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene. In addition, we analyzed a multigene concatenation that included APOB sequences and a previously published data set (Murphy et al., 2001b) of three mitochondrial and 19 nuclear genes, resulting in an alignment of over 17kb for 42 placentals and two marsupials. Due to computational difficulties, previous maximum likelihood analyses of large, multigene concatenations for placental mammals have used quartet puzzling, less complex models of sequence evolution, or phylogenetic constraints to approximate a full maximum likelihood bootstrap. Here, we utilize a Unix load sharing facility to perform maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses for both the APOB and concatenated data sets with a GTR+Gamma+I model of sequence evolution, tree-bisection and reconnection branch-swapping, and no phylogenetic constraints. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of both data sets provide support for the superordinal clades Boreoeutheria, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, Xenarthra, Afrotheria, and Ostentoria (pangolins+carnivores), as well as for the monophyly of the orders Eulipotyphla, Primates, and Rodentia, all of which have recently been questioned. Both data sets recovered an association of Hippopotamidae and Cetacea within Cetartiodactyla, as well as hedgehog and shrew within Eulipotyphla. APOB showed strong support for an association of tarsier and Anthropoidea within Primates. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses with both data sets placed Afrotheria at the base of the placental radiation

  6. Range estimates and habitat use of invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix): Evidence of sedentary and mobile individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechtel, Austin R.; Coulter, Alison A.; Etchison, Luke; Jackson, P. Ryan; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2018-01-01

    Unregulated rivers provide unobstructed corridors for the dispersal of both native and invasive species. We sought to evaluate range size and habitat use of an invasive species (Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in an unimpounded river reach (Wabash River, IN), to provide insights into the dispersal of invasive species and their potential overlap with native species. We hypothesized that range size would increase with fish length, be similar among sexes, and vary annually while habitats used would be deeper, warmer, lower velocity, and of finer substrate. Silver Carp habitat use supported our hypotheses but range size did not vary with sex or length. 75% home range varied annually, suggesting that core areas occupied by individuals may change relative to climate-based factors (e.g., water levels), whereas broader estimates of range size remained constant across years. Ranges were often centered on landscape features such as tributaries and backwaters. Results of this study indicate habitat and landscape features as potential areas where Silver Carp impacts on native ecosystems may be the greatest. Observed distribution of range sizes indicates the presence of sedentary and mobile individuals within the population. Mobile individuals may be of particular importance as they drive the spread of the invasive species into new habitats.

  7. Microsatellite polymorphism within pfcrt provides evidence of continuing evolution of chloroquine-resistant alleles in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Yagya D

    2007-03-01

    , pfcrt intronic MS variation provides evidence that the locus is still evolving. Further studies are needed to determine whether these intronic MS introduce the underlying genetic mechanisms that may generate pfcrt allelic diversity.

  8. Evidence of Placentophagia and Mother-Infant Cannibalism in Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta tcheliensis in Mount Taihangshan, Jiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jundong; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yongman; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Weijie; Kuang, San''ao; Lu, Jiqi

    2016-01-01

    Placentophagia or the consumption of the afterbirth is reported in many primate species, whereas cannibalism is a relatively rare event. Based on our field observations over the course of 3 years, we present evidence of placentophagia and mother-infant cannibalism in a free-ranging population of the Taihangshan macaque, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis, in the Mt. Taihangshan area, Jiyuan, Henan, China. We documented 1 case in which a mother consumed the afterbirth of her infant. In a second instance, we observed a fresh placenta discarded on the ground by an unknown individual. We also present a description of the first documented instance of mother-infant cannibalism in the same group of free-ranging rhesus macaques. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  10. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  11. Provider-agency fit in substance abuse treatment organizations: implications for learning climate, morale, and evidence-based practice implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex T; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa

    2015-05-12

    Substance abuse agencies have been slow to adopt and implement evidence-based practices (EBPs), due in part to poor provider morale and organizational climates that are not conducive to successful learning and integration of these practices. Person-organization fit theory suggests that alignment, or fit, between provider- and agency-level characteristics regarding the implementation of EBPs may influence provider morale and organizational learning climate and, thus, implementation success. The current study hypothesized that discrepancies, or lack of fit, between provider- and agency-level contextual factors would negatively predict provider morale and organizational learning climate, outcomes shown to be associated with successful EBP implementation. Direct service providers (n = 120) from four substance abuse treatment agencies responded to a survey involving provider morale, organizational learning climate, agency expectations for EBP use, agency resources for EBP use, and provider attitudes towards EBP use. Difference scores between combinations of provider- and agency-level factors were computed to model provider-agency fit. Quadratic regression analyses were conducted to more adequately and comprehensively model the level of the dependent variables across the entire "fit continuum". Discrepancies, or misfit, between agency expectations and provider attitudes and between agency resources and provider attitudes were associated with poorer provider morale and weaker organizational learning climate. For all hypotheses, the curvilinear model of provider-agency discrepancies significantly predicted provider morale and organizational learning climate, indicating that both directions of misfit (provider factors more favorable than agency factors, and vice-versa) were detrimental to morale and climate. However, outcomes were most negative when providers viewed EBPs favorably, but perceived that agency expectations and resources were less supportive of EBP use. The

  12. Evidence of recent climate change within the historic range of Rio Grande cutthroat trout: implications for management and future persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Matthew P.; Todd, Andrew S.; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of anthropogenically influenced climate change has motivated natural resource managers to incorporate adaptive measures to minimize risks to sensitive and threatened species. Detecting trends in climate variables (i.e., air temperature and hydrology) can serve as a valuable management tool for protecting vulnerable species by increasing our understanding of localized conditions and trends. The Rio Grande cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis has suffered a severe decline in its historical distribution, with the majority of current populations persisting in isolated headwater streams. To evaluate recent climate change within the subspecies' historical range, we examined trends in average air temperatures, biologically important hydrological variables (timing of snowmelt and seasonal flows), and the April 1 snow water equivalent over the last 45 years (1963–2007). While rates of change in all three metrics were variable across sites, rangewide patterns were evident. Across the subspecies' historical range, average annual air temperatures increased (0.29°C per decade) and the timing of snowmelt shifted 10.6 d earlier in the year (2.3 d/decade). Flows increased during biologically important periods, including winter (January 1–March 31; 6.6% increase per decade), prespawning (April 1–May 14; 6.9% increase per decade), and spawning (May 15–June 15; 4.2% increase per decade) and decreased in summer (June 16–September 15; 1.9% decrease per decade). Evidence of decreasing April 1 snow water equivalent (5.3% per decade) was also observed. While the impacts of these changes at the population level are equivocal, it is likely that negative effects would influence the subspecies by altering its distribution, decreasing available habitat, and altering the timing of important life history components. Continued monitoring and proactive management will be required to increase the resiliency of remaining populations to ensure long-term persistence and

  13. Placoderm Assemblage from the Tetrapod-Bearing Locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian) Provides Evidence for a Fish Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gaël; Daeschler, Edward B.; Dupret, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The placoderm fauna of the upper Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, Belgium, includes the antiarch Grossilepis rikiki, the arthrodire groenlandaspidid Turrisaspis strudensis and the phyllolepidid Phyllolepis undulata. Based on morphological and morphometric evidence, the placoderm specimens from Strud are predominantly recognised as immature specimens and this locality as representing a placoderm nursery. The Strud depositional environment corresponds to a channel in an alluvial plain, and the presence of a nursery in such environment could have provided nutrients and protection to the placoderm offspring. This represents one of the earliest pieces of evidence for this sort of habitat partitioning in vertebrate history, with adults living more distantly from the nursery and using the nursery only to spawn or give live birth. PMID:27552196

  14. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerfeld David H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170. Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in

  15. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel Rebecca; Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-09-08

    Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors' questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. The website provides access to evidence- and eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. As can be

  16. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. Objective The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. Methods To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors’ questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Results Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. Conclusions The website provides access to evidence- and eminence

  17. Beaver Evidence - Historical Range of Beaver in the State of California, with an emphasis on areas within the range of coho salmon and steelhead trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines historical, archaeological, and geological evidence to re-evaluate the existing management paradigm that beaver are non-native to most of...

  18. Factors that influence evidence-based program sustainment for family support providers in child protection services in disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Forster, Michell

    2017-08-01

    This paper evaluates program, workplace and process factors associated with implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based parenting support program (EBP) in disadvantaged communities. Correlation analyses and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between key implementation support factors and program implementation (at 18 months) and sustainment (at 36 months) post training with (N=35) Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family support providers using the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in Indigenous child protection agencies. This study demonstrated that for implementation at 18 months, there was a trend for implementing providers to report higher levels of partnership support, perceived program benefit, workplace support and workplace cohesion. However, the only significant relationship was with partnership support (r=.31 pprogram implementation. For sustained implementation at 36 months, no relationship was found between sustainment and program characteristics, workplace characteristics, supervision and peer support or sustainability planning. Supportive coaching was the only significant correlate (r=0.46, pp=0.009] in the program sustainment model. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further exploration of program and workplace variables and provide evidence to consider incorporating partnership support and supportive coaching in real world implementation models to improve the likelihood of EBP implementation and sustainment in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mendelian randomization provides no evidence for a causal role of serum urate in increasing serum triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Humaira; Hughes, Kim; Flynn, Tanya J; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-12-01

    Triglycerides and their lipoprotein transport molecules are risk factors for heart disease. Observational studies have associated elevated levels of serum urate (SU) with triglycerides and risk of heart disease. However, owing to unmeasured confounding, observational studies do not provide insight into the causal relationship between SU and triglyceride. The aim of this study was to test for a causal role of SU in increasing triglyceride using Mendelian randomization that accounts for unmeasured confounding. Subjects were of European ancestry from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (n=5237) and Framingham heart (n=2971) studies. Mendelian randomization by the 2-stage least squares regression method was done with SU as the exposure, a uric acid transporter genetic risk score as instrumental variable, and triglyceride as the outcome. In ordinary linear regression, SU was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (β=2.69 mmol/L change in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU). However, Mendelian randomization-based estimation showed no evidence for a direct causal association of SU with triglyceride concentration-there was a nonsignificant 1.01 mmol/L decrease in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU attributable to the genetic risk score (P=0.21). The reverse analysis using a triglyceride genetic risk score provided evidence of a causal role for triglyceride in raising urate in men (P(Corrected)=0.018). These data provide no evidence for a causal role for SU in raising triglyceride levels, consistent with a previous Mendelian randomization report of no association between SU and ischemic heart disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Teaching Evidence Assimilation for Collaborative Health Care (TEACH) 2009-2014: Building Evidence-Based Capacity within Health Care Provider Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C; Umscheid, Craig A; Wright, Stewart; Silva, Suzana A; Lang, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    Clinical guidelines, prediction tools, and computerized decision support (CDS) are underutilized outside of research contexts, and conventional teaching of evidence-based practice (EBP) skills fails to change practitioner behavior. Overcoming these challenges requires traversing practice, policy, and implementation domains. In this article, we describe a program's conceptual design, the results of institutional participation, and the program's evolution. Next steps include integration of instruction in principles of CDS. Teaching Evidence Assimilation for Collaborative Health Care (TEACH) is a multidisciplinary annual conference series involving on- and off-site trainings and facilitation within health care provider organizations (HPOs). Separate conference tracks address clinical policy and guideline development, implementation science, and foundational EBP skills. The implementation track uses a model encompassing problem delineation, identifying knowing-doing gaps, synthesizing evidence to address those gaps, adapting guidelines for local use, assessing implementation barriers, measuring outcomes, and sustaining evidence use. Training in CDS principles is an anticipated component within this track. Within participating organizations, the program engages senior administration, middle management, and frontline care providers. On-site care improvement projects serve as vehicles for developing ongoing, sustainable capabilities. TEACH facilitators conduct on-site workshops to enhance project development, integration of stakeholder engagement and decision support. Both on- and off-site components emphasize narrative skills and shared decision-making. Since 2009, 430 participants attended TEACH conferences. Delegations from five centers attended an initial series of three conferences. Improvement projects centered on stroke care, hospital readmissions, and infection control. Successful implementation efforts were characterized by strong support of senior administration

  1. Trust in the health-care provider-patient relationship: a systematic mapping review of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Nicola; Barnes, Rebecca; Calnan, Mike; Corrigan, Oonagh; Dieppe, Paul; Entwistle, Vikki

    2013-12-01

    Trust is important for patients and may be used as an indicator and potential 'marker' for how patients evaluate the quality of health care. The review aimed to classify the current evidence base on trust in the patient-provider relationship in order to identify strengths and weaknesses and to point towards areas for future research. Nine electronic databases were searched from 2004 onwards using text and subject heading keywords relating to 'trust' and 'health care' and 'relationships'. Abstracts were identified for empirical studies carried out in health-care settings that explicitly examined trust or reported trust-related findings as a secondary outcome. Data extraction Two review authors assessed the relevance of abstracts and extracted data relating to year published, country of study, clinical speciality, and participants. Five hundred and ninety-six abstracts were included. Most reported on patients' trust in providers; were carried out in the USA; collected data in family care or oncology/palliative care settings; used questionnaires and interviews and elicited patients' perspectives. Only one study explicitly set out to examine providers' trust in patients and patients. Providers' trust in patients remains a neglected area on the trust research agenda. Empirical studies examining the factors that influence providers' trust in patients and how this might affect the quality of care and patient health-related behaviours are urgently needed to readdress this imbalance. Further exploration of this area using observational methods is recommended.

  2. Provider report of the existence of detection and care of perinatal depression: quantitative evidence from public obstetric units in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa de Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide evidence on perinatal mental healthcare in Mexico. Materials and methods. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of data from a cross-sectional probabilistic survey of 211 public obstetric units. Results. Over half (64.0% of units offer mental healthcare; fewer offer perinatal depression (PND detection (37.1% and care (40.3%. More units had protocols/guidelines for PND detection and for care, respectively, in Mexico City-Mexico state (76.7%; 78.1% than in Southern (26.5%; 36.4%, Northern (27.3%; 28.1% and Central Mexico (50.0%; 52.7%. Conclusion. Protocols and provider training in PND, implementation of brief screening tools and psychosocial interventions delivered by non-clinical personnel are needed.      DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i4.8028

  3. The abrogation of condensin function provides independent evidence for defining the self-renewing population of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alvina G; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Abnave, Prasad; Sahu, Sounak; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-07-28

    Heterogeneity of planarian stem cells has been categorised on the basis of single cell expression analyses and subsequent experiments to demonstrate lineage relationships. Some data suggest that despite heterogeneity in gene expression amongst cells in the cell cycle, in fact only one sub-population, known as sigma neoblasts, can self-renew. Without the tools to perform live in vivo lineage analysis, we instead took an alternative approach to provide independent evidence for defining the self-renewing stem cell population. We exploited the role of highly conserved condensin family genes to functionally assay neoblast self-renewal properties. Condensins are involved in forming properly condensed chromosomes to allow cell division to proceed during mitosis, and their abrogation inhibits mitosis and can lead to repeated endoreplication of the genome in cells that make repeated attempts to divide. We find that planarians possess only the condensin I complex, and that this is required for normal stem cell function. Abrogation of condensin function led to rapid stem cell depletion accompanied by the appearance of 'giant' cells with increased DNA content. Using previously discovered markers of heterogeneity we show that enlarged cells are always from the sigma-class of the neoblast population and we never observe evidence for endoreplication for the other neoblast subclasses. Overall, our data establish that condensins are essential for stem cell maintenance and provide independent evidence that only sigma-neoblasts are capable of multiple rounds of cell division and hence self-renewal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Beliefs, Knowledge, Implementation, and Integration of Evidence-Based Practice Among Primary Health Care Providers: Protocol for a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipa; Salvi, Mireille; Verloo, Henk

    2017-08-01

    The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) is promoted because it is widely recognized for improving the quality and safety of health care for patients, and reducing avoidable costs. Providers of primary care face numerous challenges to ensuring the effectiveness of their daily practices. Primary health care is defined as: the entry level into a health care services system, providing a first point of contact for all new needs and problems; patient-focused (not disease-oriented) care over time; care for all but the most uncommon or unusual conditions; and coordination or integration of care, regardless of where or by whom that care is delivered. Primary health care is the principal means by which to approach the main goal of any health care services system: optimization of health status. This review aims to scope publications examining beliefs, knowledge, implementation, and integration of EBPs among primary health care providers (HCPs). We will conduct a systematic scoping review of published articles in the following electronic databases, from their start dates until March 31, 2017: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed (from 1946), Embase (from 1947), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; from 1937), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; from 1992), PsycINFO (from 1806), Web of Science (from 1900), Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) database (from 1998), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE; from 1996), Trip medical database (from 1997), and relevant professional scientific journals (from their start dates). We will use the predefined search terms of, "evidence-based practice" and, "primary health care" combined with other terms, such as, "beliefs", "knowledge", "implementation", and "integration". We will also conduct a hand search of the bibliographies of all relevant articles and a search for unpublished studies using Google Scholar, ProQuest, Mednar, and World

  5. Holocene lake salinity changes in the Wimmera, southeastern Australia, provide evidence for millennial-scale climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Radke, Lynda C.; Olley, Jon; Juggins, Steve; De Deckker, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Palaeosalinity records for groundwater-influenced lakes in the southwest Murray Basin were constructed from an ostracod-based, weighted-averaging transfer function, supplemented with evidence from Campylodiscus clypeus (diatom), charophyte oogonia, Coxiella striata (gastropod), Elphidium sp. (foraminifera), Daphniopsis sp. ephippia (Cladocera), and brine shrimp (Parartemia zietziana) faecal pellets, the δ18O of ostracods, and > 130 μm quartz sand counts. The chronology is based on optically stimulated luminescence and calibrated radiocarbon ages. Relatively wet conditions are marked by lower salinities between 9600 yr and 5700 yr ago, but mutually exclusive high- and low-salinity ostracod communities suggest substantial variability in effective precipitation in the early Holocene. A drier climate was firmly in place by 4500 yr and is marked at the groundwater-dominated NW Jacka Lake by an increase in aeolian quartz and, at Jacka Lake, by a switch from surface-water to groundwater dominance. Short-lived, low-salinity events at 8800, 7200, 5900, 4800, 2400, 1300 and 400 yr are similar in timing and number to those recorded on Australia's southern continental shelf, and globally, and provide evidence for the existence of the ~ 1500-yr cycle in mainland southern Australia. We surmise that these are cool events associated with periodic equatorward shifts in the westerly wind circulation.

  6. Governance in Health - The Need for Exchange and Evidence Comment on "Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturidze, Tata; Obermann, Konrad

    2016-05-17

    Governance in health is cited as one of the key factors in balancing the concerns of the government and public sector with the interests of civil society/private players, but often remains poorly described and operationalized. Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran look at two aspects in the search for new provider models in a context of health markets signalling liberalisation: (i) the role of the government to balance public and private interests and responsibilities in delivering care through modernised governance arrangements, and (ii) the finding that operational complexities may hinder well-designed provider governance models, unless governance reflects country-specific realities. This commentary builds on the discussion by Saltman and Duran, and argues that the concept of governance needs to be clearly defined and operationalized in order to be helpful for policy debate as well as for the development of an applicable framework for performance improvement. It provides a working definition of governance and includes a reflection on the prevailing cultural norms in an organization or society upon which any governance needs to be build. It proposes to explore whether the "evidence-based governance" concept can be introduced to generate knowledge about innovative and effective governance models, and concludes that studies similar to the one by Saltman and Duran can inform this debate. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  7. Metagenomic natural product discovery in lichen provides evidence for a family of biosynthetic pathways in diverse symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampa, Annette; Gagunashvili, Andrey N.; Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Morinaka, Brandon I.; Daolio, Cristina; Godejohann, Markus; Miao, Vivian P. W.; Piel, Jörn; Andrésson, Ólafur S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are a major source of natural products that provide rich opportunities for both chemical and biological investigation. Although the vast majority of known bacterial metabolites derive from free-living organisms, increasing evidence supports the widespread existence of chemically prolific bacteria living in symbioses. A strategy based on bioinformatic prediction, symbiont cultivation, isotopic enrichment, and advanced analytics was used to characterize a unique polyketide, nosperin, from a lichen-associated Nostoc sp. cyanobacterium. The biosynthetic gene cluster and the structure of nosperin, determined from 30 μg of compound, are related to those of the pederin group previously known only from nonphotosynthetic bacteria associated with beetles and marine sponges. The presence of this natural product family in such highly dissimilar associations suggests that some bacterial metabolites may be specific to symbioses with eukaryotes and encourages exploration of other symbioses for drug discovery and better understanding of ecological interactions mediated by complex bacterial metabolites. PMID:23898213

  8. Analysis of mice with targeted deletion of AQP9 gene provides conclusive evidence for expression of AQP9 in neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylonakou, Maria N; Petersen, Petur H; Rinvik, Eric

    2009-01-01

    and mouse liver, the organ with the highest level of AQP9. By blue native gel analysis it could be demonstrated that the brain contains tetrameric AQP9, corresponding to the functional form of AQP9. The band corresponding to the AQP9 tetramer was absent in AQP9 knockout brain and liver. Immunocytochemistry...... gene expression in brain, based on a quantitative and multipronged approach that includes the use of animals with targeted deletion of the AQP9 gene. We show by real-time PCR that AQP9 mRNA concentration in rat and mouse brain is approximately 3% and approximately 0.5%, respectively, of that in rat....... The present data provide conclusive evidence for the presence of tetrameric AQP9 in brain and for the expression of AQP9 in neurons....

  9. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Chojnacka

    Full Text Available It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species' social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from 'client' reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity.

  10. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Dominika; Isler, Karin; Barski, Jaroslaw Jerzy; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species’ social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from ‘client’ reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity. PMID:26263490

  11. Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan: observed evidence and model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants are major environmental concerns of Taiwan during the winter monsoon season when northeasterly winds prevail following passages of cold fronts. Based on hourly measurements of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA air quality monitoring stations, Lidar and in-situ IC, a significant long-range transport dust and air pollutants event on 18 March 2005 has been identified. During this episode, drastically elevated concentrations of PM10, CO and SO2 along with the strong northeasterly on 18 March were observed over background Wanli station, with peaks of about 170 μgm−3, 1.0 ppm and 14 ppb, respectively. We have found that air masses of air pollutants and Asian dust are transported separately. Although the mixing takes place on the way to Taiwan, it mixes slightly when they arrived in Taiwan. The major component of the first PM10 peak were air pollutants, evidenced by the consistent peaks of SO42− and NO3 measured by in-situ IC, while no significant depolarization was measured by Lidar. In contrast, the evident non-spherical particles and hourly PM10 concentration consistently varied with Ca2+ indicating that mineral dust was the major component of the second peak. Trajectory analysis showed that these two peaks come from quite different sources areas. The air masses of the first peak mainly come from anthropogenic area and transport in the low boundary layer (<1500 m while the masses of the second peak originate from high altitude (>4000 m of desert areas. Numerical results showed significant agreement of temporal and vertical variation of aerosol concentration with observations. The phenomena of split air parcels between air pollutants and Asian dust transported to Taiwan are strongly associated with the transport paths and stable and dry atmospheric boundary conditions.

  12. δ(15)N Values in Crassostrea virginica Shells Provides Early Direct Evidence for Nitrogen Loading to Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H D; Andrus, C F T; Lambert, W J; Rick, T C; Gillikin, D P

    2017-03-10

    Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States' east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. Although there have been several sclerochronological studies on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the shells of this species, less is known about δ(15)N values within their shells, which could be a useful paleoenvironmental proxy to assess estuarine nitrogen dynamics. Modern C. virginica samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay for comparison with archaeological shells from nearby sites ranging in age from ~100 to 3,200 years old. Left valves were sampled by milling the hinge area and the resulting powder was analyzed for %N and δ(15)N values. Comparison of δ(15)N values between C. virginica shells shows relatively constant values from ~1250 BC to ~1800 AD. After ~1800 AD, there are rapid increases in (15)N enrichment in the shells, which continue to increase in value up to the modern shell values. The increase in δ(15)N values is evidence of early anthropogenic impact in Chesapeake Bay. These results corroborate the observation that coastal nitrogen pollution occurred earlier than the 19th century and support the use of oyster shell δ(15)N values as a useful environmental proxy.

  13. δ15N Values in Crassostrea virginica Shells Provides Early Direct Evidence for Nitrogen Loading to Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Andrus, C. F. T.; Lambert, W. J.; Rick, T. C.; Gillikin, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States’ east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. Although there have been several sclerochronological studies on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the shells of this species, less is known about δ15N values within their shells, which could be a useful paleoenvironmental proxy to assess estuarine nitrogen dynamics. Modern C. virginica samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay for comparison with archaeological shells from nearby sites ranging in age from ~100 to 3,200 years old. Left valves were sampled by milling the hinge area and the resulting powder was analyzed for %N and δ15N values. Comparison of δ15N values between C. virginica shells shows relatively constant values from ~1250 BC to ~1800 AD. After ~1800 AD, there are rapid increases in 15N enrichment in the shells, which continue to increase in value up to the modern shell values. The increase in δ15N values is evidence of early anthropogenic impact in Chesapeake Bay. These results corroborate the observation that coastal nitrogen pollution occurred earlier than the 19th century and support the use of oyster shell δ15N values as a useful environmental proxy. PMID:28281649

  14. δ15N Values in Crassostrea virginica Shells Provides Early Direct Evidence for Nitrogen Loading to Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Andrus, C. F. T.; Lambert, W. J.; Rick, T. C.; Gillikin, D. P.

    2017-03-01

    Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States’ east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. Although there have been several sclerochronological studies on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the shells of this species, less is known about δ15N values within their shells, which could be a useful paleoenvironmental proxy to assess estuarine nitrogen dynamics. Modern C. virginica samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay for comparison with archaeological shells from nearby sites ranging in age from ~100 to 3,200 years old. Left valves were sampled by milling the hinge area and the resulting powder was analyzed for %N and δ15N values. Comparison of δ15N values between C. virginica shells shows relatively constant values from ~1250 BC to ~1800 AD. After ~1800 AD, there are rapid increases in 15N enrichment in the shells, which continue to increase in value up to the modern shell values. The increase in δ15N values is evidence of early anthropogenic impact in Chesapeake Bay. These results corroborate the observation that coastal nitrogen pollution occurred earlier than the 19th century and support the use of oyster shell δ15N values as a useful environmental proxy.

  15. Comparison of range-of-motion constraints provided by prefabricated splints used in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Eileen; Johnson, Merry; Abrams, Reid

    2002-01-01

    Nocturnal splinting of the wrist is commonly used to treat carpal tunnel syndrome. Rationales for overnight wrist splinting are based on several research studies, which suggest that passively and actively sustained positions of the wrist and digits during sleep contribute to elevated carpal tunnel pressures. The types of splints used for carpal tunnel syndrome include custom and prefabricated orthoses of many variations. The purpose of this paper is to assess the resting and passive range-of-motion position restrictions and parameters provided by four prefabricated orthoses commonly prescribed for or used by patients at the authors' treatment facility. A literature review provides information that supports optimal wrist and finger positioning to minimize resting carpal tunnel pressures. This information may be useful in determining the most effective splint design choices.

  16. Histological evidence of chytridiomycete fungal infection in a free-ranging amphibian, Afrana fuscigula (Anura: Ranidae, in South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Lane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1st recorded histological evidence of chytridiomycete fungal infection in a free-ranging ranid amphibian in South Africa is presented. Literature on causes of a worldwide decline in amphibian populations is briefly reviewed.

  17. Emergent Life Events During Youth Evidence-Based Treatment: Impact on Future Provider Adherence and Clinical Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Karen; Park, Alayna L; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2017-03-20

    Emergent life events (ELEs)-unexpected stressors disclosed in psychotherapy that have a significant negative impact on the client-commonly occur in community populations of youth and are associated with decreased provider adherence to evidence-based treatment (EBT) in session. The present study extends previous research by examining longer term associations of ELEs with (a) provider adherence to planned EBT practices in subsequent sessions and (b) clinical progress. Data were drawn from the modular EBT condition (MATCH) of the Child STEPs California trial conducted with primarily Latino youth, ages 5-15, who were 54% male (Chorpita et al., 2017). Study 1 utilized data from 57 MATCH participants who reported at least one ELE during treatment. Provider adherence was measured by identifying whether planned practices were covered in either the session in which the ELE was reported or the following session using the MATCH Consultation Record. In Study 2, clinical progress for 78 MATCH participants was assessed using weekly youth- and caregiver-ratings of symptomatology (Brief Problem Checklist) and functioning (Top Problems Assessment). Study 1 revealed that ELEs were associated with reduced adherence to planned practices for at least two sessions. Study 2 demonstrated that each disruptive ELE (i.e., an ELE for which no EBT content was covered) was associated with a 14%-20% slower rate of clinical improvement, with greater declines for functioning and externalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that ELEs can be a major barrier to the effectiveness of an EBT and require further research in order to be addressed effectively.

  18. Kame deltas provide evidence for a new glacial lake and suggest early glacial retreat from central Lower Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzl, Randall J.; Lepper, Kenneth; Thomas, Sarah E.; Grove, Leslie; Treiber, Emma; Farmer, Alison; Fillmore, Austin; Lee, Jordan; Dickerson, Bethany; Alme, Kayleigh

    2017-03-01

    In association with an undergraduate Honors Seminar at Michigan State University, we studied two small kame deltas in north-central Lower Michigan. These recently identified deltas provide clear evidence for a previously unknown proglacial lake (Glacial Lake Roscommon) in this large basin located in an interlobate upland. Our first goal was to document and characterize the geomorphology of these deltas. Because both deltas are tied to ice-contact ridges that mark the former position of the retreating ice margin within the lake, our second goal was to establish the age of one of the deltas, thereby constraining the timing of ice retreat in this part of Michigan, for which little information currently exists. Both deltas are composed of well-sorted fine and medium sands with little gravel, and have broad, nearly flat surfaces and comparatively steep fronts. Samples taken from the upper 1.5 m of the deltas show little spatial variation in texture, aside from a general fining toward their outer margins. Gullies on the outer margins of both deltas probably postdate the formation of the deltas proper; we suggest that they formed by runoff during a permafrost period, subsequent to lake drawdown. We named the ice lobe that once covered this area the Mackinac Lobe, because it had likely advanced into the region across the Mackinac Straits area. Five of six optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from one of the deltas had minimal scatter and were within ± 1000 years of one another, with a mean age of 23.1 ± 0.4 ka. These ages suggest that the Mackinac Lobe had started to retreat from the region considerably earlier than previously thought, even while ice was near its maximum extent in Illinois and Indiana, and the remainder of Michigan was ice-covered. This early retreat, which appears to coincide with a short-lived warm period indicated from the Greenland ice core, formed an "opening" that was at least occasionally flooded. Thick and deep, fine-textured deposits

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy: How medical providers can increase patient and family openness and access to evidence-based multimodal therapy for pediatric migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michelle M.; O’Brien, Hope; Powers, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence supports the recommendation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric migraine, few children actually receive this evidence-based intervention. In this article we briefly review the most recent empirical evidence supporting CBT. We then identify both provider/system-related barriers as well as patient-related barriers. Finally, we provide practical solutions to addressing these barriers in the service of facilitating children receiving optimal comprehensive management of their headaches. PMID:26198185

  20. Crustal formation in the Nanling Range, South China Block: Hf isotope evidence of zircons from Phanerozoic granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xu-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Sun, Tao; Chen, Wei-Feng; Shen, Wei-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Granitic rocks are the principle agent of crustal differentiation, therefore their origins yield important information on crustal formation and reworking. An extensive survey of zircon Hf isotopes from granitic rocks in a large region can provide a profile of crustal characteristics that may be further linked to previous crustal evolution. In this study, we measured U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircon grains extracted from twenty-five Jurassic, five Triassic and two Ordovician granitic plutons from the Nanling Range, South China Block (SCB). Combined with the published Lu-Hf isotopic data for the granitic rocks in the studied and adjacent areas, three domains with different crustal formation histories have been identified in the southern part of the SCB: eastern side, middle part and western side. The eastern side extends to the coastal area of the SCB, with dominant Hf crustal model ages (TDM2) in zircons falling within the range of 2.2-1.6 Ga. The middle part is partly coincided with the low-Nd model age belt proposed by Chen and Jahn (1998), with zircon Hf TDM2 ranging from 1.6 to 1.0 Ga. The western side covers the westernmost Nanling Range and the western end of the Jiangnan orogen, in which the granitoids have zircon Hf TDM2 model ages spanning 2.2-1.8 Ga. The Paleo- to Meso-Proterozoic model ages of the Phanerozoic granitoids in the Nanling Range imply a long-term crustal reworking. Zircons from the western and eastern sides have an average ɛHf(155 Ma) at around -10, about 4 epsilon units lower than the middle part (ɛHf(155 Ma) = -6). Hf TDM2 histogram from the western Nanling Range is similar to that of the Neoproterozoic granitoids in northern Guangxi Province to the west but much lower to the granites in the middle part to the east. The eastern side has a broader range of Hf model ages in zircons, with the main peak low to ca 1.6 Ga, suggesting the reworking of Mesoproterozoic crust. However, granitoids in the middle part have zircon Hf TDM2

  1. Long tree-ring chronologies provide evidence of recent tree growth decrease in a Central African tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battipaglia

    Full Text Available It is still unclear whether the exponential rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration has produced a fertilization effect on tropical forests, thus incrementing their growth rate, in the last two centuries. As many factors affect tree growth patterns, short -term studies might be influenced by the confounding effect of several interacting environmental variables on plant growth. Long-term analyses of tree growth can elucidate long-term trends of plant growth response to dominant drivers. The study of annual rings, applied to long tree-ring chronologies in tropical forest trees enables such analysis. Long-term tree-ring chronologies of three widespread African species were measured in Central Africa to analyze the growth of trees over the last two centuries. Growth trends were correlated to changes in global atmospheric CO2 concentration and local variations in the main climatic drivers, temperature and rainfall. Our results provided no evidence for a fertilization effect of CO2 on tree growth. On the contrary, an overall growth decline was observed for all three species in the last century, which appears to be significantly correlated to the increase in local temperature. These findings provide additional support to the global observations of a slowing down of C sequestration in the trunks of forest trees in recent decades. Data indicate that the CO2 increase alone has not been sufficient to obtain a tree growth increase in tropical trees. The effect of other changing environmental factors, like temperature, may have overridden the fertilization effect of CO2.

  2. Crystallographic studies with xenon and nitrous oxide provide evidence for protein-dependent processes in the mechanisms of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraini, Jacques H; Marassio, Guillaume; David, Helene N; Vallone, Beatrice; Prangé, Thierry; Colloc'h, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms by which general anesthetics, including xenon and nitrous oxide, act are only beginning to be discovered. However, structural approaches revealed weak but specific protein-gas interactions. To improve knowledge, we performed x-ray crystallography studies under xenon and nitrous oxide pressure in a series of 10 binding sites within four proteins. Whatever the pressure, we show (1) hydrophobicity of the gas binding sites has a screening effect on xenon and nitrous oxide binding, with a threshold value of 83% beyond which and below which xenon and nitrous oxide, respectively, binds to their sites preferentially compared to each other; (2) xenon and nitrous oxide occupancies are significantly correlated respectively to the product and the ratio of hydrophobicity by volume, indicating that hydrophobicity and volume are binding parameters that complement and oppose each other's effects; and (3) the ratio of occupancy of xenon to nitrous oxide is significantly correlated to hydrophobicity of their binding sites. These data demonstrate that xenon and nitrous oxide obey different binding mechanisms, a finding that argues against all unitary hypotheses of narcosis and anesthesia, and indicate that the Meyer-Overton rule of a high correlation between anesthetic potency and solubility in lipids of general anesthetics is often overinterpreted. This study provides evidence that the mechanisms of gas binding to proteins and therefore of general anesthesia should be considered as the result of a fully reversible interaction between a drug ligand and a receptor as this occurs in classical pharmacology.

  3. Complex Segregation Analysis Provides Evidence for Autosomal Dominant Transmission in the Chinese Han Families with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Familial aggregation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS has been frequently noticed. However, the mode of inheritance in AS remains poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the mode of inheritance best fitting the observed transmission pattern of AS families. Methods. Families with 5 or more AS patients diagnosed with 1984 modified New York criteria were recruited. We performed complex segregation analysis for a binary trait in regressive multivariate logistic models. The inheritance models, including sporadic, major gene, environmental, general, and other 9 models, were compared by likelihood ratio tests and Akaike’s Information Criterion. Results. This research included 9 Chinese Han AS families with a total number of 315 persons, including 74 patients. First, familial association was determined. Sporadic with familial association model was rejected when compared with either the general model or the homogeneous general model (p<0.001. The environmental model was also rejected when compared with general models (p<0.02. Mendelian dominate mode fitted best in 5 AS families, while Tau AB free model best explained the mode of inheritance in these AS families. Conclusion. This study provided evidence in support of Mendelian dominant mode and firstly discovered a non-Mendelian mode called tau AB free inheritance mode in AS.

  4. The transformer genes in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi provide new evidence for duplications independent of complementary sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L-Y; Xiao, J-H; Xiong, T-L; Niu, L-M; Huang, D-W

    2016-06-01

    Transformer (tra) is the key gene that turns on the sex-determination cascade in Drosophila melanogaster and in some other insects. The honeybee Apis mellifera has two duplicates of tra, one of which (complementary sex determiner, csd) is the primary signal for complementary sex-determination (CSD), regulating the other duplicate (feminizer). Two tra duplicates have been found in some other hymenopteran species, resulting in the assumption that a single ancestral duplication of tra took place in the Hymenoptera. Here, we searched for tra homologues and pseudogenes in the Hymenoptera, focusing on five newly published hymenopteran genomes. We found three tra copies in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Further evolutionary and expression analyses also showed that the two duplicates (Csoltra-B and Csoltra-C) are under positive selection, and have female-specific expression, suggesting possible sex-related functions. Moreover, Aculeata species exhibit many pseudogenes generated by lineage-specific duplications. We conclude that phylogenetic reconstruction and pseudogene screening provide novel evidence supporting the hypothesis of independent duplications rather an ancestral origin of multiple tra paralogues in the Hymenoptera. The case of C. solmsi is the first example of a non-CSD species with duplicated tra, contrary to the previous assumption that derived tra paralogues function as the CSD locus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial Provides Evidence to Support Aromatherapy to Minimize Anxiety in Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trambert, Renee; Kowalski, Mildred Ortu; Wu, Betty; Mehta, Nimisha; Friedman, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aromatherapy has been used to reduce anxiety in a variety of settings, but usefulness associated with breast biopsies has not been documented. This study was conducted in women undergoing image-guided breast biopsy. We explored the use of two different aromatherapy scents, compared to placebo, aimed at reducing anxiety with the intent of generating new knowledge. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled study of two different types of external aromatherapy tabs (lavender-sandalwood and orange-peppermint) compared with a matched placebo-control delivery system. Anxiety was self-reported before and after undergoing a breast biopsy using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory Scale. Eighty-seven women participated in this study. There was a statistically significant reduction in self-reported anxiety with the use of the lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy tab compared with the placebo group (p = .032). Aromatherapy tabs reduced anxiety during image-guided breast biopsy. The completion of the biopsy provided some relief from anxiety in all groups. The use of aromatherapy tabs offers an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve adaptation and reduce anxiety for women undergoing breast biopsy. Lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy reduced anxiety and promoted adaptation more than orange-peppermint aromatherapy or placebo. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. Cortical gamma activity during auditory tone omission provides evidence for the involvement of oscillatory activity in top-down processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay, I G; Alegre, M; Valencia, M; Artieda, J

    2006-11-01

    Perception is an active process in which our brains use top-down influences to modulate afferent information. To determine whether this modulation might be based on oscillatory activity, we asked seven subjects to detect a silence that appeared randomly in a rhythmic auditory sequence, counting the number of omissions ("count" task), or responding to each omission with a right index finger extension ("move" task). Despite the absence of physical stimuli, these tasks induced a 'non-phase-locked' gamma oscillation in temporal-parietal areas, providing evidence of intrinsically generated oscillatory activity during top-down processing. This oscillation is probably related to the local neural activation that takes place during the process of stimulus detection, involving the functional comparison between the tones and the absence of stimuli as well as the auditory echoic memory processes. The amplitude of the gamma oscillations was reduced with the repetition of the tasks. Moreover, it correlated positively with the number of correctly detected omissions and negatively with the reaction time. These findings indicate that these oscillations, like others described, may be modulated by attentional processes. In summary, our findings support the active and adaptive concept of brain function that has emerged over recent years, suggesting that the match of sensory information with memory contents generates gamma oscillations.

  7. Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel

    2002-05-07

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana.

  8. Comparative genomic and transcriptome analyses of pathotypes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri provide insights into mechanisms of bacterial virulence and host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    and effectors are induced in XVM2 medium. Numerous genes with differential expression in Xcaw12879 and XccA306 were identified. This study provided the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of pathotypes of X. citri subsp. citri. PMID:23941402

  9. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  10. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); López-Merino, Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.lopez-merino@brunel.ac.uk [Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, UB8 3PH Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Mighall, Tim, E-mail: t.mighall@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Kylander, Malin E., E-mail: malin.kylander@geo.su.se [Department of Geological Sciences and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35–100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~ 8000 to ~ 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g{sup −1}; {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios occurred from ~ 4980 to ~ 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~ 4980–3700 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~ 3700–3500 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~ 3500–2800 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~ 2800–2470 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the

  11. Evidence for past and present hybridization in three Antarctic icefish species provides new perspectives on an evolutionary radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I A M; Benazzo, A; Agostini, C; Mezzavilla, M; Hoban, S M; Patarnello, T; Zane, L; Bertorelle, G

    2013-10-01

    Determining the timing, extent and underlying causes of interspecific gene exchange during or following speciation is central to understanding species' evolution. Antarctic notothenioid fish, thanks to the acquisition of antifreeze glycoproteins during Oligocene transition to polar conditions, experienced a spectacular radiation to >100 species during Late Miocene cooling events. The impact of recent glacial cycles on this group is poorly known, but alternating warming and cooling periods may have affected species' distributions, promoted ecological divergence into recurrently opening niches and/or possibly brought allopatric species into contact. Using microsatellite markers and statistical methods including Approximate Bayesian Computation, we investigated genetic differentiation, hybridization and the possible influence of the last glaciation/deglaciation events in three icefish species of the genus Chionodraco. Our results provide strong evidence of contemporary and past introgression by showing that: (i) a substantial fraction of contemporary individuals in each species has mixed ancestry, (ii) evolutionary scenarios excluding hybridization or including it only in ancient times have small or zero posterior probabilities, (iii) the data support a scenario of interspecific gene flow associated with the two most recent interglacial periods. Glacial cycles might therefore have had a profound impact on the genetic composition of Antarctic fauna, as newly available shelf areas during the warmer intervals might have favoured secondary contacts and hybridization between diversified groups. If our findings are confirmed in other notothenioids, they offer new perspectives for understanding evolutionary dynamics of Antarctic fish and suggest a need for new predictions on the effects of global warming in this group. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  13. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yolanda; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  14. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution. PMID:22296923

  15. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Avery B; Pickering, Emily A; Adler, Alyssa M; Taylor, J Christopher; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-01-01

    Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH), special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of reefs on the seafloor

  16. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery B Paxton

    Full Text Available Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH, special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of

  17. What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, Evidence-Based Medicine advocates proclaimed a "new paradigm", in which evidence from health care research is the best basis for decisions for individual patients and health systems. Hailed in New York Times Magazine in 2001 as one of the most influential ideas of the year, this approach was initially and provocatively pitted against the traditional teaching of medicine, in which the key elements of knowing for clinical purposes are understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease coupled with clinical experience. This paper reviews the origins, aspirations, philosophical limitations, and practical challenges of evidence-based medicine. Discussion EBM has long since evolved beyond its initial (misconception, that EBM might replace traditional medicine. EBM is now attempting to augment rather than replace individual clinical experience and understanding of basic disease mechanisms. EBM must continue to evolve, however, to address a number of issues including scientific underpinnings, moral stance and consequences, and practical matters of dissemination and application. For example, accelerating the transfer of research findings into clinical practice is often based on incomplete evidence from selected groups of people, who experience a marginal benefit from an expensive technology, raising issues of the generalizability of the findings, and increasing problems with how many and who can afford the new innovations in care. Summary Advocates of evidence-based medicine want clinicians and consumers to pay attention to the best findings from health care research that are both valid and ready for clinical application. Much remains to be done to reach this goal.

  18. Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Krull, Ivy; Chassler, Deborah; Weidenfeld, Rachel; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Gowler, Rebekah; Lederer, Jaime; Cohen, Alexander; Beltrame, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    This national study of addiction-treatment organizations' implementation of evidence-based practices examines: (1) organizational/leadership factors associated with director (n = 212) attitudes regarding staff resistance to organizational change, and (2) organizational/staff factors associated with staff (n = 312) attitudes regarding evidence-based clinical training. Linear regression analyses, controlling for type of treatment unit, leadership/staff characteristics and organizational readiness to change, identified that directors who perceived their organization needed more guidance and had less staff cohesion and autonomy rated staff resistance to organizational change significantly higher. Staff with higher levels of education and greater agreement that their organization supported change had greater preference for evidence-based trainings. Federal addiction treatment policy should both promote education and training of treatment staff and organizational development of treatment CBOs.  © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  20. Is a single bioelectrical impedance equation valid for children of wide ranges of age, pubertal status and nutritional status? Evidence from the 4-component model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, C; Williams, J E; Haroun, D; Siervo, M; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is widely used to predict body composition in paediatric research and clinical practice. Many equations have been published, but provide inconsistent predictions. To test whether a single equation for lean mass (LM) estimation from BIA is appropriate across wide ranges of age, pubertal status and nutritional status, by testing whether specific groups differ in the slope or intercept of the equation. In 547 healthy individuals aged 4-24 years (240 males), we collected data on body mass (BM) and height (HT), and lean mass (LM) using the 4-component model. Impedance (Z) was measured using TANITA BC418MA instrumentation. LM was regressed on HT(2)/Z. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate whether groups based on gender, age, pubertal status or nutritional status differed in the association of LM with HT(2)/Z. BM ranged from 5 to 128 kg. HT(2)/Z was a strong predictor of LM (r (2)=0.953, s.e.e.=2.9 kg). There was little evidence of a sex difference in this relationship, however, children aged 4-7 years and 16-19 years differed significantly from other age groups in regression slopes and intercepts. Similar variability was encountered for pubertal stage, but not for nutritional status. No single BIA equation applies across the age range 4-24 years. At certain ages or pubertal stages, the slope and intercept of the equation relating LM to HT(2)/Z alters. Failure to address such age effects is likely to result in poor accuracy of BIA (errors of several kg) for longitudinal studies of change in body composition.

  1. Range expansion of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Kenya: evidence of genetic admixture and human-mediated dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aaron W; Liebl, Andrea L; Richards, Christina L; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Introduced species offer an opportunity to study the ecological process of range expansions. Recently, 3 mechanisms have been identified that may resolve the genetic paradox (the seemingly unlikely success of introduced species given the expected reduction in genetic diversity through bottlenecks or founder effects): multiple introductions, high propagule pressure, and epigenetics. These mechanisms are probably also important in range expansions (either natural or anthropogenic), yet this possibility remains untested in vertebrates. We used microsatellite variation (7 loci) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), an introduced species that has been spreading across Kenya for ~60 years, to determine if patterns of variation could explain how this human commensal overcame the genetic paradox and expresses such considerable phenotypic differentiation across this new range. We note that in some cases, polygenic traits and epistasis among genes, for example, may not have negative effects on populations. House sparrows arrived in Kenya by a single introduction event (to Mombasa, ~1950) and have lower genetic diversity than native European and introduced North American populations. We used Bayesian clustering of individuals (n = 233) to detect that at least 2 types of range expansion occurred in Kenya: one with genetic admixture and one with little to no admixture. We also found that genetic diversity increased toward a range edge, and the range expansion was consistent with long-distance dispersal. Based on these data, we expect that the Kenyan range expansion was anthropogenically influenced, as the expansions of other introduced human commensals may also be.

  2. Treatment Options for Back Pain Provided Online in Canadian Magazines: Comparison against Evidence from a Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniderman, Jhase A.; Roffey, Darren M.; Lee, Richard; Papineau, Gabrielle D.; Miles, Isabelle H.; Wai, Eugene K.; Kingwell, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based treatments for adult back pain have long been confirmed, with research continuing to narrow down the scope of recommended practices. However, a tension exists between research-driven treatments and unsubstantiated modalities and techniques promoted to the public. This disparity in knowledge translation, which results in…

  3. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  4. Information exchange networks of health care providers and evidence-based cardiovascular risk management: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, N.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although a wide range of preventive and clinical interventions has targeted cardiovascular risk management (CVRM), outcomes remain suboptimal. Therefore, the question is what additional determinants of CVRM and outcomes can be identified and addressed to optimize CVRM. In this study, we

  5. Population trends of central European montane birds provide evidence for adverse impacts of climate change on high-altitude species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flousek, J.; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, J.; Reif, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2015), č. článku e0139465. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Elevational range shifts * Life-history traits * Arrival date * Boreal birds * Habitat loss * Biodiversity * Declines Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  6. Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provides lack of evidence for epidemiological peak of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wasley, Jeff; Esler, Daniel N.; Stalknecht, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provided no evidence for an epidemiologic peak of infection. Isolates were recovered, however, that provide information on viral diversity and dispersal that may not be realized through sampling efforts focused on other avian taxa.

  7. Evidence of widespread Cretaceous remagnetisation in the Iberian Range and its relation with the rotation of Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.T.; Lowrie, W.; Osete, M.L.; Meléndez, G.

    1998-01-01

    A palaeomagnetic investigation has been carried out at 13 sites of Jurassic age in the Iberian Range (northern Spain). Two components of remanent magnetisation have been found at each site. A primary high-temperature component shows an average counterclockwise rotation with respect to the north of

  8. Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

    2012-01-01

    Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (hT(cpSSR)=0.903–0.948) and population differentiation (GST(RFLP)=0.700–0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (GST(cpSSR)=0.392; RST=0.673; RST>RST (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:22929152

  9. The disjunct pattern of the Neotropical harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Gonyleptidae explained by climate-driven range shifts in the Quaternary: Paleodistributional and molecular evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vergara

    Full Text Available The disjunct distribution of the harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae is used as a case study to test the hypothesis of a trans-Chaco Pleistocene paleobridge during range expansion stages. This would have temporarily connected humid regions ('Mesopotamia' in northeastern Argentina, and the 'Yungas' in the northwest, NWA in the subtropical and temperate South American lowlands. The present study combines two independent approaches: paleodistributional reconstruction, using the Species Distribution Modeling method MaxEnt and projection onto Quaternary paleoclimates (6 kya, 21 kya, 130 kya, and phylogeographic analyses based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I molecular marker. Models predict a maximal shrinkage during the warm Last Interglacial (130 kya, and the rise of the hypothesized paleobridge in the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya, revealing that cold-dry stages (not warm-humid ones, as supposed enabled the range expansion of this species. The disjunction was formed in the mid-Holocene (6 kya and is intensified under current conditions. The median-joining network shows that NWA haplotypes are peripherally related to different Mesopotamian lineages; haplotypes from Santa Fe and Córdoba Provinces consistently occupy central positions in the network. According to the dated phylogeny, Mesopotamia-NWA expansion events would have occurred in the last glacial period, in many cases closely associated to the Last Glacial Maximum, with most divergence events occurring shortly thereafter. Only two (out of nine NWA haplotypes are shared with Mesopotamian localities. A single, presumably relictual NWA haplotype was found to have diverged much earlier, suggesting an ancient expansion event not recoverable by the paleodistributional models. Different measures of sequence statistics, genetic diversity, population structure and history of demographic changes are provided. This research offers the first available evidence for the historical

  10. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, RM; Roos, B.; Duthie, SJ; Bouwman, FG; Rubio-Aliaga, I.; Crosley, LK; Mayer, C.; Polley, AC; Heim, C.; Coort, SL; Evelo, CT; Mulholland, F.; Daniel, H.; Mariman, EC; Johnson, IT

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise mol...

  11. Patient-Provider Communication About Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment: New Evidence From the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Isharwal, Sudhir; LaGrange, Chad; Mahmood, Asos; Gentry, Dan

    2015-11-26

    The American Urological Association, American Cancer Society, and American College of Physicians recommend that patients and providers make a shared decision with respect to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer (PCa). The goal of this study is to determine the extent of patient-provider communication for PSA testing and treatment of PCa and to examine the patient specific factors associated with this communication. Using recent data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, this study examined the association of patient characteristics with four domains of patient-provider communication regarding PSA test and PCa treatment: (1) expert opinion of PSA test, (2) accuracy of PSA test, (3) side effects of PCa treatment, and (4) treatment need of PCa. The current results suggested low level of communication for PSA testing and treatment of PCa across four domains. Less than 10% of the respondents report having communication about all four domains. Patient characteristics like recent medical check-up, regular healthcare provider, global health status, age group, marital status, race, annual household income, and already having undergone a PSA test are associated with patient-provider communication. There are few discussions about PSA testing and PCa treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients, which limits the shared decision-making process for PCa screening and treatment as recommended by the current best practice guidelines. This study helps identify implications for changes in physician practice to adhere with the PSA screening guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus and Pasteurella multocida infections in free-range indigenous chickens in Southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunde, Paula; Timbe, Palmira; Lucas, Ana Felicidade; Tchamo, Cesaltina; Chilundo, Abel; Dos Anjos, Filomena; Costa, Rosa; Bila, Custodio Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    A total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in Southern Mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. AEV and PM antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 51.7-67.7%) for AEV and 71.5% (95% CI 67.7-77.3%) for PM. Our findings revealed that these pathogens are widespread among free-range indigenous chickens in the studied villages and may represent a threat in the transmission of AEV and PM to wild, broiler or layer chickens in the region. Further research is warranted on epidemiology of circulating strains and impact of infection on the poultry industry.

  13. Human Toddlers’ Attempts to Match Two Simple Behaviors Provide No Evidence for an Inherited, Dedicated Imitation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism – an “active intermodal matching “ (AIM) mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others’ actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements– bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child’s repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup). Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models’ movements (hitting the object), through trying (but failing) to reproduce the model’s arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word ‘elbow’ imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age. PMID:23251500

  14. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM) mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup). Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object), through trying (but failing) to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  15. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Jones

    Full Text Available Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup. Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object, through trying (but failing to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  16. Elimination of trachoma as a public health problem in Ghana: Providing evidence through a pre-validation survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Debrah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve elimination of trachoma, a country needs to demonstrate that the elimination prevalence thresholds have been achieved and then sustained for at least a two-year period. Ghana achieved the thresholds in 2008, and since 2011 has been implementing its trachoma surveillance strategy, which includes community and school screening for signs of follicular trachoma and trichiasis, in trachoma-endemic districts. In 2015-2016, the country conducted a district level population-based survey to validate elimination of trachoma as a public health problem.As per WHO recommendations, a cross-sectional survey, employing a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology, was used across 18 previously trachoma endemic districts (evaluation units (EUs in the Upper West and Northern Regions of Ghana. In each EU 24 villages were selected based on probability proportional to estimated size. A minimum of 40 households were targeted per village and all eligible residents were examined for clinical signs of trachoma, using the WHO simplified grading system. The number of trichiasis cases unknown to the health system was determined. Household environmental risk factors for trachoma were also assessed.Data from 45,660 individuals were examined from 11,099 households across 18 EUs, with 27,398 (60.0% children aged 1-9 years and 16,610 (36.4% individuals 15 years and above All EUs had shown to have maintained the WHO elimination threshold for Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF (<5.0% prevalence in children aged 1-9 years old. The EU TF prevalence in children aged 1-9 years old ranged from between 0.09% to 1.20%. Only one EU (Yendi 0.36%; 95% CI: 0.0-1.01 failed to meet the WHO TT elimination threshold (< 0.2% prevalence in adults aged 15 and above. The EU prevalence of trichiasis (TT unknown to the health system in adults aged ≥15 years, ranged from 0.00% to 0.36%. In this EU, the estimated TT backlog is 417 All TT patients identified in the study

  17. Adaptation and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Belief and Implementation scales for French-speaking Swiss nurses and allied healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloo, Henk; Desmedt, Mario; Morin, Diane

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate two psychometric properties of the French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales, namely their internal consistency and construct validity. The Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales developed by Melnyk et al. are recognised as valid, reliable instruments in English. However, no psychometric validation for their French versions existed. Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey. Source data came from a cross-sectional descriptive study sample of 382 nurses and other allied healthcare providers. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency, and principal axis factor analysis and varimax rotation were computed to determine construct validity. The French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales showed excellent reliability, with Cronbach's alphas close to the scores established by Melnyk et al.'s original versions. Principal axis factor analysis showed medium-to-high factor loading scores without obtaining collinearity. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 16-item Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs scale resulted in a four-factor loading structure. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 17-item Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale revealed a two-factor loading structure. Further research should attempt to understand why the French Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale showed a two-factor loading structure but Melnyk et al.'s original has only one. The French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales can both be considered valid and reliable instruments for measuring Evidence-Based Practice beliefs and implementation. The results suggest that the French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales are valid and reliable and can therefore be used to

  18. Geomorphic evidences of lateral propagation and differential uplift of the two segments of frontal Siwalik range, central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, P. K.; Deopa, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Siwalik range forms the southernmost terrane of the Himalaya. The frontal mountains of this range rise abruptly against the vast Indo-Gangetic plains along the range-bounding Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT), which marks the present day principal displacement zone between Indian and Eurasian plates. With an aim of understanding the morphotectonics of different mountain segments in such a zone of intense tectonic activities, we have analyzed geomorphic indices like 'basin asymmetry factor' (AF), 'transverse topography asymmetry factor' (T), 'basin elongation ratio' (BR) and 'hypsometric integral' (HI) of fifty six drainage basins of 3rd streams in conjunction with 'mountain-front sinuosity' (Smf), 'valley-floor width to height ratio' (Vf) and drainage characteristics of the two large, neighboring segments of the frontal Siwalik mountains. Referred to here as the 'eastern segment' and 'western segment', these two mountain-segments are separated from each other and adjoining mountain-segments by antecedent streams of fourth and fifth order. In both the mountain-segments, the Smf values are mostly between 1.0-1.6 and, likewise, the Vf of most of the streams, calculated at a fix distance of 800m from the mountain-front, is invariably drainage basins and 65% of the eastern-segment's drainage basins indicate their down-tilting towards the west. The azimuths of the Ts of theses basins are not always in conformity with AF suggested down-tilting, but the azimuths of the larger magnitude Ts are by and large in conformity with the AF suggested down-tilting. However, the BR and HI values of all the drainage basins of a mountain-segment do not show any spatial variation. These results suggest that both the studied mountain-segments are actively uplifting, but with faster rate in their eastern part. Moreover, the drainage pattern and deflections in and around both the segments reveal their lateral progression from east to west.

  19. Wasted research when systematic reviews fail to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis: the example of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créquit, Perrine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    Multiple treatments are frequently available for a given condition, and clinicians and patients need a comprehensive, up-to-date synthesis of evidence for all competing treatments. We aimed to quantify the waste of research related to the failure of systematic reviews to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis over time. We performed a series of systematic overviews and networks of randomized trials assessing the gap between evidence covered by systematic reviews and available trials of second-line treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other resources sequentially by year from 2009 to March 2, 2015. We sequentially compared the amount of evidence missing from systematic reviews to the randomized evidence available for inclusion each year. We constructed cumulative networks of randomized evidence over time and evaluated the proportion of trials, patients, treatments, and treatment comparisons not covered by systematic reviews on December 31 each year from 2009 to 2015. We identified 77 trials (28,636 patients) assessing 47 treatments with 54 comparisons and 29 systematic reviews (13 published after 2013). From 2009 to 2015, the evidence covered by existing systematic reviews was consistently incomplete: 45 % to 70 % of trials; 30 % to 58 % of patients; 40 % to 66 % of treatments; and 38 % to 71 % of comparisons were missing. In the cumulative networks of randomized evidence, 10 % to 17 % of treatment comparisons were partially covered by systematic reviews and 55 % to 85 % were partially or not covered. We illustrate how systematic reviews of a given condition provide a fragmented, out-of-date panorama of the evidence for all treatments. This waste of research might be reduced by the development of live cumulative network meta-analyses.

  20. Fractionated aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy provides additional evidence for the use of PDT for non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E. R. M.; de Vijlder, H. C.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Neumann, H. A. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    ?Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an accepted treatment for superficial basal cel carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowens disease. In Rotterdam, extensive preclinical research has lead to an optimized twofold illumination scheme for aminolevulinic acid-PDT (ALA-PDT). Objective To provide additional

  1. Value Frameworks for the Patient-Provider Interaction: A Comparison of the ASCO Value Framework Versus NCCN Evidence Blocks in Determining Value in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Manek, Bijal; Galanto, Joseph S; Nguyen, Huong; Ignoffo, Robert

    2017-06-01

    To address the rising concern about oncology drug costs, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recently developed unique tools to help providers and patients make informed decisions about the value of an anticancer regimen. The ASCO Value Framework (AVF) allows users to generate a net health benefit (NHB) score along with drug acquisition costs for oncology regimens that have been compared in a prospective randomized clinical trial. In contrast, the NCCN Evidence Blocks (NEB) derives ratings from an expert panel assessment in the categories of efficacy, safety, quality and consistency of evidence, and affordability. To compare the results of the AVF and NEB by applying each tool to the same clinical scenarios. We evaluated 2 regimens using the AVF and NEB scores: (1) enzalutamide for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and (2) nivolumab versus docetaxel in treatment of advanced squamous and nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Enzalutamide generated a total NHB score of 44.8 (range 0-180) for use before chemotherapy and 70.8 for use after chemotherapy with a monthly cost of $8,495 in the AVF. The NEB scored enzalutamide 4 (very effective) for efficacy, 4 (occasionally toxic) for safety, and 2 (expensive) for affordability in the no visceral metastases block. It scored 3 (moderately effective) for efficacy, 4 for safety, and 2 for affordability in the visceral metastases block. Nivolumab in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC scored 36.0 and 73.2 in advanced squamous NSCLC, with a monthly cost of $7,010 in the AVF. The NEB gave nivolumab a score of 4 for efficacy and safety and 1 (very expensive) for affordability in the NEB in advanced nonsquamous and advanced squamous NSCLC. The AVF and NEB are novel tools that take different approaches in assessing the value of an oncology treatment regimen. From this study, it is clear that the findings generated by these tools are

  2. Extension of the geographic range of Ateles chamek (Primates, Atelidae): evidence of river-barrier crossing by an amazonian primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Rafael Magalhães; Silva, Felipe Ennes; Vieira, Tatiana; Ferreira-Ferreira, Jefferson; Paim, Fernanda Pozzan; Dutra, Wallace; de Souza e Silva Júnior, José; Valsecchi, João

    2014-04-01

    The black-faced black spider monkey (Ateles chamek) is endangered because of hunting and habitat loss. There are many gaps in our understanding of its geographic distribution. The Ucayali-Solimões-Amazon fluvial complex is currently recognized as the northern boundary of the species' range, although published reports have indicated that it occurs north of the Rio Solimões. In this study we investigate published records, generate new field records, and assess the current information concerning the northern boundary of this species' range. We conducted the study at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve in the central Brazilian Amazon, an area of 1,124,000 ha that consists entirely of Amazonian flooded forest (várzea). We collected data on the occurrence of the species from museum specimens and through field surveys, including interviews with local residents, direct observations, and the collection of new museum specimens. We confirmed the presence of A. chamek at 17 locations in the reserve, one of which was an island formed by a river bend cut-off that would have effectively taken any resident spider to the (new) north bank of the Solimões. We therefore conclude that fluvial dynamics were involved in creating the conditions for the dispersal and colonization of the species on the northern bank of the Rio Solimões. The data we present extends the known distribution of the species and increases its representation in protected areas.

  3. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C; Parisi, Melissa A; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M; Ershow, Abby G; Frazier, Dianne M; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States' funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  5. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  6. A multigenerational family study of oral and hand motor sequencing ability provides evidence for a familial speech sound disorder subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate phenotypic expressions of speech sound disorder (SSD) in multigenerational families with evidence of familial forms of SSD. Method Members of five multigenerational families (N = 36) produced rapid sequences of monosyllables and disyllables and tapped computer keys with repetitive and alternating movements. Results Measures of repetitive and alternating motor speed were correlated within and between the two motor systems. Repetitive and alternating motor speeds increased in children and decreased in adults as a function of age. In two families with children who had severe speech deficits consistent with disrupted praxis, slowed alternating, but not repetitive, oral movements characterized most of the affected children and adults with a history of SSD, and slowed alternating hand movements were seen in some of the biologically related participants as well. Conclusion Results are consistent with a familial motor-based SSD subtype with incomplete penetrance, motivating new clinical questions about motor-based intervention not only in the oral but also the limb system. PMID:21909176

  7. Oldest skeleton of a plesiadapiform provides additional evidence for an exclusively arboreal radiation of stem primates in the Palaeocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G. B.; Williamson, Thomas E.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Silcox, Mary T.; Sargis, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    Palaechthonid plesiadapiforms from the Palaeocene of western North America have long been recognized as among the oldest and most primitive euarchontan mammals, a group that includes extant primates, colugos and treeshrews. Despite their relatively sparse fossil record, palaechthonids have played an important role in discussions surrounding adaptive scenarios for primate origins for nearly a half-century. Likewise, palaechthonids have been considered important for understanding relationships among plesiadapiforms, with members of the group proposed as plausible ancestors of Paromomyidae and Microsyopidae. Here, we describe a dentally associated partial skeleton of Torrejonia wilsoni from the early Palaeocene (approx. 62 Ma) of New Mexico, which is the oldest known plesiadapiform skeleton and the first postcranial elements recovered for a palaechthonid. Results from a cladistic analysis that includes new data from this skeleton suggest that palaechthonids are a paraphyletic group of stem primates, and that T. wilsoni is most closely related to paromomyids. New evidence from the appendicular skeleton of T. wilsoni fails to support an influential hypothesis based on inferences from craniodental morphology that palaechthonids were terrestrial. Instead, the postcranium of T. wilsoni indicates that it was similar to that of all other plesiadapiforms for which skeletons have been recovered in having distinct specializations consistent with arboreality.

  8. Brain thermal inertia, but no evidence for selective brain cooling, in free-ranging western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2009-04-01

    Marsupials reportedly can implement selective brain cooling despite lacking a carotid rete. We measured brain (hypothalamic) and carotid arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for 5, 17, and 63 days in spring in three free-living western grey kangaroos. Body temperature was highest during the night, and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00. The highest body temperatures recorded occurred sporadically in the afternoon, presumably associated with exercise. Hypothalamic temperature consistently exceeded arterial blood temperature, by an average 0.3 degrees C, except during these afternoon events when hypothalamic temperature lagged behind, and was occasionally lower than, the simultaneous arterial blood temperature. The reversal in temperatures resulted from the thermal inertia of the brain; changes in the brain to arterial blood temperature difference were related to the rate of change of arterial blood temperature on both heating and cooling (P kangaroos). We conclude that these data are not evidence for active selective brain cooling in kangaroos. The effect of thermal inertia on brain temperature is larger than might be expected in the grey kangaroo, a discrepancy that we speculate derives from the unique vascular anatomy of the marsupial brain.

  9. A Genome-Wide Association Study Provides New Evidence That CACNA1C Gene is Associated With Diabetic Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Kaida; Veluchamy, Abirami; Hébert, Harry L.; Looker, Helen C.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Meng, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic cataract is one of the major eye complications of diabetes. It was reported that cataract occurs two to five times more frequently in patients with diabetes compared with those with no diabetes. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic contributors of diabetic cataract based on a genome-wide association approach using a well-defined Scottish diabetic cohort. Methods We adapted linked e-health records to define diabetic cataract. A diabetic cataract case in this study was defined as a type 2 diabetic patient who has ever been recorded in the linked e-health records to have cataracts in both eyes or who had previous cataract extraction surgeries in at least one eye. A control in this study was defined as a type 2 diabetic individual who has never been diagnosed as cataract in the linked e-health records and had no history of cataract surgeries. A standard genome-wide association approach was applied. Results Overall, we have 2341 diabetic cataract cases and 2878 controls in the genetics of diabetes audit and research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) dataset. We found that the P value of rs2283290 in the CACNA1C gene was 8.81 × 10−10, which has reached genome-wide significance. We also identified that the blood calcium level was statistically different between diabetic cataract cases and controls. Conclusions We identified supporting evidence that CACNA1C gene is associated with diabetic cataract. The role of calcium in the cataractogenesis needs to be reevaluated in future studies. PMID:27124316

  10. Heterogeneous distributions of amino acids provide evidence of multiple sources within the Almahata Sitta parent body, asteroid 2008 TC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-11-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-α-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both are polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of α-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  11. Acoustic phase shift: objective evidence for intralabyrinthine pressure disturbance in Menière's disease provided by otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mom, T; Montalban, A; Bascoul, A; Gilain, L; Avan, P

    2012-02-01

    Still today, Menière's disease (MD) can be definitively diagnosed only on post-mortem findings of endolymphatic hydrops. Otoacoustic emission (OAE) phase has been shown to be highly sensitive to intracranial pressure. Preliminary analysis of OAEs in MD patients indicated high sensitivity to slight variations in intracranial pressure. The principal objective of the present study was to confirm this specific sensitivity of OAEs in MD. In a prospective study of 32 consecutive cases of acute MD seen in consultation or hospital, 20 patients (23 ears) underwent acoustic phase-shift test: i.e., seated vs. supine OAE phase centered around 1kHz, with results compared to controls. The acoustic phase-shift test was performed in 62.5% of acute patients (58.9% of affected ears). In the control group, the 95% confidence interval for phase shift was between -30° and +45°. Phase shift was significantly elevated, beyond the normal interval, in 18 of the MD patients: range, -80° to +145°. Sensitivity was 90%. Overall, in patients in whom transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) were present, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value 92.3%. The acoustic phase-shift test proved useful and powerful in demonstrating pressure imbalance in acute Menière's disease. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Partial sequencing reveals the transposable element composition of Coffea genomes and provides evidence for distinct evolutionary stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Romain; Darré, Thibaud; Dupeyron, Mathilde; de Kochko, Alexandre; Hamon, Serge; Couturon, Emmanuel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Rigoreau, Michel; Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques; Raharimalala, Nathalie E; Akaffou, Sélastique Doffou; Hamon, Perla

    2016-10-01

    The Coffea genus, 124 described species, has a natural distribution spreading from inter-tropical Africa, to Western Indian Ocean Islands, India, Asia and up to Australasia. Two cultivated species, C. arabica and C. canephora, are intensively studied while, the breeding potential and the genome composition of all the wild species remained poorly uncharacterized. Here, we report the characterization and comparison of the highly repeated transposable elements content of 11 Coffea species representatives of the natural biogeographic distribution. A total of 994 Mb from 454 reads were produced with a genome coverage ranging between 3.2 and 15.7 %. The analyses showed that highly repeated transposable elements, mainly LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RT), represent between 32 and 53 % of Coffea genomes depending on their biogeographic location and genome size. Species from West and Central Africa (Eucoffea) contained the highest LTR-RT content but with no strong variation relative to their genome size. At the opposite, for the insular species (Mascarocoffea), a strong variation of LTR-RT was observed suggesting differential dynamics of these elements in this group. Two LTR-RT lineages, SIRE and Del were clearly differentially accumulated between African and insular species, suggesting these lineages were associated to the genome divergence of Coffea species in Africa. Altogether, the information obtained in this study improves our knowledge and brings new data on the composition, the evolution and the divergence of wild Coffea genomes.

  13. Genome-wide meta-analysis of myopia and hyperopia provides evidence for replication of 11 loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Simpson

    Full Text Available Refractive error (RE is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness and hyperopia (farsightedness, which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25×10(-8, which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11×10(-11 and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82×10(-11 previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage- disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al. and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. "Replication-level" association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of

  14. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Myopia and Hyperopia Provides Evidence for Replication of 11 Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Oexle, Konrad; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Li, Xiaohui; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Vitart, Veronique; Schache, Maria; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Hysi, Pirro G.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Chew, Emily; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Yin; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Mitchell, Paul; Saw, Seang Mei; Fossarello, Maurizio; Wang, Jie Jin; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Döring, Angela; Bettecken, Thomas; Bencic, Goran; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Venturini, Cristina; Fleck, Brian; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hammond, Chris J.; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Baird, Paul N.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Pirastu, Mario; Meitinger, Thomas; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Stambolian, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Refractive error (RE) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25×10−8), which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE) refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11×10−11) and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82×10−11) previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage- disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al.) and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. “Replication-level” association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of

  15. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris in their native and introduced range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Lester

    Full Text Available When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris, which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand. We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range. Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  16. No Evidence of Enemy Release in Pathogen and Microbial Communities of Common Wasps (Vespula vulgaris) in Their Native and Introduced Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Philip J.; Kapp, Eugene A.; Peng, Lifeng; Brenton-Rule, Evan C.; Buchanan, Joe; Stanislawek, Wlodek L.; Archer, Michael; Corley, Juan C.; Masciocchi, Maitè; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris), which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England) and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand). We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range). Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult. PMID:25798856

  17. Potential dynamic range in a scheme of the acousto-optical spectrometer providing light beam apodization for a large-aperture crystalline cell with linear acoustic losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Luna Castellanos, Abraham; Tepichin Rodriguez, Eduardo; Balderas Mata, Sandra E.

    2008-02-01

    We develop our previous considerations for one of the most important problems related to optimizing the performance data of a new acousto-optical spectrometer for the analysis of radio-astronomical signals. The main attention is paid to estimating the side lobes of light distributions inherent in an individual resolvable spot in the output Fourier plane, governing the dynamic range of that spectrometer. At first, we analyze the Akhieser mechanism responsible for linear attenuation of both longitudinal and shear elastic waves in isotropic solid states. Similar analysis can be directly applied to crystalline materials as well in all the cases of passing elastic wave along the acoustic axis in crystals. Then, we estimate the influence of the acoustic attenuation along a large-aperture acousto-optical cells operating in a one- and two-phonon light scattering regimes. In so doing, the optimal operating points are discussed for both these regimes. Finally, the combined effect of the acoustic attenuation and the incident light beam apodization is studied from the points of view of optimizing the levels of side lobes and minima in light distribution of an individual resolvable spot in focal plane of the integrating lens and, consequently, estimating potential limitations of the dynamic range.

  18. Explaining unexplained pain to fibromyalgia patients: finding a narrative that is acceptable to patients and provides a rationale for evidence based interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, ME; Hinton, C.; Hill, C.; Whalley, B; Jones,RC; Davies, AF

    2016-01-01

    As the cause of fibromyalgia is controversial, communicating with patients can be challenging, particularly if the patient adopts the narrative ‘I am damaged and so I need a more powerful pain killer’. Research shows that providing patients with alternative narratives can be helpful, but it remains unclear what particular narratives are most acceptable to patients and at the same time provide a rationale for evidence based psychological and exercise interventions. This article described the d...

  19. The Role of Business Education Provided Through Lifelong Learning in Enhancing Profesional Competencies. Evidence from the Eu-27 Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Dumitrache

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the macroeconomic implications of business education provided by the process of lifelong learning, based on a panel dataset comprising the EU-27 countries. Business education is a valuable component of adult education, and the lifelong learning represents the main channel facilitating the transfer of this knowledge. A number of three panel regression models are conducted separately for the New Member States (NMS and Old Member States (OMS. The positive effects of business education on economic growth and duration of working life are found to be more significant and powerful in the NMS than in the OMS. The empirical analysis also shows that business education is a determinant of the subjective poverty reduction only in the OMS, while the third-level education attainment contributes to the poverty reduction in the NMS, only when been accompanied by business education.

  20. Strategies for providing healthcare services to street-dwellers in Dhaka city: Evidence from an operations research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Jasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In almost every major urban city, thousands of people live in overcrowded slums, streets, or other public places without any health services. Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest rates of urban population growth in the last three decades compared to the national population growth rate. The numbers of the urban poor and street-dwellers are likely to increase at least in proportion to the overall population growth of the country. The street-dwellers in Bangladesh are extremely vulnerable in terms of their health needs and healthcare-seeking behaviours. In Bangladesh, there is no health service-delivery mechanism targeting this marginalized group of people. This study, therefore, assessed the effectiveness of two models to provide primary healthcare (PHC services to street-dwellers. Methods This study of experimental pre-post design tested two models, such as static clinic and satellite clinics, for providing PHC services to street-dwellers in the evening through paramedics in Dhaka city during May 2009-April 2010. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for collecting data. Data were analyzed comparing before and after the implementation of the clinics for the assessment of selected health and family-planning indicators using the statistical t-test. Services received from the model l and model 2 clinics were also compared by calculating the absolute difference to determine the relative effectiveness of one model over another. Results The use of healthcare services by the street-dwellers increased at endline compared to baseline in both the model clinic areas, and the difference was highly significant (p p  Conclusions As the findings of the study showed the promise of this approach, the strategies could be implemented in all other cities of Bangladesh and in other countries which encounter similar problems.

  1. Patient and provider perspectives on quality and health system effectiveness in a transition economy: evidence from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J; Peabody, J W; DeMaria, L M; Alvarado, C S; Menon, R

    2014-08-01

    Facing a severe population health crisis due to noncommunicable diseases, Ukraine and other former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries have a pressing need for more effective health systems. Policies to enhance health system effectiveness should consider the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, including providers as well as patients. In addition, policies that directly target the quality of clinical care should be based on objective performance measures. In 2009 and 2010 we conducted a coordinated series of household and facility-level surveys to capture the perspectives of Ukrainian household members, outpatient clinic patients, and physicians regarding the country's health system overall, as well as the quality, access, and affordability of health care. We objectively measured the quality of care for heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using CPV(®) vignettes. There was broad agreement among household respondents (79%) and physicians (95%) that Ukraine's health system should be reformed. CPV(®) results indicate that the quality of care for common noncommunicable diseases is poor in all regions of the country and in hospitals as well as polyclinics. However, perspectives about the quality of care differ, with household respondents seeing quality as a serious concern, clinic patients having more positive perceptions, and physicians not viewing quality as a reform priority. All stakeholder groups viewed affordability as a problem. These findings have several implications for policies to enhance health system effectiveness. The shared desire for health system reform among all stakeholder groups provides a basis for action in Ukraine. Improving quality, strengthening primary care, and enhancing affordability should be major goals of new health policies. Policies to improve quality directly, such as pay-for-performance, would be mutually reinforcing with purchasing reforms such as transparent payment mechanisms. Such policies

  2. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogeography of Thymallus spp (grayling) provides evidence of ice-age mediated environmental perturbations in the world's oldest body of fresh water, Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Mikko T; Knizhin, Igor; Primmer, Craig R; Schlötterer, Christian; Weiss, Steven

    2002-12-01

    Theories on the hydrological history of Lake Baikal, the world's oldest and deepest body of freshwater, and its surrounding great rivers, are currently based solely on geological evidence and are conflicting. Baikal is inhabited by numerous zoogeographical enigmas but their high level of endemism has hindered phylogeographic inferences. We provide a biological perspective of the region's palaeo-hydrological development based on the demographic and genealogical history of the widespread Thymallus spp. (grayling). Phylogenetic reconstruction reveals that old lineages of grayling (pre-Pleistocene) currently inhabit the Enisey, Lena and Amur River basins. For Lake Baikal however, we conclude that a mid-Pleistocene colonization (110000-450000 years ago) of an unoccupied niche has occurred. Population genetic inferences support an Enisey-Angara river route of colonization into Baikal, corresponding to the cataclysmic palaeo-hydrological event that led to the formation of the lake's only contemporary outlet, and a subsequent range expansion several thousand kilometres into the uppermost reaches of the Selenga River basin. The evolutionary history of Lake Baikal grayling is congruent with the controversial hypothesis of repeated glaciation. However, considering the extraordinary levels of endemism and proposed Miocene or Oligocene coalescence of other faunal lineages, a less profound but equally consequential cycle of environmental perturbations may have taken place. Bi-parentally inherited microsatellite DNA loci supported the phylogenetic relationships of Thymallus spp. and the geographical expansion of Baikal grayling strikingly well. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo modelling approach suggested severe contemporary population decline during the last century, possibly reflecting the influence of an uncontrolled fishery on this treasured ecosystem. These complementary pictures of the demographic history of grayling underscore the breadth of historical inquiry that can be

  3. Field evidence of colonisation by Holm Oak, at the northern margin of its distribution range, during the Anthropocene period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Porté, Annabel J

    2013-01-01

    A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880-2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical, migration rates into models should improve our understanding of the response of species to climate change.

  4. Field Evidence of Colonisation by Holm Oak, at the Northern Margin of Its Distribution Range, during the Anthropocene Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Porté, Annabel J.

    2013-01-01

    A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880–2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical, migration rates into models should improve our understanding of the response of species to climate change. PMID:24260391

  5. Interordinal mammalian relationships: evidence for paenungulate monophyly is provided by complete mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, A; Douzery, E; Stichler, T; Catzeflis, F M; Springer, M S

    1996-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences of 5 placental mammals belonging to the 3 orders Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Hyracoidea are reported together with phylogenetic analyses (distance and parsimony) of a total of 51 mammalian orthologues. This 12S rRNA database now includes the 2 extant proboscideans (the African and Asiatic elephants Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus), 2 of the 3 extant sirenian genera (the sea cow Dugong dugon and the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus), and 2 of the 3 extant hyracoid genera (the rock and tree hyraxes Procavia capensis and Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The monophyly of the 3 orders Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Hyracoidea is supported by all kinds of analysis. There are 23 and 3 diagnostic subsitutions shared by the 2 proboscideans and the 2 hyracoids, respectively, but none by the 2 sirenians. The 2 proboscideans exhibit the fastest rates of 12S rRNA evolution among the 11 placental orders studied. Based on various taxonomic sampling methods among eutherian orders and marsupial outgroups, the most strongly supported clade in our comparisons clusters together the 3 orders Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Hyracoidea in the superorder Paenungulata. Within paenungulates, the grouping of sirenians and proboscideans within the mirorder Tethytheria is observed. This branching pattern is supported by all analyses by high bootstrap percentages (BPs) and decay indices. When only one species is selected per order or suborder, the taxonomic sampling leads to a relative variation in bootstrap support of 53% for Tethytheria (BPs ranging from 44 to 93%) and 7% for Paernungulata (92-99%). When each order or suborder is represented by two species, this relative variation decreased to 10% for Tethytheria (78-87%) and 3% for Paenungulata (96-99%). Two nearly exclusive synapomorphies for paenungulates are identified in the form of one transitional compensatory change, but none were detected for tethytherians. Such a robust and reliable resolution of

  6. Strategies for providing healthcare services to street-dwellers in Dhaka city: evidence from an operations research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Saha, Nirod C; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Iqbal A; Quaiyum, M A

    2012-06-13

    In almost every major urban city, thousands of people live in overcrowded slums, streets, or other public places without any health services. Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest rates of urban population growth in the last three decades compared to the national population growth rate. The numbers of the urban poor and street-dwellers are likely to increase at least in proportion to the overall population growth of the country. The street-dwellers in Bangladesh are extremely vulnerable in terms of their health needs and healthcare-seeking behaviours. In Bangladesh, there is no health service-delivery mechanism targeting this marginalized group of people. This study, therefore, assessed the effectiveness of two models to provide primary healthcare (PHC) services to street-dwellers. This study of experimental pre-post design tested two models, such as static clinic and satellite clinics, for providing PHC services to street-dwellers in the evening through paramedics in Dhaka city during May 2009-April 2010. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for collecting data. Data were analyzed comparing before and after the implementation of the clinics for the assessment of selected health and family-planning indicators using the statistical t-test. Services received from the model l and model 2 clinics were also compared by calculating the absolute difference to determine the relative effectiveness of one model over another. The use of healthcare services by the street-dwellers increased at endline compared to baseline in both the model clinic areas, and the difference was highly significant (p < 0.001). Institutional delivery among the female street-dwellers increased at endline compared to baseline in both the clinic areas. The use of family-planning methods among females also significantly (p < 0.001) increased at endline compared to baseline in both the areas. As the findings of the study showed the promise of this approach, the strategies could

  7. Can multi-modal neuroimaging evidence from hippocampus provide biomarkers for the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Shijiang

    2015-02-01

    Impaired structure and function of the hippocampus is a valuable predictor of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, the hippocampus is one of the brain regions affected earliest by AD neuropathology, and shows progressive degeneration as aMCI progresses to AD. Currently, no validated biomarkers can precisely predict the conversion from aMCI to AD. Therefore, there is a great need of sensitive tools for the early detection of AD progression. In this review, we summarize the specific structural and functional changes in the hippocampus from recent aMCI studies using neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. We suggest that a combination of advanced multi-modal neuroimaging measures in discovering biomarkers will provide more precise and sensitive measures of hippocampal changes than using only one of them. These will potentially affect early diagnosis and disease-modifying treatments. We propose a new sequential and progressive framework in which the impairment spreads from the integrity of fibers to volume and then to function in hippocampal subregions. Meanwhile, this is likely to be accompanied by progressive impairment of behavioral and neuropsychological performance in the progression of aMCI to AD.

  8. Toward an evidence-based patient-provider communication in rehabilitation: linking communication elements to better rehabilitation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago Silva; Silva, Isabel Lopes

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing interest in linking aspects of patient-provider communication to rehabilitation outcomes. However, the field lacks a conceptual understanding on: (a) 'how' rehabilitation outcomes can be improved by communication; and (b) through 'which' elements in particular. This article elaborates on the conceptual developments toward informing further practice and research. Existing models of communication in healthcare were adapted to rehabilitation, and its outcomes through a comprehensive literature review. After depicting mediating mechanisms and variables (e.g. therapeutic engagement, adjustment toward disability), this article presents the '4 Rehab Communication Elements' deemed likely to underpin rehabilitation outcomes. The four elements are: (a) knowing the person and building a supportive relationship; (b) effective information exchange and education; (c) shared goal-setting and action planning; and (d) fostering a more positive, yet realistic, cognitive and self-reframing. This article describes an unprecedented, outcomes-oriented approach toward the design of rehabilitation communication, which has resulted in the development of a new intervention model: the '4 Rehab Communication Elements'. Further trials are needed to evaluate the impact of this whole intervention model on rehabilitation outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. First evidence of biogenic habitat from tubeworms providing a near-absolute habitat requirement for high-intertidal Ulva macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Liversage

    Full Text Available Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living. Ulva macroalgae was absent from all boulders, except those with worm-tubes, where up to 61% Ulva cover was observed. Many boulders with tubes did not, however, have much algae, and this was likely caused by grazing. While limpets were seldom observed attached to tube encrustations, snails such as Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum were equally abundant on and off tubes. N. atramentosa was likely the main grazer, as its densities were negatively correlated with Ulva cover. The mechanism causing association of Ulva and worm-tubes is unknown, but may be related to retention of moisture or algal spores within the complex topography of the tubes. Alternatively, some tubes may still have been living and providing nutrients for Ulva from excretory products. This study takes the first step towards understanding a very distinct habitat requirement which allows an important alga to persist in the hostile environment of the rocky-intertidal high shore.

  10. First evidence of biogenic habitat from tubeworms providing a near-absolute habitat requirement for high-intertidal Ulva macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversage, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living. Ulva macroalgae was absent from all boulders, except those with worm-tubes, where up to 61% Ulva cover was observed. Many boulders with tubes did not, however, have much algae, and this was likely caused by grazing. While limpets were seldom observed attached to tube encrustations, snails such as Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum were equally abundant on and off tubes. N. atramentosa was likely the main grazer, as its densities were negatively correlated with Ulva cover. The mechanism causing association of Ulva and worm-tubes is unknown, but may be related to retention of moisture or algal spores within the complex topography of the tubes. Alternatively, some tubes may still have been living and providing nutrients for Ulva from excretory products. This study takes the first step towards understanding a very distinct habitat requirement which allows an important alga to persist in the hostile environment of the rocky-intertidal high shore.

  11. The morphology and biochemistry of nanostructures provide evidence for synthesis and signaling functions in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavez Jesus N

    2009-09-01

    nanostructures provide signaling mechanisms via volume transmission within the nervous system that are for slower, more diffuse, and of longer duration than synaptic transmission.

  12. Evidence from carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometry for the Late Cretaceous `Nevadaplano' in the northern Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, K. E.; Koch, P. L.; Eiler, J.

    2010-12-01

    From the middle Mesozoic to the present, the topography of the Basin and Range province (BRP) of the western Cordillera of North America has evolved in response to diverse tectonic forces, though the details are unclear for most of this period over most of this area. Much of the research on this region has focused on the Cenozoic record of paleoelevation during extension in the BRP. Some geodynamic models of this episode require high elevation prior to extension, but few studies have quantified the elevation of the pre-existing topography that developed during the Mesozoic in response to sustained convergence along the western coast of North America. Some workers have argued that the region was a high elevation plateau, the ‘Nevadaplano,’ analogous to the South American Altiplano. We tested this hypothesis using carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperature estimates from Late Cretaceous lacustrine and paleosol carbonates. These samples come from the Sheep Pass Formation in east-central Nevada (presumed from geologic indications to be atop the plateau), and the North Horn Formation in central Utah on the eastern edge of the Sevier fold and thrust belt (presumably lower elevation). The textural characteristics, stable isotope compositions and carbonate clumped isotope temperature estimates from secondary carbonates in these units suggest that, despite moderate burial, primary carbonate samples have undergone little diagenetic alteration. Average temperatures from these two sites (23°C for the NV suite and 38°C for the UT suite) suggest that during the late Cretaceous (~66.5 Ma for the NV suite and 72 Ma for the UT suite), the NV site was ~15°C cooler than the UT site. This thermal gradient implies an elevation difference between the two sites of ~2.5 km, given certain assumptions: 1) there was little global or regional climate change during the ~5 million years between formation of these samples, 2) precipitation of both the lacustrine and paleosol carbonates

  13. Landscape resistance and habitat combine to provide an optimal model of genetic structure and connectivity at the range margin of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrotte, R R; Gonzalez, A; Millien, V

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of habitat and landscape characteristics on the population genetic structure of the white-footed mouse. We develop a new approach that uses numerical optimization to define a model that combines site differences and landscape resistance to explain the genetic differentiation between mouse populations inhabiting forest patches in southern Québec. We used ecological distance computed from resistance surfaces with Circuitscape to infer the effect of the landscape matrix on gene flow. We calculated site differences using a site index of habitat characteristics. A model that combined site differences and resistance distances explained a high proportion of the variance in genetic differentiation and outperformed models that used geographical distance alone. Urban and agriculture-related land uses were, respectively, the most and the least resistant landscape features influencing gene flow. Our method detected the effect of rivers and highways as highly resistant linear barriers. The density of grass and shrubs on the ground best explained the variation in the site index of habitat characteristics. Our model indicates that movement of white-footed mouse in this region is constrained along routes of low resistance. Our approach can generate models that may improve predictions of future northward range expansion of this small mammal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Geochemical signatures of benthic foraminifera shells from a heat-polluted shallow marine environment provide field evidence for growth and calcification under extreme warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-04-01

    Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. So far, most data on thermal tolerance of marine calcifiers have been obtained by manipulative laboratory experiments. Such experiments provide valuable physiological data, but it remains unclear to what degree these observations apply to natural ecosystems. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on ecosystem-relevant scales is by investigation of heat-polluted coastal areas. Here we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to temperature elevated by 6˚ C above the natural seasonal temperature range and reaching up to ˜42˚ C in summer. Several species of benthic foraminifera have been previously shown to persist throughout the year in the heat-polluted area, allowing us to examine in natural conditions the thermal limits of growth and calcification under extreme temperatures as they are expected to prevail in the future. Live specimens of two known heat tolerant species Lachlanella sp. 1 and Pararotalia calcariformata were collected over a period of one year from two stations, representing thermally polluted and undisturbed (control) shallow hard bottom habitats. Single-chamber element ratios of these specimens were obtained using laser ablation and the Mg/Ca of the last chambers (grown closest to the time of collection) were used to calculate calcification temperatures. Our results provide the first direct field evidence that these foraminifera species not only persist extreme warm temperatures but continue to grow and calcify. Species-specific Mg/Ca thermometry indicates that P. calcariformata precipitate their shells at temperatures as high as 40˚ C and Lachlanella sp. 1 at least up to 36˚ C. Instead, both species

  15. A comparison of the aided performance and benefit provided by a linear and a two-channel wide dynamic range compression hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, L E; Christensen, L; Thomas, T; Bess, F H; Hedley-Williams, A; Bentler, R

    1999-02-01

    The aided performance and benefit achieved with linear and two-channel wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aids were established in 55 individuals. Study participants had been wearing either linear or adaptive-frequency-response (Bass Increase at Low Levels, BILL) ITC hearing aids for approximately one year before participation in this study. Outcome measures included aided performance and objective benefit in quiet and noise at a variety of speech levels (50, 60, and 75 dB SPL), at various levels of babble background (quiet, signal-to-babble ratios of +5 and +10 dB), and for various types of test materials (monosyllabic words and sentences in connected speech). Several subjective measures of aided performance (sound-quality judgments and magnitude estimates of listening effort) and relative benefit (improvement in listening effort and the Hearing Aid Performance Inventory, HAPI) were also obtained. Finally, self-report measures of hearing-aid use were also obtained using daily logs. Participants completed all outcome measures for the linear ITC hearing aids first, following 2 months of usage, and then repeated all outcome measures for the WDRC instruments after a subsequent 2-month period of use. In general, although both types of hearing aids demonstrated significant benefit, the results indicated that the WDRC instruments were superior to the linear devices for many of the outcome measures. This tended to be the case most frequently when low speech levels were used. Many of the performance differences between devices most likely can be ascribed to differences in gain, and prescriptive approaches (DSL[i/o] vs. NAL-R), for the fixed volume control testing performed in this study.

  16. Understanding the roles of faith-based health-care providers in Africa: review of the evidence with a focus on magnitude, reach, cost, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jill; Tsimpo, Clarence; Gemignani, Regina; Shojo, Mari; Coulombe, Harold; Dimmock, Frank; Nguyen, Minh Cong; Hines, Harrison; Mills, Edward J; Dieleman, Joseph L; Haakenstad, Annie; Wodon, Quentin

    2015-10-31

    At a time when many countries might not achieve the health targets of the Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 agenda for sustainable development is being negotiated, the contribution of faith-based health-care providers is potentially crucial. For better partnership to be achieved and for health systems to be strengthened by the alignment of faith-based health-providers with national systems and priorities, improved information is needed at all levels. Comparisons of basic factors (such as magnitude, reach to poor people, cost to patients, modes of financing, and satisfaction of patients with the services received) within faith-based health-providers and national systems show some differences. As the first report in the Series on faith-based health care, we review a broad body of published work and introduce some empirical evidence on the role of faith-based health-care providers, with a focus on Christian faith-based health providers in sub-Saharan Africa (on which the most detailed documentation has been gathered). The restricted and diverse evidence reported supports the idea that faith-based health providers continue to play a part in health provision, especially in fragile health systems, and the subsequent reports in this Series review controversies in faith-based health care and recommendations for how public and faith sectors might collaborate more effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence-based obstetrics in four hospitals in China: An observational study to explore clinical practice, women's preferences and provider's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ji

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based obstetric care is widely promoted in developing countries, but the success of implementation is not known. Using selected childbirth care procedures in four hospitals in Shanghai, we compared practice against evidence-based information, and explored user and provider views about each procedure. Methods Observational study. Using the Cochrane Library, we identified six procedures that should be avoided as routine and two that should be encouraged. Procedure rate determined by exit interviews with women, verified using hospital notes. Views of women and providers explored with in depth interviews. The study sites were three hospitals in Shanghai and one in neighbouring province of Jiangsu. 150 women at each centre for procedure rate, and 48 in-depth interviews with women and providers. Results Vaginal births were 50% (303/599 of the total. Of the six practices where evidence suggests they should be avoided as routine, three were performed with rates above 70%: pubic shaving (3 hospitals, rectal examination (3 hospitals, and episiotomy (3 hospitals. Most women delivered lying down, pain relief was rarely given, and only in the urban district hospital did women routinely have a companion. Most women wanted support or companionship during labour and to be given pain relief; but current practice is insufficient to meet women's needs. Conclusion Obstetric practice is not following best available evidence in the hospitals studied. There is a need to adjust hospital policy to support the use of interventions proven to be of benefit to women during childbirth, and develop approaches that ensure clinical practice changes.

  18. Transdisciplinary collaboration and endorsement of pharmacological and psychosocial evidence-based practices by medical and psychosocial substance abuse treatment providers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Yu, Gary; Campbell, Aimee N C

    To examine the relative contribution of providers' professional affiliation (medical vs. non-medical), involvement in research, and training needs for associations with endorsement of the following evidence-based practices (EBPs): (1) pharmacological - buprenorphine treatment and (2) psychosocial - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Secondary analysis from a 2008 survey of a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers (medical, social workers, psychologists and counsellors) affiliated with the United States National Institute on Drug Abuse's National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multivariate linear regression models to analyze cross-sectional survey data. Results demonstrated that medical providers and providers with previous research involvement more strongly endorsed the effectiveness of buprenorphine over CBT. Compared to medical providers, psychosocial providers more strongly endorsed CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in rapport with patients and endorsement of buprenorphine and a negative association with CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in behavioural management and needs assessment and endorsement of CBT. Results underscore the importance of providers' involvement in research and the need for training medical and non-medical providers in practice areas that can purposely enhance their use of pharmacological and psychosocial EBPs.

  19. Are women and providers satisfied with antenatal care? Views on a standard and a simplified, evidence-based model of care in four developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba'aqeel Hassan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed women and providers' satisfaction with a new evidence-based antenatal care (ANC model within the WHO randomized trial conducted in four developing countries. The WHO study was a randomized controlled trial that compared a new ANC model with the standard type offered in each country. The new model of ANC emphasized actions known to be effective in improving maternal or neonatal health, excluded other interventions that have not proved to be beneficial, and improved the information component, especially alerting pregnant women to potential health problems and instructing them on appropriate responses. These activities were distributed within four antenatal care visits for women that did not need any further assessment. Methods Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire administered to a random sample of 1,600 pregnant women and another to all antenatal care providers. Results Most women in both arms expressed satisfaction with ANC. More women in the intervention arm were satisfied with information on labor, delivery, family planning, pregnancy complications and emergency procedures. More providers in the experimental clinics were worried about visit spacing, but more satisfied with the time spent and information provided. Conclusions Women and providers accepted the new ANC model generally. The safety of fewer visits for women without complications with longer spacing would have to be reinforced, if such a model is to be introduced into routine practice.

  20. Integrating multiple lines of evidence to better understand the evolutionary divergence of humpback dolphins along their entire distribution range: a new dolphin species in Australian waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Jefferson, Thomas A; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Krützen, Michael; Parra, Guido J; Collins, Tim; Minton, Giana; Baldwin, Robert; Berggren, Per; Särnblad, Anna; Amir, Omar A; Peddemors, Vic M; Karczmarski, Leszek; Guissamulo, Almeida; Smith, Brian; Sutaria, Dipani; Amato, George; Rosenbaum, Howard C

    2013-12-01

    The conservation of humpback dolphins, distributed in coastal waters of the Indo-West Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans, has been hindered by a lack of understanding about the number of species in the genus (Sousa) and their population structure. To address this issue, we present a combined analysis of genetic and morphologic data collected from beach-cast, remote-biopsied and museum specimens from throughout the known Sousa range. We extracted genetic sequence data from 235 samples from extant populations and explored the mitochondrial control region and four nuclear introns through phylogenetic, population-level and population aggregation frameworks. In addition, 180 cranial specimens from the same geographical regions allowed comparisons of 24 morphological characters through multivariate analyses. The genetic and morphological data showed significant and concordant patterns of geographical segregation, which are typical for the kind of demographic isolation displayed by species units, across the Sousa genus distribution range. Based on our combined genetic and morphological analyses, there is convincing evidence for at least four species within the genus (S. teuszii in the Atlantic off West Africa, S. plumbea in the central and western Indian Ocean, S. chinensis in the eastern Indian and West Pacific Oceans, and a new as-yet-unnamed species off northern Australia). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [EBM Service: evidence-based answers provided by general practitioners to questions asked by general practitioners--a project from South Tyrol/Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoliori, Giuliano; Kostner, Simon; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-01-01

    General practices also require more and more evidence-based decision-making. But knowledge is increasing rapidly and guidelines produced to help doctors to find answers to their problems seem to exclude a number of problems that are important in general practices. Here we report on the introduction and activities of an EbM Service provided by general practitioners to answer questions of their colleagues. The aim is to give EBM answers, but also, in doing so, to teach the application of EBM and--in the long run--to enable the users themselves to find EBM answers. The provision of EBM answers is fairly pragmatic: after using the service the inquiring physician should be better informed, i.e., have more evidence-based information, but sometimes this need not be the "ultimate truth" that experts might deliver. EBM answers are published both on the homepage of the College of General Practitioners and in their journal. It took quite a while to implement this service, and the number of those using it has increased slowly but constantly.

  2. Evidence for higher-than-average air temperatures after the 8.2 ka event provided by a Central European δ18O record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nils; Lauterbach, Stefan; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Danielopol, Dan L.; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Hüls, Matthias; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Dulski, Peter; Nantke, Carla; Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; von Grafenstein, Ulrich; Brauer, Achim

    2017-09-01

    The so-called 8.2 ka event represents one of the most prominent cold climate anomalies during the Holocene warm period. Accordingly, several studies have addressed its trigger mechanisms, absolute dating and regional characteristics so far. However, knowledge about subsequent climate recovery is still limited although this might be essential for the understanding of rapid climatic changes. Here we present a new sub-decadally resolved and precisely dated oxygen isotope (δ18O) record for the interval between 7.7 and 8.7 ka BP (103 calendar years before AD 1950), derived from the calcareous valves of benthic ostracods preserved in the varved lake sediments of pre-Alpine Mondsee (Austria). Besides a clear reflection of the 8.2 ka event, showing a good agreement in timing, duration and magnitude with other regional stable isotope records, the high-resolution Mondsee lake sediment record provides evidence for a 75-year-long interval of higher-than-average δ18O values directly after the 8.2 ka event, possibly reflecting increased air temperatures in Central Europe. This observation is consistent with evidence from other proxy records in the North Atlantic realm, thus most probably reflecting a hemispheric-scale climate signal rather than a local phenomenon. As a possible trigger we suggest an enhanced resumption of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting assumptions from climate model simulations.

  3. Governance in Health – The Need for Exchange and Evidence; Comment on “Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tata Chanturidze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Governance in health is cited as one of the key factors in balancing the concerns of the government and public sector with the interests of civil society/private players, but often remains poorly described and operationalized. Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran look at two aspects in the search for new provider models in a context of health markets signalling liberalisation: (i the role of the government to balance public and private interests and responsibilities in delivering care through modernised governance arrangements, and (ii the finding that operational complexities may hinder well–designed provider governance models, unless governance reflects country-specific realities. This commentary builds on the discussion by Saltman and Duran, and argues that the concept of governance needs to be clearly defined and operationalized in order to be helpful for policy debate as well as for the development of an applicable framework for performance improvement. It provides a working definition of governance and includes a reflection on the prevailing cultural norms in an organization or society upon which any governance needs to be build. It proposes to explore whether the “evidence-based governance” concept can be introduced to generate knowledge about innovative and effective governance models, and concludes that studies similar to the one by Saltman and Duran can inform this debate.

  4. Explaining unexplained pain to fibromyalgia patients: finding a narrative that is acceptable to patients and provides a rationale for evidence based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Michael E; Hinton, Claire; Hill, Charlotte; Whalley, Ben; Jones, Rupert Cm; Davies, Anthony F

    2016-08-01

    As the cause of fibromyalgia is controversial, communicating with patients can be challenging, particularly if the patient adopts the narrative 'I am damaged and so I need a more powerful pain killer'. Research shows that providing patients with alternative narratives can be helpful, but it remains unclear what particular narratives are most acceptable to patients and at the same time provide a rationale for evidence based psychological and exercise interventions. This article described the development of a new narrative and the written comments made about the narrative by fibromyalgia patients. The narrative derives from a complexity theory model and provides an alternative to biogenic and psychogenic models. The model was presented to 15 patients whose comments about comprehensibility led to the final format of the narrative. In the final form, the body is presented as 'a very, very clever computer' where fibromyalgia is caused by a software rather than a hardware problem. The software problem is caused by the body adapting when people have to 'keep going' despite 'stop signals', such as pain and fatigue. The narrative provides a rationale for engaging in psychological and exercise interventions as a way of correcting the body's software. This way of explaining fibromyalgia was evaluated by a further 25 patients attending a 7-week 'body reprogramming' intervention, where the therapy was presented as correcting the body's software, and included both exercise and psychological components. Attendance at the course was 85%. Thematic analysis of written patient feedback collected after each session showed that patients found the model believable and informative, it provided hope and was empowering. Patients also indicated that they had started to implement lifestyle change with perceived benefit. Fibromyalgia patients appear to respond positively to a technology-derived narrative based on the analogy of the body as a computer.

  5. Endemic ranid (Amphibia: Anura) genera in southern mountain ranges of the Indian subcontinent represent ancient frog lineages: evidence from molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Kim; Jiang, Jianping; Bossuyt, Franky

    2004-05-01

    The geological history of the Indian subcontinent is marked by successive episodes of extensive isolation, which have provided ideal settings for the development of a unique floral and faunal diversity. By molecular phylogenetic analysis of a large set of ranid frog taxa from the Oriental realm, we show that four genera, now restricted to torrential habitats in the Western Ghats of India and the central highlands of Sri Lanka, represent remnants of ancient divergences. None of three other biodiversity hotspots in the Oriental mainland were found to harbour an equivalent level of long-term evolutionary history in this frog group. By unceasingly providing favourable humid conditions, the subcontinent's southern mountain ranges have served as refugia for old lineages, and hence constitute a unique reservoir of ancient ranid endemism.

  6. An X chromosome association scan of the Norfolk Island genetic isolate provides evidence for a novel migraine susceptibility locus at Xq12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget H Maher

    Full Text Available Migraine is a common and debilitating neurovascular disorder with a complex envirogenomic aetiology. Numerous studies have demonstrated a preponderance of women affected with migraine and previous pedigree linkage studies in our laboratory have identified susceptibility loci on chromosome Xq24-Xq28. In this study we have used the genetic isolate of Norfolk Island to further analyse the X chromosome for migraine susceptibility loci.An association approach was employed to analyse 14,124 SNPs spanning the entire X chromosome. Genotype data from 288 individuals comprising a large core-pedigree, of which 76 were affected with migraine, were analysed. Although no SNP reached chromosome-wide significance (empirical α = 1 × 10(-5 ranking by P-value revealed two primary clusters of SNPs in the top 25. A 10 SNP cluster represents a novel migraine susceptibility locus at Xq12 whilst a 11 SNP cluster represents a previously identified migraine susceptibility locus at Xq27. The strongest association at Xq12 was seen for rs599958 (OR = 1.75, P = 8.92 × 10(-4, whilst at Xq27 the strongest association was for rs6525667 (OR = 1.53, P = 1.65 × 10(-4. Further analysis of SNPs at these loci was performed in 5,122 migraineurs from the Women's Genome Health Study and provided additional evidence for association at the novel Xq12 locus (P<0.05.Overall, this study provides evidence for a novel migraine susceptibility locus on Xq12. The strongest effect SNP (rs102834, joint P = 1.63 × 10(-5 is located within the 5'UTR of the HEPH gene, which is involved in iron homeostasis in the brain and may represent a novel pathway for involvement in migraine pathogenesis.

  7. What makes a likely abortion provider? Evidence from a nationwide survey of final-year students at Ghana's public midwifery training colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzomeku, Veronica; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2016-03-01

    Even in countries where the abortion law is technically liberal, the full application of the law has been delayed due to resistance on the part of providers to offer services. Ghana has a liberal law, allowing abortions for a wide range of indications. The current study sought to investigate factors associated with midwifery students' reported likelihood to provide abortion services. Final-year students at 15 public midwifery training colleges participated in a computer-based survey. Demographic and attitudinal variables were tested against the outcome variable, likely to provide comprehensive abortion care (CAC) services, and those variables found to have a significant association in bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariate model. Marginal effects were assessed after the final logistic regression was conducted. A total of 853 out of 929 eligible students enrolled in the 15 public midwifery schools took the survey, for a response rate of 91.8%. In multivariate regression analysis, the factors significantly associated with reported likeliness to provide CAC services were having had an unplanned pregnancy, currently using contraception, feeling adequately prepared, agreeing it is a good thing women can get a legal abortion and having been exposed to multiple forms of education around surgical abortion. Midwifery students at Ghana's public midwifery training colleges report that they are likely to provide CAC. Ensuring that midwives-in-training are well trained in abortion services, as well as encouraging empathy in these students, may increase the number of providers of safe abortion care in Ghana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The views and experiences of nurses and midwives in the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Nalubega, Sylivia; McLuskey, John; Darlington, Nicola; Croston, Michelle; Bath-Hextall, Fiona

    2016-01-15

    using a pragmatic meta-aggregative approach and the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument software. This review included 21 publications from 18 research studies, representing a wide range of countries and healthcare settings. There were 245 findings which were aggregated into 12 categories and five synthesized findings. 1. Nurses/midwives are supportive of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling if it is perceived to enhance patient care and to align with perceived professional roles. 2. Nurses'/midwives' ability to perform provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling well requires an appropriate infrastructure and adequate human and material resources. 3. At the organizational level, nurses'/midwives' engagement with provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling is facilitated by an inclusive management structure, alongside the provision of ongoing training and clinical supervision. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling is hindered by difficulties in fitting it into existing workloads and routines. 4. Nurses/midwives perceive that good quality care in provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling involves finding a balance between public health needs and individual patient needs. Good care requires time and the ability to apply a patient centred approach. 5. The emotional work involved in provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling can be stressful. Nurses/Midwives may require support to deal with complex moral and ethical issues. This review shows that provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling is supported by nurses/midwives who strive to implement it according to principles of good care and a patient centered approach. Nurses/midwives face multiple operational, infra-structural, resource and ethical challenges in the implementation of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. The implementation process for provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling would benefit from using a quality improvement framework

  9. Improving health care quality for racial/ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the best evidence regarding provider and organization interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarth Carole

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite awareness of inequities in health care quality, little is known about strategies that could improve the quality of healthcare for ethnic minority populations. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis to synthesize the findings of controlled studies evaluating interventions targeted at health care providers to improve health care quality or reduce disparities in care for racial/ethnic minorities. Methods We performed electronic and hand searches from 1980 through June 2003 to identify randomized controlled trials or concurrent controlled trials. Reviewers abstracted data from studies to determine study characteristics, results, and quality. We graded the strength of the evidence as excellent, good, fair or poor using predetermined criteria. The main outcome measures were evidence of effectiveness and cost of strategies to improve health care quality or reduce disparities in care for racial/ethnic minorities. Results Twenty-seven studies met criteria for review. Almost all (n = 26 took place in the primary care setting, and most (n = 19 focused on improving provision of preventive services. Only two studies were designed specifically to meet the needs of racial/ethnic minority patients. All 10 studies that used a provider reminder system for provision of standardized services (mostly preventive reported favorable outcomes. The following quality improvement strategies demonstrated favorable results but were used in a small number of studies: bypassing the physician to offer preventive services directly to patients (2 of 2 studies favorable, provider education alone (2 of 2 studies favorable, use of a structured questionnaire to assess adolescent health behaviors (1 of 1 study favorable, and use of remote simultaneous translation (1 of 1 study favorable. Interventions employing more than one main strategy were used in 9 studies with inconsistent results. There were limited data on the costs of these

  10. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lisa A; Helmy, Olga; Holsinger, Lisa M; Young, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36) were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13), which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments.

  11. The transcriptomes of cave and surface populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda provide evidence for positive selection on cave downregulated transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Carlini

    such transcript, encoding the DNA repair protein photolyase, were examined in more detail and provide the first evidence for the relaxation of functional constraint in this light-dependent protein in a subterranean population.

  12. The transcriptomes of cave and surface populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) provide evidence for positive selection on cave downregulated transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, David B; Fong, Daniel W

    2017-01-01

    , encoding the DNA repair protein photolyase, were examined in more detail and provide the first evidence for the relaxation of functional constraint in this light-dependent protein in a subterranean population.

  13. De novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequencing of whole genomic DNA provides first evidence of DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorizzo Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of organelle genomes has revealed important aspects of plant cell evolution. The scope of this study was to develop an approach for de novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequence data from total genomic DNA. Results Sequencing data from a carrot 454 whole genome library were used to develop a de novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome. Development of a new bioinformatic tool allowed visualizing contig connections and elucidation of the de novo assembly. Southern hybridization demonstrated recombination across two large repeats. Genome annotation allowed identification of 44 protein coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA. Identification of the plastid genome sequence allowed organelle genome comparison. Mitochondrial intergenic sequence analysis allowed detection of a fragment of DNA specific to the carrot plastid genome. PCR amplification and sequence analysis across different Apiaceae species revealed consistent conservation of this fragment in the mitochondrial genomes and an insertion in Daucus plastid genomes, giving evidence of a mitochondrial to plastid transfer of DNA. Sequence similarity with a retrotransposon element suggests a possibility that a transposon-like event transferred this sequence into the plastid genome. Conclusions This study confirmed that whole genome sequencing is a practical approach for de novo assembly of higher plant mitochondrial genomes. In addition, a new aspect of intercompartmental genome interaction was reported providing the first evidence for DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome. The approach used here could be used more broadly to sequence and assemble mitochondrial genomes of diverse species. This information will allow us to better understand intercompartmental interactions and cell evolution.

  14. Genome analysis of Elysia chlorotica Egg DNA provides no evidence for horizontal gene transfer into the germ line of this Kleptoplastic Mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Pelletreau, Karen N; Price, Dana C; Sarver, Kara E; Rumpho, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    The sea slug Elysia chlorotica offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a novel function (photosynthesis) in a complex multicellular host. Elysia chlorotica harvests plastids (absent of nuclei) from its heterokont algal prey, Vaucheria litorea. The "stolen" plastids are maintained for several months in cells of the digestive tract and are essential for animal development. The basis of long-term maintenance of photosynthesis in this sea slug was thought to be explained by extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from the nucleus of the alga to the animal nucleus, followed by expression of algal genes in the gut to provide essential plastid-destined proteins. Early studies of target genes and proteins supported the HGT hypothesis, but more recent genome-wide data provide conflicting results. Here, we generated significant genome data from the E. chlorotica germ line (egg DNA) and from V. litorea to test the HGT hypothesis. Our comprehensive analyses fail to provide evidence for alga-derived HGT into the germ line of the sea slug. Polymerase chain reaction analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA from different individual E. chlorotica suggest, however, that algal nuclear genes (or gene fragments) are present in the adult slug. We suggest that these nucleic acids may derive from and/or reside in extrachromosomal DNAs that are made available to the animal through contact with the alga. These data resolve a long-standing issue and suggest that HGT is not the primary reason underlying long-term maintenance of photosynthesis in E. chlorotica. Therefore, sea slug photosynthesis is sustained in as yet unexplained ways that do not appear to endanger the animal germ line through the introduction of dozens of foreign genes.

  15. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  16. The Burden of Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato T Souza

    .49; 4.86-32.05, and chronic diabetes (OR 5.24; 2.68-10.25 were the most significant factors independently associated with pi-PTB.pi-PTB is responsible for about one-third of all preterm births, requiring special attention. The decision-making process relative to the choice of provider-initiated birth is complex, and many factors should be elucidated to improve strategies for its prevention, including evidence-based guidelines on proper management of the corresponding clinical conditions.

  17. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  18. Evidence of spring formation and subrosion-induced sinkhole development at Ghor Al-Haditha, Jordan, from repeated close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Eoghan, P. Holohan; Leila, Saberi; Hussam, Alrshdan; Thomas, Walter; Ali, Sawarieh; Torsten, Dahm

    2016-04-01

    The widespread development of sinkholes and land subsidence poses a major geological hazard to infrastructure, local population, agriculture and industry in the Dead Sea area. For assessment of the key physical factors in this development, repeated photogrammetric and field surveys at Ghor Al-Haditha in Jordan have been undertaken. Recent results provide evidence for subrosion based on strong periodic water flows, as the basic underlying physical process of such land subsidence phenomena. From combined Helikite- and Quatrocopter-based photogrammetric surveys, high resolution Digital Surface Models from October 2014 and October 2015 are compared. Change detection reveals: (1) active subsidence in a hundred metre-scale depression zone, (2) a highly-dynamic spring and canyon system connected with recent sinkhole collapses and (3) the rapid formation of new sinkholes both in alluvium and mud cover sediments. The formation of new sinkholes has been documented locally by means of aerial and field observations during a storm with strong rainfall. A new artesian spring formed in the former Dead Sea bed (mud-flat) at this event. The alluvial sediment load of the stream, a periodic location change of the spring and a connected uphill sinkhole cluster formation provide strong evidence for subrosion of weak material with subsequent underground void collapse. Additionally a documented lake and its' subsequent drainage forming a new canyon reveals the local penetration of the aquiclude behavior of the mud-flat in the major depression area, which can be explained by an under-saturated groundwater flow at a strong hydrostatic gradient. Furthermore an enlargement of the investigated area in the 2015 survey indicates a continuation of subsidence and sinkhole activity towards the North. It reveals several points of emanation of water streams in the mud-flat beneath the alluvial cover and vegetation as an indicator of relatively fresh groundwater inflow. This repeated photogrammetry

  19. Joint interpretation of seismic tomography and new magnetotelluric results provide evidence for support of high topography in the Southern Rocky Mountains and High Plains of eastern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    A recent magnetotelluric (MT) survey in central Colorado, USA, when interpreted alongside existing seismic tomography, reveals potential mechanisms of support for high topography both regionally and locally. Broadband and long period magnetotelluric data were collected at twenty-three sites along a 330 km E-W profile across the Southern Rocky Mountains and High Plains of central North America as part of the Deep RIFT Electrical Resistivity (DRIFTER) experiment. Remote-reference data processing yielded high quality MT data over a period range of 100 Hz to 10,000 seconds. A prominent feature of the regional geo-electric structure is the Denver Basin, which contains a thick package of highly conductive shales and porous sandstone aquifers. One-dimensional forward modeling was performed on stations within the Denver Basin to estimate depth to the base of this shallow conductor. Those estimates were then used to place a horizontal penalty cut in the model mesh of a regularized two-dimensional inversion. Two-dimensional modeling of the resistivity structure reveals two major anomalous regions in the lithosphere: 1) a high conductivity region in the crust under the tallest peaks of the Rocky Mountains and 2) a lateral step increase in lithospheric resistivity beneath the plains. The Rocky Mountain crustal anomaly coincides with low seismic wave speeds and enhanced heat flow and is thus interpreted as evidence of partial melt and/or high temperature fluids emplaced in the crust by tectonic activity along the Rio Grande Rift. The lateral variation in the mantle lithosphere, while co-located with a pronounced step increase in seismic velocity, appears to be a gradational boundary in resistivity across eastern Colorado and could indicate a small degree of compositional modification at the edge of the North American craton. These inferred conductivity mechanisms, namely crustal melt and modification of mantle lithosphere, likely contribute to high topography locally in the

  20. A Knowledge-Modeling Approach to Integrate Multiple Clinical Practice Guidelines to Provide Evidence-Based Clinical Decision Support for Managing Comorbid Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Samina

    2017-10-26

    Clinical management of comorbidities is a challenge, especially in a clinical decision support setting, as it requires the safe and efficient reconciliation of multiple disease-specific clinical procedures to formulate a comorbid therapeutic plan that is both effective and safe for the patient. In this paper we pursue the integration of multiple disease-specific Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in order to manage co-morbidities within a computerized Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS). We present a CPG integration framework-termed as COMET (Comorbidity Ontological Modeling & ExecuTion) that manifests a knowledge management approach to model, computerize and integrate multiple CPG to yield a comorbid CPG knowledge model that upon execution can provide evidence-based recommendations for handling comorbid patients. COMET exploits semantic web technologies to achieve (a) CPG knowledge synthesis to translate a paper-based CPG to disease-specific clinical pathways (CP) that include specialized co-morbidity management procedures based on input from domain experts; (b) CPG knowledge modeling to computerize the disease-specific CP using a Comorbidity CPG ontology; (c) CPG knowledge integration by aligning multiple ontologically-modeled CP to develop a unified comorbid CPG knowledge model; and (e) CPG knowledge execution using reasoning engines to derive CPG-mediated recommendations for managing patients with comorbidities. We present a web-accessible COMET CDSS that provides family physicians with CPG-mediated comorbidity decision support to manage Atrial Fibrillation and Chronic Heart Failure. We present our qualitative and quantitative analysis of the knowledge content and usability of COMET CDSS.

  1. DNA strand damage product analysis provides evidence that the tumor cell-specific cytotoxin tirapazamine produces hydroxyl radical and acts as a surrogate for O(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Junnotula, Venkatraman; Daniels, J Scott; Greenberg, Marc M; Gates, Kent S

    2007-10-24

    The compound 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine, TPZ) is a clinically promising anticancer agent that selectively kills the oxygen-poor (hypoxic) cells found in solid tumors. It has long been known that, under hypoxic conditions, TPZ causes DNA strand damage that is initiated by the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of duplex DNA, but exact chemical mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we describe detailed characterization of sugar-derived products arising from TPZ-mediated strand damage. We find that the action of TPZ on duplex DNA under hypoxic conditions generates 5-methylene-2-furanone (6), oligonucleotide 3'-phosphoglycolates (7), malondialdehyde equivalents (8 or 9), and furfural (10). These results provide evidence that TPZ-mediated strand damage arises via hydrogen atom abstraction from both the most hindered (C1') and least hindered (C4' and C5') positions of the deoxyribose sugars in the double helix. The products observed are identical to those produced by hydroxyl radical. Additional experiments were conducted to better understand the chemical pathways by which TPZ generates the observed DNA-damage products. Consistent with previous work showing that TPZ can substitute for molecular oxygen in DNA damage reactions, it is found that, under anaerobic conditions, reaction of TPZ with a discrete, photogenerated C1'-radical in a DNA 2'-oligodeoxynucleotide cleanly generates the 2-deoxyribonolactone lesion (5) that serves as the precursor to 5-methylene-2-furanone (6). Overall, the results provide insight regarding the chemical structure of the DNA lesions that confront cellular repair, transcription, and replication machinery following exposure to TPZ and offer new information relevant to the chemical mechanisms underlying TPZ-mediated strand cleavage.

  2. A Trypanosoma cruzi Small Surface Molecule Provides the First Immunological Evidence that Chagas' Disease Is Due to a Single Parasite Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Javier M.; Buscaglia, Carlos A.; De Marchi, Claudia R.; Almeida, Igor C.; Frasch, Alberto C.C.

    2002-01-01

    Chagas' disease is a major health and economic problem caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Multiple independently evolving clones define a complex parasite population that can be arranged into two broad genetic lineages termed T. cruzi I and II. These lineages have different evolutionary origin and display distinct ecological and biological traits. Here we describe a novel molecule termed TSSA for trypomastigote small surface antigen that provides the first immunological marker allowing discrimination between lineages. TSSA is a surface, glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored mucin-like protein, highly antigenic during the infection. TSSA sequences from different parasite isolates reveal a population dimorphism that perfectly matches with the two T. cruzi lineages. Interestingly, this dimorphism is restricted to the central region of the molecule, which comprises the immunodominant B cell epitopes. This sequence variability has a major impact on TSSA antigenicity, leading to no immunological cross-reactivity between both isoforms for antibodies present either in immunization or infection sera. Furthermore, the absolute seroprevalence for TSSA in confirmed Chagasic patients is restricted to T. cruzi II isoform, strongly suggesting that human infections are due to this particular subgroup. Even though association of T. cruzi II with Chagas' disease has been proposed based on molecular markers, this is the first immunological evidence supporting this hypothesis. The implications of these results for the future research on Chagas' disease could be envisaged. PMID:11854354

  3. Characterization of a new partitivirus strain in Verticillium dahliae provides further evidence of the spread of the highly virulent defoliating pathotype through new introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen CAÑIZARES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, causal agent of Verticillium wilt, has a worldwide distribution and many hosts of agronomic value. The worldwide spread of a highly virulent defoliating (D pathotype has greatly increased the threat posed by V. dahliae in olive trees. For effective disease management, it is important to know if the D pathotype is spreading long distances from contaminated material, or if D pathotype isolates may have originated locally from native V. dahliae populations several times. We identified a double-stranded RNA mycovirus in an olive D pathotype isolate from Turkey. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis clustered the virus with members of the family Partitiviridae. The virus was most similar to a partitivirus previously identified in a V. dahliae isolate from cotton in China (VdPV1, with sequence identities of 94% and 91% at the nucleotide level for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The virus therefore corresponded to a strain of the established species, and we designated it VdPV1-ol (VdPV1 from olive. The identification of the same viral species in these two fungal isolates from geographically distant origins provides evidence of their relationships, supporting the hypothesis of long-distance movement of V. dahliae isolates.

  4. The mother or the fetus? 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 null mice provide evidence for direct fetal programming of behavior by endogenous glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan C; Abrahamsen, Christian T; French, Karen L; Paterson, Janice M; Mullins, John J; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2006-04-05

    Low birth weight associates with increased susceptibility to adult cardiometabolic and affective disorders spawning the notion of fetal "programming." Prenatal exposure to excess glucocorticoids may be causal. In support, maternal stress or treatment during pregnancy with dexamethasone (which crosses the placenta) or inhibitors of fetoplacental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), the physiological "barrier" to maternal glucocorticoids, reduces birth weight and programs permanent offspring hypertension, hyperglycemia, and anxiety behaviors. It remains uncertain whether such effects are mediated indirectly via altered maternal function or directly on the fetus and its placenta. To dissect this critical issue, we mated 11beta-HSD2(+/-) mice such that each pregnant female produces +/+, +/-, and -/- offspring and compared them with offspring of homozygous wild-type and -/- matings. We show that 11beta-HSD2(-/-) offspring of either +/- or -/- mothers have lower birth weight and exhibit greater anxiety than 11beta-HSD2(+/+) littermates. This provides clear evidence for the key role of fetoplacental 11beta-HSD2 in prenatal glucocorticoid programming.

  5. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  6. Not going with the flow: a comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata: Insecta) provides evidence for the role of lentic habitats on diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsch, Harald; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Ware, Jessica L

    2016-03-01

    Ecological diversification of aquatic insects has long been suspected to have been driven by differences in freshwater habitats, which can be classified into flowing (lotic) waters and standing (lentic) waters. The contrasting characteristics of lotic and lentic freshwater systems imply different ecological constraints on their inhabitants. The ephemeral and discontinuous character of most lentic water bodies may encourage dispersal by lentic species in turn reducing geographical isolation among populations. Hence, speciation probability would be lower in lentic species. Here, we assess the impact of habitat use on diversification patterns in dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata). Based on the eight nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we inferred species diversification with a model-based evolutionary framework, to account for rate variation through time and among lineages and to estimate the impact of larval habitat on the potentially nonrandom diversification among anisopteran groups. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed lotic fresh water systems as their original primary habitat, while lentic waters have been colonized independently in Aeshnidae, Corduliidae and Libellulidae. Furthermore, our results indicate a positive correlation of speciation and lentic habitat colonization by dragonflies: speciation rates increased in lentic Aeshnidae and Libellulidae, whereas they remain mostly uniform among lotic groups. This contradicts the hypothesis of inherently lower speciation in lentic groups and suggests species with larger ranges are more likely to diversify, perhaps due to higher probability of larger areas being dissected by geographical barriers. Furthermore, larger range sizes may comprise more habitat types, which could also promote speciation by providing additional niches, allowing the coexistence of emerging species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Geochemical evidences for palaeoclimatic fluctuations at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: southwestern margin of the Neotethys in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Wagreich, Michael; Jan, Irfanullah; Kürschner, Wolfram Michael; Gier, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval reveals a change from warm-arid to a warm and humid climate in the Tethyan domain. Sea-level reconstruction records across the European basins during this interval reveal an end-Triassic global regression event and is linked to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity and Pangaea breakup. In the Tethyan Salt Range of Pakistan a succession of Upper Triassic dolomites/green-black mudstones (Kingriali Formation), overlying quartzose sandstone, mudstones, laterites and Lower Jurassic conglomerates/pebbly sandstones (Datta Formation) provides information on the palaeoclimatic evolution of the area. Preliminary palynological results from the mudstones indicate a Rhaetian age for the Kingriali Formation and a Hettangian age for the Datta Formation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the mudstones (upper part of the Kingriali Formation) indicates the presence of mainly illite while kaolinite is a minor component. The kaolinite content, a reflection of the advanced stage of chemical weathering and hence warm-humid conditions, increases up-section in the overlying sandstone-mudstone succession. The overlying laterite-bauxite horizons lack illite/smectite and are entirely composed of kaolinite, boehmite and haematite. At places these kaolinite rich horizons are mined in the area (Western Salt Range). The bulk rock geochemistry of the succession confirms a similar trend. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) displays an increasing trend from the Upper Triassic shales (CIA 75-80) through the overlying sandstones/mudstones-laterites to the overlying quartz rich sandstones and mudstones (CIA 90-97). The overall results for the succession reveal an increasing chemical maturity trend (increase in the intensity of chemical weathering) from Rhaetian to Hettangian thereby supporting a change from warm-arid to a warm-humid palaeoclimate, probably extreme greenhouse conditions.

  8. Origin of the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Evidence from regional Pb and Sr isotope sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, R.A.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Young, L.E.; Slack, J.F.; Wandless, G.; Lyon, A.M.; Dillingham, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Pb and Sr isotope data were obtained on the shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag Red Dog deposits (Qanaiyaq, Main, Aqqaluk, and Paalaaq), other shale-hosted deposits near Red Dog, and Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide and barite deposits in the western and central Brooks Range. The Red Dog deposits and other shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits near Red Dog are hosted in the Mississippian Kuna Formation, which is underlain by a sequence of marine-deltaic clastic rocks of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Endicott Group. Ag-Pb-Zn vein-breccias are found in the Endicott Group. Galena formed during the main mineralization stages in the Red Dog deposits and from the Anarraaq and Wulik deposits have overlapping Pb isotope compositions in the range 206Pb/204Pb = 18.364 to 18.428, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.553 to 15.621, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.083 to 38.323. Galena and sphalerite formed during the main ore-forming stages in the Red Dog deposits define a narrow field on standard uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotope diagrams. Lead in sulfides of the Red Dog district is less radiogenic (238U/204Pb: ?? = 9.51-9.77) than is indicated by the average crustal lead evolution model (?? = 9.74), a difference consistent with a long history of evolution at low ratios of ?? before the Carboniferous. The homogeneous regional isotopic reservoir of Pb may indicate large-scale transport and leaching of minerals with various ?? ratios and Th/Pb ratios. Younger and genetically unrelated fluids did not significantly disturb the isotopic compositions of galena and sphalerite after the main mineralization event in the Red Dog district. Some pyrite shows evidence of minor Pb remobilization. The overall lead isotope homogeneity in the shale-hosted massive sulfide deposits is consistent with three types of control: a homogeneous regional source, mixing of lead during leaching of a thick sedimentary section and fluid transport, or mixing at the site of deposition. Isotopic variability of the hydrothermal fluids, as represented by galena

  9. A novel approach to wildlife transcriptomics provides evidence of disease-mediated differential expression and changes to the microbiome of amphibian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lewis J; Hammond, S Austin; Price, Stephen J; Sharma, Manmohan D; Garner, Trenton W J; Birol, Inanc; Helbing, Caren C; Wilfert, Lena; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2018-02-08

    Ranaviruses are responsible for a lethal, emerging infectious disease in amphibians and threaten their populations throughout the world. Despite this, little is known about how amphibian populations respond to ranaviral infection. In the United Kingdom, ranaviruses impact the common frog (Rana temporaria). Extensive public engagement in the study of ranaviruses in the UK has led to the formation of a unique system of field sites containing frog populations of known ranaviral disease history. Within this unique natural field system, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the gene expression profiles of R. temporaria populations with a history of ranaviral disease and those without. We have applied a RNA read filtering protocol that incorporates Bloom filters, previously used in clinical settings, to limit the potential for contamination that comes with the use of RNA-Seq in non-laboratory systems. We have identified a suite of 407 transcripts that are differentially expressed between populations of different ranaviral disease history. This suite contains genes with functions related to immunity, development, protein transport and olfactory reception amongst others. A large proportion of potential non-coding RNA transcripts present in our differentially expressed set provides first evidence of a possible role for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in amphibian response to viruses. Our read-filtering approach also removed significantly more bacterial reads from libraries generated from postitive disease history populations. Subsequent analysis revealed these bacterial read sets to represent distinct communities of bacterial species, which is suggestive of an interaction between ranavirus and the host microbiome in the wild. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Control of Ethylene Responses by GREEN-RIPE and GREEN-RIPE LIKE1 Provides Evidence for Distinct Ethylene Signaling Modules in Tomato1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Du, Wenyan; Brandizzi, Federica; Giovannoni, James J.; Barry, Cornelius S.

    2012-01-01

    The factors that mediate specific responses to the plant hormone ethylene are not fully defined. In particular, it is not known how signaling at the receptor complex can control distinct subsets of ethylene responses. Mutations at the Green-ripe (Gr) and reversion to ethylene sensitivity1 (rte1) loci, which encode homologous proteins of unknown function, influence ethylene responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively. In Arabidopsis, AtRTE1 is required for function of the ETR1 ethylene receptor and acts predominantly through this receptor via direct protein-protein interaction. While most eudicot families including the Brassicaceae possess a single gene that is closely related to AtRTE1, we report that members of the Solanaceae family contain two phylogenetically distinct genes defined by GR and GREEN-RIPE LIKE1 (GRL1), creating the possibility of subfunctionalization. We also show that SlGR and SlGRL1 are differentially expressed in tomato tissues and encode proteins predominantly localized to the Golgi. A combination of overexpression in tomato and complementation of the rte1-3 mutant allele indicates that SlGR and SlGRL1 influence distinct but overlapping ethylene responses. Overexpression of SlGRL1 in the Gr mutant background provides evidence for the existence of different ethylene signaling modules in tomato that are influenced by GR, GRL1, or both. In addition, overexpression of AtRTE1 in tomato leads to reduced ethylene responsiveness in a subset of tissues but does not mimic the Gr mutant phenotype. Together, these data reveal species-specific heterogeneity in the control of ethylene responses mediated by members of the GR/RTE1 family. PMID:23043080

  11. Geochemical signatures of benthic foraminiferal shells from a heat-polluted shallow marine environment provide field evidence for growth and calcification under extreme warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-10-01

    Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on natural ecosystems is by investigation of heat-polluted areas. Here, we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to elevated temperatures reaching up to ~42°C in summer. Live specimens of two known heat-tolerant species Lachlanella sp. 1 and Pararotalia calcariformata were collected over a period of 1 year from two stations, representing thermally polluted and undisturbed (control) shallow hard bottom habitats. Single-chamber element ratios of these specimens were obtained using laser ablation, and the Mg/Ca of the most recently grown final chambers were used to calculate their calcification temperatures. Our results provide the first direct field evidence that these foraminifera species not only persist at extreme warm temperatures but continue to calcify and grow. Species-specific Mg/Ca thermometry indicates that P. calcariformata precipitate their shells at temperatures as high as 40°C and Lachlanella sp. 1 at least up to 36°C, but both species show a threshold for calcification at cold temperatures: calcification in P. calcariformata only occurred above 22°C and in Lachlanella sp. 1 above 15°C. Our observations from the heat-polluted area indicate that under future warming scenarios, calcification in heat-tolerant foraminifera species will not be inhibited during summer, but instead the temperature window for their calcification will be expanded throughout much of the year. The observed inhibition of calcification at low temperatures indicates that the role of heat-tolerant foraminifera in carbonate production will most likely increase in future decades. © 2017 John

  12. Lactose binding to human galectin-7 (p53-induced gene 1) induces long-range effects through the protein resulting in increased dimer stability and evidence for positive cooperativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Elena; Miller, Michelle C; Nesmelova, Irina V; López-Merino, Lara; Berbís, Manuel Alvaro; Nesmelov, Yuri; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Lagartera, Laura; Daragan, Vladimir A; André, Sabine; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Mayo, Kevin H

    2013-01-01

    The product of p53-induced gene 1 is a member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-7 (Gal-7). To move beyond structural data by X-ray diffraction, we initiated the study of the lectin by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In concert, our results indicate that lactose binding to human Gal-7 induces long-range effects (minor conformational shifts and changes in structural dynamics) throughout the protein that result in stabilization of the dimer state, with evidence for positive cooperativity. Monte Carlo fits of 15N-Gal-7 HSQC titrations with lactose using a two-site model yield K1 = 0.9 ± 0.6 × 103 M−1 and K2 = 3.4 ± 0.8 × 103 M−1. Ligand binding-induced stabilization of the Gal-7 dimer was supported by several lines of evidence: MD-based calculations of interaction energies between ligand-loaded and ligand-free states, gel filtration data and hetero-FRET spectroscopy that indicate a highly reduced tendency for dimer dissociation in the presence of lactose, CD-based thermal denaturation showing that the transition temperature of the lectin is significantly increased in the presence of lactose, and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR using a molecular probe of the monomer state whose presence is diminished in the presence of lactose. MD simulations with the half-loaded ligand-bound state also provided insight into how allosteric signaling may occur. Overall, our results reveal long-range effects on Gal-7 structure and dynamics, which factor into entropic contributions to ligand binding and allow further comparisons with other members of the galectin family. PMID:23376190

  13. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33, White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40, and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75 in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model, Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models. In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC and true skill statistic (TSS were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  14. Associations between perceptions of evidence and adoption of H1N1 influenza infection prevention strategies among healthcare workers providing care to persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Philip M; Lavela, Sherri L; Evans, Charlesnika T; Miskevics, Scott; Weaver, Frances M; Goldstein, Barry

    2014-08-01

    To examine associations between perceptions of evidence (research evidence, clinical expertise, patient preferences) and outcomes of a nationwide programme to implement H1N1 influenza prevention guidelines. Healthcare workers do not consistently adhere to recommended infection control practices and this may be associated with their perceptions of evidence sources. Cross-sectional mailed survey. A survey of healthcare workers was administered in August 2010 after implementation of H1N1 prevention guidelines. Outcomes of interest were ratings of adherence to H1N1 prevention guidelines. Respondents with complete data (N = 283) were included in analyses. Facility-level adherence to guidelines was associated with opinions of clinical experts. Healthcare workers who rated clinical expertise as aligning with recommendations also rated their facilities as being more adherent to guidelines. Perceptions of research evidence and patient preferences were not associated with facility adherence. Personal adherence was not associated with perceptions of evidence, except among those healthcare workers who rated both clinical experts and patients as unsupportive of guidelines; these practitioners were less likely to adhere to recommended personal hygiene practices. Efforts to implement guidelines might be most effective when capitalizing on the influence of clinical experts. To better explain variability in guideline adherence, inclusion of a broader array of variables is recommended for future studies. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analyses of nuclear and chloroplast DNA provide evidence for recombination, multiple introductions and nascent speciation in the Caulerpa taxifolia complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusnier, I; Valero, M; Destombe, C; Gode, E.; Desmarais, E.; Bonhomme, F.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Independent lines of evidence support an Australian origin for the Mediterranean populations of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia. To complement previous biogeographical studies based on nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), a new chloroplast marker was developed - the cp 16S rDNA

  16. Chimpanzees' Context-Dependent Tool Use Provides Evidence for Separable Representations of Hand and Tool Even during Active Use within Peripersonal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Daniel J.; Reaux, James E.; Frey, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to behaviors in which tools are used to perform actions in extrapersonal space by extending the reach. Evidence suggests that these behaviors result in an expansion of the body schema and peripersonal space. However, humans often use tools to perform tasks within peripersonal space that cannot be…

  17. Gopher eskers, mounds, and stonelines: Evidence of the annual to centennial impacts of gophers in the montane meadows of Colorado's Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, E. W.; Lombardi, E. M.; Marquez, J. A.; Doak, D. F.; Anderson, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the critical zone on montane hillslopes of Colorado's Front Range, qualitative observations suggest that gophers not only dominate the modern meadow geomorphic rates, but are involved in a geomorphic-ecological feedback system that governs meadow migration on decadal-millennial time scales. Our observations suggest that gopher intensity and location is pertinent to forest/meadow (FM) dynamics. Field mapping of gopher activity as the snow melts in the spring revealed that subnivean tubes ("eskers") are tightly clustered at the FM boundary while mounds generated over the remainder of the summer are concentrated strictly in the meadows. This suggests that gophers spend the winter months at the FM interface and spend the warmer seasons within the meadows. We hypothesize that variations in snow depth drive this spatial-temporal pattern of gopher activity; deeper snow near the FM boundary provides greater insulation, as near-surface ground temperatures in the wind-scoured meadow centers are colder. This motivates our initiation of monitoring and modeling of near-surface temperature across a FM pair. Numerical modeling supports qualitative observations that the following geomorphic-ecological processes are active: seedling establishment and damage, gopher tunneling and resulting mound generation, mound material transport driven by ungulate trampling, vegetative lock-down of mound material, and resulting changes in the soil depth of the landscape. This year's observations suggest that we must add to this mix the annual cycle of the gopher activity. Finally, probing and soil pits within the meadows reveal that on longer timescales gopher activity leads to the development of a well-mixed upper soil layer that is sharply bounded below by high concentrations of large stones ("stone lines") within the glacial till substrate of the hillslopes. The mean diameter of mound surface grains is half that of clasts comprising the stone lines. This motivates documentation of soil

  18. Evidence for multiple mechanisms of crustal contamination of magma from compositionally zoned plutons and associated ultramafic intrusions of the Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, P.W.; Nelson, B.K.; Nelson, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Models of continental crustal magmagenesis commonly invoke the interaction of mafic mantle-derived magma and continental crust to explain geochemical and petrologic characteristics of crustal volcanic and plutonic rocks. This interaction and the specific mechanisms of crustal contamination associated with it are poorly understood. An excellent opportunity to study the progressive effects of crustal contamination is offered by the composite plutons of the Alaska Range, a series of nine early Tertiary, multiply intruded, compositionally zoned (peridotite to granite) plutons. Large initial Sr and Nd isotopic contrasts between the crustal country rock and likely parental magmas allow evaluation of the mechanisms and extents of crustal contamination that accompanied the crystallization of these ultramafic through granitic rocks. Three contamination processes are distinguished in these plutons. The most obvious of these is assimilation of crustal country rock concurrent with magmatic fractional crystallization (AFC), as indicated by a general trend toward crustal-like isotopic signatures with increasing differentiation. Second, many ultramafic and mafic rocks have late-stage phenocryst reaction and orthocumulate textures that suggest interaction with felsic melt. These rocks also have variable and enriched isotopic compositions that suggest that this felsic melt was isotopically enriched and probably derived from crustal country rock. Partial melt from the flysch country rock may have reacted with and contaminated these partly crystalline magmas following the precipitation and accumulation of the cumulus phenocrysts but before complete solidification of the magma. This suggests that in magmatic mush (especially of ultramafic composition) crystallizing in continental crust, a second distinct process of crustal contamination may be super-imposed on AFC or magma mixing involving the main magma body. Finally, nearly all rocks, including mafic and ultramafic rocks, have (87Sr

  19. Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

  20. Does enemy damage vary across the range of exotic plant species? Evidence from two coastal dune plant species in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Samiya; Leishman, Michelle R

    2017-11-22

    Release from natural enemies is often cited as a key factor for understanding the success of invasive plant species in novel environments. However, with time invasive species will accumulate native enemies in their invaded range, with factors such as spread distance from the site of introduction, climate and leaf-level traits potentially affecting enemy acquisition rates. However, the influence of such factors is difficult to assess without examining enemy attack across the entire species' range. We tested the significance of factors associated with range expansion (distance from source population and maximum population density), climatic variables (annual temperature and rainfall) and leaf-level traits [specific leaf area (SLA) and foliar nitrogen concentration] in explaining variation in enemy damage across multiple populations of two coastal invasive plants (Gladiolus gueinzii Kunze and Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam.) along their entire introduced distribution in eastern Australia. We found that for H. bonariensis, amount of foliar damage increased with distance from source population. In contrast, for G. gueinzii, probability and amount of foliar damage decreased with decreasing temperature and increasing rainfall, respectively. Our results show that patterns of enemy attack across species' ranges are complex and cannot be generalised between species or even range edges.

  1. Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMullan, Mark; Gardiner, Anastasia; Bailey, Kate

    2015-01-01

    How generalist parasites with wide host ranges can evolve is a central question in parasite evolution. Albugo candida is an obligate biotrophic parasite that consists of many physiological races that each specialize on distinct Brassicaceae host species. By analyzing genome sequence assemblies...

  2. What influences the willingness of community physicians to provide palliative care for patients with terminal cancer? Evidence from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jen-Kuei; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Hu, Wen-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hung, Shou-Hung

    2013-03-01

    Community physicians have a vital role in delivering palliative care, yet their willingness and factors that influence its provision have rarely been explored. Our aims were to identify the willingness of community physicians to provide palliative care for patients with terminal cancer and to investigate the factors that influence their willingness to provide such care. Through a structured questionnaire, this nationwide study surveyed 708 community physicians who were potential pilots to provide palliative care. Four hundred and ten valid questionnaires (58.0%) were retrieved and analysed. The majority of respondents expressed a willingness (92.4%) to provide palliative care if they encountered patients with terminal cancer. However, they would limit their services to consultation (83.4%) and referral (86.8%), and were less likely to see patients and prescribe medicine (62.0%), to provide phone follow-ups (45.6%), to provide home visits (42.2%) or to offer bereavement care for the family (35.1%). The results of stepwise logistic regression analysis for the willingness to provide home visits showed that 'less perception of barriers', 'family medicine specialist' and 'older than 50 years' significantly predicted higher willingness, while 'female' predicted lower willingness. There was no significant association between the willingness and the knowledge score. Community physicians' beliefs and experience in palliative care rather than their knowledge influence their willingness to provide palliative care for patients with terminal cancer. Only through active participation in the real-world clinical setting and active health policy administration can community physicians overcome obstacles to providing palliative care.

  3. Identification of the sex-determining locus in grass puffer (Takifugu niphobles) provides evidence for sex-chromosome turnover in a subset of Takifugu species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Kazufumi; Kamiya, Takashi; Nozawa, Aoi; Aoki, Yuma; Tasumi, Satoshi; Koyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Osamu; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for frequent turnover in sex chromosomes in vertebrates. Yet experimental systems suitable for tracing the detailed process of turnover are rare. In theory, homologous turnover is possible if the new sex-determining locus is established on the existing sex-chromosome. However, there is no empirical evidence for such an event. The genus Takifugu includes fugu (Takifugu rubripes) and its two closely-related species whose sex is most likely determined by a SNP at the Amhr2 locus. In these species, males are heterozygous, with G and C alleles at the SNP site, while females are homozygous for the C allele. To determine if a shift in the sex-determining locus occurred in another member of this genus, we used genetic mapping to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of Takifugu niphobles. We found that the G allele of Amhr2 is absent in T. niphobles. Nevertheless, our initial mapping suggests a linkage between the phenotypic sex and the chromosome 19, which harbors the Amhr2 locus. Subsequent high-resolution analysis using a sex-reversed fish demonstrated that the sex-determining locus maps to the proximal end of chromosome 19, far from the Amhr2 locus. Thus, it is likely that homologous turnover involving these species has occurred. The data also showed that there is a male-specific reduction of recombination around the sex-determining locus. Nevertheless, no evidence for sex-chromosome differentiation was detected: the reduced recombination depended on phenotypic sex rather than genotypic sex; no X- or Y-specific maker was obtained; the YY individual was viable. Furthermore, fine-scale mapping narrowed down the new sex-determining locus to the interval corresponding to approximately 300-kb of sequence in the fugu genome. Thus, T. niphobles is determined to have a young and small sex-determining region that is suitable for studying an early phase of sex-chromosome evolution and the mechanisms underlying turnover of sex chromosome. PMID

  4. Identification of the sex-determining locus in grass puffer (Takifugu niphobles provides evidence for sex-chromosome turnover in a subset of Takifugu species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Ieda

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for frequent turnover in sex chromosomes in vertebrates. Yet experimental systems suitable for tracing the detailed process of turnover are rare. In theory, homologous turnover is possible if the new sex-determining locus is established on the existing sex-chromosome. However, there is no empirical evidence for such an event. The genus Takifugu includes fugu (Takifugu rubripes and its two closely-related species whose sex is most likely determined by a SNP at the Amhr2 locus. In these species, males are heterozygous, with G and C alleles at the SNP site, while females are homozygous for the C allele. To determine if a shift in the sex-determining locus occurred in another member of this genus, we used genetic mapping to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of Takifugu niphobles. We found that the G allele of Amhr2 is absent in T. niphobles. Nevertheless, our initial mapping suggests a linkage between the phenotypic sex and the chromosome 19, which harbors the Amhr2 locus. Subsequent high-resolution analysis using a sex-reversed fish demonstrated that the sex-determining locus maps to the proximal end of chromosome 19, far from the Amhr2 locus. Thus, it is likely that homologous turnover involving these species has occurred. The data also showed that there is a male-specific reduction of recombination around the sex-determining locus. Nevertheless, no evidence for sex-chromosome differentiation was detected: the reduced recombination depended on phenotypic sex rather than genotypic sex; no X- or Y-specific maker was obtained; the YY individual was viable. Furthermore, fine-scale mapping narrowed down the new sex-determining locus to the interval corresponding to approximately 300-kb of sequence in the fugu genome. Thus, T. niphobles is determined to have a young and small sex-determining region that is suitable for studying an early phase of sex-chromosome evolution and the mechanisms underlying turnover of sex

  5. Does Employer-Provided Health Insurance Constrain Labor Supply Adjustments to Health Shocks? New Evidence on Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Barkowski, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Employment-contingent health insurance may create incentives for ill workers to remain employed at a sufficient level (usually full-time) to maintain access to health insurance coverage. We study employed married women, comparing the labor supply responses to new breast cancer diagnoses of women dependent on their own employment for health insurance with the responses of women who are less dependent on their own employment for health insurance, because of actual or potential access to health insurance through their spouse’s employer. We find evidence that women who depend on their own job for health insurance reduce their labor supply by less after a diagnosis of breast cancer. In the estimates that best control for unobservables associated with health insurance status, the hours reduction for women who continue to work is 8 to 11 percent smaller. Women’s subjective responses to questions about working more to maintain health insurance are consistent with the conclusions from observed behavior. PMID:23891911

  6. The stable orientations of the net magnetic moment within single-domain particles: Experimental evidence for a range of stable states and implications for rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, David K.; Stephenson, Alan

    2006-03-01

    An idealised stable uniaxial single-domain (SD) particle permits only two possible stable positions in which the magnetic moment can lie, either closely parallel or anti-parallel to the particle long (easy) axis. In real acicular SD particles, which have generally been regarded as uniaxial, this implicit two state feature has never been challenged, whilst there has been considerable debate concerning the mechanism of moment reversal between the two states. We present experimental results suggesting that acicular SD particles may actually have a range of several quantifiable stable (or metastable) orientations of the net magnetic moment. In order to help explain our experimental observations we present a new simple model of acicular SD particles, which gives quantitative predictions verified by further experiments. The model also appears to be relevant to other SD particle morphologies and crystal structures (such as hematite). A possible physical basis for our model in acicular particles may lie in non-uniform SD structures (such as the flower or vortex states). Small variations in the non-uniform SD structures available to a particle might allow a range of stable positions of the net moment. The results have several implications for rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism. Firstly, the new model can quantitatively account for several previously unexplained diverse phenomena exhibited by real acicular SD particles. These include the acquisition of gyroremanences and field-impressed anisotropy in dilute dispersions of such particles, as well as observations of transverse components of remanence in individual acicular SD particles. All these phenomena are theoretically impossible in idealised uniaxial SD particles. Interestingly, it appears that these phenomena could now be used to quantify the deviation of real acicular SD particles from ideal uniaxial behaviour and also, therefore, the deviation from a uniform SD structure. In hematite, observations of large field

  7. Induction of the Arginine Decarboxylase ADC2 Gene Provides Evidence for the Involvement of Polyamines in the Wound Response in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Leon, Jose; Green, Pamela J.; Carbonell, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are small ubiquitous molecules that have been involved in nearly all developmental processes, including the stress response. Nevertheless, no direct evidence of a role of polyamines in the wound response has been described. We have studied the expression of genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis in response to mechanical injury. An increase in the expression of the arginine decarboxylase 2 (ADC2) gene in response to mechanical wounding and methyl jasmonate (JA) treatment in Arabidopsis was detected by using DNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analysis. No induction was observed for the ADC1 gene or other genes coding for spermidine and spermine synthases, suggesting that ADC2 is the only gene of polyamine biosynthesis involved in the wounding response mediated by JA. A transient increase in the level of free putrescine followed the increase in the mRNA level for ADC2. A decrease in the level of free spermine, coincident with the increase in putrescine after wounding, was also observed. Abscisic acid effected a strong induction on ADC2 expression and had no effect on ADC1 expression. Wound-induction of ADC2 mRNA was not prevented in the JA-insensitive coi1 mutant. The different pattern of expression of ADC2 gene in wild-type and coi1 mutant might be due to the dual regulation of ADC2 by abscisic acid and JA signaling pathways. This is the first direct evidence of a function of polyamines in the wound-response, and it opens a new aspect of polyamines in plant biology. PMID:12428010

  8. Unplanned, urgent and emergency care: what are the roles that EMS plays in providing for older people with dementia? An integrative review of policy, professional recommendations and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Marina; Lumbard, Philip; Prothero, Larissa; Lee, Caroline; Martin, Steven; Fleming, Jane; Goodman, Claire

    2016-01-01

    To synthesise the existing literature on the roles that emergency medical services (EMS) play in unplanned, urgent and emergency care for older people with dementia (OPWD), to define these roles, understand the strength of current research and to identify where the focus of future research should lie. An integrative review of the synthesised reports, briefings, professional recommendations and evidence. English-language articles were included if they made any reference to the role of EMS in the urgent or emergency care of OPWD. Preparatory scoping and qualitative work with frontline ambulance and primary care staff and carers of OPWD informed our review question and subsequent synthesis. Seventeen literature sources were included. Over half were from the grey literature. There was no research that directly addressed the review question. There was evidence in reports, briefings and professional recommendations of EMS addressing some of the issues they face in caring for OPWD. Three roles of EMS could be drawn out of the literature: emergency transport, assess and manage and a 'last resort' or safety net role. The use of EMS by OPWD is not well understood, although the literature reviewed demonstrated a concern for this group and awareness that services are not optimum. Research in dementia care should consider the role that EMS plays, particularly if considering crises, urgent care responses and transitions between care settings. EMS research into new ways of working, training or extended paramedical roles should consider specific needs and challenges of responding to people with dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal genetic structuring of the carpathian newt and provide evidence of interspecific gene flow in the nuclear genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zieliński

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within species is commonly structured in a hierarchical manner which may result from superimposition of processes acting at different spatial and temporal scales. In organisms of limited dispersal ability, signatures of past subdivision are detectable for a long time. Studies of contemporary genetic structure in such taxa inform about the history of isolation, range changes and local admixture resulting from geographically restricted hybridization with related species. Here we use a set of 139 transcriptome-derived, unlinked nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP to assess the genetic structure of the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni, Lm and introgression from its congener, the smooth newt (L. vulgaris, Lv. Two substantially differentiated groups of Lm populations likely originated from separate refugia, both located in the Eastern Carpathians. The colonization of the present range in north-western and south-western directions was accompanied by a modest loss of variation; admixture between the two groups has occurred in the middle of the Eastern Carpathians. Local, apparently recent introgression of Lv alleles into several Lm populations was detected, demonstrating increased power for admixture detection in comparison to a previous study based on a limited number of microsatellite markers. The level of introgression was higher in Lm populations classified as admixed than in syntopic populations. We discuss the possible causes and propose further tests to distinguish between alternatives. Several outlier loci were identified in tests of interspecific differentiation, suggesting genomic heterogeneity of gene flow between species.

  10. Feminization of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae in the Oldman River, Alberta, (Canada Provides Evidence of Widespread Endocrine Disruption in an Agricultural Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce S. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled an abundant, native minnow (Longnose dace—Rhinichthys cataractae throughout the Oldman River, Alberta, to determine physiological responses and possible population level consequences from exposure to compounds with hormone-like activity. Sex ratios varied between sites, were female-biased, and ranged from just over 50% to almost 90%. Histological examination of gonads revealed that at the sites with >60% females in the adult population, there was up to 38% occurrence of intersex gonads in fish identified through visual examination of the gonads as male. In the majority of intersex gonad cases, there was a large proportion (approx., 50% of oocytes within the testicular tissue. In male dace, vitellogenin mRNA expression generally increased with distance downstream. We analyzed river water for 28 endocrine disrupting compounds from eight functional classes, most with confirmed estrogen-like activity, including synthetic estrogens and hormone therapy drugs characteristic of municipal wastewater effluent, plus natural hormones and veterinary pharmaceuticals characteristic of livestock production. The spatial correlation between detected chemical residues and effects to dace physiology indicate that multiple land uses have a cumulative impact on dace in the Oldman River and effects range from altered gene regulation to severely female-biased sex ratios.

  11. Evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in France: implications for conservation of European mink (Mustela lutreola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Berny, Philippe J; Coiffier, Olivier; Barbedienne, Philippe; Dassé, Bernard; Delas, Gérard; Galineau, Hubert; Mazet, Alexandra; Pouzenc, Pascal; Rosoux, René; Fournier, Pascal

    2004-10-01

    Because of the rapid decline of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations in France, a national conservation program has been put into action, including research to understand the causes of decline. As part of this research, concentrations of eight anticoagulant rodenticides were examined in livers from 122 carcasses of four species of free-ranging mustelids collected between 1990 and 2002 in southwestern France. Bromadiolone residue was found in all species and 9% of the sample (one of 31 European mink, three of 47 American mink [Mustela vison], five of 33 polecats [Mustela putorius], and two of 11 European otters [Lutra lutra]). Liver concentrations ranged from 0.6 mug/g to 9.0 mug/g. Chlorophacinone residue was found in two species and 4% of the sample (in four of the American mink and in one of the otters), with liver concentrations ranging from 3.4 mug/g to 8.5 mug/g. Two polecats and one American mink had lesions and liver residues indicating bromadiolone was directly responsible for their death. However, most of our study animals survived secondary poisoning until they were caught; this study certainly underestimates the extent of fatal exposure of mustelids to rodenticides. Moreover, anticoagulant poisoning could increase their vulnerability to other causes of death. The current status of the endangered European mink population is such that any additional risk factor for mortality is important, and it is thus urgent to monitor and reduce the extensive use of bromadiolone and chlorophacinone against field rodents in France.

  12. Long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial biomarkers by the Asian winter monsoon: Evidence from fresh snow from Sapporo, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    Molecular distributions of terrestrial biomarkers were investigated in fresh snow samples from Sapporo, northern Japan, to better understand the long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter by the Asian winter monsoon. Stable carbon (δ 13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios of C 22-C 28n-alkanoic acids were also measured to decipher their source regions. The snow samples are found to contain higher plant-derived n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids as major components. Relative abundances of these three biomarker classes suggest that they are likely derived from higher plants in the Asian continent. The C 27/C 31 ratios of terrestrial n-alkanes in the snow samples range from 1.3 to 5.5, being similar to those of the plants growing in the latitudes >40°N of East Asia. The δ 13C values of the n-alkanoic acids in the snow samples (-33.4 to -27.6‰) are similar to those of typical C 3 gymnosperm from Sapporo (-34.9 to -29.3‰). However, the δD values of the n-alkanoic acids (-208 to -148‰) are found to be significantly depleted with deuterium (by ˜72‰) than those of plant leaves from Sapporo. Such depletion can be most likely interpreted by the long-range atmospheric transport of the n-alkanoic acids from vegetation in the latitudes further north of Sapporo because the δD values of terrestrial higher plants tend to decrease northward in East Asia reflecting the δD of precipitation. Together with the results of backward trajectory analyses, this study suggests that the terrestrial biomarkers in the Sapporo snow samples are likely transported from Siberia, Russian Far East and northeast China to northern Japan by the Asian winter monsoon.

  13. Does employer-provided health insurance constrain labor supply adjustments to health shocks? New evidence on women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J; Neumark, David; Barkowski, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Employment-contingent health insurance may create incentives for ill workers to remain employed at a sufficient level (usually full-time) to maintain access to health insurance coverage. We study employed married women, comparing the labor supply responses to new breast cancer diagnoses of women dependent on their own employment for health insurance with the responses of women who are less dependent on their own employment for health insurance, because of actual or potential access to health insurance through their spouse's employer. We find evidence that women who depend on their own job for health insurance reduce their labor supply by less after a diagnosis of breast cancer. In the estimates that best control for unobservables associated with health insurance status, the hours reduction for women who continue to work is 8 to 11% smaller. Women's subjective responses to questions about working more to maintain health insurance are consistent with the conclusions from observed behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Curriculum for Emergency Department (ED) Providers Improves Skills and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Feldman, James; Fernandez, William; Hagan, Melissa; Mitchell, Patricia; Safi, Clara; Woolard, Robert; Mello, Mike; Baird, Janette; Lee, Cristina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Broderick, Kerry; LaPerrier, Kathryn A.; Kellermann, Arthur; Wald, Marlena M.; Taylor, Robert E.; Walton, Kim; Grant-Ervin, Michelle; Rollinson, Denise; Edwards, David; Chan, Theodore; Davis, Dan; Marshall, Jean Buchanan; Aseltine, Robert; James, Amy; Abu-Hasaballah, Khamis; Schilling, Elizabeth; Baumann, Brigitte M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Maio, Ronald; Cunningham, Rebecca; Murrell, Teresa; Doezema, David; Bauer, Michael J.; Anglin, Deirdre; Eliassen, Adriana; Martin, Marcus; Pines, Jesse; Buchanan, Leslie; Turner, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Degutis, Linda C.; Owens, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience improves provider beliefs and practices. Methods ED faculty, residents, nurses, physician extenders, social workers, and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) were surveyed prior to participating in either a two hour interactive workshops with case simulations, or a web-based program (www.ed.bmc.org/sbirt). A pre-post repeated measures design assessed changes in provider beliefs and practices at three and 12 months post-exposure. Results Among 402 ED providers, 74% reported < 10 hours of prior professional alcohol-related education and 78% had < 2 hours exposure in the previous year. At 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported confidence in ability, responsibility to intervene, and actual utilization of SBIRT skills all improved significantly over baseline. Gains decreased somewhat at 12 months, but remained above baseline. Length of time in practice was positively associated with SBIRT utilization, controlling for gender, race and type of profession. Persistent barriers included time limitations and lack of referral resources. Conclusions ED providers respond favorably to SBIRT. Changes in utilization were substantial at three months post-exposure to a standardized curriculum, but less apparent after 12 months. Booster sessions, trained assistants and infrastructure supports may be needed to sustain changes over the longer term. PMID:18077305

  15. Alternative scenarios: harnessing mid-level providers and evidence-based practice in primary dental care in England through operational research

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyonyi, Kristina L.; Radford, David R.; Harper, Paul R.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In primary care dentistry, strategies to reconfigure the traditional boundaries of various dental professional groups by task sharing and role substitution have been encouraged in order to meet changing oral health needs. Aim: The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for skill mix use in primary dental care in England based on the undergraduate training experience in a primary care team training centre for dentists and mid-level dental providers. Methods: An opera...

  16. Can providing a morning healthy snack help to reduce hunger during school time? Experimental evidence from an elementary school in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellari, Elena; Berning, Joshua P

    2016-11-01

    While children may be naturally inclined to regulate their hunger, they are also guided by adults and influenced by environmental constraints regarding when and how much to eat. As such, the timing and availability of meals could alter a child's natural eating habits. This could impact the nutritional quality of what they eat as well. We conducted a field experiment with three fourth grade classes at a public elementary school in Eastern Connecticut to analyze if providing a nutritious snack one hour prior to lunch effects a child's level of hunger and consequently their lunch-time consumption. We found students shift their caloric and nutrient intake from lunch to snack time. In addition, we found a significant reduction in student hunger. Our results highlight the importance in considering the timing and quality of meals provided during school time. In our sample, current snack and lunch schedule may not be optimal and changing it can have an impact on the wellbeing of students. Providing healthful options for snack could be an effective way to improve student diets while preserving their ability to make their own choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serology and protein electrophoresis for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens in free-ranging American mink (Neovison vison) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Pablo Eduardo; Samartino, Luis Ernesto; Stanchi, Néstor Oscar; Radman, Nilda Esther; Parrado, Eduardo Joaquín

    2017-12-01

    Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Hypergammaglobulinemia, the ADV main clinical feature, was determined by conventional electrophoresis. Seventy-one percent of the 87 sera had antibodies against one or more pathogens. ADV accounted for the highest seroprevalence (29%), followed by T. gondii (26%), L. interrogans (14%), M. bovis (12%), B. abortus (9%), N. caninum (3%), CPV (3%) and CDV (2%). Seroprevalence was influenced by location but not sex or age. Additionally, 16% of the seropositive samples for ADV had gammaglobulin levels >40.0 g/L. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were low and difficult to interpret as almost all these cases had borderline concentrations. A cautious interpretation of the results is urged as the epidemiological role of the wild mink is largely unexplored for most of these agents. Nevertheless, the information may be clinically relevant..

  18. Heterogeneous Distributions of Amino Acids Provide Evidence of Multiple Sources Within the Almahata Sitta Parent Body, Asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-01-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-alpha-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both arc polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of alpha-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  19. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  20. Cytochrome b gene reveals panmixia among Japanese Threadfin Bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) populations along the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and provides evidence of a cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.

  1. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  2. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Bloch, Paul; Byskov, Jens; Magnussen, Pascal; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Hansen, Kristian S

    2012-02-18

    Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC) system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs) in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs) in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF) unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF) infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp) services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment, availability of water, electricity and cups for

  3. Genome-wide and Ordered-Subset linkage analyses provide support for autism loci on 17q and 19p with evidence of phenotypic and interlocus genetic correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folstein Susan E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurobehavioral spectrum of phenotypes characterized by deficits in the development of language and social relationships and patterns of repetitive, rigid and compulsive behaviors. Twin and family studies point to a significant genetic etiology, and several groups have performed genomic linkage screens to identify susceptibility loci. Methods We performed a genome-wide linkage screen in 158 combined Tufts, Vanderbilt and AGRE (Autism Genetics Research Exchange multiplex autism families using parametric and nonparametric methods with a categorical autism diagnosis to identify loci of main effect. Hypothesizing interdependence of genetic risk factors prompted us to perform exploratory studies applying the Ordered-Subset Analysis (OSA approach using LOD scores as the trait covariate for ranking families. We employed OSA to test for interlocus correlations between loci with LOD scores ≥1.5, and empirically determined significance of linkage in optimal OSA subsets using permutation testing. Exploring phenotypic correlates as the basis for linkage increases involved comparison of mean scores for quantitative trait-based subsets of autism between optimal subsets and the remaining families. Results A genome-wide screen for autism loci identified the best evidence for linkage to 17q11.2 and 19p13, with maximum multipoint heterogeneity LOD scores of 2.9 and 2.6, respectively. Suggestive linkage (LOD scores ≥1.5 at other loci included 3p, 6q, 7q, 12p, and 16p. OSA revealed positive correlations of linkage between the 19p locus and 17q, between 19p and 6q, and between 7q and 5p. While potential phenotypic correlates for these findings were not identified for the chromosome 7/5 combination, differences indicating more rapid achievement of "developmental milestones" was apparent in the chromosome 19 OSA-defined subsets for 17q and 6q. OSA was used to test the hypothesis that 19p linkage involved more rapid achievement of

  4. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubyazi Godfrey M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Methods Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. Results In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment

  5. Evidence of expanded host range and mammalian-associated genetic changes in a duck H9N2 influenza virus following adaptation in quail and chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Jaber Hossain

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to circulate worldwide; in Asia, H9N2 viruses have caused disease outbreaks and established lineages in land-based poultry. Some H9N2 strains are considered potentially pandemic because they have infected humans causing mild respiratory disease. In addition, some of these H9N2 strains replicate efficiently in mice without prior adaptation suggesting that H9N2 strains are expanding their host range. In order to understand the molecular basis of the interspecies transmission of H9N2 viruses, we adapted in the laboratory a wildtype duck H9N2 virus, influenza A/duck/Hong Kong/702/79 (WT702 virus, in quail and chickens through serial lung passages. We carried out comparative analysis of the replication and transmission in quail and chickens of WT702 and the viruses obtained after 23 serial passages in quail (QA23 followed by 10 serial passages in chickens (QA23CkA10. Although the WT702 virus can replicate and transmit in quail, it replicates poorly and does not transmit in chickens. In contrast, the QA23CkA10 virus was very efficient at replicating and transmitting in quail and chickens. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the QA23 and QA23CkA10 viruses compared to the WT702 virus indicated several nucleotide substitutions resulting in amino acid changes within the surface and internal proteins. In addition, a 21-amino acid deletion was found in the stalk of the NA protein of the QA23 virus and was maintained without further modification in the QA23CkA10 adapted virus. More importantly, both the QA23 and the QA23CkA10 viruses, unlike the WT702 virus, were able to readily infect mice, produce a large-plaque phenotype, showed faster replication kinetics in tissue culture, and resulted in the quick selection of the K627 amino acid mammalian-associated signature in PB2. These results are in agreement with the notion that adaptation of H9 viruses to land-based birds can lead to strains with expanded host range.

  6. Do we have a common mechanism for measuring time in the hundreds of millisecond range? Evidence from multiple-interval timing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Zarco, Wilbert; Prado, Luis

    2008-02-01

    In the present study we examined the performance variability of a group of 13 subjects in eight different tasks that involved the processing of temporal intervals in the subsecond range. These tasks differed in their sensorimotor processing (S; perception vs. production), the modality of the stimuli used to define the intervals (M; auditory vs. visual), and the number of intervals (N; one or four). Different analytical techniques were used to determine the existence of a central or distributed timing mechanism across tasks. The results showed a linear increase in performance variability as a function of the interval duration in all tasks. However, this compliance of the scalar property of interval timing was accompanied by a strong effect of S, N, and M and the interaction between these variables on the subjects' temporal accuracy. Thus the performance variability was larger not only in perceptual tasks than that in motor-timing tasks, but also using visual rather than auditory stimuli, and decreased as a function of the number of intervals. These results suggest the existence of a partially overlapping distributed mechanism underlying the ability to quantify time in different contexts.

  7. No Evidence for a Saccadic Range Effect for Visually Guided and Memory-Guided Saccades in Simple Saccade-Targeting Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitu, Françoise; Engbert, Ralf; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Saccades to single targets in peripheral vision are typically characterized by an undershoot bias. Putting this bias to a test, Kapoula [1] used a paradigm in which observers were presented with two different sets of target eccentricities that partially overlapped each other. Her data were suggestive of a saccadic range effect (SRE): There was a tendency for saccades to overshoot close targets and undershoot far targets in a block, suggesting that there was a response bias towards the center of eccentricities in a given block. Our Experiment 1 was a close replication of the original study by Kapoula [1]. In addition, we tested whether the SRE is sensitive to top-down requirements associated with the task, and we also varied the target presentation duration. In Experiments 1 and 2, we expected to replicate the SRE for a visual discrimination task. The simple visual saccade-targeting task in Experiment 3, entailing minimal top-down influence, was expected to elicit a weaker SRE. Voluntary saccades to remembered target locations in Experiment 3 were expected to elicit the strongest SRE. Contrary to these predictions, we did not observe a SRE in any of the tasks. Our findings complement the results reported by Gillen et al. [2] who failed to find the effect in a saccade-targeting task with a very brief target presentation. Together, these results suggest that unlike arm movements, saccadic eye movements are not biased towards making saccades of a constant, optimal amplitude for the task. PMID:27658191

  8. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Dominguez, Lucas; Sevilla, Iker A.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramón; Madico, Guillermo; Jones-López, Edward; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB) disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant further study to

  9. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in amphibole-bearing granites of the Bintang batholith, Main Range granite province: Evidence for a meta-igneous basement in Western Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Long Xiang; Ghani, Azman A.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Li, Shan; Lai, Yu-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Amir Hassan, Meor H.; Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Afiq; Badruldin, Muhammad Hafifi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid

    2017-08-01

    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with varying sizes are a common occurrence in porphyritic amphibole-bearing granite of the Bintang batholith, which is part of the Main Range granite province. The MMEs of the amphibole-bearing granite are significant as they are related to the I-type granitoids within the Main Range granite province. Petrographic observations indicate the MMEs are mantled with coarse mafic crystals on the rim and contain similar minerals to the host (biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + pyroxene + amphibole), but in different proportions. Geochemical analyses indicate the MMEs are shoshonitic with mg# comparable to the granite host. Substantial similarities exist between the MMEs and granite with regards to the normalized rare earth element patterns and trace elements variation diagrams. The MMEs and granite are not completely coeval as the MME zircon U-Pb age (224.3 ± 1.2 Ma) is slightly older than its granite host zircon U-Pb age (216.2 ± 1.0 Ma). The age difference is also observed from the unusual 500 m-long Tiak MME and another amphibole-bearing granite sample from the south of the pluton, which yield 221.8 ± 1.1 Ma and 217.4 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. The oldest inherited zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.0 Ga and 1.3 Ga respectively, while the oldest xenocrystic zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.5 Ga and 1.5 Ga respectively. Identical negative εHf(t) values from zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analysis for a MME-granite pair indicates the rocks were generated from a similar, ancient source in the basement. Combining the results, we suggest that incongruent melting of an ancient protolith played an important part in the evolution of the MMEs and granite and the MMEs characteristics are best explained as restite. The zircon Hf model age (two-stage) and the I-type peritectic and restitic mineral assemblages in the MMEs further describe the protolith as Early Proterozoic-Late Archean (≈2.5 Ga) meta-igneous rock. This shows the

  10. Requesting a unique personal identifier or providing a souvenir incentive did not affect overall consent to health record linkage: evidence from an RCT nested within a cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Hui, Rex W H; McDowell, Ian; Leung, Gabriel M

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear if unique personal identifiers should be requested from participants for health record linkage: this permits high-quality data linkage but at the potential cost of lower consent rates due to privacy concerns. Drawing from a sampling frame based on the FAMILY Cohort, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1,200 participants to (1) request for Hong Kong Identity Card number (HKID) or no request and (2) receiving a souvenir incentive (valued at USD4) or no incentive. The primary outcome was consent to health record linkage. We also investigated associations between demographics, health status, and postal reminders with consent. Overall, we received signed consent forms from 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.6-36.0%) of respondents. We did not find an overall effect of requesting HKID (-4.3%, 95% CI -9.8% to 1.2%) or offering souvenir incentives (2.4%, 95% CI -3.1% to 7.9%) on consent to linkage. In subgroup analyses, requesting HKID significantly reduced consent among adults aged 18-44 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.94, compared to no request). Souvenir incentives increased consent among women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.11, compared to no souvenirs). Requesting a unique personal identifier or providing a souvenir incentive did not affect overall consent to health record linkage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multidimensional cost-benefit analysis to guide evidence-based environmental enrichment: providing bedding and foraging substrate to pen-housed monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Allyson J; Corcoran, Christopher A; Hardy, Vickie A; Miller, Leslie R; Pierre, Peter J

    2010-09-01

    Refinement of animal care and housing is an important shared goal-and challenge-of the team of research, veterinary, and animal care personnel charged with ensuring the wellbeing of laboratory animals. This study addresses 2 issues central to decision-making and implementation of environmental enhancement: methods for useful and comprehensive cost analysis and evaluation of engineering, husbandry, and facilities considerations. The study was undertaken to analyze the feasibility and cost of providing wood shavings as a floor cover for pen-housed monkeys. The beneficial effects of bedding for the welfare of laboratory-housed animals have long been validated. Our study illustrates a workable team-based procedure for comprehensive cost analysis of an important environmental enhancement and demonstrates that the animal welfare benefit is accompanied by decreased husbandry costs. An engineering solution to the potential challenge that wood shavings pose in terms of clogging water pipes was successful. Another successful outcome was the reduction in water (estimated at 192,000 gal annually) and chemicals used to clean housing areas. Emphasis on rigorous evaluation and objective measures of cost and benefit, as well as inclusion of the many factors and teams involved in animal research, holds strong potential for building a better foundation from which to contribute effective changes and improvements in laboratory animal welfare. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that team-based, integrative, and scientific evaluation of environmental enhancement is an effective approach to guide selection of strategies with maximal potential for improving animal welfare.

  12. Whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological analysis do not provide evidence for cross-transmission of mycobacterium abscessus in a cohort of pediatric cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathryn A; Underwood, Anthony; Kenna, Dervla T D; Brooks, Anthony; Kavaliunaite, Ema; Kapatai, Georgia; Tewolde, Rediat; Aurora, Paul; Dixon, Garth

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as a major pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes, particularly following lung transplant. We investigated the acquisition of this bacterium in a cohort of pediatric CF patients. Demographic and patient location data were used to uncover epidemiological links between patients with genetically related strains of M. abscessus that had been previously typed by variable-number tandem repeat profiling. Whole-genome sequencing was applied to 27 M. abscessus isolates from the 20 patients in this cohort to provide definitive data on the genetic relatedness of strains. Whole-genome sequencing data demonstrated that M. abscessus isolates from 16 patients were unrelated, differing by at least 34 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from any other isolate, suggesting that independent acquisition events have occurred. Only 2 clusters of very closely related (<25 SNPs) isolates from different patients were seen. The first cluster contained 8 isolates, differing by a maximum of 17 SNPs, from a sibling pair who had intense exposure to each other both inside and outside the hospital. The second cluster contained 3 isolates, differing by a maximum of 24 SNPs, from 2 individuals with no apparent epidemiological links. We have not demonstrated cross-transmission of M. abscessus within our hospital, except between 1 sibling pair. Alternative routes of acquisition of M. abscessus infection, in particular the environment, require further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Multidimensional Cost–Benefit Analysis to Guide Evidence-Based Environmental Enrichment: Providing Bedding and Foraging Substrate to Pen-Housed Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Allyson J; Corcoran, Christopher A; Hardy, Vickie A; Miller, Leslie R; Pierre, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Refinement of animal care and housing is an important shared goal—and challenge—of the team of research, veterinary, and animal care personnel charged with ensuring the wellbeing of laboratory animals. This study addresses 2 issues central to decision-making and implementation of environmental enhancement: methods for useful and comprehensive cost analysis and evaluation of engineering, husbandry, and facilities considerations. The study was undertaken to analyze the feasibility and cost of providing wood shavings as a floor cover for pen-housed monkeys. The beneficial effects of bedding for the welfare of laboratory-housed animals have long been validated. Our study illustrates a workable team-based procedure for comprehensive cost analysis of an important environmental enhancement and demonstrates that the animal welfare benefit is accompanied by decreased husbandry costs. An engineering solution to the potential challenge that wood shavings pose in terms of clogging water pipes was successful. Another successful outcome was the reduction in water (estimated at 192,000 gal annually) and chemicals used to clean housing areas. Emphasis on rigorous evaluation and objective measures of cost and benefit, as well as inclusion of the many factors and teams involved in animal research, holds strong potential for building a better foundation from which to contribute effective changes and improvements in laboratory animal welfare. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that team-based, integrative, and scientific evaluation of environmental enhancement is an effective approach to guide selection of strategies with maximal potential for improving animal welfare. PMID:20858357

  14. Proteomic analysis of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) ripening process provides new evidence for the sugar/acid metabolism difference between core and mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Chengjun; Luo, Meng; Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Li, Jiefa; Wang, Lei; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Wang, Shiping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Pears are one of the most popular nutrient-rich fruits in the world. The pear core and mesocarp have significantly different metabolism, although they display similar profiles. Most strikingly, the core is more acidic in taste. Our results showed that there is more titrated acid but lower total soluble solids in the core compared to the mesocarp, and the content of citric acid was more than 17-fold higher in the core compared to the mesocarp at the ripening stage. Proteomics was used to investigate the difference between core and mesocarp tissues during "Cuiguan" pear ripening. Fifty-four different protein expression patterns were identified in the core and mesocarp. In general, common variably expressed proteins between the core and mesocarp were associated with important physiological processes, such as glycolysis, pyruvate metabolic processes, and oxidative stress. Further, protein level associated qRT-PCR verification revealed a higher abundance of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and NADP-dependent malic enzymes, which may play a role in the low acid content in the mesocarp, whereas a higher abundance of disulfide isomerase-like 2-2 and calcium-dependent lipid-binding in the core may explain why it is less prone to accumulate sugar. The different levels of a few typical ROS scavenger enzymes suggested that oxidative stress is higher in the core than in the mesocarp. This study provides the first characterization of the pear core proteome and a description of its variation compared to the mesocarp during ripening. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Stable Isotopes from Museum Specimens May Provide Evidence of Long-Term Change in the Trophic Ecology of a Migratory Aerial Insectivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philina A. English

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the mechanisms of ecological change is challenging in the absence of long-term data, but stable isotope ratios of museum specimen tissues may provide a record of diet and habitat change through time. Aerial insectivores are experiencing the steepest population declines of any avian guild in North America and one hypothesis for these population declines is a reduction in the availability of prey. If reduced prey availability is due to an overall reduction in insect abundance, we might also expect populations of higher trophic level insects to have declined most due to their greater sensitivity to a variety of disturbance types. Because nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N tend to increase with trophic-level, while δ13C generally increases with agricultural intensification, we used δ15N and δ13C values of bird tissues grown in winter (claw and during breeding (feathers from museum specimens spanning 1880–2005, and contemporary samples from breeding birds (2011–2013 to test for diet change in a migratory nocturnal aerial insectivore, Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus breeding in Ontario, Canada. To test if environmental baselines have changed as a result of synthetic N fertilizer use, habitat conversion or climate, we also sampled δ15N values of three potential prey species collected from across the same geographic region and time period. Over the past 100 years, we found a significant decline in δ15N in tissues grown on both the breeding and wintering grounds. Prey species did not show a corresponding temporal trend in δ15N values, but our power to detect such a trend was limited due to higher sample variance. Amongst contemporary bird samples, δ15N values did not vary with sex or breeding site, but nestlings had lower δ15N values than adults. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aerial insectivore populations are declining due to changes in abundance of higher trophic-level prey, but we caution that

  16. Wrist range of motion and motion frequency during toy and game play with a joint-specific controller specially designed to provide neuromuscular therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-08-20

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  18. Evidence-based medicine for all: what we can learn from a programme providing free access to an online clinical resource to health workers in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtis, Yannis K; Rosenberg, Julie; Bhandari, Sudip; Wachter, Keri; Teichman, Marie; Beauvais, Sophie; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly changing landscape of medical knowledge and guidelines requires health professionals to have immediate access to current, reliable clinical resources. Access to evidence is instrumental in reducing diagnostic errors and generating better health outcomes. UpToDate, a leading evidence-based clinical resource is used extensively in the USA and other regions of the world and has been linked to lower mortality and length of stay in US hospitals. In 2009, the Global Health Delivery Project collaborated with UpToDate to provide free subscriptions to qualifying health workers in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the provision of UpToDate access to health workers by analysing their usage patterns. Since 2009, ∼2000 individual physicians and healthcare institutions from 116 countries have received free access to UpToDate through our programme. During 2013-2014, users logged into UpToDate ∼150 000 times; 61% of users logged in at least weekly; users in Africa were responsible for 54% of the total usage. Search patterns reflected local epidemiology with 'clinical manifestations of malaria' as the top search in Africa, and 'management of hepatitis B' as the top search in Asia. Our programme demonstrates that there are barriers to evidence-based clinical knowledge in resource-limited settings we can help remove. Some assumed barriers to its expansion (poor internet connectivity, lack of training and infrastructure) might pose less of a burden than subscription fees.

  19. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  20. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  1. Distributions and phylogeographic data of rheophilic freshwater fishes provide evidences on the geographic extension of a central-brazilian amazonian palaeoplateau in the area of the present day Pantanal Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution patterns presented by examples of freshwater fishes restricted to headwater habitat: the anostomid Leporinus octomaculatus, the characins Jubiaba acanthogaster, Oligosarcus perdido, Moenkhausia cosmops, Knodus chapadae, Planaltina sp., the loricariid Hypostomus cochliodon, and the auchenipterid Centromochlus sp. provided evidences of a relatively recent shared history between the highlands of the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining upland drainage basins. Restricted to headwater of the uplands in the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining basins, these species provide biological evidence of the former extension of the central Brazilian plateau before the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Disjunction took place due to an ecological barrier to these rheophilic taxa represented tectonic subsidence related to the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Molecular analysis of Jubiaba acanthogaster revealed that the sample from the upper rio Xingu basin are the sister-group of a clade that includes samples from the upper rio Arinos (upper rio Tapajós plus the upper rio Paraguay basin, supporting the assumption that the origin of the upper rio Paraguay basin causing vicariance between this basin and the upper rio Tapajós is the least vicariant event in the evolutionary history of the group.

  2. Oracle support provides a range of new tutorials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN IT-DB Group is pleased to announce a new series of Oracle tutorials, with the proposed schedule:   Tuesday 23 April Introduction to Oracle & Tools (30-7-018 - Kjell Johnsen Auditorium) Tuesday 30 April Database Design & Security (30-7-018 - Kjell Johnsen Auditorium) Wednesday 8 May SQL (40-S2-C01 - Salle Curie)   Tuesday 21 May PL/SQL (30-7-018 - Kjell Johnsen Auditorium)   Monday 27 May Troubleshooting Performance (40-S2-C01 - Salle Curie) Wednesday 5 June Troubleshooting Performance - Case Studies (40-S2-C01 - Salle Curie) There is no need to register in advance. For more information, see the Indico agenda.

  3. Geometry can provide long-range mechanical guidance for embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamar Dicko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Downstream of gene expression, effectors such as the actomyosin contractile machinery drive embryo morphogenesis. During Drosophila embryonic axis extension, actomyosin has a specific planar-polarised organisation, which is responsible for oriented cell intercalation. In addition to these cell rearrangements, cell shape changes also contribute to tissue deformation. While cell-autonomous dynamics are well described, understanding the tissue-scale behaviour challenges us to solve the corresponding mechanical problem at the scale of the whole embryo, since mechanical resistance of all neighbouring epithelia will feedback on individual cells. Here we propose a novel numerical approach to compute the whole-embryo dynamics of the actomyosin-rich apical epithelial surface. We input in the model specific patterns of actomyosin contractility, such as the planar-polarisation of actomyosin in defined ventro-lateral regions of the embryo. Tissue strain rates and displacements are then predicted over the whole embryo surface according to the global balance of stresses and the material behaviour of the epithelium. Epithelia are modelled using a rheological law that relates the rate of deformation to the local stresses and actomyosin anisotropic contractility. Predicted flow patterns are consistent with the cell flows observed when imaging Drosophila axis extension in toto, using light sheet microscopy. The agreement between model and experimental data indicates that the anisotropic contractility of planar-polarised actomyosin in the ventro-lateral germband tissue can directly cause the tissue-scale deformations of the whole embryo. The three-dimensional mechanical balance is dependent on the geometry of the embryo, whose curved surface is taken into account in the simulations. Importantly, we find that to reproduce experimental flows, the model requires the presence of the cephalic furrow, a fold located anteriorly of the extending tissues. The presence of this geometric feature, through the global mechanical balance, guides the flow and orients extension towards the posterior end.

  4. Oracle support provides a range of new tutorials

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The IT DB is pleased to announce a new series of Oracle tutorials, with the proposed schedule. Note that these tutorials will take place in the Filtration Plant (Building 222) and that no registration is required.   4 June (Monday) 09:00 Oracle Architecture, Przemyslaw Adam Radowiecki The objective is to go through Oracle database physical and logical structures, highlighting the consequences of some of Oracle's internal design choices for developers of database applications. The presentation defines Oracle-related basic terms and illustrates them based on the database architecture. The following topics will be discussed: • Database with its physical and logical structures (tablespace, segment, extent, block, database user, schema, user's quota) • Single instance (significant memory structures: buffer cache, shared pool) • Real Application Cluster (RAC) • Connecting to the database (TNS, database service) • SQL statement processing (h...

  5. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    . Peromyscus generally used and maintained several or many different home sites and refuges in various parts of their home ranges, and frequently shifted about so that their principal activities centered on different sets of holes at different times. Once established, many Peromyscus remained in the same general area for a long time, perhaps for the duration of their lives. Extent of their travels in different directions and intensity of use of different portions of their home ranges varied within a general area in response to habitat changes, loss of neighbors, or other factors. Various authors have obtained both direct and indirect evidence of territoriality, in some degree, among certain species of Peromyscus. Young mice dispersed from their birth sites to establish home ranges of their own. Adults also sometimes left their home areas; some re-established elsewhere; others returned after exploratory travels. Most populations contained a certain proportion of transients; these may have been wanderers or individuals exploring out from established home ranges or seeking new ones. When areas were depopulated by removal trapping, other Peromyscus invaded. Invasion rates generally followed seasonal trends of reproduction and population density. Peromyscus removed from their home areas and released elsewhere returned home from various distances, but fewer returned from greater distances than from nearby; speed of return increased with successive trials. The consensus from present evidence is that ho-ming is made possible by a combination of random wandering and familiarity with a larger area than the day-to-day range. Records of juvenile wanderings during the dispersal phase and of adult explorations very nearly encompassed the distances over which any substantial amount of successful homing occurred. Methods of measuring sizes of home ranges and the limitations of these measurements were discussed in brief synopsis. It was co

  6. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R M; de Roos, B; Duthie, S J; Bouwman, F G; Rubio-Aliaga, I; Crosley, L K; Mayer, C; Polley, A C; Heim, C; Coort, S L; Evelo, C T; Mulholland, F; Daniel, H; Mariman, E C; Johnson, I T

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans.

  7. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  8. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  9. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  10. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total of 7.9 ± 1.0 min/day). Seasonal differences were only marginally explained by weather conditions and may reflect the reduction in range exposure between seasons (number of days, hours per day, and time of day). Specific times of the day (p < 0.01) and pop-holes were favoured (p < 0.05). We provide evidence of relationships between ranging and external factors that may explain ranging preferences.

  11. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  12. The Price per Prospective Consumer of Providing Therapist Training and Consultation in Seven Evidence-Based Treatments within a Large Public Behavioral Health System: An Example Cost-Analysis Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsie H. Okamura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePublic-sector behavioral health systems seeking to implement evidence-based treatments (EBTs may face challenges selecting EBTs given their limited resources. This study describes and illustrates one method to calculate cost related to training and consultation to assist system-level decisions about which EBTs to select.MethodsTraining, consultation, and indirect labor costs were calculated for seven commonly implemented EBTs. Using extant literature, we then estimated the diagnoses and populations for which each EBT was indicated. Diagnostic and demographic information from Medicaid claims data were obtained from a large behavioral health payer organization and used to estimate the number of covered people with whom the EBT could be used and to calculate implementation-associated costs per consumer.ResultsFindings suggest substantial cost to therapists and service systems related to EBT training and consultation. Training and consultation costs varied by EBT, from Dialectical Behavior Therapy at $238.07 to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy at $0.18 per potential consumer served. Total cost did not correspond with the number of prospective consumers served by an EBT.ConclusionA cost-metric that accounts for the prospective recipients of a given EBT within a given population may provide insight into how systems should prioritize training efforts. Future policy should consider the financial burden of EBT implementation in relation to the context of the population being served and begin a dialog in creating incentives for EBT use.

  13. Bilateral sequential cochlear implantation in the congenitally deaf child: evidence to support the concept of a 'critical age' after which the second ear is less likely to provide an adequate level of speech perception on its own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John; Vickers, Debi; Eyles, Julie; Brinton, Julie; Al Malky, Ghada; Aleksy, Wanda; Martin, Jane; Henderson, Lise; Mawman, Deborah; Robinson, Philip; Midgley, Elizabeth; Hanvey, Kate; Twomey, Tracey; Johnson, Susan; Vanat, Zebunnisa; Broxholme, Cath; McAnallen, Cecilia; Allen, Agnes; Bray, Monica

    2009-09-01

    This study attempts to answer the question of whether there is a 'critical age' after which a second contralateral cochlear implant is less likely to provide enough speech perception to be of practical use. The study was not designed to predict factors that determine successful binaural implant use, but to see if there was evidence to help determine the latest age at which the second ear can usefully be implanted, should the first side fail and become unusable.Outcome data, in the form of speech perception test results, were collected from 11 cochlear implant programmes in the UK and one centre in Australia. Forty-seven congenitally bilaterally deaf subjects who received bilateral sequential implants were recruited to the study. The study also included four subjects with congenital unilateral profound deafness who had lost all hearing in their only hearing ear and received a cochlear implant in their unilaterally congenitally deaf ear. Of those 34 subjects for whom complete sets of data were available, the majority (72%) of those receiving their second (or unilateral) implant up to the age of 13 years scored 60 per cent or above in the Bamford Kowal Bench (BKB) sentence test, or equivalent. In contrast, of those nine receiving their second or unilateral implant at the age of 15 or above, none achieved adequate levels of speech perception on formal testing: two scored 29 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively, and the rest seven per cent or less.A discriminant function analysis performed on the data suggests that it is unlikely that a second contralateral implant received after the age of 16 to 18 years will, on its own, provide adequate levels of speech perception. As more children receive sequential bilateral cochlear implants and the pool of data enlarges the situation is likely to become clearer.The results provide support for the concept of a 'critical age' for implanting the second ear in successful congenitally deaf unilateral cochlear implant users. This

  14. Meta-analysis provides evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the clinical significance of mean differences for the FACT-G, a cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine T King

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Madeleine T King1, David Cella2, David Osoba3, Martin Stockler4, David Eton5, Joanna Thompson6, Amy Eisenstein71Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group School of Psychology, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University, Illinois, USA; 3QOL Consulting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 5Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; 6Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 7Center on Outcomes Research and Education (CORE, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare (ENH, Evanston, Illinois, USAAbstract: Our aim was to develop evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G, a cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instrument, from a range of clinically relevant anchors, incorporating expert judgment about clinical significance. Three clinicians with many years’ experience managing cancer patients and using HRQOL outcomes in clinical research reviewed 71 papers. Blinded to the FACT-G results, they considered the clinical anchors associated with each FACT-G mean difference, predicted which dimensions of HRQOL would be affected, and whether the effects would be trivial, small, moderate, or large. These size classes were defined in terms of clinical relevance. The experts’ judgments were then linked with FACT-G mean differences, and inverse-variance weighted mean differences were calculated for each size class. Small, medium, and large differences (95% confidence interval from 1,118 cross-sectional comparisons were as follows: physical well-being 1.9 (0.6–3.2, 4.1 (2.7–5.5, 8.7 (5.2–12; functional well-being 2.0 (0.5–3.5, 3.8 (2.0–5.5, 8.8 (4.3–13; emotional well-being 1.0 (0.1–2.6, 1.9 (0.3–3.5, no large differences; social well-being 0.7 (-0.7 to 2

  15. Small-cell Carcinomas of the Urinary Bladder and Prostate: TERT Promoter Mutation Status Differentiates Sites of Malignancy and Provides Evidence of Common Clonality Between Small-cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemer, David S; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Kouba, Erik; Montironi, Rodolfo; Davidson, Darrell D; MacLennan, Gregory T; Wang, Lisha; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Deng, Youping; Emerson, Robert E; Cheng, Liang

    2017-03-31

    Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder frequently appears alongside urothelial carcinoma, suggesting common clonality. TERT promoter mutations have been recently implicated in urothelial carcinogenesis. To investigate the degree to which TERT promoter mutations are involved in SCC of the urinary bladder, the linked tumorigenesis between urothelial carcinoma and SCC of the urinary bladder, and the molecular distinctions between SCC of the urinary bladder and of the prostate. We investigated TERT promoter mutations in 53 cases of SCC of the urinary bladder and in 26 cases of SCC of the prostate using laboratory-based studies of tissue samples and clinical data. We measured the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in SCCs of the urinary bladder and prostate, and concordance of the mutation status between concurrent urinary bladder SCC and urothelial carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 29/53 (55%) cases of urinary bladder and 0/26 (0%) cases of prostate SCC. Of 25 cases with concurrent urinary bladder SCC and non-small-cell components, all cases harbored identical TERT promoter mutation status in both phenotypes. TERT promoter mutations are found in more than half of urinary bladder SCCs. Mutation status is also identical in urothelial carcinoma and SCC components of concomitant malignancies, providing evidence of a common clonality. TERT promoter mutation status can differentiate SCC of the urinary bladder from prostate SCC, suggesting potential diagnostic use. Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder shares a common clonal origin with conventional urothelial carcinoma and may arise from a heterogeneous subclone. TERT promoter mutations may have utility as a differential biomarker for determining the primary site of a genitourinary small-cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Genome-wide Association Study Provides Evidence of Sex-specific Involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 With Diabetic Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is defined as pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system and it affects around 1 in 4 diabetic patients in the UK. The purpose of this genome-wide association study (GWAS was to identify genetic contributors to this disorder. Cases of neuropathic pain were defined as diabetic patients with a multiple prescription history of at least one of five drugs specifically indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Controls were diabetic individuals who were not prescribed any of these drugs, nor amitriptyline, carbamazepine, or nortriptyline. Overall, 961 diabetic neuropathic pain cases and 3260 diabetic controls in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside (GoDARTS cohort were identified. We found a cluster in the Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P with a lowest P value of 2.74 × 10−7 at rs71647933 in females and a cluster in the Chr8p23.1, next to HMGB1P46 with a lowest P value of 8.02 × 10−7 at rs6986153 in males. Sex-specific narrow sense heritability was higher in males (30.0% than in females (14.7%. This GWAS on diabetic neuropathic pain provides evidence for the sex-specific involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 with the disorder, indicating the need for further research.

  17. Analysis of complete genome sequences of G9P[19] rotavirus strains from human and piglet with diarrhea provides evidence for whole-genome interspecies transmission of nonreassorted porcine rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Chuchaona, Watchaporn; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Kongkaew, Aphisek; Vachirachewin, Ratchaya; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2017-01-01

    Whole genomes of G9P[19] human (RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19]) and porcine (RVA/Pig-wt/THA/CMP-015-12/2012/G9P[19]) rotaviruses concurrently detected in the same geographical area in northern Thailand were sequenced and analyzed for their genetic relationships using bioinformatic tools. The complete genome sequence of human rotavirus RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19] was most closely related to those of porcine rotavirus RVA/Pig-wt/THA/CMP-015-12/2012/G9P[19] and to those of porcine-like human and porcine rotaviruses reference strains than to those of human rotavirus reference strains. The genotype constellation of G9P[19] detected in human and piglet were identical and displayed as the G9-P[19]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genotypes with the nucleotide sequence identities of VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5 at 99.0%, 99.5%, 93.2%, 97.7%, 97.7%, 85.6%, 89.5%, 93.2%, 92.9%, 94.0%, and 98.1%, respectively. The findings indicate that human rotavirus strain RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19] containing the genome segments of porcine genetic backbone is most likely a human rotavirus of porcine origin. Our data provide an evidence of interspecies transmission and whole-genome transmission of nonreassorted G9P[19] porcine RVA to human occurring in nature in northern Thailand. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Mammographic image quality in relation to positioning of the breast: A multicentre international evaluation of the assessment systems currently used, to provide an evidence base for establishing a standardised method of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K; Parashar, D; Bouverat, G; Poulos, A; Gullien, R; Stewart, E; Aarre, R; Crystal, P; Wallis, M

    2017-11-01

    Optimum mammography positioning technique is necessary to maximise cancer detection. Current criteria for mammography appraisal lack reliability and validity with a need to develop a more objective system. We aimed to establish current international practice in assessing image quality (IQ), of screening mammograms then develop and validate a reproducible assessment tool. A questionnaire sent to centres in countries undertaking population screening identified practice, participants for an expert panel (EP) of radiologists/radiographers and a testing panel (TP) of radiographers. The EP developed category criteria and descriptors using a modified Delphi process to agree definitions. The EP scored 12 screening mammograms to test agreement then a main set of 178 cases. Weighted scores were derived for each descriptor enabling calculation of numerical parameters for each new category. The TP then scored the main set. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, t-tests and Kendall's coefficient. 11 centres in 8 countries responded forming an EP of 7 members and TP of 44 members. The EP showed moderate agreement when the scoring the mini test set W = 0.50 p < 0.001 and the main set W = 0.55 p < 0.001, 'posterior nipple line' being the most difficult descriptor. The weighted total scores differentiated the 4 new categories Perfect, Good, Adequate and Inadequate (p < 0.001). We have developed an assessment tool by Delphi consensus and weighted consensus criteria. We have successfully tabulated a range of numerical scores for each new category providing the first validated and reproducible mammography IQ scoring system. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of ORF5 and full-length genome sequences of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates of genotypes 1 and 2 retrieved worldwide provides evidence that recombination is a common phenomenon and may produce mosaic isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Valls, G E; Kvisgaard, L K; Tello, M; Darwich, L; Cortey, M; Burgara-Estrella, A J; Hernández, J; Larsen, L E; Mateu, E

    2014-03-01

    . This study provides evidence that recombinant PRRSV isolates are common in most of the countries with significant swine production, especially PRRSV genotype 1. This observation has implications in the proper characterization of PRRSV strains, in the future development of phylogenetic studies, and in the development of new PRRSV control strategies. Moreover, the present paper emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and circumstances involved in the generation of genetic diversity of PRRSV.

  20. Evidence based medical imaging (EBMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tony [Senior Lecturer in Medical Radiation Science, University Department of Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Locked Bag 9783 NEMSC, Tamworth, NSW 2348 (Australia)], E-mail: tony.smith@hnehealth.nsw.gov.au

    2008-08-15

    Background: The evidence based paradigm was first described about a decade ago. Previous authors have described a framework for the application of evidence based medicine which can be readily adapted to medical imaging practice. Purpose: This paper promotes the application of the evidence based framework in both the justification of the choice of examination type and the optimisation of the imaging technique used. Methods: The framework includes five integrated steps: framing a concise clinical question; searching for evidence to answer that question; critically appraising the evidence; applying the evidence in clinical practice; and, evaluating the use of revised practices. Results: This paper illustrates the use of the evidence based framework in medical imaging (that is, evidence based medical imaging) using the examples of two clinically relevant case studies. In doing so, a range of information technology and other resources available to medical imaging practitioners are identified with the intention of encouraging the application of the evidence based paradigm in radiography and radiology. Conclusion: There is a perceived need for radiographers and radiologists to make greater use of valid research evidence from the literature to inform their clinical practice and thus provide better quality services.

  1. Providing for the Future: Providers' Views on Apprenticeship Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrone, Tami; Sims, David; Gladding, Cath

    2016-01-01

    Apprenticeships are currently undergoing reform in England. Funding mechanisms and the content of Apprenticeship programmes are being restructured. NFER and the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP) have carried out a joint research project to inform future policy and practice with evidence on how providers of Apprenticeships are…

  2. Two-di­men­sion­al range di­am­e­ter queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Smid, Michiel; Walderveen, Freek van

    2012-01-01

    Given a set of n points in the plane, range diameter queries ask for the furthest pair of points in a given axis-parallel rectangular range. We provide evidence for the hardness of designing space-efficient data structures that support range diameter queries by giving a reduction from the set int...

  3. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  4. Auditory Brainstem and Middle Latency Responses Measured Pre- and Posttreatment for Hyperacusic Hearing-Impaired Persons Successfully Treated to Improve Sound Tolerance and to Expand the Dynamic Range for Loudness: Case Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Craig; Korczak, Peggy; Sherlock, LaGuinn P; Hawley, Monica L; Gold, Susan

    2017-02-01

    In this report of three cases, we consider electrophysiologic measures from three hyperacusic hearing-impaired individuals who, prior to treatment to expand their dynamic ranges for loudness, were problematic hearing aid candidates because of their diminished sound tolerance and reduced dynamic ranges. Two of these individuals were treated with structured counseling combined with low-level broadband sound therapy from bilateral sound generators and the third case received structured counseling in combination with a short-acting placebo sound therapy. Each individual was highly responsive to his or her assigned treatment as revealed by expansion of the dynamic range by at least 20 dB at one or more frequencies posttreatment. Of specific interest in this report are their latency and amplitude measures taken from tone burst-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) and cortically derived middle latency response (MLR) recordings, measured as a function of increasing loudness at 500 and 2,000 Hz pre- and posttreatment. The resulting ABR and MLR latency and amplitude measures for each case are considered here in terms of pre- and posttreatment predictions. The respective pre- and posttreatment predictions anticipated larger pretreatment response amplitudes and shorter pretreatment response latencies relative to typical normal control values and smaller normative-like posttreatment response amplitudes and longer posttreatment response latencies relative to the corresponding pretreatment values for each individual. From these results and predictions, we conjecture about the neural origins of the hyperacusis conditions (i.e., brainstem versus cortical) and the neuronal sites responsive to treatment. The only consistent finding in support of the pre- and posttreatment predictions and, thus, the strongest index of hyperacusis and positive treatment-related effects was measured for MLR latency responses for wave Pa at 2,000 Hz. Other response indices, including ABR wave V

  5. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida: models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Langer

    Full Text Available Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1, and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  6. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida): models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Martin R; Weinmann, Anna E; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M; Rödder, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1), and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  7. Hendra Virus Infection Dynamics in the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) at the Southern-Most Extent of Its Range: Further Evidence This Species Does Not Readily Transmit the Virus to Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A L; Durr, P A; Boyd, V; Graham, K; White, J R; Todd, S; Barr, J; Smith, I; Baverstock, G; Meers, J; Crameri, G; Wang, L-F

    2016-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. Whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes") are considered the natural reservoir of HeV, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. To help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus), at the southernmost extent of its range. Using the pooled urine sampling technique at approximately weekly intervals over a two year period, we determined the prevalence of HeV and related paramyxoviruses using a novel multiplex (Luminex) platform. Whilst all the pooled urine samples were negative for HeV nucleic acid, we successfully identified four other paramyxoviruses, including Cedar virus; a henipavirus closely related to HeV. Collection of serum from individually caught bats from the colony showed that antibodies to HeV, as estimated by a serological Luminex assay, were present in between 14.6% and 44.5% of animals. The wide range of the estimate reflects uncertainties in interpreting intermediate results. Interpreting the study in the context of HeV studies from states to the north, we add support for an arising consensus that it is the black flying fox and not the grey-headed flying fox that is the principal source of HeV in spillover events to horses.

  8. Paleoseismologic evidence for large-magnitude (Mw 7.5-8.0) earthquakes on the Ventura blind thrust fault: Implications for multifault ruptures in the Transverse Ranges of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Lee J.; Dolan, James F.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Hubbard, Judith; Shaw, John H.; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed analysis of continuously cored boreholes and cone penetrometer tests (CPTs), high-resolution seismic-reflection data, and luminescence and 14C dates from Holocene strata folded above the tip of the Ventura blind thrust fault constrain the ages and displacements of the two (or more) most recent earthquakes. These two earthquakes, which are identified by a prominent surface fold scarp and a stratigraphic sequence that thickens across an older buried fold scarp, occurred before the 235-yr-long historic era and after 805 ± 75 yr ago (most recent folding event[s]) and between 4065 and 4665 yr ago (previous folding event[s]). Minimum uplift in these two scarp-forming events was ∼6 m for the most recent earthquake(s) and ∼5.2 m for the previous event(s). Large uplifts such as these typically occur in large-magnitude earthquakes in the range of Mw7.5–8.0. Any such events along the Ventura fault would likely involve rupture of other Transverse Ranges faults to the east and west and/or rupture downward onto the deep, low-angle décollements that underlie these faults. The proximity of this large reverse-fault system to major population centers, including the greater Los Angeles region, and the potential for tsunami generation during ruptures extending offshore along the western parts of the system highlight the importance of understanding the complex behavior of these faults for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment.

  9. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  10. Hendra Virus Infection Dynamics in the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus at the Southern-Most Extent of Its Range: Further Evidence This Species Does Not Readily Transmit the Virus to Horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A L Burroughs

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV is an important emergent virus in Australia known to infect horses and humans in certain regions of the east coast. Whilst pteropid bats ("flying foxes" are considered the natural reservoir of HeV, which of the four mainland species is the principal reservoir has been a source of ongoing debate, particularly as shared roosting is common. To help resolve this, we sampled a colony consisting of just one of these species, the grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus, at the southernmost extent of its range. Using the pooled urine sampling technique at approximately weekly intervals over a two year period, we determined the prevalence of HeV and related paramyxoviruses using a novel multiplex (Luminex platform. Whilst all the pooled urine samples were negative for HeV nucleic acid, we successfully identified four other paramyxoviruses, including Cedar virus; a henipavirus closely related to HeV. Collection of serum from individually caught bats from the colony showed that antibodies to HeV, as estimated by a serological Luminex assay, were present in between 14.6% and 44.5% of animals. The wide range of the estimate reflects uncertainties in interpreting intermediate results. Interpreting the study in the context of HeV studies from states to the north, we add support for an arising consensus that it is the black flying fox and not the grey-headed flying fox that is the principal source of HeV in spillover events to horses.

  11. Hierarchy of evidence: a framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David

    2003-01-01

    A number of hierarchies of evidence have been developed to enable different research methods to be ranked according to the validity of their findings. However, most have focused on evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions. When the evaluation of healthcare addresses its appropriateness or feasibility, then existing hierarchies are inadequate. This paper reports the development of a hierarchy for ranking of evidence evaluating healthcare interventions. The aims of this hierarchy are twofold. Firstly, it is to provide a means by which the evidence from a range of methodologically different types of research can be graded. Secondly, it is to provide a logical framework that can be used during the development of systematic review protocols to help determine the study designs which can contribute valid evidence when the evaluation extends beyond effectiveness. The proposed hierarchy was developed based on a review of literature, investigation of existing hierarchies and examination of the strengths and limitations of different research methods. The proposed hierarchy of evidence focuses on three dimensions of the evaluation: effectiveness, appropriateness and feasibility. Research that can contribute valid evidence to each is suggested. To address the varying strengths of different research designs, four levels of evidence are proposed: excellent, good, fair and poor. The strength of the proposed hierarchy is that it acknowledges the valid contribution of evidence generated by a range of different types of research. However, hierarchies only provide a guide to the strength of the available evidence and other issues such as the quality of research also have an important influence.

  12. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients’ SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients’ SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients’ WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients.

  13. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  14. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  15. Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China—Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Celine S. L.; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ding, Ai-Jun; Wang, Tao

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in South China has placed great strain on the environment and on human health. In the present study, the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, the two largest urban centres in South China, was sampled from December 2003 to January 2005. The samples were analysed for the concentrations of major elements (Al, Fe, Mg and Mn) and trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn), and for Pb isotopic composition. Elevated concentrations of metals, especially Cd, Pb, V and Zn, were observed in the urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou, showing significant atmospheric trace element pollution. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in the heavy metal concentrations of aerosols in Hong Kong, with higher metal concentrations during the winter monsoon period, and lower concentrations during summertime. The seasonal variations in the metal concentrations of the aerosols in Guangzhou were less distinct, suggesting the dominance of local sources of pollution around the city. The Pb isotopic composition in the aerosols of Hong Kong had higher 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in winter, showing the influence of Pb from the northern inland areas of China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and lower 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in summer, indicating the influence of Pb from the South Asian region and from marine sources. The back trajectory analysis showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in Hong Kong and Guangzhou was closely associated with the air mass from the north and northeast that originated from northern China, reflecting the long-range transport of heavy metal contaminants from the northern inland areas of China to the South China coast.

  16. Solution Structure of Archaeoglobus fulgidis Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase(Pth2) Provides Evidence for an Extensive Conserved Family of Pth2 Enzymes in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Robert; Mirkovic, Nebojsa; Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Huang, Yuanpeng; Ma, LiChung; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard; Honig, Barry; Murray, Diana; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The solution structure of protein AF2095 from the thermophilic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis, a 123-residue (13.6 kDa) protein, has been determined by NMR methods. The structure of AF2095 is comprised of four a-helices and a mixed b-sheet consisting of four parallel and anti-parallel b-strands, where the a-helices sandwich the b-sheet. Sequence and structural comparison of AF2095 with proteins from Homo sapiens, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Sulfolobus solfataricus, reveals that AF2095 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2). This structural comparison also identifies putative catalytic residues and a tRNA interaction region for AF2095. The structure of AF2095 is also similar to the structure of protein TA0108 from archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum, which is deposited in the Protein Database but not functionally annotated. The NMR structure of AF2095 has been further leveraged to obtain good quality structural models for 55 other proteins. Although earlier studies have proposed that the Pth2 protein family is restricted to archeal and eukaryotic organisms, the similarity of the AF2095 structure to human Pth2, the conservation of key active-site residues, and the good quality of the resulting homology models demonstrate a large family of homologous Pth2 proteins that are conserved in eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms, providing novel insights in the evolution of the Pth and Pth2 enzyme families.

  17. Petrogenesis of Jurassic tungsten-bearing granites in the Nanling Range, South China: Evidence from whole-rock geochemistry and zircon U-Pb and Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Jin-Hui; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Hao; Xiang, Yuan-Xin

    2017-05-01

    The Nanling Range (NLR) is the largest tungsten metallogenic province in China and perhaps in the world. The tungsten mineralization is believed to be related to Jurassic granitic magmatism. However, the petrogenesis of these granites and their relation to the tungsten mineralization are still debated. Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data and zircon in situ U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes are reported for W-bearing granitic intrusions from the southern Jiangxi Province in the NLR, in order to constrain their magmatic sources and petrogenesis. The NLR granites include biotite granites, two-mica granites and garnet muscovite granites. SIMS and LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of zircons and monazites give emplacement ages of 161-154 Ma for these rocks. The granites are metaluminous to strongly peraluminous with high SiO2 (> 72.3 wt.%) and high K2O (> 3.7 wt.%). Petrographic and geochemical features show that they are highly fractionated I-type granites. The biotite granites are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) relative to heavy REEs, have weakly negative Eu anomalies and are depleted in Nb, Ba, P and Ti. In contrast, the two-mica and garnet-bearing muscovite granites have tetrad-type REE patterns with strongly negative Eu anomalies and are extremely depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. Magmatic garnets are mainly almandine and spessartine, and have low-Mn cores and high-Mn rims. Their (Y + HREE) contents are high and generally decrease from core (1.2 wt.%) to rim (average = 4955 ppm). All of these granites are characterized by variable whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7053-0.8000), εNd(t) (- 12.6 to - 9.4) and εHf(t) (- 12.3 to - 8.5), as well as variable zircon εHf(t) and δ18O, with values of - 16.3 to - 7.4 and 7.6 to 10.0‰, respectively. They contain abundant zircon xenocrysts and xenoliths of micaceous schist. All of these features are consistent with a process of crystal fractionation of crustally-derived magmas coupled with strong assimilation of

  18. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  19. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  20. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  1. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  2. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  3. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  4. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  5. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  6. Researchers provide the evidence for the perfect teacher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Good relations with the individual pupils, the ability to organise and manage a class and a bit of subject skills. That is the recipe for a good teacher, one that generates high achievement in the pupils.......Good relations with the individual pupils, the ability to organise and manage a class and a bit of subject skills. That is the recipe for a good teacher, one that generates high achievement in the pupils....

  7. Do present LEP data provide evidence for electroweak corrections?

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, V A; Vysotsky, M I

    1993-01-01

    The Born approximation, based on $\\bar\\alpha \\equiv\\alpha (m_Z)$ instead of $\\alpha$, reproduces all electroweak precision measurements within their $(1\\sigma)$ accuracy. The low upper limits for the genuinely electroweak corrections constitute one of the major achievements of LEP. The astonishing smallness of these corrections results from the cancellation of a large positive contribution from the heavy top quark and large negative contributions from all other virtual particles. It is precisely the non-observation of electroweak radiative corrections that places stringent upper and lower limits on the top mass.

  8. Evolutionary Comparison Provides Evidence for Pathogenicity of RMRP Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH is a pleiotropic disease caused by recessive mutations in the RMRP gene that result in a wide spectrum of manifestations including short stature, sparse hair, metaphyseal dysplasia, anemia, immune deficiency, and increased incidence of cancer. Molecular diagnosis of CHH has implications for management, prognosis, follow-up, and genetic counseling of affected patients and their families. We report 20 novel mutations in 36 patients with CHH and describe the associated phenotypic spectrum. Given the high mutational heterogeneity (62 mutations reported to date, the high frequency of variations in the region (eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in and around RMRP, and the fact that RMRP is not translated into protein, prediction of mutation pathogenicity is difficult. We addressed this issue by a comparative genomic approach and aligned the genomic sequences of RMRP gene in the entire class of mammals. We found that putative pathogenic mutations are located in highly conserved nucleotides, whereas polymorphisms are located in non-conserved positions. We conclude that the abundance of variations in this small gene is remarkable and at odds with its high conservation through species; it is unclear whether these variations are caused by a high local mutation rate, a failure of repair mechanisms, or a relaxed selective pressure. The marked diversity of mutations in RMRP and the low homozygosity rate in our patient population indicate that CHH is more common than previously estimated, but may go unrecognized because of its variable clinical presentation. Thus, RMRP molecular testing may be indicated in individuals with isolated metaphyseal dysplasia, anemia, or immune dysregulation.

  9. Evidence for Mesoscale Influence on Long-Range Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J. H.; Rasmussen, A.; Ellermann, T.

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria.......Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria....

  10. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  11. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  12. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  13. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    to the shed in free-range flocks. This study suggests that hens in the outer range engaged more in walking and foraging activities and showed signs of better welfare than those closer to the shed. Abstract In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower

  14. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat...range; some means of facilitating IO play but no organic capability. NTTR continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service to deploy at UOC ...no organic capability. Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the UOC . Collective Ranges Information

  15. Preferred provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J D

    1984-05-01

    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  16. Evidence of me” in evidence based medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Evidence based medicine provides independent, validated advice about treatment options, but does it take sufficient account of individual patients' values to provide them with an optimal health outcome?

  17. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  18. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  19. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  20. Intervention and management of developmental coordination disorder: Are we providing evidence-based services?: Intervention et traitement d'un trouble du développement de la coordination : Les ergothérapeutes fournissent-ils des services fondés sur les faits scientifiques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Renée; Tsang, Yoyo; Zwicker, Jill G

    2017-06-01

    Occupational therapists are well positioned to provide intervention to improve outcomes for children with developmental coordination disorder. However, little is known about what occupational therapy services are provided for these children. As part of a larger study exploring service provision for children with developmental coordination disorder, the purpose of this study was to examine intervention and referral practices of occupational therapists in British Columbia, Canada. An online survey was e-mailed to a convenience and snowball sample of paediatric occupational therapists, with 165 therapists responding. Descriptive statistics were used for the data analysis. Results show that the type and duration of intervention varied greatly throughout the province, as well as within health regions. Although 70% (87/124) of therapists reported being at least moderately familiar with current evidence, only 47% to 59% selected task-based methods as their primary intervention approach. Findings provide a baseline for current intervention and an opportunity for targeted knowledge translation initiatives.

  1. Changing Provider Behavior in the Context of Chronic Disease Management: Focus on Clinical Inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Kim L; Rash, Joshua A; Campbell, Tavis S

    2017-01-06

    Widespread acceptance of evidence-based medicine has led to the proliferation of clinical practice guidelines as the primary mode of communicating current best practices across a range of chronic diseases. Despite overwhelming evidence supporting the benefits of their use, there is a long history of poor uptake by providers. Nonadherence to clinical practice guidelines is referred to as clinical inertia and represents provider failure to initiate or intensify treatment despite a clear indication to do so. Here we review evidence for the ubiquity of clinical inertia across a variety of chronic health conditions, as well as the organizational and system, patient, and provider factors that serve to maintain it. Limitations are highlighted in the emerging literature examining interventions to reduce clinical inertia. An evidence-based framework to address these limitations is proposed that uses behavior change theory and advocates for shared decision making and enhanced guideline development and dissemination.

  2. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    no organic capability. HQ NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ...NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic... UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat Support h The range lacks a complete electronic target set. EA platforms do not get real-time feedback on their

  3. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  4. The Provident Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  5. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  6. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  7. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  8. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  9. Internet Medline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R

    1998-01-01

    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  10. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  11. Radio pill antenna range test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  12. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  13. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence

    OpenAIRE

    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  15. Evidence for a general species time arearelationship

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, P. B.; White, Ethan P.; Lauenroth, W. K.; Kaufman, D. M.; Rassweiler, A.; Rusak, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) plays a central role in biodiversity research, and recent work has increased awareness of its temporal analog, the species-time relationship (STR). Here we provide evidence for a general species-time-area-relationship (STAR), in which species number is a function of the area and time span of sampling, as well as their interaction. For eight assemblages ranging from lake zooplankton to desert rodents, this model outperformed a sampling-based model and two si...

  16. Human Capital Convergence: Evidence from the Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Uzma Afzal

    2012-01-01

    While the literature on economic growth provides mixed evidence on convergence across different countries and regions, a large number of studies point toward the widening income gap between rich and poor. In the development literature, a broader range of national welfare indicators beyond income per capita—health and education in particular—are considered important instruments for measuring progress in human development. This article examines education and other selective welfare indicators t...

  17. Insurer Market Power Lowers Prices In Numerous Concentrated Provider Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    Using prices of hospital admissions and visits to five types of physicians, we analyzed how provider and insurer market concentration-as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)-interact and are correlated with prices. We found evidence that in the range of the Department of Justice's and Federal Trade Commission's definition of a moderately concentrated market (HHI of 1,500-2,500), insurers have the bargaining power to reduce provider prices in highly concentrated provider markets. In particular, hospital admission prices were 5 percent lower and cardiologist, radiologist, and hematologist/oncologist visit prices were 4 percent, 7 percent, and 19 percent lower, respectively, in markets with high provider concentration and insurer HHI above 2,000, compared to such markets with insurer HHI below 2,000. We did not find evidence that high insurer concentration reduced visit prices for primary care physicians or orthopedists, however. The policy dilemma that arises from our findings is that there are no insurer market mechanisms that will pass a portion of these price reductions on to consumers in the form of lower premiums. Large purchasers of health insurance such as state and federal governments, as well as the use of regulatory approaches, could provide a solution. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  19. Kuhlthau’s Classic Research on the Information Search Process (ISP Provides Evidence for Information Seeking as a Constructivist Process. A review of: Kuhlthau, Carol C. “Inside the Search Process: Information Seeking from the User's Perspective.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42.5 (1991: 361‐71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelagh K. Genuis

    2007-12-01

    general topic. A turning point occurs during focus formulation as constructs become clearer and uncertainty decreases. During information collection theuser is able to articulate focused need and is able to interact effectively with intermediaries and systems. Relief is commonly experienced at presentation stage when findings are presented or used. Although stages are laid out sequentially, Kuhlthau notes that the ISP is an iterative process in which stages merge and overlap.Central to this model is the premise that uncertainty is not due merely to a lack of familiarity with sources and technologies,but is an integral and critical part of a process of learning that culminates in finding meaning through personal synthesis of topic or problem. Conclusion – Kuhlthau provides evidence for a view of information seeking as an evolving, iterative process and presents amodel for purposeful information searching which, if understood by users, intermediaries and information system designers, provides a basis for productive interaction. While users will benefit from understanding the evolving nature of focus formulation and the affective dimensions of information seeking, intermediaries andsystems are challenged to improve information provision in the early formative stages of a search. Although Kuhlthau identifies this research on the ISP as exploratory in nature, this article affords methodological insight into the use of mixed methods for exploring complex user oriented issues, presents a model that effectively communicates an approximation of the common information‐seeking process of users, and provides ongoing impetus for exploring the user’s perspective on information seeking.

  20. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  1. Strategic Frame Analysis: Providing the "Evidence" for Evidence-Based Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Tiffany; Davey, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the five major phases of research associated with Strategic Frame Analysis, an approach to communications research and practice that advances new ways of pursuing social change of entrenched and complex social problems. This multimethod approach is characterized by multidisciplinary and iterative research techniques that…

  2. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Snyder, Rebecca J; Zhihe, Zhang; Marr, M Jackson; Maple, Terry L

    2011-06-23

    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed otters, a related monogamous species in which males and females share home ranges. These results provide the first evidence of sex differences in spatial ability in the order Carnivora, and are consistent with the range size hypothesis.

  3. Evidence for collective phenomena in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    Observation of long-range ridge-like correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions opened up new opportunities for exploring novel QCD dynamics in small collision systems. Based on data collected in 2015 and 2016 with the CMS detector at the LHC, the second-order ($v_{2}$) and third-order ($v_{3}$) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of $K_{s}^{0}$, $\\Lambda$ and inclusive charged particles are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For the first time in pp collisions, the $v_{2}$ signals are also extracted from multi-particle correlations, providing direct evidence of the collective nature of observed particle correlations. These results provide new insights on the origin of observed long-range correlations in pp collisions, and may shed light on how quantum fluctuations affect the proton structure at a very short time scale.

  4. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  5. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob

    2017-01-19

    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  6. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  7. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  8. Electron diffraction study of the sillenites Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39}: Evidence of short-range ordering of oxygen-vacancies in the trivalent sillenites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurti, Craig A.; Arenas, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Auvray, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d’Instrumentation Optique - UMR CNRS 6279, Université Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France); Lufaso, Michael W. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Takeda, Seiji [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kohno, Hideo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We present an electron diffraction study of three sillenites, Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39}, and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} synthesized using the solid-state method. We explore a hypothesis, inspired by optical studies in the literature, that suggests that trivalent sillenites have additional disorder not present in the tetravalent compounds. Electron diffraction patterns of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} show streaks that confirm deviations from the ideal sillenite structure. Multi-slice simulations of electron-diffraction patterns are presented for different perturbations to the sillenite structure - partial substitution of the M site by Bi{sup 3+}, random and ordered oxygen-vacancies, and a frozen-phonon model. Although comparison of experimental data to simulations cannot be conclusive, we consider the streaks as evidence of short-range ordered oxygen-vacancies.

  9. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  10. Federal Rule of Evidence 412 and Military Rule of Evidence 412: Are They Serving Their Purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    evidentiary rules, which permitted a wide ranging inquiry into the rape victim’s sex life, but they also hoped to provide a model rule for jurisdictions without...Bocchino, supra note 3; Rothstein,Evidence Workshop, New Federal Ev ence Rule 412 on Sex Victim’s Character, 15 Crim. Law Bull. 353 (1979) hereinafter...victim’s prior extramarital, premarital or unconventional sexual activity distracts the jury to such a degree that the victim becomes the person on

  11. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....

  12. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    24 4.1 SITE LOCATION AND HISTORY ...4.1 SITE LOCATION AND HISTORY Charleston Air Force Base, also known as Joint Base Charleston, is a United States Air Force base located in North...Percent Difference (RPD) and Relative Standard Deviation ( RSD ) of quality control samples included for analysis. Calibrations and correlation in the

  13. Lightning-induced extensive charge sheets provide long range electrostatic thunderstorm detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A J; Harrison, R G

    2013-07-26

    By combining electrostatic measurements of lightning-induced electrostatic field changes with radio frequency lightning location, some field changes from exceptionally distant lightning events are apparent which are inconsistent with the usual inverse cube of distance. Furthermore, by using two measurement sites, a transition zone can be identified beyond which the electric field response reverses polarity. For these severe lightning events, we infer a horizontally extensive charge sheet above a thunderstorm, consistent with a mesospheric halo of several hundred kilometers' extent.

  14. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A nonwoven geomembrane fabric is a barrier between native soils and the ballistic impact media. Amended sand is placed on top of the newly...store bullets. Earthen backstops require immediate care to revegetate, to prevent potential ongoing erosion problems. Use of fiber mulch, filter fabric...different ballistic sand and amendments*. Lysimeter study and amendments Lead b (µg/L) DOC (mg/L) pH Filtered Total Study Goals 150 50 6 to 9

  15. Evidence-based dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chi Chi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine (EBM has become a hot topic in medical practice, education, and research. However, a large number of senior doctors did not have an opportunity to learn EBM in medical schools. Firstly, this article addresses the history of EBM and the principle of practicing EBM, i.e., asking, acquiring, appraisal, application, and auditing. Secondly, this article also provides a brief introduction to evidence-based dermatology and compares the introduction of clinical practice guidelines between Europe, the UK, and the US. Finally, this article addresses the present condition and future perspective of evidence-based dermatology in Taiwan.

  16. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  17. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    , feedback from our users, project evaluations, and accumulated experiences over the course of careers. These things are not easily shared and often do not find a place in publications because they are too local. But data that comes from a local context is in fact often the most important evidence source thata LIS professional can consult because it gives us information that is directly applicable to, and about our users. For example, usage stats on ejournals, feedback and comments about our services, usability testing on a website, titles on our interlibrary loan requests; these are just a few examples of local evidence that is invaluable to our decision making. This local data doesn’t often mean much to others, but it is of utmost importance to our local knowledge. The trick is to figure out what local information to collect, and how to use it. And remember to use it. This is where others’ experiences of how they use such local evidence can give us ideas and inspiration.As well, we hold a great deal of evidence in our professional knowledge that progressively is built up by library and information professionals over the course of their career. Much of this is tacit, but worthwhile trying to draw out and make explicit. Evidence is shown to us every single day - as we practice our profession, we learn what works and what doesn’t in certain situations. We have practical, real-life experiences to draw upon that are wrapped in different contexts. As professionals we have foundations that form the basis of our knowledge, in a field where we have already learned from our education, training, and on-the-job experience. We build up skills and know-how that are not necessarily written down, but which provide us with a great deal of specialized knowledge. As we learn how to most effectively provide good service, or build quality collections for our users, or build relationships within our community, all these things provide us with evidence of how to be a better professional

  18. Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

    1998-12-01

    Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values obtained from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured.

  19. 20 CFR 220.12 - Evidence considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence considered. 220.12 Section 220.12... § 220.12 Evidence considered. The regulations explaining the employee's responsibility to provide evidence of disability, the kind of evidence, what medical evidence consists of, and the consequences of...

  20. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  1. Upslope agricultural expansion caused mammal range contractions in China over the past two millennia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Shuqing; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    in ancient China over the past two millennia, we analyzed the patterns of mammal range contractions and their associations with historical climate change and agricultural population dynamics. We found that it was the long-term upslope spread of agricultural population that consistently contracted the mammal...... distributions in China during the study period, while periodic warming and cooling may have contributed to temporary range fluctuations. Our study provides direct evidence that biotic interactions can overshadow climate in terms of driving species distributions even at large spatiotemporal scales and suggests...

  2. Canadian Healthcare Practitioners’ Access to Evidence Based Information Is Inequitable. A Review of: Chatterley, T., Storie, D., Chambers, T., Buckingham, J., Shiri, A., & Dorgan, M. (2012. Health information support provided by professional associations in Canada. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 29(3, 233-241.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melssen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine what services and resources are available to health professionals through national Canadian and Alberta based health professional associations and licensing colleges and if those resources and services are being used. Also, to assess the associations’ perceptions of what resources and services Canadian health professionals actually need and if those needs are being met, membership satisfaction with the resources and services provided, and challenges the associations have with providing resources and services.Design – Structured telephone interview.Setting – Health professional associations and licensing colleges in Canada.Subjects – 23 health professional associations: 9 Alberta-based associations and 14 national-level professional associations and licensing colleges.Methods – A librarian, communications officer, or another individual in a comparable position at each association was invited via email to participate in the study. Individuals willing to participate in the interview were emailed the interview questions in advance. Telephone interviews were conducted in July and August of 2009. For those who did not respond to the email request or who did not wish to participate in the interviews, information was collected from the association’s website.Main Results – Of the 23 contacted associations 12 agreed to be interviewed: less than 50% response rate. Data was collected from websites of seven associations that either declined to be interviewed or did not respond to the authors’ email request. Data were unavailable for four associations due to data being in members only sections of the websites. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.Resources and services provided by the associations and licensing colleges range from none to reference services provided by a librarian and access to licensed databases.None of the three licensing colleges or the two provincial associations interviewed

  3. A Standardized Method of Preventing and Managing Emergencies within the Context of Evidence-Based Therapy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgelles, Jessica; Donohue, Brad; Wilks, Chelsey; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Azrin, Nathan H.

    2012-01-01

    Families served within child welfare settings evidence a wide range of emergencies or unexpected crises or circumstances that may lead to danger and make it difficult for them to focus on treatment planning. Mental health treatment providers are often unprepared to effectively manage emergencies during implementation of evidence-based prescribed…

  4. Evidence based practice: perspectives of Iranian urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Olfati, Nahid; Dastgiri, Saeed; Maghbouli, Leili

    2014-01-04

    To determine the attitudes and beliefs of Iranian urologists toward Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and investigation of the barriers of evidence based practice (EBP). A self- administrated, Likert scale questionnaire designed in Persian and filled up by censuses selected urologist from Iranian Urology Association (IUA). Data were entered to Predictive Analytics Soft Ware version 18.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained for all parts of the questionnaire. A total of 111 out of 500 Iranian urologists who attended in IUA annual meeting, responded to the questionnaires. Mean attitude score of respondents was 30.4 (SD: 5.7, range 16-40). Attitude score showed statistically significant association to previous participation in EBM workshops (P = .01). Of participants 96% believed EBP will improve patient care and 76.2% of them appreciated the impact of use of research utilization and application of evidence based guidelines on clinical decision making and the outcome of surgery. The main barriers to EBP stated as lack of time (64.8%), facilities (53.4%), and training in EBM (29.4%). The urologists have positive attitudes towards EBP. However, regarding lack of time, pre-appraised databases or EBP guidelines can be helpful. Evidence based workshops and familiarity with evidence databases is recommended for Iranian urologists. In addition, health care system and policy makers could play a major role to provide a culture of EBP.

  5. Corroborating evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebius, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have argued convincingly for applying this scientific method to medicine. However, the current methodological framework of the EBM movement has recently been called into question, especially in epidemiology and the philosophy of science. The debate has focused on whether the methodology of randomized controlled trials provides the best evidence available. This paper attempts to shift the focus of the debate by arguing that clinical reasoning involves a patchwork of evidential approaches and that the emphasis on evidence hierarchies of methodology fails to lend credence to the common practice of corroboration in medicine. I argue that the strength of evidence lies in the evidence itself, and not the methodology used to obtain that evidence. Ultimately, when it comes to evaluating the effectiveness of medical interventions, it is the evidence obtained from the methodology rather than the methodology that should establish the strength of the evidence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  7. Enhanced Compositional Mapping through Integrated Full-Range Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl L. McDowell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method to enhance compositional mapping from spectral remote sensing through the integration of visible to near infrared (VNIR, ~0.4–1 µm, shortwave infrared (SWIR, ~1–2.5 µm, and longwave infrared (LWIR, ~8–13 µm data. Spectral information from the individual ranges was first analyzed independently and then the resulting compositional information in the form of image endmembers and apparent abundances was integrated using ISODATA cluster analysis. Independent VNIR, SWIR, and LWIR analyses of a study area near Mountain Pass, California identified image endmembers representing vegetation, manmade materials (e.g., metal, plastic, specific minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, hematite, muscovite, gypsum, and general lithology (e.g., sulfate-bearing, carbonate-bearing, and silica-rich units. Integration of these endmembers and their abundances produced a final full-range classification map incorporating much of the variation from all three spectral ranges. The integrated map and its 54 classes provide additional compositional information that is not evident in the VNIR, SWIR, or LWIR data alone, which allows for more complete and accurate compositional mapping. A supplemental examination of hyperspectral LWIR data and comparison with the multispectral LWIR data used in the integration illustrates its potential to further improve this approach.

  8. Comparison of range migration correction algorithms for range-Doppler processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Faruk

    2017-07-01

    The next generation digital radars are able to provide high-range resolution by the advancement of radar hardware technologies. These systems take advantage of coherent integration and Doppler processing technique to increase the target's signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the high-range resolution (small range cells) and fast target motion, a target migrates through multiple range cells within a coherent processing interval. Range cell migration (also known as range walk) occurs and degrades the coherent integration gain. There are many approaches in the literature to correct these unavoidable effects and focus the target in the range-Doppler domain. We demonstrate some of these methods on an operational frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and point out practical issues in the application.

  9. Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health visitors play a pivotal position in providing parents with up-to-date evidence-based care on child health. The recent controversy over the safety of the MMR vaccine has drawn attention to the difficulties they face when new research which raises doubts about current guidelines and practices is published. In the aftermath of the MMR controversy, this paper investigates the sources health visitors use to find out about new research evidence on immunisation and examines barriers and facilitators to using evidence in practice. It also assesses health visitors' confidence in using research evidence. Methods Health visitors were recruited from the 2007 UK Community Practitioners' and Health Visitors' Association conference. All delegates were eligible to complete the questionnaire if in their current professional role they advise parents about childhood immunisation or administer vaccines to children. Of 228 who were eligible, 185 completed the survey (81.1%. Results These health visitors used a wide range of resources to find out about new research evidence on childhood immunisation. Popular sources included information leaflets and publications, training days, nursing journals and networking with colleagues. A lack of time was cited as the main barrier to searching for new evidence. The most common reason given for not using research in practice was a perception of conflicting research evidence. Understanding the evidence was a key facilitator. Health visitors expressed less confidence about searching and explaining research on childhood immunisation than evidence on weaning and a baby's sleep position. Conclusion Even motivated health visitors feel they lack the time and, in some cases, the skills to locate and appraise research evidence. This research suggests that of the provision of already-appraised research would help to keep busy health professionals informed, up-to-date and confident in responding to public

  10. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  12. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  13. 2008 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Welcome to the 2008 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This year, along with full length articles concerning various subject areas, we have provided updates to standard subjects with links back to the 2007 original article. Additionally, we present summaries from the various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year, as well as information on several special projects that may have a profound impact on the way we will do business in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2008 highlights of Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments and Common Risk Analysis Tools Development; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging Range Safety-related technologies; Special Interests Items that include recent changes in the ELV Payload Safety Program and the VAS explosive siting study; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. We have made a great effort to include the most current information available. We recommend that this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. This is the third year we have utilized this web-based format for the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition, and we hope you enjoy this year's product as well. It has been a very busy and productive year on many fronts as you will note as you review this report. Thank you to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the

  14. GARCH Option Valuation: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    We survey the theory and empirical evidence on GARCH option valuation models. Our treatment includes the range of functional forms available for the volatility dynamic, multifactor models, nonnormal shock distributions as well as style of pricing kernels typically used. Various strategies...... for empirical implementation are laid out and we also discuss the links between GARCH and stochastic volatility models. In the appendix we provide Matlab computer code for option pricing via Monte Carlo simulation for nonaffine models as well as Fourier inversion for affine models....

  15. The health consequences of unemployment: the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, C D; Schofield, D J

    1998-02-16

    Mathers and Schofield, from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, review recent studies, including Australian research, on the health effects of unemployment and the mechanisms by which unemployment causes adverse health outcomes. The relationship is complex: ill-health also causes unemployment, and confounding factors include socioeconomic status and lifestyle. However, longitudinal studies with a range of designs provide reasonably good evidence that unemployment itself is detrimental to health and has an impact on health outcomes--increasing mortality rates, causing physical and mental ill-health and greater use of health services.

  16. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  17. Querying Data Providing Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sabesan, Manivasakan

    2010-01-01

    Web services are often used for search computing where data is retrieved from servers providing information of different kinds. Such data providing web services return a set of objects for a given set of parameters without any side effects. There is need to enable general and scalable search capabilities of data from data providing web services, which is the topic of this Thesis. The Web Service MEDiator (WSMED) system automatically provides relational views of any data providing web service ...

  18. Classification of evidence in decision-analytic models of cost-effectiveness: a content analysis of published reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Suzy

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess systematically the scope of evidence and purposes for which evidence is used in decision-analytic models of cost-effectiveness and to assess the implications for search methods. A content analysis of published reports of models was undertaken. Details of cited sources were extracted and categorized according to three dimensions; type of information provided by the evidence, type of source from which the evidence was drawn and type of modeling activity supported by the evidence. The analysis was used to generate a classification of evidence. Relationships within and between the categories within the classification were sought and the implications for searching considered. The classification generated fourteen types of information, seven types of sources of evidence and five modeling activities supported by evidence. A broad range of evidence was identified drawn from a diverse range of sources including both research-based and non-research-based sources. The use of evidence was not restricted to the population of model parameters but was used to inform the development of the modeling framework and to justify the analytical and methodological approach. Decision-analytic models use evidence to support all aspects of model development. The classification of evidence defines in depth the role of evidence in modeling. It can be used to inform the systematic identification of evidence.

  19. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  20. Cellulite: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebberding, Stefanie; Krueger, Nils; Sadick, Neil S

    2015-08-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial condition that is present in 80-90 % of post-pubertal women. Despite its high prevalence, it remains a major cosmetic concern for women. A wide range of products and treatments for cellulite reduction is available; however, no systematic review has been performed so far to evaluate the efficacy of the available treatment options for cellulite. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatments for cellulite reduction. This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Only original articles in English or German reporting data on the efficacy of cellulite treatments from in vivo human studies were considered. In total, 67 articles were analyzed for the following information: therapy, presence of a control group, randomization, blinding, sample size, description of statistical methods, results, and level of evidence. Most of the evaluated studies, including laser- and light-based modalities, radiofrequency, and others had important methodological flaws; some did not use cellulite severity as an endpoint or did not provide sufficient statistical analyses. Of the 67 studies analyzed in this review, only 19 were placebo-controlled studies with randomization. Some evidence for potential benefit was only seen for acoustic wave therapy (AWT) and the 1440 nm Nd:YAG minimally invasive laser. This article provides a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatment for cellulite reduction. No clear evidence of good efficacy could be identified in any of the evaluated cellulite treatments.

  1. Coverage with Evidence Development: applications and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Paul; Grainger, David L; Downs, Kristen E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the current issues surrounding Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). CED is characterized by restricted coverage for a new technology in parallel with targeted research when the stated goal of the research or data collection is to provide definitive evidence for the clinical or cost-effectiveness impact of the new technology. Presented here is information summarized and interpreted from presentations and discussions at the 2008 Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) meeting and additional information from the medical literature. This study describes the differences between CED and other conditional coverage agreements, provides a brief history of CED, describes real-world examples of CED, describes the areas of consensus between the stakeholders, discusses the areas for future negotiation between stakeholders, and proposes criteria to assist stakeholders in determining when CED could be appropriate. Payers could interpret the evidence obtained from a CED program either positively or negatively, and a range of possible changes to the reimbursement status of the new technology may result. Striking an appropriate balance between the demands for prompt access to new technology and acknowledging that some degree of uncertainty will always exist is a critical challenge to the uptake of this innovative form of conditional coverage. When used selectively for innovative procedures, pharmaceuticals, or devices in the appropriate disease areas, CED may provide patients access to promising medicines or technologies while data to minimize uncertainty are collected.

  2. Choosing a primary care provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Choosing a primary care provider URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001939.htm Choosing a primary care provider To ...

  3. Types of health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Types of health care providers URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001933.htm Types of health care providers To ...

  4. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  5. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  6. Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathy; Hunolt, Greg; Booth, Arthur L.; Banks, Mel

    2011-01-01

    The Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool (CET) and Comparables Database (CDB) package provides to NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) the ability to estimate the full range of year-by-year lifecycle cost estimates for the implementation and operation of data service providers required by ESE to support its science and applications programs. The CET can make estimates dealing with staffing costs, supplies, facility costs, network services, hardware and maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software licenses, software development and sustaining engineering, and the changes in costs that result from changes in workload. Data Service Providers may be stand-alone or embedded in flight projects, field campaigns, research or applications projects, or other activities. The CET and CDB package employs a cost-estimation-by-analogy approach. It is based on a new, general data service provider reference model that provides a framework for construction of a database by describing existing data service providers that are analogs (or comparables) to planned, new ESE data service providers. The CET implements the staff effort and cost estimation algorithms that access the CDB and generates the lifecycle cost estimate for a new data services provider. This data creates a common basis for an ESE proposal evaluator for considering projected data service provider costs.

  7. A Macrophysiological Analysis of Energetic Constraints on Geographic Range Size in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological processes are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of organisms, and recently, with widespread attention to climate change, physiology has been ushered back to the forefront of ecological thinking. We present a macrophysiological analysis of the energetics of geographic range size using combined data on body size, basal metabolic rate (BMR), phylogeny and range properties for 574 species of mammals. We propose three mechanisms by which interspecific variation in BMR should relate positively to geographic range size: (i) Thermal Plasticity Hypothesis, (ii) Activity Levels/Dispersal Hypothesis, and (iii) Energy Constraint Hypothesis. Although each mechanism predicts a positive correlation between BMR and range size, they can be further distinguished based on the shape of the relationship they predict. We found evidence for the predicted positive relationship in two dimensions of energetics: (i) the absolute, mass-dependent dimension (BMR) and (ii) the relative, mass-independent dimension (MIBMR). The shapes of both relationships were similar and most consistent with that expected from the Energy Constraint Hypothesis, which was proposed previously to explain the classic macroecological relationship between range size and body size in mammals and birds. The fact that this pattern holds in the MIBMR dimension indicates that species with supra-allometric metabolic rates require among the largest ranges, above and beyond the increasing energy demands that accrue as an allometric consequence of large body size. The relationship is most evident at high latitudes north of the Tropics, where large ranges and elevated MIBMR are most common. Our results suggest that species that are most vulnerable to extinction from range size reductions are both large-bodied and have elevated MIBMR, but also, that smaller species with elevated MIBMR are at heightened risk. We also provide insights into the global latitudinal trends in range size and MIBMR

  8. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  9. How to synthesize evidence for imaging guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matowe, L. E-mail: l.matowe@hsc.kuniv.edu.kw; Gilbert, F. J

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To provide guidance on how to gather and evaluate evidence from the literature on the efficacy of imaging, using as an example the assessment of the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. This method was adopted for evaluating evidence for the musculoskeletal section of the 5th edition of the Royal College of Radiologists' (RCR) guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature published between 1966 and July 2001 was carried out. Eligible articles described studies in patients with suspected osteomyelitis and who were diagnosed using MRI. Search strategies were developed to identify relevant imaging studies. Studies included in the systematic review were selected using predefined criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood ratios for MRI reported in the studies were used to evaluate the value of the procedure in osteomyelitis. Where the above were not reported, they were calculated by the reviewers. RESULTS: The average sensitivity of MRI in osteomyelitis was 91% (range 76-100%), the average specificity was 82% (range 65-96%), average accuracy was 88% (range 71-97%), and the average positive likelihood ratio was 7.8 (range 2.3-21.1). Four studies evaluated the use of MRI in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot, two in osteomyelitis of the lower extremities, while four each evaluated the use of MRI in vertebral osteomyelitis, in the diagnosis of any form of osteomyelitis, osteomyelitis in spinal cord-injured patients and in cranial osteomyelitis. CONCLUSION: Systematic reviews of literature can be used to obtain evidence on the value of imaging procedures. The quality of the studies included in the review should always be considered when selecting studies to limit bias. In our example, MRI appears sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis at different sites.

  10. 10 CFR 13.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.34 Section 13.34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence...

  11. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 27.34 Section 27.34... Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the presiding officer shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the...

  12. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign....34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided in this part, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of Evidence. However, the ALJ may apply the...

  13. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  14. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2009-01-01

    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  15. Scientific Analysis and Documentation Provided by EPA Regional Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 10 EPA Regional laboratories provide maximum flexibility to support Agency response to natural disasters and emergencies by developing effective approaches for a wide range of analytical challenges.

  16. Protecting Digital Evidence Integrity by Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shahzad; Popov, Oliver

    RFC 3227 provides general guidelines for digital evidence collection and archiving, while the International Organization on Computer Evidence offers guidelines for best practice in the digital forensic examination. In the light of these guidelines we will analyze integrity protection mechanism provided by EnCase and FTK which is mainly based on Message Digest Codes (MDCs). MDCs for integrity protection are not tamper proof, hence they can be forged. With the proposed model for protecting digital evidence integrity by using smart cards (PIDESC) that establishes a secure platform for digitally signing the MDC (in general for a whole range of cryptographic services) in combination with Public Key Cryptography (PKC), one can show that this weakness might be overcome.

  17. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  18. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B

    2017-01-01

    A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course. Two coders reviewed transcriptions of audio recordings from participants' first simulation scenario debriefings and performed constant comparison analysis to identify unifying themes. Themes were verified through member checking with two focus groups of prehospital providers. A total of 122 EMTs and paramedics participated in 16 audiotaped debriefing sessions and two focus groups. Four overarching themes emerged regarding the experience of PFCC by prehospital providers: (1) Perceived barriers included the prehospital environment, limited manpower, multi-tasking medical care, and concern for interference with patient care; (2) Providing emotional support comprised of empathetically comforting caregivers, maintaining a calm demeanor, and empowering families to feel involved; (3) Effective communication strategies consisted of designating a family point person, narration of actions, preempting the next steps, speaking in lay terms, summarizing during downtime, and conveying a positive first impression; (4) Tactics to overcome PFCC barriers were maintaining a line of sight, removing and returning a caregiver to and from the scene, and providing situational awareness. Based on debriefings from simulated scenarios, some prehospital providers identified the provision of

  19. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  20. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  1. Analysis of inter-provider conflicts among healthcare providers

    OpenAIRE

    Stecker, Mona; Epstein, Nancy; Mark M Stecker; Ausman, James I.; Harrigan, Noyes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient safety is a top priority of healthcare organizations. The Joint Commission (TJC) is now requiring that healthcare organizations promulgate polices to investigate and resolve disruptive behavior among employees. Methods: Our aims in this investigation utilizing the Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ: Appendix A) included; determining what conflicts exist among a large sample of healthcare providers, how to assess the extent and frequency of disruptive behaviors, and what ...

  2. Providing effective trauma care: the potential for service provider views to enhance the quality of care (qualitative study nested within a multicentre longitudinal quantitative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Kate; Earthy, Sarah; Sleney, Jude; Barnes, Jo; Kellezi, Blerina; Barker, Marcus; Clarkson, Julie; Coffey, Frank; Elder, Georgina; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-07-08

    To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients' needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers' views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an 'ideal' model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a 'real' model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants' 'ideal' model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, 'real' care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients' needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Service providers envisage an 'ideal' model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap between 'real' and 'ideal' care. Using service provider views to inform service design

  3. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  4. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  5. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju

    2017-10-01

    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  7. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  8. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  9. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  10. Climate and Floristic Variation in Great Basin Mountain Ranges (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, D. A.; Leary, P.

    2010-12-01

    are 316 in the Snake Range transect, and 425 along the Sheep Range transect. Near the Sheep Range lies the Spring Mountains where 769 samples were obtained. More than 30,000 geo-referenced photographs document the sites, and nearly 1000 vascular plant taxa have been encountered and their distributions documented. Recently completed soil maps, the PRISM precipitation model, and 10m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the study areas exist. As a result, many environmental conditions can be explored with multivariate statistical methods. Preliminary results indicate that different kinds of physical data may be appropriate only at certain scales. Most useful for fine-scale investigations on mountains appears to be measures of irradiance at the solstices and equinox derived from the 10m DEM. Past climate in Nevada is readily evident on its landscapes, featuring glacial, periglacial and pluvial features. Pollen and remains left by woodrats provide vegetation records dating up to 40,000 years before present. The vegetation work described here provides a snapshot of biodiversity at fine scale of several mountain ranges. Efforts of the physical scientists and physiologists now, and repeat visits to the sample sites of this study later, will help us track the processes and manifestations of landscape change as responses to climate.

  11. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Services (IGI&S) data proponency, Common Installation Picture, and Quality Assurance Plans ( QAPs ). Based on this guidance, all Army installations are...Sustainable Ranges Report July 2011 Support Center are defined in each layer’s geospatial data QAP . QAPs provide the definition, information about the...requirements for each of the data layers. QAPs are living documents and are maintained by the HQDA proponent with input from the installation data

  12. Gammaherpesvirus infection in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R S; Vaz, P; Ficorilli, N P; Whiteley, P L; Wilks, C R; Devlin, J M

    2011-01-01

    A gammaherpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in ocular, nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples collected from an adult free-ranging male eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) with clinical signs of severe respiratory disease. This is the first time a gammaherpesvirus has been detected in a free-ranging macropod in Australia. The nucleotide sequence of a conserved region of the DNA polymerase gene of the detected virus showed a high degree of identity to a gammaherpesvirus recently detected in a zoological collection of eastern grey kangaroos in North America. The detection of this gammaherpesvirus in a free-ranging, native eastern grey kangaroo provides evidence that this species is a natural host. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan James

    2016-06-01

    The conservation community is increasingly focusing on the monitoring and evaluation of management, governance, ecological, and social considerations as part of a broader move toward adaptive management and evidence-based conservation. Evidence is any information that can be used to come to a conclusion and support a judgment or, in this case, to make decisions that will improve conservation policies, actions, and outcomes. Perceptions are one type of information that is often dismissed as anecdotal by those arguing for evidence-based conservation. In this paper, I clarify the contributions of research on perceptions of conservation to improving adaptive and evidence-based conservation. Studies of the perceptions of local people can provide important insights into observations, understandings and interpretations of the social impacts, and ecological outcomes of conservation; the legitimacy of conservation governance; and the social acceptability of environmental management. Perceptions of these factors contribute to positive or negative local evaluations of conservation initiatives. It is positive perceptions, not just objective scientific evidence of effectiveness, that ultimately ensure the support of local constituents thus enabling the long-term success of conservation. Research on perceptions can inform courses of action to improve conservation and governance at scales ranging from individual initiatives to national and international policies. Better incorporation of evidence from across the social and natural sciences and integration of a plurality of methods into monitoring and evaluation will provide a more complete picture on which to base conservation decisions and environmental management. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  15. Coordination of primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, D L; McAlister, W H

    1988-02-01

    Surveys were sent to family physicians in Illinois to determine knowledge and attitude concerning optometry. The respondents were knowledgeable in certain aspects of optometry. However, many need to become more aware of the optometrist as a health care provider.

  16. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  17. Seeing Your Health Care Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduce Font Size 100% Increase Font Size Positive Spin Basics Federal Response Digital Tools Events Blog Home ... that may assist you. Be on time. Most healthcare providers have full appointment schedules—if you are ...

  18. EAMJ Provider April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... with breast cancer is known to result in more adverse outcomes (1). ... Objective: To determine the extent and nature of provider delay in breast cancer management at .... and calls for a review of booking procedures. Also.

  19. TERRAIN, PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RHODE ISLAND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  20. Temperate marine protected area provides recruitment subsidies to local fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, A; Montgomery, J C; Smith, A N H; Croucher, A E; McLeod, I M; Lavery, S D

    2017-10-25

    The utility of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of protecting exploited species and conserving biodiversity within MPA boundaries is supported by strong empirical evidence. However, the potential contribution of MPAs to fished populations beyond their boundaries is still highly controversial; empirical measures are scarce and modelling studies have produced a range of predictions, including both positive and negative effects. Using a combination of genetic parentage and relatedness analysis, we measured larval subsidies to local fisheries replenishment for Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus: Sparidae) from a small (5.2 km(2)), well-established, temperate, coastal MPA in northern New Zealand. Adult snapper within the MPA contributed an estimated 10.6% (95% CI: 5.5-18.1%) of newly settled juveniles to surrounding areas (approx. 400 km(2)), with no decreasing trend in contributions up to 40 km away. Biophysical modelling of larval dispersal matched experimental data, showing larvae produced inside the MPA dispersed over a comparable distance. These results demonstrate that temperate MPAs have the potential to provide recruitment subsidies at magnitudes and spatial scales relevant to fisheries management. The validated biophysical model provides a cost-efficient opportunity to generalize these findings to other locations and climate conditions, and potentially informs the design of MPA networks for enhancing fisheries management. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  2. Learning From Others About Research Evidence (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the June issue of EBLIP, our firstto be published with an HTML version as wellas PDFs for each article. I hope you enjoy andfind the alternative formats useful. As usualthe issue comprises an interesting range ofevidence summaries and articles that I hopeyou will find useful in applying evidence toyour practice.When considering evidence, two recent trips toEdinburgh got me thinking about the widerange of study designs or methods that areuseful for generating evidence, and also howwe can learn about their use from otherprofessions.The first trip was as part of the cadre of the LISDREaM project (http://lisresearch.org/dreamproject/.DREaM has been set up by the LISResearch Coalition to develop a sustainableLIS research network in the UK. As part ofthis, a series of workshops aims to introduceLIS practitioners to a wider range of researchmethods, thus expanding the methods used inLIS research. Indeed, a quick scan of thecontents of this issue show a preponderance ofsurveys, interviews, and citation analysis,suggesting that broadening our knowledge ofmethods may well be a useful idea. Theworkshops are highly interactive and, at eachsession experts from outside the LIS disciplineintroduce particular research methods andoutline how they could be used in LISapplications. As a result, I can see the valueand understand when to use research methodssuch as social network analysis, horizonscanning, ethnography, discourse analysis, andrepertory grids – as well as knowing that datamining is something I’m likely to avoid! So farI’ve shared my new knowledge with a PhDstudent who was considering her methodologyand incorporated my new knowledge ofhorizon scanning into a bid for researchfunding. The next (and more exciting step isto think of a situation where I can apply one ofthese methods to examining an aspect of LIS practice.The second trip was the British Association ofCounselling and Psychotherapy ResearchConference, an event which I

  3. Cultural resources of the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Madsen

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range is a vast open space with few signs of houses or human habitation, but at one time it was quite the opposite scene. Archaeological surface inspections reveal heavy use of the Range dating back hundreds of years. This paper will review the history of cultural resource management on the Range and provide a timeline of local cultural...

  4. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  5. Countering short range ballistic missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  6. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  7. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  9. Further evidence for mixed emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter

    2011-06-01

    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Enstore with Chimera namespace provider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvintsev, Dmitry [Fermilab; Moibenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Oleynik, Gene [Fermilab; Zalokar, Michael [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Enstore is a mass storage system developed by Fermilab that provides distributed access and management of data stored on tapes. It uses a namespace service, PNFS, developed by DESY to provide a filesystem-like view of the stored data. PNFS is a legacy product and is being replaced by a new implementation, called Chimera, which is also developed by DESY. Chimera offers multiple advantages over PNFS in terms of performance and functionality. The Enstore client component, encp, has been modified to work with Chimera, as well as with any other namespace provider. We performed high load end-to-end acceptance test of Enstore with the Chimera namespace. This paper describes the modifications to Enstore, the test procedure and the results of the acceptance testing.

  11. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  12. Species' Traits as Predictors of Range Shifts Under Contemporary Climate Change: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, S. A.; Beissinger, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature seeks to explain variation in range shifts using species' ecological and life history traits, with expectations that shifts should be greater in species with greater dispersal ability, reproductive potential, and ecological generalization. If trait-based arguments, hold, then traits would provide valuable evidence-based tools for conservation and management that could increase the accuracy of future range projections, vulnerability assessments, and predictions of novel community assemblages. However, empirical support is limited in extent and consensus, and trait-based relationships remain largely unvalidated. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of species' traits as predictors of range shifts, collecting results from over 11,000 species' responses across multiple taxa from studies that directly compared 20th century and contemporary distributions for multispecies assemblages. We then performed a meta-analysis to calculate the mean study-level effects of body size, fecundity, diet breadth, habitat breadth, and historic range limit, while directly controlling for ecological and methodological heterogeneity across studies that could bias reported effect sizes. We show that ecological and life history traits have had limited success in accounting for variation among species in range shifts over the past century. Of the five traits analyzed, only habitat breadth and historic range limit consistently supported range shift predictions across multiple studies. Fecundity, body size, and diet breadth showed no clear relationship with range shifts, and some traits identified in our literature review (e.g. migratory ecology) have consistently contradicted range shift predictions. Current understanding of species' traits as predictors of range shifts is limited, and standardized study is needed before traits can be reliably incorporated into projections of climate change impacts.

  13. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-12-01

    discipline the research takes place in, and should be something that we are aware of as consumers of evidence. Within LIS in the UK, ethical principles have been put to the fore within a new professional framework (CILIP Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, 2012a. The framework outlines the broad range of skills required by workers across the LIS profession, placing these on a wheel with ethics and values in the centre, as they underpin the profession. Placing ethics and values at the core in this way helps us set our knowledge into a wider context and, I believe, is one of the ways that we can make a difference as LIS professionals. At the same time, our ethical values and principles help to differentiate us from other professions and help to define what we do as LIS professionals. These ethical principles are outlined in a code (CILIP Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, 2012b, which sets out professional responsibilities in relation to users, colleagues, and the information community and society. The elements which are particularly relevant to EBLIP, and which are espoused in the scope and mission of the journal, include maintaining and enhancing professional knowledge and competence, sharing results of research and development, encouraging best practice, and promoting equitable access to information. There are also ethical codes of practice for journal editors, these include one for LIS editors (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010 and a more general one which originated in the medical and health domain (Committee on Publication Ethics: COPE, 2011. Both of these guide journal editors in relating to readers, authors, reviewers, and publishers, and both seek to establish best practice for journal publishing. For the EBLIP journal, these codes of practice provide a useful framework for ensuring the journal operates in a professional and ethical way. A recent example where the codes have been used in

  14. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis...

  15. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...

  16. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Michigan, Department of Women's Studies, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 7University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology, Ann Arbor, MI USA ..... personal spending habits of physicians who were known to provide abortion – a new ..... characterized by safe space for speaking can improve physician's resilience to ...

  17. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  19. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  20. Crystal structures and photoelectron spectra of some trimethanoanthracenes, tetramethanonaphthacenes, and pentamethanopentacenes. Experimental evidence for laticyclic hyperconjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paddon-Row, Michael N.; Englehardt, Lutz M.; Skelton, Brian W.

    1987-01-01

    interactions through six [sigma] bonds (OIT-6-B), and this, taken with the p.e. data for the dienes ()-(), provides convincing evidence for the long-range nature of OIT--B. The larger [small pi]-splitting energy of 0.52 eV observed for (), compared with (), has been explained in terms of the presence of two...

  1. Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

  2. Optical studies of hydrogen above 200 gigapascals - Evidence for metallization by band overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, N. K.; Hemley, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Direct optical observations of solid hydrogen to pressures in the 250-gigapascal range at 77 K are reported. Hydrogen samples appear nearly opaque at the maximum pressures. Measurements of absorption and Raman spectra provide evidence that electronic excitations in the visible region begin at about 200 gigapascals. The optical data are consistent with a band-overlap mechanism of metallization.

  3. Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. D. Nagle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown. Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000–6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07 for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55% were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30% while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05 higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24% and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt

  4. Short-range order in undercooled metallic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Moritz, D.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Bellissent, R.; Convert, P.; Hansen, T.; Herlach, D.M

    2004-07-15

    The containerless processing technique of electromagnetic levitation was combined with elastic neutron scattering in order to study the short-range order (SRO) of stable and deeply undercooled liquids of the pure elements Ni, Fe and Zr and of the quasicrystal-forming alloy Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Co{sub 10}. The results deliver experimental evidence for an icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) prevailing in the investigated metallic melts.

  5. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  6. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W

    2015-11-01

    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Engineering Biosensors with Dual Programmable Dynamic Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benmei; Zhang, Juntao; Ou, Xiaowen; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2018-01-10

    Although extensively used in all fields of chemistry, molecular recognition still suffers from a significant limitation: host-guest binding displays a fixed, hyperbolic dose-response curve, which limits its usefulness in many applications. Here we take advantage of the high programmability of DNA chemistry and propose a universal strategy to engineer biorecognition-based sensors with dual programmable dynamic ranges. Using DNA aptamers as our model recognition element and electrochemistry as our readout signal, we first designed a dual signaling "signal-on" and "signal-off" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor composed of a ferrocene-labeled ATP aptamer in complex to a complementary, electrode-bound, methylene-blue labeled DNA. Using this simple "dimeric" sensor, we show that we can easily (1) tune the dynamic range of this dual-signaling sensor through base mutations on the electrode-bound DNA, (2) extend the dynamic range of this sensor by 2 orders of magnitude by using a combination of electrode-bound strands with varying affinity for the aptamers, (3) create an ultrasensitive dual signaling sensor by employing a sequestration strategy in which a nonsignaling, high affinity "depletant" DNA aptamer is added to the sensor surface, and (4) engineer a sensor that simultaneously provides extended and ultrasensitive readouts. These strategies, applicable to a wide range of biosensors and chemical systems, should broaden the application of molecular recognition in various fields of chemistry.

  8. Environment Assessment for Grand Bay Range, Bemiss Field, and Moody Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), and slash pine (Moody AFB 2007a). The Grand Bay Range impact area and Bemiss Field are managed to provide a Bahia ...Bemiss Field or immigration has occurred in this area. No confirmed sightings of indigo snakes have occurred since 1996, despite intensive monitoring

  9. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  10. Evidence and Obesity Prevention: Developing Evidence Summaries to Support Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rachel; Waters, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Rebecca; Conning, Rebecca; Allender, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-01-01

    Public health practitioners make decisions based on research evidence in combination with a variety of other influences. Evidence summaries are one of a range of knowledge translation options used to support evidence-informed decision making. The literature relevant to obesity prevention requires synthesis for it to be accessible and relevant to…

  11. Preparing to provide MTM services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Zandra M; Mahdavian, Soheyla L; Woodard, Todd J

    2015-02-01

    Medication Therapy Management (MTM) has been a way for pharmacist to enhance their position as an integral member of the health care team as the need for improved clinical and economic outcomes in relation to the US health care system became apparent. MTM Certificate training programs are provided by numerous organizations. Collaboration Practice Agreements (CPA) are gaining significance as the role of the pharmacist is expanding in the care of patient