WorldWideScience

Sample records for range ordering increases

  1. Extended-range order in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Egami, T.; Hu, Rui-Zhong [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Howells, W.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    A new type of order is identified in complex glasses, characterized by diffraction peaks at values of the wave vector below those typical of intermediate-range order. Combined neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction studies of one glass exhibiting this behavior, vitreous rubidium germanate, indicate it to be associated with chemical ordering of the two cations with respect to each other.

  2. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1970-01-01

    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  3. Long-range order in canary song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  4. Quasicrystals as alloys with short-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulston, K.W., E-mail: sulston@upei.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Burrows, B.L. [Mathematics Section, Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Technology, Staffordshire University, Beaconside, Stafford ST18 0DG (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    The electronic structure of quasiperiodic lattices is studied. An alloy theory, including short-range order effects, is used to approximate Fibonacci and Thue-Morse lattices. Short-range order is treated by embedding small clusters in an alloy that itself incorporates a two-site approximation, and the probabilities of these clusters are used to construct an efficient procedure for the calculation of electronic properties. This approach allows easy identification of the contributions of particular clusters to the electronic density of states. As the short-range order is increased via the number of clusters, the density of states can be clearly seen to transition from that of an alloy to that of a quasicrystal. It is shown that the techniques may be applied to other lattices defined by substitution rules.

  5. Short-range order in undercooled metallic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Moritz, D.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Bellissent, R.; Convert, P.; Hansen, T.; Herlach, D.M

    2004-07-15

    The containerless processing technique of electromagnetic levitation was combined with elastic neutron scattering in order to study the short-range order (SRO) of stable and deeply undercooled liquids of the pure elements Ni, Fe and Zr and of the quasicrystal-forming alloy Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Co{sub 10}. The results deliver experimental evidence for an icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) prevailing in the investigated metallic melts.

  6. Short range order in elemental liquids of column IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, M; Shor, S; Yahel, E; Makov, G

    2015-05-21

    The short range order (SRO) in liquid elements of column IV is analysed within the quasi-crystalline model across a wide range of temperatures. It is found that l-Si, Ge, and Sn are well described with a beta-tin like SRO. In contrast, Pb retains a bcc-like SRO similar to other simple elemental liquids. However, a distinction is found between the SRO in Si and Ge and that in Sn, where the latter has a more rigid structure. This difference persists across the entire temperature range examined but is overcome in Si at pressures above 8 GPa, where the liquid structure evolves towards that of Sn.

  7. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    1978-01-01

    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  8. Atomistic microstructures in short-range ordered alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Hata, S

    2002-01-01

    Short-range order (SRO) in Ni-Mo alloys and their relatives has been controversial for decades, since it causes clearly diffraction intensity maxima at positions which do not coincide with the superlattice reflections in the long-range order (LRO) state. This paper gives an overview of recent studies on the structure of SRO and the transition from SRO to LRO in Ni-Mo alloys, including our results obtained in atomic level by combination of kinetic Monte Carlo simulation and semi-quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is rationalized in our results that the SRO state is set up by local ordering of A sub 4 B, A sub 3 B and A sub 2 B types in sub-unit cell scale. The dispersed mixture of the sub-unit cell clusters gives diffraction intensity maxima at the particular positions. An LRO state is formed by selected growth of the A sub 4 B, A sub 3 B and A sub 2 B type clusters into LRO domains depending on alloy-composition.

  9. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Short-range Lattice Distortions with Long-range Cubic Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Shi, Chenyang; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Puma, Eric; Bang, Sun Hwi; Bean, Nathaniel J. H.; de Sugny, Jean-Claude; Gambee, Robert G.; Hightower, Adrian; Monson, Todd C.

    Small barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles (atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). Fits to PDFs at temperatures of 20° to 220°C suggest that Ti atom displacements from the center of the unit cell are comparable to or even greater than those in the bulk material and persist at temperatures well above 120°C where the tetragonal to pseudo-cubic phase transition occurs in the bulk. Raman spectra acquired over a temperature range of 20° to 220°C confirm that small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a distorted unit cell even above 120°C. On the other hand, small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a long-range order consistent with a cubic lattice as recorded by laboratory XRD Bragg reflections at temperatures of 20° to 150°C. We have reconciled these seemingly contradictory data sets by fitting the PDFs over their full range of 6 nm to reveal a long-range structure with a reduced lattice distortion that still manages to support tetragonal Raman lines but is sufficiently close to cubic to yield apparent Bragg peak singlets. US DOE NNSA contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and US DOE Office of Science contract DE-SC00112704.

  10. Long-range ordered nanodomains of grafted electroactive molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, R; Marsault, M; Repain, V; Lagoute, J; Chacon, C; Girard, Y; Rousset, S; Qin, Z; Battaglini, N; Zrig, S; Lang, P

    2013-11-28

    We demonstrate the capability to build zero and one-dimensional electroactive molecular nanostructures ordered over a macroscopic scale and stable under ambient conditions. To realize these arrays, we use the selective grafting of functionalized thiols (juglon and terthiophene based) on a self-organized metallic template. The nanoscale patterning of the molecular conductance is demonstrated and analyzed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Finally, the influence of the nanostructuring on electro-chemical properties is measured, paving the way to an all-bottom-up fabrication of nanostructured templates for nanosciences.

  11. Short range ordering and microstructure property relationship in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariq, A.

    2006-07-01

    rate during splat quenching is sufficient for the vitrification of this alloy system. Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} bulk samples and splat samples, both exhibit very soft ferromagnetic properties. The heat treatment of as cast bulk sample results in an increase in net magnetization. The crystallization kinetics during the heat treatment, effects both the remanent magnetization, M{sub r} and coercivity, H{sub c} accordingly. Intriguingly, a salient increase in soft ferromagnetic properties is recorded for the heat treated splat samples. (orig.)

  12. Short- and medium-range orders in Cu46Zr54 metallic glasses under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, W. R.; Yao, X. H.; Wang, L.; Tang, X. C.; Luo, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate short- and medium-range orders in Cu46Zr54 metallic glasses, as represented by icosahedra and icosahedron networks, respectively, under shock compression with molecular dynamics simulations. Complementary isothermal compression and isobaric heating simulations reveal that compression below 60 GPa gives rise to increased coordination and thus high-coordination-number Voronoi polyhedra, such as icosahedra; however, pressure-induced collapse or thermal disintegration of icosahedra (and subsequently, icosahedron networks) occurs at pressures above 60 GPa or at melting, accompanied by free volume increase. The evolutions of the short- and medium-range orders upon shock loading are the effects of compression combined with shock-induced melting. The structural changes are partially reversible for weak shocks without melting (below 60 GPa) and irreversible for strong shocks. Crystallization does not occur under isothermal or shock compression at molecular dynamics scales.

  13. Large Increase of the Curie Temperature by Orbital Ordering Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoc, Aymeric; Mercey, Bernard; Simon, Charles; Grebille, Dominique; Prellier, Wilfrid; Lepetit, Marie-Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Using first principle calculations we showed that the Curie temperature of manganites thin films can be increased by far more than an order of magnitude by applying appropriate strains. Our main breakthrough is that the control of the orbital ordering responsible for the spectacular TC increase cannot be imposed by the substrate only. Indeed, the strains, first applied by the substrate, need to be maintained over the growth direction by the alternation of the manganite layers with another appropriate material. Following these theoretical findings, we synthesized such superlattices and verified our theoretical predictions.

  14. Hybrid Projectile Body Angle Estimation for Selectable Range Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J.

    A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a tube launched munition that transforms into a gliding UAV, and is currently being researched at West Virginia University. A simple launch timer was first envisioned to control the transformation point in order to achieve maximum distance. However, this timer would need to be reprogrammed for any distance less than maximum range due to the nominal time to deployment varying with launch angle. A method was sought for automatic wing deployment that would not require reprogramming the round. A body angle estimation system was used to estimate the pitch of the HP relative to the Earth to determine when the HP is properly oriented for the designed glide slope angle. It was also necessary to filter out noise from a simulated inertial measurement unit (IMU), GPS receiver, and magnetometer. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was chosen to estimate the Euler angles, position and velocity of the HP while an algorithm determined when to deploy the wings. A parametric study was done to verify the optimum deployment condition using a Simulink aerodynamic model. Because range is directly related to launch angle, various launch angles were simulated in the model. By fixing the glide slope angle to -10° as a deployment condition for all launch angles, the range differed only by a maximum of 6.1% from the maximum possible range. Based on these findings, the body angle deployment condition provides the most flexible option to maintain maximum distance without the need of reprogramming. Position and velocity estimates were also determined from the EKF using the GPS measurements. Simulations showed that the EKF estimates exhibited low root mean squared error values, corresponding to less than 3% of the total position values. Because the HP was in flight for less than a minute in this experiment, the drift encountered was acceptable.

  15. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-13

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  16. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic long-range order in Tb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    and implies no change in the long-range order. In the close vicinity of the Neacuteel temperature TN = 226deg K the spiral magnetic long-range order varies as (TN-T)0.25plusmn 0.01, whereas the total order within a wider temperature range roughly follows (TN-T)1/3. The turn angle per layer varies from 16.5deg...

  17. Communication: Anomalous temperature dependence of the intermediate range order in phosphonium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; Margulis, Claudio J., E-mail: claudio-margulis@uiowa.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    In a recent article by the Castner and Margulis groups [Faraday Discuss. 154, 133 (2012)], we described in detail the structure of the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquid as a function of temperature using X-ray scattering, and theoretical partitions of the computationally derived structure function. Interestingly, and as opposed to the case in most other ionic-liquids, the first sharp diffraction peak or prepeak appears to increase in intensity as temperature is increased. This phenomenon is counter intuitive as one would expect that intermediate range order fades as temperature increases. This Communication shows that a loss of hydrophobic tail organization at higher temperatures is counterbalanced by better organization of polar components giving rise to the increase in intensity of the prepeak.

  18. Chemical short range order obtained from the atomic pair distribution function

    OpenAIRE

    Proffen, Th.; Petkov, V.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Vogt, T.

    2002-01-01

    Many crystalline materials show chemical short range order and relaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) obtained from powder diffraction data. In this paper, we present the successful extraction of chemical short range order parameters from the x-ray PDF of a quenched Cu_3Au sample.

  19. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z. G.; Bishop, A. R.; Neto, A. H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    1998-01-01

    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. We show that the main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a dipolar short-range interaction generated by the short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. We find four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the de...

  20. Tuning anomalous Hall conductivity in L1[sub 0] FePt films by long range chemical ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, M.

    2011-02-24

    For L10 FePt films, the anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy=-a σxx-b, where a=a0f(T), b=b 0f(T), and f (T) is the temperature dependence factor of the spontaneous magnetization. With increasing chemical long range ordering S, a0 changes its sign accompanied by a reduction of its magnitude and b0 increases monotonically. The spin-orbit coupling strength is suggested to increase with increasing S. As an approach, the long range chemical ordering can be used to control the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic alloy films. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Long-range dipolar order and dispersion forces in polar liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Christofferson, Andrew Joseph; Liu, Maoyuan; Yarovsky, Irene

    2017-11-21

    Complex solvation phenomena, such as specific ion effects, occur in polar liquids. Interpretation of these effects in terms of structure and dispersion forces will lead to a greater understanding of solvation. Herein, using molecular dynamics, we probe the structure of polar liquids through specific dipolar pair correlation functions that contribute to the potential of mean force that is "felt" between thermally rotating dipole moments. It is shown that unique dipolar order exists at separations at least up to 20 Å for all liquids studied. When the structural order is compared with a dipolar dispersion force that arises from local co-operative enhancement of dipole moments, a strong agreement is found. Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces was compared with the structural order, where the theory is validated for all liquids that do not have significant local dipole correlations. For liquids that do have significant local dipole correlations, specifically liquid water, Lifshitz theory underestimates the dispersion force by a factor of 5-10, demonstrating that the force that leads to the increased structure in liquid water is missed by Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. We apply similar correlation functions to an ionic aqueous system, where long-range order between water's dipole moment and a single chloride ion is found to exist at 20 Å of separation, revealing a long-range perturbation of water's structure by an ion. Furthermore, we found that waters within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd solvation shells of a chloride ion exhibit significantly enhanced dipolar interactions, particularly with waters at larger distances of separation. Our results provide a link between structures, dispersion forces, and specific ion effects, which may lead to a more robust understanding of solvation.

  2. Long-range dipolar order and dispersion forces in polar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Christofferson, Andrew Joseph; Liu, Maoyuan; Yarovsky, Irene

    2017-11-01

    Complex solvation phenomena, such as specific ion effects, occur in polar liquids. Interpretation of these effects in terms of structure and dispersion forces will lead to a greater understanding of solvation. Herein, using molecular dynamics, we probe the structure of polar liquids through specific dipolar pair correlation functions that contribute to the potential of mean force that is "felt" between thermally rotating dipole moments. It is shown that unique dipolar order exists at separations at least up to 20 Å for all liquids studied. When the structural order is compared with a dipolar dispersion force that arises from local co-operative enhancement of dipole moments, a strong agreement is found. Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces was compared with the structural order, where the theory is validated for all liquids that do not have significant local dipole correlations. For liquids that do have significant local dipole correlations, specifically liquid water, Lifshitz theory underestimates the dispersion force by a factor of 5-10, demonstrating that the force that leads to the increased structure in liquid water is missed by Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. We apply similar correlation functions to an ionic aqueous system, where long-range order between water's dipole moment and a single chloride ion is found to exist at 20 Å of separation, revealing a long-range perturbation of water's structure by an ion. Furthermore, we found that waters within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd solvation shells of a chloride ion exhibit significantly enhanced dipolar interactions, particularly with waters at larger distances of separation. Our results provide a link between structures, dispersion forces, and specific ion effects, which may lead to a more robust understanding of solvation.

  3. Short-range second order screened exchange correction to RPA correlation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Direct random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energies have become increasingly popular as a post-Kohn-Sham correction, due to significant improvements over DFT calculations for properties such as long-range dispersion effects, which are problematic in conventional density functional theory. On the other hand, RPA still has various weaknesses, such as unsatisfactory results for non-isogyric processes. This can in parts be attributed to the self-correlation present in RPA correlation energies, leading to significant self-interaction errors. Therefore a variety of schemes have been devised to include exchange in the calculation of RPA correlation energies in order to correct this shortcoming. One of the most popular RPA plus exchange schemes is the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) correction. RPA + SOSEX delivers more accurate absolute correlation energies and also improves upon RPA for non-isogyric processes. On the other hand, RPA + SOSEX barrier heights are worse than those obtained from plain RPA calculations. To combine the benefits of RPA correlation energies and the SOSEX correction, we introduce a short-range RPA + SOSEX correction. Proof of concept calculations and benchmarks showing the advantages of our method are presented.

  4. Natural gels: crystal-chemistry of short range ordered components in Al, Fe, and Si systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G. [Paris-6 et 7 Univ. and IPGP, Lab. de Mineralogie-Cristallographie, UA CNRS 09, 75 (France)

    1997-07-01

    In this review, the most important inorganic natural gels are presented: opal, aluminosilicate (allophanes) and hydrous iron oxides and silicates. It is demonstrated that natural gels are ordered at the atomic scale. In allophanes, Al is distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The amount of Al increases as Al/Si ratio decreases. Si-rich allophane have a local structure around Al and Si very different of that is known in kaolinite or halloysite. Transformation of Si-rich allophanes to crystallized minerals implies dissolution-recrystallization processes. On the contrary, in iron silicate with Fe/Si = 0.72, Si and Fe environments are close to those found in nontronite. The gel transformation to Fe-smectite may occur by long range ordering during ageing. In ferric silicate gels, the similarity of local structure around Fe in poorly ordered precursors and what is known in crystallized minerals suggests a solid transformation during ageing. This difference between iron and aluminium is mainly due to the ability of Al to enter both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, while the affinity of iron for octahedral sites is higher at low temperature.

  5. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad, E-mail: apjena@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sanyal, Biplab, E-mail: biplab.sanyal@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Mookerjee, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit.mookerjee61@gmail.com [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-01-15

    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments. - Highlights: • The magnetism in FeCr is sensitively depended on the ordering of the atoms : disordered or with short ranged ordering. • This work uses the SQS technique suggested by Zunger has been used to generate various degrees of short range ordering in FeCr. • The electronic structure and pair energies have been obatined from first principles ASR and Lichtenstein methods. • The effect of chemical ordering on magnetic ordering is studied in detail. • Only those situations where the chemical ordering is complete have been studied.

  6. Nurses' opinions on appropriate administration of PRN range opioid analgesic orders for acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra B; Pellino, Teresa A; Higgins, Gerry Ann; Pasero, Chris; Murphy-Ende, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    The use of "as needed" or "pro re nata" (PRN) range opioid analgesic orders is a common clinical practice in the management of acute pain, designed to provide flexibility in dosing to meet an individual's unique needs. Range orders enable necessary adjustments in doses based on individual response to treatment. However, PRN range opioid orders have recently come under scrutiny as a source of confusion and as a medication management safety issue. How nurses administer range orders may vary based on their interpretation of the intent of an order, inadequate knowledge of analgesic titration, or exaggerated concerns about opioid safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' opinions of the appropriate implementation of range orders. Six hundred two nurses from one large academic medical center and one multihospital system completed an online survey using theoretic clinical vignettes to examine their opinions of appropriate analgesic administration practices. The majority of participants chose appropriate responses to the vignettes; however, there was a great deal of variability in responses. Those who had attended pain management courses were more likely to have a higher percentage of appropriate responses than those who had not attended courses. Years in practice and educational level were not significantly related to percentage of appropriate responses; however, there was a trend for nurses with a master's degree to have a higher percentage than nurses with other educational preparation. Consideration of opioid pharmacokinetics can provide logic to develop a new paradigm where range orders are replaced with orders that provide more explicit instructions to titrate an opioid to the most effective dose.

  7. Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Huang, Da; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S; Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2014-01-10

    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the "long range" regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)(6); power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A "superlens", however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system.

  8. Increased fuel standards among broad range of energy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    During simpler times, the mention of the word 'cafe' might have primarily conjured up images of sidewalk coffee and tea bars along Paris' Champs-Elysees. However, with today's concerns about energy needs, CAFE or Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for automobile fuel efficiency is a hot topic.On August 2, the U.S. House of Representa tives passed an energy bill rejecting a proposal to substantially increase CAFE standards for increasingly popular sport utility vehicles (SUVs). The proposal, which would have required SUVs to increase their current fleet average of 20.5 miles per gallon (mpg) to 27.5 mpg by 2007, to equal the current passenger car fleet requirement, was shelved for a requirement to more modestly raise mpgs by cutting total SUV gasoline usage by 5 billion gallons over 6 years.

  9. Investigating the medium range order in amorphous Ta2O5 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Riccardo; Hart, Martin; Byer, Robert L.; Borisenko, Konstantin B.; Evans, Keith; Fejer, Martin M.; Lin, Angie C.; MacLaren, Ian; Markosyan, Ashot S.; Martin, Iain W.; Route, Roger K.; Rowan, Sheila

    2014-06-01

    Ion-beam sputtered amorphous heavy metal oxides, such as Ta2O5, are widely used as the high refractive index layer of highly reflective dielectric coatings. Such coatings are used in the ground based Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), in which mechanical loss, directly related to Brownian thermal noise, from the coatings forms an important limit to the sensitivity of the LIGO detector. It has previously been shown that heat-treatment and TiO2 doping of amorphous Ta2O5 coatings causes significant changes to the levels of mechanical loss measured and is thought to result from changes in the atomic structure. This work aims to find ways to reduce the levels of mechanical loss in the coatings by understanding the atomic structure properties that are responsible for it, and thus helping to increase the LIGO detector sensitivity. Using a combination of Reduced Density Functions (RDFs) from electron diffraction and Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM), we probe the medium range order (in the 2-3 nm range) of these amorphous coatings.

  10. Staying Out of Range: Increasing Attacking Distance in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Noto, Angelo; Chavda, Shyam; Atlay, Nathan; Kirby, David

    2017-03-14

    To avoid being hit, fencers typically adopt an out of range position, which was hypothesized to be governed by body- and action-scaled affordances. This theory was measured in elite and national level junior (u20) fencers. Associations between "reachability" of lunging and step-lunging attacks, was assessed against height, arm-span, leg-span, body mass and lower-body power, and then compared across level. Reachability was determined as the distance covered by fencers during these attacks and was reported as actual and estimated distances. Elite fencers are better at estimating their lunging and step-lunge distance compared to national ranked junior fencers (-0.9 vs. 7.3 % and 5.4 vs. 10.9 % respectively). Surprisingly, elite fencers' actual and estimated distances for these was less than the junior fencers' (222.6 vs. 251.5 cm and 299.3 vs. 360.2 cm respectively), and significantly so in the former. Finally only arm (r = .81) and leg span (r = .71) were significantly correlated to estimated lunging distance and this was only in elite fencers. Findings suggest that better fencers can accurately predict their attack range and that reachability appears to be positively influenced by arm and leg-span; these may feed in to talent identification. Given that distances were less in elite fencers, findings suggests that timing and distance estimation are key skills to master, and that the mastery of these in offensive actions can mitigate to a large extent, the physical benefits of an opponent's greater height.

  11. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days),

  12. Hidden long-range order in a two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled Bose gas

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Shih-Wei; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Liao, Renyuan; Fialko, Oleksandr; Brand, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled Bose gas is shown to simultaneously possess quasi and true long-range orders in the total and relative phases, respectively. The total phase undergoes a conventional Berenzinskii- Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, where an quasi long-range order is expected. Additionally, the relative phase undergoes an Ising-type transition building up true long-range order, which is induced by the anisotropic spin- orbit coupling. Based on the Bogoliubov approach, expressions for the total- and relative-phase fluctuations are derived analytically for the low temperature regime. Numerical simulations of the stochastic projected Gross- Pitaevskii equation give a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  13. Long-Range Charge Order in the Extended Holstein-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the extended Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling as a model for describing the interplay of electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings. When the electron-phonon and nearest-neighbor electron-electron interactions are strong, we prove the existence of long-range charge order in three or more dimensions at a sufficiently low temperature. As a result, we rigorously justify the phase competition between the antiferromagnetism and charge orders.

  14. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannette, Matthew Dano [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, χ, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (~10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of TC local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in χ which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in χ well below TC which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.

  15. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Snyder, Rebecca J; Zhihe, Zhang; Marr, M Jackson; Maple, Terry L

    2011-06-23

    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed otters, a related monogamous species in which males and females share home ranges. These results provide the first evidence of sex differences in spatial ability in the order Carnivora, and are consistent with the range size hypothesis.

  16. Some methods of increasing the density of metal in order to increase him corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanov, I. V.; Anikeev, A. N.; Sergeev, D. V.; Maltseva, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    Methods to increase the density of metal in order to increase its corrosion resistance in an aggressive environment are examined in the article. Two steel grades, differing in the content of alloying elements, increasing the resistance to corrosion are selected for the manufacture of experimental metallic materials. Two technologies are chosen as methods for increasing the density, and as a result, corrosion resistance, of the experimental materials obtained: the first is electroslag remelting with rotation of the consumable electrode, the second is centrifugal casting with modification. The microstructure of the metal becomes more homogeneous, the degree of metal refining from non-metallic inclusions increases, the rate of crystallization during metal smelting by the ESR method increases with rotation of the consumable electrode. When ingots are produced by the method of centrifugal casting, they are modified with dispersed WC and TiC particles, which increases the crystallization rate, increases the metal density, corrosion and mechanical properties. The evaluation of their corrosion resistance with the help of the autoclaved test complex “Cortest” is made after obtaining ingots by various technologies.

  17. Longe-Range Order in beta-Brass Studied by Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1974-01-01

    The long-range order, M(T), in β-brass has been measured by neutron diffraction from a small extinction-free crystal. The results agree with those obtained recently by x-ray diffraction. Near Tc our data are in accordance with a power law M(T)=D(1-T/Tc)β with the critical exponent β=0...

  18. Magnetic structures of vanadium iodide (VI2): long- and short-range order and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, S. R.; Sanchez, J. P.; Haas, C.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data of VI2 show a magnetic phase transition at 14 K from a 120° magnetic structure to a collinear structure. The collinear structure is compatible with low-temp. Moessbauer spectra. The 120° structure is not a magnetic phase with long-range order but rather a paramagnetic phase

  19. Charge Ordering and Long-Range Interactions in Layered Transition Metal Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, B.P.; Yu, Z.G.; Bishop, A.R.; Gro/nbech-Jensen, N. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Neto, A.H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within a continuum formulation of the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. The main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a magnetic dipolar short-range interaction generated by short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. Four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the density of holes exist: Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, horizontal-vertical stripes (loops). and a glassy-clumped phase. The effect of temperature, disorder, and lattice effects on these phases are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Long-range order between the planets in the Solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    The Solar System is investigated for positional correlations between the planets using a logarithmic distance scale. The pair correlation function for the logarithm of the semimajor axis shows a regular distribution with 5-7 consecutive peaks, and the Fourier transform hereof shows reciprocal peaks...... of first and second order. A procedure involving random permutations for the shuffling of the inter--logarithmic distances is employed to check for the significance of the presence of order of longer range than neighbor planets correlations. The use of permutations is a particular helpful analysis when...... the number of data points is small. The pair correlation function of the permutated planets lacks the sequence of equidistant peaks and its Fourier transform has no second order peak. This analysis demonstrates the existence of longer ranged correlations in the Solar System....

  1. Recent studies of short-range order in alloys: The Cowley theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Moss, S.C. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-02-08

    We present comparisons of various statistical theories for effective pair interactions (EPI) in alloys. We then evaluate these EPI`s using the Cowley theory, the Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss (KCM) approximation, the {gamma}-expansion method (GEM) of Tokar, Masanskii and coworkers, and the exact inverse Monte Carlo (IMC) method, introduced by Gerold and Kern. Via a series of model calculations on a hypothetical bcc alloy with a single nearest-neighbor interaction we show that the Cowley theory is successful in evaluating the EPI`s in more dilute alloys but tends to overestimate the magnitude of the nearest neighbor energy at higher concentrations, whereas the KCM expression becomes increasingly inaccurate at lower concentrations. In general, however, the approximate mean field theories are most accurate at higher concentrations and higher temperatures. Recent studies of short-range order in single crystals are discussed in which these EPI`s have been evaluated using the IMC, KCM, GEM and Cowley theories. Examples include the bcc alloy Fe{sub 0.53}Cr{sub 0.47} and the fcc alloys Cu{sub 3} Au, CU{sub 0.69}Zn{sub 0.31} and Ni{sub 0.89}BgCr{sub 0.11}. In all cases the approximate expressions do quite well, especially the GEM.

  2. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hao, Shaogang; Kramer, Matthew; Yao, Yongxin; Mendelev, Mikhail; Napolitano, Ralph; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2011-12-23

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe 'Bergman triacontahedron' packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  3. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X W; Wang, C Z; Hao, S G; Kramer, M J; Yao, Y X; Mendelev, M I; Ding, Z J; Napolitano, R E; Ho, K M

    2011-01-01

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu(64.5)Zr(35.5) alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe "Bergman triacontahedron" packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  4. Polariton Chimeras: Bose-Einstein Condensates with Intrinsic Chaoticity and Spontaneous Long-Range Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The system of cavity polaritons driven by a plane electromagnetic wave is found to undergo the spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetry, which results in a lifted phase locking with respect to the driving field and, consequently, in the possibility of internal ordering. In particular, periodic spin and intensity patterns arise in polariton wires; they exhibit strong long-range order and can serve as media for signal transmission. Such patterns have the properties of dynamical chimeras: they are formed spontaneously in perfectly homogeneous media and can be partially chaotic. The reported new mechanism of chimera formation requires neither time-delayed feedback loops nor nonlocal interactions.

  5. Long-range nematic order and anomalous fluctuations in suspensions of swimming filamentous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Daiki; Nagai, Ken H.; Chaté, Hugues; Sano, Masaki

    2017-02-01

    We study the collective dynamics of elongated swimmers in a very thin fluid layer by devising long filamentous nontumbling bacteria. The strong confinement induces weak nematic alignment upon collision, which, for large enough density of cells, gives rise to global nematic order. This homogeneous but fluctuating phase, observed on the largest experimentally accessible scale of millimeters, exhibits the properties predicted by standard models for flocking, such as the Vicsek-style model of polar particles with nematic alignment: true long-range nematic order and nontrivial giant number fluctuations.

  6. Distortion-triggered loss of long-range order in solids with bonding energy hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobov, A V; Krbal, M; Fons, P; Tominaga, J; Uruga, T

    2011-04-01

    An amorphous-to-crystal transition in phase-change materials like Ge-Sb-Te is widely used for data storage. The basic principle is to take advantage of the property contrast between the crystalline and amorphous states to encode information; amorphization is believed to be caused by melting the materials with an intense laser or electrical pulse and subsequently quenching the melt. Here, we demonstrate that distortions in the crystalline phase may trigger a collapse of long-range order, generating the amorphous phase without going through the liquid state. We further show that the principal change in optical properties occurs during the distortion of the still crystalline structure, upsetting yet another commonly held belief that attributes the change in properties to the loss of long-range order. Furthermore, our results suggest a way to lower energy consumption by condensing phase change inducing energy into shorter pulses or through the use of coherent phonon excitation.

  7. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transitionmetal oxides: a quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z.G.; Chernyshev, A.L.; Bishop, A.R.; Neto, A.H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    1999-12-01

    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF), is studied within a model derived from the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. A novel numerical approach is developed which allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of order hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge-phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange, and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal shapes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops) and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist.At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed.

  8. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides: A quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Yu, Z. G. [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Chernyshev, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Bishop, A. R. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Castro Neto, A. H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Groenbech-Jensen, Niels [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 and NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2000-08-15

    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF) is studied within a model derived from the spin-density-wave picture of layered transition metal oxides.A novel numerical approach is developed that allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of the order of hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops), and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist. At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. Short- and medium-range order in Zr[subscript 80]Pt[subscript 20] liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, N.A.; Wessels, V.; Bendert, J.C.; Klein, S.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Kramer, M.J.; Hao, S.G.; Rustan, G.E.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A.I.; Kelton, K.F. (WU); (ETH Zurich); (Iowa State); (IMW-Germany)

    2011-12-09

    The atomic structures in equilibrium and supercooled liquids of Zr{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} were determined as a function of temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron diffraction studies of the levitated liquids (containerless processing) using the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) technique. The presence of a pronounced pre-peak at q - 1.7 {angstrom}{sup -1} in the static structure factor indicates medium-range order (MRO) in the liquid. The position and intensity of the pre-peak remain constant with cooling, indicating that the MRO is already present in the liquid above its melting temperature. An analysis of the liquid atomic structures obtained using the Reverse Monte Carlo method utilizing both the structure factor S(q) from x-ray diffraction experiments and the partial pair-correlation functions from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the pre-peak arises from a Pt-Pt correlation that can be identified with icosahedral short-range order around the Pt atoms. The local atomic ordering is dominated by icosahedral-like structures, raising the nucleation barrier between the liquid and these phases, thus assisting glass formation.

  10. Distinct Short-Range Order Is Inherent to Small Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Clusters (<2 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shengtong [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany; School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Materials Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road Shanghai 200237 P.R. China; Chevrier, Daniel M. [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 Canada; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 Canada; Gebauer, Denis [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany; Cölfen, Helmut [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany

    2016-09-09

    Amorphous intermediate phases are vital precursors in the crystallization of many biogenic minerals. While inherent short-range orders have been found in amorphous calcium carbonates (ACCs) relating to different crystalline forms, it has never been clarified experimentally whether such orders already exist in very small clusters less than 2 nm in size. Here, we studied the stability and structure of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) protected ACC clusters with a core size of ca. 1.4 nm consisting of only seven CaCO3 units. Ligand concentration and structure are shown to be key factors in stabilizing the ACC clusters. More importantly, even in such small CaCO3 entities, a proto-calcite short-range order can be identified but with a relatively high degree of disorder that arises from the very small size of the CaCO3 core. Our findings support the notion of a structural link between prenucleation clusters, amorphous intermediates, and final crystalline polymorphs, which appears central to the understanding of polymorph selection.

  11. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.

    2015-07-01

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  12. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimakura, H. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Ohara, K. [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, T. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Takeda, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  13. Shiga toxin induces membrane reorganization and formation of long range lipid order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Johannes, Ludger; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2015-01-01

    microscopy. A content of 1% of glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor lipids in a bilayer was used to bind the Shiga toxin B-subunit to the surface of gel domains. Binding of the Shiga toxin B-subunit to lipids led to the modulation of orientational membrane texture in gel domains and induced...... membrane reordering. When Shiga toxin was added above the lipid chain melting temperature, the toxin interaction with the membrane induced rearrangement and clustering of Gb3 lipids that resulted in the long range order and alignment of lipids in gel domains. The toxin induced redistribution of Gb3 lipids...

  14. Local Structure and Short-Range Order in a NiCoCr Solid Solution Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. X.; Zhao, Shijun; Jin, Ke; Xue, H.; Velisa, G.; Bei, H.; Huang, R.; Ko, J. Y. P.; Pagan, D. C.; Neuefeind, J. C.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Yanwen

    2017-05-01

    Multielement solid solution alloys are intrinsically disordered on the atomic scale, and many of their advanced properties originate from the local structural characteristics. The local structure of a NiCoCr solid solution alloy is measured with x-ray or neutron total scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques. The atomic pair distribution function analysis does not exhibit an observable structural distortion. However, an EXAFS analysis suggests that the Cr atoms are favorably bonded with Ni and Co in the solid solution alloys. This short-range order (SRO) may make an important contribution to the low values of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the Cr-alloyed solid solutions. In addition, an EXAFS analysis of Ni ion irradiated samples reveals that the degree of SRO in NiCoCr alloys is enhanced after irradiation.

  15. Predicting Short-Range Order in Multicomponent Alloys from an Improved Mean-Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Johnson, Duane

    2007-03-01

    In alloys the atomic short-range order (SRO) indicates the nascent ordering to which the disordered alloy is tending at high temperatures. Direct first-principles prediction based upon KKR-CPA and mean-field thermodynamics have been successful in predicting system-specific SRO [1], if, at a minimum, corrections are included to satisfy the diffuse scattering sum rule in k-space. However, such models do not account for k-dependence of the corrections. Here, we present an analytic generalization to multicomponent alloys that includes ``cyclic diagrams'' [2,3] for composition, temperature, and k-dependent corrections to SRO. We first explore the improvement to SRO in model fcc ternary alloys via the generalized Ising model. We find that there is much better agreement to Monte Carlo simulations than with standard Bragg-Williams with(out) Onsager corrections. Then we implement this within the KKR-CPA linear-response theory of SRO.Work was supported by DOE (Award DEFG02-03ER46026 and NSF (DMR-0325939). [1] J.B. Staunton, D.D. Johnson, and F.J. Pinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1259 (1990); Phys. Rev. B 50, 1450 (1994); ibid, 57, 15177 (1998). [2] R. Brout, Phys. Rev. 115, 824-835 (1959). [3] R.V. Chepulski, et al, Phys. Rev. 65, 064201-7 (2002).

  16. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, C.; Howes, P. B.; Baker, S. H.; Marchetto, H.; Potenza, A.; Steadman, P.; Dhesi, S. S.; Roy, M.; Everard, M. J.; Rushforth, A.

    2008-02-01

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm (~200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length ~5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  17. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Howes, P B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Baker, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Marchetto, H [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Potenza, A [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Steadman, P [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Dhesi, S S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Roy, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Everard, M J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rushforth, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-06

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm ({approx}200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length {approx}5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  18. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate... Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate from $12 to $18 per ton (an increase of $0.003 per pound). The Order is administered by the U.S. Highbush Blueberry...

  19. Long-range order in V/sub 2/H near the. beta. -epsilon phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, B.; Moss, S.C.; Kjaer, K.

    1987-10-01

    The integrated intensity I of h/2 0 h/2-bar superstructure reflections has been measured with x rays for a single crystal of V/sub 2/H. Just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the ..beta..-epsilon phase transition, I varies as (1-T/T/sub c/)/sup 2//sup ..beta../ with ..beta.. = 0.153 +- 0.007, increasing to ..beta.. = 0.17 and 0.20 when referred to a rigid volume and c lattice parameter, respectively, through a lattice-expansion correction. By comparing heating and cooling runs the second-order character of this phase transition has been demonstrated. A shift of T/sub c/, however, was observed when data were taken without first thermally cycling the crystal close to T/sub c/.

  20. Swellable Model POPC/POPG/DHPC Membrane with a Lamellar Long-Range Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2012-02-01

    A physiological relevant biomimetic model membrane is of great necessity for the structural characterization of membrane protein. This presentation will report a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) result on two lipid bicellar series composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(POPC)/1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) and POPC/DHPC/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG). Instead of the multi-lamellae vesicle (MLV) structure observed in zwitterionic POPC/DHPC mixture, the perforated lamellae (PL) structure is found in POPC/POPG/DHPC upon addition of small amount of charged lipid, POPG R=[POPG]/([POPC]+[POPG])=0.01. The PL phase exists from 10 to 60 degree C and the interlamellar spacing (d-spacing) varies from 12.9 to 49.0 nm as the lipid concentration changes from 25 to 7.5% wt where the lamellae still indicate long-range order. The effect of temperature and charge density (R) on structural variation will be discussed in this presentation.

  1. Application of long-range order to predict unfolding rates of two-state proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harihar, B; Selvaraj, S

    2011-03-01

    Predicting the experimental unfolding rates of two-state proteins and models describing the unfolding rates of these proteins is quite limited because of the complexity present in the unfolding mechanism and the lack of experimental unfolding data compared with folding data. In this work, 25 two-state proteins characterized by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616) using a consensus set of experimental conditions were taken, and the parameter long-range order (LRO) derived from their three-dimensional structures were related with their experimental unfolding rates ln(k(u)). From the total data set of 30 proteins used by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616), five slow-unfolding proteins with very low unfolding rates were considered to be outliers and were not included in our data set. Except all beta structural class, LRO of both the all-alpha and mixed-class proteins showed a strong inverse correlation of r = -0.99 and -0.88, respectively, with experimental ln(k(u)). LRO shows a correlation of -0.62 with experimental ln(k(u)) for all-beta proteins. For predicting the unfolding rates, a simple statistical method has been used and linear regression equations were developed for individual structural classes of proteins using LRO, and the results obtained showed a better agreement with experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Proof of long range order in 4-d SU(N) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    An extended version of 4-d SU(2) lattice gauge theory is considered in which different inverse coupling parameters are used, $\\beta_H=4/g_{H}^2$ for plaquettes which are purely spacelike, and $\\beta_V$ for those which involve the Euclidean timelike direction. It is shown that when $\\beta_H = \\infty$ the partition function becomes, in the Coulomb Gauge, exactly that of a set of non-interacting 3-d O(4) classical Heisenberg models. Long range order at low temperatures (weak coupling) has been rigorously proven for this model. It is shown that the correlation function demonstrating spontaneous magnetization in the ferromagnetic phase is a continuous function of $g_H$ at $g_H =0$ and therefore that the spontaneously broken phase enters the ($\\beta_H$, $\\beta_V$) phase plane (no step discontinuity at the edge). Once the phase transition line has entered, it can only exit at another identified edge, which requires the SU(2) gauge theory within also to have a phase transition at finite $\\beta$. A phase exhibiting sp...

  3. Short-range order structure and effective pair-interaction energy in Ni-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takumi [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Hitachi, Ltd., Shinmachi Ome-shi, Tokyo 198-8512 (Japan); Osaka, Keiichi [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Industrial Application Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)], E-mail: k-osaka@spring8.or.jp; Takama, Toshihiko [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Chen, Haydn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-09-15

    The diffuse X-ray scattering from single crystals of Ni - 11.3 at.% Si and 12.3 at.% Si, both aged at 1293 K followed by a water quench, was measured at room temperature. The measured diffuse intensities were analyzed to determine the Warren-Cowley atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters {alpha}{sub lmn}. The 17 values of {alpha}{sub lmn} obtained were fitted in a 5 x 10{sup 5} atom model crystal to simulate the SRO. It was found that the C16 and the C17 configurations are significantly enhanced in comparison to a random crystal. The pair-interaction energies V{sub lmn} were obtained using an inverse Monte Carlo method from the {alpha}{sub lmn} parameters. Assuming that V{sub lmn} are independent of temperature, the {alpha}{sub lmn} were calculated as a function of temperature on the basis of the Monte Carlo simulation. The curves of {alpha}{sub lmn} for 11.3 at.% Si showed a knee point at 1262 (19) K and for 12.3 at.% Si at 1325 (11) K. Both temperatures are higher by about 100 K than those of the (fcc/fcc + L1{sub 2}) phase boundary in an equilibrium phase diagram.

  4. Increased higher-order optical aberrations after laser refractive surgery: a problem of subclinical decentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Kaemmerer, M; Mierdel, P; Seiler, T

    2001-03-01

    To study the clinical and theoretical effects of subclinical decentrations on the optical performance of the eye after photorefractive laser surgery. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Ocular aberrations were determined before and 1 month after uneventful photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with the Multiscan laser (Schwind) in 10 eyes of 8 patients. The corrections ranged from -2.5 to -6.0 diopters, and ablation zones of 6.0 mm and larger were used. The measured wavefront errors were compared to numerical simulations using the individually determined decentrations and currently used ablation profiles. The PRK-induced aberrations were significantly greater than the preoperative aberrations. The numerically calculated increase in the higher-order optical aberrations correlated with the clinical results, demonstrating a major increase in coma- and spherical-like aberrations. Subclinical decentration (less than 1.0 mm) was found to be a major factor in increased coma-like and spherical-like aberrations after corneal laser surgery. To minimize higher-order optical errors, special efforts to center the ablation zone are necessary; for example, by eye-tracking systems that consider the visual axis.

  5. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Snyder, Rebecca J.; Zhihe, Zhang; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed ...

  6. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Short range-ordered (SRO) aluminosilicates (e.g., allophane) and nanophase ferric oxides (npOx) are common SRO minerals derived during aqueous alteration of basaltic materials. NpOx refers to poorly crystalline or amorphous alteration products that can be any combination of superparamagnetic hematite and/or goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, iddingsite, and nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles that pigment palagonitic tephra. Nearly 30 years ago, SRO phases were suggested as alteration phases on Mars based on similar spectral properties for altered basaltic tephra on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Martian bright regions measured by Earth-based telescopes. Detailed characterization of altered basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea have identified a variety of alteration phases including allophane, npOx, hisingerite, jarosite, alunite, hematite, goethite, ferrihydrite, halloysite, kaolinite, smectite, and zeolites. The presence of npOx and other Fe-bearing minerals (jarosite, hematite, goethite) was confirmed by the Mössbauer Spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although the presence of allophane has not been definitely identified on Mars robotic missions, chemical analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and thermal infrared spectral orbital measurements suggest the presence of allophane or allophane-like phases on Mars. SRO phases form under a variety of environmental conditions on Earth ranging from cold and arid to warm and humid, including hydrothermal conditions. The formation of SRO aluminosilicates such as allophane (and crystalline halloysite) from basaltic material is controlled by several key factors including activity of water, extent of leaching, Si activity in solution, and available Al. Generally, a low leaching index (e.g., wet-dry cycles) and slightly acidic to alkaline conditions are necessary. NpOx generally form under aqueous oxidative weathering conditions, although thermal oxidative alteration may occasional be

  7. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Short range-ordered (SRO) aluminosilicates (e.g., allophane) and nanophase ferric oxides (npOx) are common SRO minerals derived during aqueous alteration of basaltic materials. NpOx refers to poorly crystalline or amorphous alteration products that can be any combination of superparamagnetic hematite and/or goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, iddingsite, and nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles that pigment palagonitic tephra. Nearly 30 years ago, SRO phases were suggested as alteration phases on Mars based on similar spectral properties for altered basaltic tephra on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Martian bright regions measured by Earth-based telescopes. Detailed characterization of altered basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea have identified a variety of alteration phases including allophane, npOx, hisingerite, jarosite, alunite, hematite, goethite, ferrihydrite, halloysite, kaolinite, smectite, and zeolites. The presence of npOx and other Fe-bearing minerals (jarosite, hematite, goethite) was confirmed by the M ssbauer Spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although the presence of allophane has not been definitely identified on Mars robotic missions, chemical analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and thermal infrared spectral orbital measurements suggest the presence of allophane or allophane-like phases on Mars. SRO phases form under a variety of environmental conditions on Earth ranging from cold and arid to warm and humid, including hydrothermal conditions. The formation of SRO aluminosilicates such as allophane (and crystalline halloysite) from basaltic material is controlled by several key factors including activity of water, extent of leaching, Si activity in solution, and available Al. Generally, a low leaching index (e.g., wet-dry cycles) and slightly acidic to alkaline conditions are necessary. NpOx generally form under aqueous oxidative weathering conditions, although thermal oxidative alteration may occasional be

  8. Scaling Properties of the D-Short Range Order in PdDx for Higher D Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krexner, G.; Ernst, G; Fratzl, P.

    1984-01-01

    New measurements of D-short range order (SRO) in PdDx and Pd1−yAgyDx−y are presented. A scaling behaviour of the complicated SRO- features with temperature and electronic concentration is proposed and discussed with respect to the Clapp-Moss-de Fontaine theory of ordering.......New measurements of D-short range order (SRO) in PdDx and Pd1−yAgyDx−y are presented. A scaling behaviour of the complicated SRO- features with temperature and electronic concentration is proposed and discussed with respect to the Clapp-Moss-de Fontaine theory of ordering....

  9. kinetics and mechanism of long-range pore ordering in anodic films on aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolskii, K.S.; Roslyakov, I. V.; Eliseev, A.A.; Byelov, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298392720; Petukhov, A.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829196; Grigoryeva, N.A.; Bouwman, W.G.; Lukashin, A.V.; Chumakov, A. P.; Grigoriev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide has unique and highly attractive properties, including self-ordering of porous structure during anodization. Although anodization regimes leading to formation of highly ordered porous structures had been found experimentally, many aspects of the self-organization mechanism

  10. The effect of Pd on the isothermal relaxation of short-range order in Au(Ag)-based ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziya, A.B. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)]. E-mail: dr.a.b.ziya@bzumail.edu.pk; Ohshima, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    The effect of Pd on the isothermal relaxation of short-range order (SRO) was studied in Au{sub x}Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 100-2x} (x=25, 40at%) alloys, using the residual resistometry at 77K. The short-range ordering resulted in an increase of electrical resistivity. The equilibrium values of this property characterizing the SRO-equilibrium states exhibit a linear dependence on the reciprocal of temperature. The analysis of the resistivity data using the fundamental laws of SRO-kinetics shows that the resistivity behavior can be satisfactorily explained by the two-exponentials law and leads to the determination of characteristic time constants and the activation enthalpies for the two processes. Further, it is found that both the equilibrium and kinetic behavior of these alloys are highly dependent on the concentration of Pd. The presence of Pd reduces the atomic mobility which results from a decrease in the vacancy mobility linked to the positive size effect of Pd in these alloys.

  11. Extending the range and physical accuracy of coarse-grained models: Order parameter dependent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jacob W.; Dannenhoffer-Lafage, Thomas; Jin, Jaehyeok; Voth, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    Order parameters (i.e., collective variables) are often used to describe the behavior of systems as they capture different features of the free energy surface. Yet, most coarse-grained (CG) models only employ two- or three-body non-bonded interactions between the CG particles. In situations where these interactions are insufficient for the CG model to reproduce the structural distributions of the underlying fine-grained (FG) model, additional interactions must be included. In this paper, we introduce an approach to expand the basis sets available in the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) methodology by including order parameters. Then, we investigate the ability of an additive local order parameter (e.g., density) and an additive global order parameter (i.e., distance from a hard wall) to improve the description of CG models in interfacial systems. Specifically, we study methanol liquid-vapor coexistence, acetonitrile liquid-vapor coexistence, and acetonitrile liquid confined by hard-wall plates, all using single site CG models. We find that the use of order parameters dramatically improves the reproduction of structural properties of interfacial CG systems relative to the FG reference as compared with pairwise CG interactions alone.

  12. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn M. Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland's warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland's warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of...

  13. Long-range ferromagnetic order in LaCoO3 -δ epitaxial films due to the interplay of epitaxial strain and oxygen vacancy ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. V.; Biskup, N.; Jenkins, C.; Arenholz, E.; Varela, M.; Suzuki, Y.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a combination of electronic structure modification and oxygen vacancy ordering can stabilize a long-range ferromagnetic ground state in epitaxial LaCoO3 thin films. Highest saturation magnetization values are found in the thin films in tension on SrTiO3 and (La ,Sr )(Al ,Ta )O3 substrates and the lowest values are found in thin films in compression on LaAlO3. Electron microscopy reveals oxygen vacancy ordering to varying degrees in all samples, although samples with the highest magnetization are the most defective. Element-specific x-ray absorption techniques reveal the presence of high spin Co2 + and Co3 + as well as low spin Co3 + in different proportions depending on the strain state. The interactions among the high spin Co ions and the oxygen vacancy superstructure are correlated with the stabilization of the long-range ferromagnetic order.

  14. Increased persistence via asynchrony in oscillating ecological populations with long-range interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anubhav; Banerjee, Tanmoy; Dutta, Partha Sharathi

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the influence of the structure of a dispersal network on the species persistence and modeling a realistic species dispersal in nature are two central issues in spatial ecology. A realistic dispersal structure which favors the persistence of interacting ecological systems was studied [M. D. Holland and A. Hastings, Nature (London) 456, 792 (2008), 10.1038/nature07395], where it was shown that a randomization of the structure of a dispersal network in a metapopulation model of prey and predator increases the species persistence via clustering, prolonged transient dynamics, and amplitudes of population fluctuations. In this paper, by contrast, we show that a deterministic network topology in a metapopulation can also favor asynchrony and prolonged transient dynamics if species dispersal obeys a long-range interaction governed by a distance-dependent power law. To explore the effects of power-law coupling, we take a realistic ecological model, namely, the Rosenzweig-MacArthur model in each patch (node) of the network of oscillators, and show that the coupled system is driven from synchrony to asynchrony with an increase in the power-law exponent. Moreover, to understand the relationship between species persistence and variations in power-law exponent, we compute a correlation coefficient to characterize cluster formation, a synchrony order parameter, and median predator amplitude. We further show that smaller metapopulations with fewer patches are more vulnerable to extinction as compared to larger metapopulations with a higher number of patches. We believe that the present work improves our understanding of the interconnection between the random network and the deterministic network in theoretical ecology.

  15. Word order and world order: Titles of intergroup conflicts may increase ethnocentrism by mentioning the in-group first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; Matschke, Christina

    2017-05-01

    The title of a historical event is usually the first thing we learn about that event. This article investigates whether group order in supposedly neutral conflict titles (e.g., Polish-Russian War) is systematically biased toward naming the in-group first (e.g., Polish-Russian War in Polish; Russian-Polish War in Russian) and whether group order affects perceptions of the groups involved. Based on linguistic evidence that individuals have the tendency to name themselves first, we expected and found a systematic tendency to name the in-group first in N = 172 real-world titles of historical conflicts from more than 40 languages (Study 1), under controlled conditions with participants from different cultures (Studies 2a and 2b), and in a minimal group experiment (Study 3), which identifies group membership as a crucial factor and rules out alternative explanations. Furthermore, based on findings on perception, it is predicted and found in 3 studies (Study 4, 5a, and 5b) that a group is perceived as more important when mentioned first rather than second. This effect depended, however, on group order in the questions asked. Additionally, the first group was consistently associated with more power. Combined, seemingly neutral conflict titles may therefore increase ethnocentrism as it is the in-group that is mostly mentioned first and because of that perceived as more important. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Increasing hydro turbine operation range and efficiencies using water injection in draft tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francke, Haakon Hjort

    2010-09-15

    It is a well known fact that most Francis turbines, because of the fixed blade design, faces challenges when running at partial load operation. Especially in the operating range below approximately 50 % of the rated output, it is common to observe severe pressure pulsations and surge in the draft tube. These pressure fluctuations are believed to be related to the swirling flow exiting the runner. By using water jets in the draft tube cone directed towards the swirling flow, the swirl strength is believed to be reduced and thereby also the pressure fluctuations produced by the swirl. This system thus has a potential of increasing the turbine operating range. The system can be activated when needed, and will not affect the turbine when running at its best efficiency point.Based on the main hypothesis, a simplified swirl rig was designed and constructed in order to investigate the nozzle influence on the swirling flow and on the pressure pulsations in a simplified environment. To expand the understanding of the nozzle performance in a Francis turbine, experiments were conducted in a model turbine with a prototype of movable nozzles. To establish a link between laboratory nozzle measurements and full scale nozzle measurements, field measurements were carried out on full scale Francis turbines running at partial discharge. For this purpose the turbines installed at Skarsfjord Power Station and Skibotn Power Station were used, where full scale nozzle injection systems were installed. The test results suggested that the concept of water injection worked, but not unconditionally. A reduction in pressure fluctuations was achieved both in laboratory and field experiments, as well as a noticeable reduction regarding fluctuations in the shaft run-out at Skibotn. In addition, water injection gave a surprisingly positive effect at overload conditions in the model turbine, even though the nozzle angle was directed in the same direction as the overload swirl. Ideally, the results

  17. Controlled Ordering of Long-range Perpendicular Lamellae by Block Copolymer Self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Du Yeol; Kim, Kyunginn; Park, Sungmin; Kim, Yeongsik; Yonsei Univ Team

    We introduce a simple approach to fabricating highly stable, perpendicularly oriented lamellae through the self-assembly of high-molecular-weight polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). The desired morphology was achieved over a narrow annealing period (5 10 min) under solvent vapor, since the SVA process need to terminate immediately before the saturated BCP films begin to dewet the substrate. This narrow processing period impeded practical applications to continuous industrial processes. A controlled SVA process at a selected temperature gap was found to show the excellent long-term stability, at which highly ordered line-arrays of perpendicularly oriented lamellae were confined to topographic line patterns.

  18. Multimodal nonlinear optical polarizing microscopy of long-range molecular order in liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Trivedi, Rahul P; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2010-10-15

    We demonstrate orientation-sensitive multimodal nonlinear optical polarizing microscopy capable of probing orientational, polar, and biaxial features of mesomorphic ordering in soft matter. This technique achieves simultaneous imaging in broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, multiphoton excitation fluorescence, and multiharmonic generation polarizing microscopy modes and is based on the use of a single femtosecond laser and a photonic crystal fiber as sources of the probing light. We show the viability of this technique for mapping of three-dimensional patterns of molecular orientations and show that images obtained in different microscopy modes are consistent with each other.

  19. Chemical short range order and magnetic correction in liquid manganese–gallium zero alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosdidier, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Ben Abdellah, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier , P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Université Internationale de Rabat, Parc Technopolis Rabat-Shore, 11100 Sala El Jadida (Morocco); Osman, S.M., E-mail: osm@squ.edu.om [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Ataati, J. [Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Gasser, J.G. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-12-15

    The Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} alloy at this particular composition is known to be zero alloy in which the linear combination of the two neutron scattering lengths weighted by the atomic compositions vanish. Thus for this specific concentration, the effect of the partial structure factors S{sub NN} and S{sub NC} is cancelled by a weighted term, which value is zero. Then the measured total structure factor S(q) gives directly the concentration–concentration structure factor S{sub CC}(q). We present here the first experimental results of neutron diffraction on the Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} “null matrix alloy” at 1050 °C. The main peak of the experimental S{sub CC}(q) gives a strong evidence of a hetero-atomic chemical order in this coordinated alloy. This order also appears in real space radial distribution function which is calculated by the Fourier transform of the structure factor. The degree of hetero-coordination is discussed together with other manganese-polyvalent alloys. However manganese also shows abnormal magnetic scattering in the alloy structure factor which must be corrected. This correction gives an experimental information on the mean effective spin of manganese in this liquid alloy. We present the first critical theoretical calculations of the magnetic correction factor in Mn–Ga zero-alloy based on our accurate experimental measurements of S{sub CC}(q).

  20. Weight-based ordering: an evaluation of increased guideline use in hospital total parenteral nutrition dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Deonne; Schoen, Judy

    2002-10-01

    In the past, parenteral nutrition in the Calgary Health Region was ordered as volumes of standard solutions, which limited individualization. Ordering total parenteral nutrition (TPN) that falls within macronutrient dosing guidelines may minimize complications associated with TPN, such as hyperglycemia, azotemia, hepatic steatosis, or continued malnutrition and catabolism. The Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary changed to a weight-based ordering system for TPN in 1999. This study's purpose was to determine if this change increased adherence to TPN dosing guidelines. Macronutrient doses in TPN solutions ordered as standard solutions were compared with those ordered by weight. Mean protein, dextrose, lipid, and kilocalorie doses and the number of orders deviating from guidelines were examined. Weight-based dosing showed a significant reduction in deviation from guidelines for kilocalorie dose compared with TPN ordered as standard solutions. There also was a significant increase in mean protein dose and reductions in mean dextrose load and mean kilocalorie dose in the weight-based TPN group only, suggesting these changes were caused by the change in ordering method. Overall, weight-based ordering increased adherence to TPN dosing guidelines. The study did not have the statistical power to show significant differences between weight-based or standard TPN dosing; however, several trends were shown.

  1. 76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and.... SUMMARY: This rule proposes amendment of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate on first handlers and importers of mangos from one half cent per pound to...

  2. Formation and transformation of a short range ordered iron carbonate precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Knud; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bovet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Fe(II)-carbonates, such as siderite, form in environments where O2 is scarce, e.g., during marine sediment diagenesis, corrosion and possibly CO2 sequestration, but little is known about their formation pathways. We show that early precipitates from carbonate solutions containing 0.1M Fe...... formed. Its coherent scattering domains determined from PDF analysis are slightly larger than for amorphous calcium carbonate, suggesting that the precursor could be nanocrystalline. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of Fe-carbonate polynuclear complexes yield PDF peak positions that agree...... structural order. Moreover, PDF peak positions differ from those for known iron carbonates and hydroxides. Mössbauer spectra also deviate from those expected for known iron carbonates and suggest a less crystalline structure. These data show that a previously unidentified iron carbonate precursor phase...

  3. Pressure effect on the long-range order in CeB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera, M. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)]. E-mail: sera@sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ikeda, S. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Iwakubo, H. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Hane, S. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kosaka, M. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Urawa 338-8570 (Japan); Kunii, S. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    The pressure effect of CeB{sub 6} was investigated. The pressure dependence of the Neel temperature, T{sub N} and the critical field from the antiferro-magnetic phase III to antiferro-quadrupolar phase II, H{sub c}{sup III-II} of CeB{sub 6} exhibits the unusual pressure dependence that the suppression rate of H{sub c}{sup III-II} is much larger than that of T{sub N}. In order to explain this unusual result, we have performed the mean field calculation for the 4-sublattice model assuming that the pressure dependence of T{sub N}, the antiferro-octupolar and quadrupolar temperatures, T{sub oct} and T{sub Q} as follows; dT{sub N}/dP<0, dT{sub oct}/dP>dT{sub Q}/dP>0 and could explain the unusual pressure dependence of T{sub N} and H{sub c}{sup III-II}.

  4. Increased passive ankle stiffness and reduced dorsiflexion range of motion in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Smita R; Saltzman, Charles L; Wilken, Jason; Yak, H John

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare ankle range of motion and stiffness in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus using a reliable and valid technique and to document the effect of knee flexion and severity of pathology on ankle range of motion and stiffness. Twenty-five individuals with diabetes mellitus and 64 nondiabetic individuals, similar in age and gender profile, participated in this study. Results revealed that individuals with diabetes mellitus had both significantly lower peak dorsiflexion range of motion (5.1 and 11.5 degrees, p range of motion and increased stiffness in the diabetes mellitus population seem clinically intuitive, as far as we know this is the first study to confirm the concurrent existence of both these findings in the plantarflexors in individuals with diabetes mellitus. We applied a reliable and valid technique, one that allowed control of confounding factors such as knee flexion position and differences in determination of end range of motion, and documented a mean 41% loss in dorsiflexion excursion. Changes in the muscle, stemming from underlying pathology, are hypothesized to account for a significant part of the lost range of motion. Changes in ankle range of motion and stiffness may have important implications in plantar loading and ulcer formation.

  5. Long-Range Order and Critical Scattering of Neutrons below the Transition Temperature in β-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.

    1967-01-01

    The temperature dependence of long-range order langPrang has been determined from the temperature variation of a superlattice Bragg reflection. The results fitted a power law langPrang prop (Tc-T)beta with Tc the critical temperature and beta = 0.305plusmn0.005, in agreement with the theoretical ...

  6. Increasing the solubility range of polyesters by tuning their microstructure with comonomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgove, Marie; Luchies, Juandré; Wauters, Iris; Deroover, Geert G.P.; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Bernaerts, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    The solubility range of ω-pentadecalactone (ω-PDL) based polymers is increased by copolymerization with a smaller branched lactone, δ-undecalactone (δ-UDL). The copolyester microstructure was assessed by 13C NMR/MALDI-ToF MS and indicates a block-like or random-like structure depending on the feed

  7. Special Quasi-ordered Structures: role of short-range order in the semiconductor alloy (GaN)$_{1-x}$(ZnO)$_x$

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian; Allen, Philip B

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies short-range order (SRO) in the semiconductor alloy (GaN)$_{1-x}$(ZnO)$_x$. Monte Carlo simulations performed on a density functional theory (DFT)-based cluster expansion model show that the heterovalent alloys exhibit strong SRO because of the energetic preference for the valence-matched nearest-neighbor Ga-N and Zn-O pairs. To represent the SRO-related structural correlations, we introduce the concept of Special Quasi-ordered Structure (SQoS). Subsequent DFT calculations reveal dramatic influence of SRO on the atomic, electronic and vibrational properties of the (GaN)$_{1-x}$(ZnO)$_x$ alloy. Due to the enhanced statistical presence of the energetically unfavored Zn-N bonds with the strong Zn3$d$-N2$p$ repulsion, the disordered alloys exhibit much larger lattice bowing and band-gap reduction than those of the short-range ordered alloys. Inclusion of lattice vibrations stabilizes the disordered alloy.

  8. A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Zuffanelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm. The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902–928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags.

  9. Photoluminescence polarization anisotropy for studying long-range structural ordering within semiconductor multi-atomic alloys and organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prutskij, T.; Percino, J. [Instituto de Ciencias, BUAP, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, col. San Miguel Huyeotlipan, 72050, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Orlova, T. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Vavilova, L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-04

    Long-range structural ordering within multi-component semiconductor alloys and organic crystals leads to significant optical anisotropy and, in particular, to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission. The PL emission of ternary and quaternary semiconductor alloys is polarized if there is some amount of the atomic ordering within the crystal structure. We analyze the polarization of the PL emission from the quaternary GaInAsP semiconductor alloy grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) and conclude that it could be caused by low degree atomic ordering within the crystal structure together with the thermal biaxial strain due to difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the layer and the substrate. We also study the state of polarization of the PL from organic crystals in order to identify different features of the crystal PL spectrum.

  10. Molecular dynamics studies of short to medium range order in Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Z.D., E-mail: shaz@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zhang, Y.W. [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Feng, Y.P. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Li, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-08-18

    Highlights: > Short- and medium-range orders in Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} metallic glass were investigated. > We employed the concept of core-shell rather than cluster packing. > The basic atomic structure has the characteristics of an icosahedral shell structure. > This finding applies to short- and medium-range orders in the optimum glass former. - Abstract: For metallic glasses, the cluster packing scheme addresses mainly the low solute concentration regime and it breaks down beyond a length scale of a few clusters. In the present work, from the viewpoint of core-shell structure rather than cluster packing, short- and medium-range orders in Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} metallic glass were investigated using the large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator. In the first three coordination shells, the total number of atoms within the nth coordination shell is 13, 61, and 169. And the number of atoms on the nth coordination shell is 12n{sup 2}. Besides, the basic atomic structure could be obtained from a central icosahedron surrounded by a shell of 12n{sup 2} atoms. From the fourth coordination shell on, the total number of atoms is 307, 561, and 924, respectively, consistent with that in an icosahedral shell structure. Our finding suggests that for the optimum glass former in the Cu-Zr binary system, the basic atomic structures over both short- and medium-range length scales have the characteristics of an icosahedral shell structure.

  11. Increased Segmental Range of Motion Is Correlated With Spondylolisthesis in the Cervical Spine After Laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kura, Tomohiko; Iwata, Eiichiro; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-04-01

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of increased segmental range of motion (ROM) after laminoplasty and to clarify whether increased ROM is associated with spondylolisthesis. Finally, we explored the effect of increased segmental ROM on clinical results. Cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy causes reduced ROM, possibly due to the unintended contracture of the facet joint or a bony union. Although it is rarely studied, ROM may also increase following laminoplasty. Thus far, there are no reports describing the correlation between increased segmental ROM and segmental spondylolisthesis after laminoplasty. We evaluated 187 segments from 39 cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients who underwent bilateral open door laminoplasty from C2 to C7. The segmental ROM and spondylolisthesis were measured using dynamic radiographs that were obtained preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used for clinical evaluation. To compare the clinical results, we compared the cases with increased ROM in at least one segment with the remaining cases. Increased segmental ROM (i.e., ≥5° increase) was observed in 25 of 187 segments (13.4%) from 14 cases. There was a strong correlation between increased ROM and spondylolisthesis. A high preoperative disc height was associated with increased segmental ROM 2 years postoperation. Regardless of the correlation with spondylolisthesis, there was no statistically significant correlation between increased segmental ROM and JOA score. The decrease in segmental ROM after laminoplasty was not uniform. Approximately 13.4% of all segments showed increased ROM. The preoperative disc height might influence the risk for increased segmental ROM. Furthermore, increased ROM was correlated with spondylolisthesis in the segment, though it was not correlated with clinical results. 4.

  12. Long-range ordered self-assembled InAs quantum dots epitaxially grown on (110) GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J.; Schuh, D.; Uccelli, E.; Schulz, R.; Kress, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Finley, J. J.; Abstreiter, G.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a promising approach for positioning of self-assembled InAs quantum dots on (110) GaAs with nanometer precision. By combining self-assembly of quantum dots with molecular beam epitaxy on previously grown and in situ cleaved substrates (cleaved-edge overgrowth), arrays of long-range ordered InAs quantum dots have been fabricated. Both atomic force microscopy and micro-photoluminescence measurements demonstrate the ability to control size, position, and ordering of the quantum dots. Furthermore, single dot photoluminescence investigations confirm the high optical quality of the quantum dots fabricated.

  13. RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISE OF ARMS INCREASES THE MUCLE STRENGTH FOR POST STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judi Nurbaeni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Someone attached by stroke can’t do their activity fluently because stroke can cause the weakness of motor and sensor function. This condition cause physical defect and give effect in social and economic too, because someone who suffered stroke usually still in productive age. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of arm range of motion in the muscle strength of post stroke patient. Method: Pre experimental pre–post test design was used in this study. Population of this study was post stroke patient in Wijayakusuma ward dr. Soedono Hospital and total samples were 11 respondents. Independent variable was arm range of motion exercise, dependent variable was strength of arm muscle. Data were collected by observation with manual muscle testing of Lovelt, Naniel and Worthinghom and then analyzed using wilcoxon signed rank test with signi fi cant level of α ≤ 0.05. Result: The result showed that 11 respondents had increased their strength of muscle (p = 0.04. Discussion: It can be concluded that the strength of muscle increased after get arm range of motion exercise. When range of motion had been done Ca+ will be activated by cell so that happen integrity of muscle protein. If Ca+ and troponin had been activated, actin and myosin would have been defensed, so that can moved the skeletal and followed by muscle contraction, expand, outgrow and had a tonus. This condition can showed the strength of muscle.

  14. Optimization of aerodynamic form of projectile for solving the problem of shooting range increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipanov, Alexey M.; Korolev, Stanislav A.; Rusyak, Ivan G.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the development of methods for solving the problem of external ballistics using a more complete system of motion equation taken into account the rotation and oscillation about the mass center and using aerodynamic coefficients of forces and moments which are calculated on the basis of modeling the hydrodynamics of flow around the projectile. Developed methods allows to study the basic ways of increasing the shooting range or artillery.

  15. Impact of future price increase on ordering policies for deteriorating items under quadratic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita H. Shah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When a supplier announces a price increase at a certain time in the future, for each retailer it is important to choose whether to purchase supplementary stock to take benefit of the current lower price or procure at a new price. This article focuses on the possible effects of price increase on a retailer’s replenishment strategy for constant deterioration of items. Here, quadratic demand is debated; which is appropriate for the products for which demand increases initially and subsequently it starts to decrease with the new version of the substitute. We discuss two scenarios in this study: (I when the special order time coincides with the retailer’s replenishment time and (II when the special order time falls during the retailer’s sales period. We determine an optimal ordering policy for each case by maximizing total cost savings between special and regular orders during the depletion time of the special order quantity. Scenarios are established and illustrated with numerical examples. Through, sensitivity analysis important inventory parameters are classified. Graphical results, in two and three dimensions, are exhibited with supervisory decision.

  16. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddin, Carl J; O'Connor, Nessa E; Harrod, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, each species' ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species' range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana's preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM), appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit.

  17. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Reddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theoretically, each species’ ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species’ range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. Methods: We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. Results: There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana’s preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM, appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Discussion: Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit.

  18. Long-range magnetic order and spin-lattice coupling in the delafossite CuFeO2

    OpenAIRE

    Eyert, Volker; Fresard, Raymond; Maignan, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the delafossite CuFeO2 are investigated by means of electronic structure calculations. They are performed using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation as well as the new full-potential augmented spherical wave method. The calculations reveal three different spin states at the iron sites. Taking into account the correct crystal structure, we find long-range antiferromagnetic ordering in agreement with experiment. Contrastin...

  19. 75 FR 12707 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase... to add two importer members and their alternates to the U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council (Council) to reflect changes in the quantity of highbush blueberry imports in the past three years. The change was...

  20. Increasing the appropriateness of outpatient imaging: effects of a barrier to ordering low-yield examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanians, Vartan M; Sistrom, Christopher L; Weilburg, Jeffrey B; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Thrall, James H

    2010-06-01

    1261 (1.92%) of 65,765 (P < .001). This is in contrast to requests for examinations with higher initial decision support scores that were not affected by the policy change and were scheduled at the same rate (relative risk, 0.988) before and after the change. A simple change in the business logic of the order entry system resulted in a substantially decreased rate of low-yield imaging examinations and a markedly increased percentage of tests personally ordered by clinicians. Copyright RSNA, 2010

  1. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Note: Increasing dynamic range of digital-to-analog converter using a superconducting quantum interference device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu

    2014-10-01

    Responses of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are periodically dependent on magnetic flux coupling to its superconducting ring and the period is a flux quantum (Φo = h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). Using this periodicity, we had proposed a digital to analog converter using a SQUID (SQUID DAC) of first generation with linear current output, interval of which corresponded to Φo. Modification for increasing dynamic range by interpolating within each interval is reported. Linearity of the interpolation was also based on the quantum periodicity. A SQUID DAC with dynamic range of about 1.4 × 10(7) was created as a demonstration.

  3. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  4. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Toft Kristensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow-up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P<0.01 and patients had gained weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P=0.02. Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P=0.13 and weight (69.3 versus 69.3 kg, P=0.71. Patients on thyroxin treatment did not gain weight. TSH increase was significantly correlated with weight gain (r=0.43, P<0.01. Conclusion. Two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, thyroid function is lowered within the laboratory reference range. Weight gain of patients who are biochemically euthyroid after hemithyroidectomy may be a clinical manifestation of a permanently decreased metabolic rate.

  5. Range Expansion of Moose in Arctic Alaska Linked to Warming and Increased Shrub Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D; Gustine, David D; Ruess, Roger W; Adams, Layne G; Clark, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    Twentieth century warming has increased vegetation productivity and shrub cover across northern tundra and treeline regions, but effects on terrestrial wildlife have not been demonstrated on a comparable scale. During this period, Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) extended their range from the boreal forest into tundra riparian shrub habitat; similar extensions have been observed in Canada (A. a. andersoni) and Eurasia (A. a. alces). Northern moose distribution is thought to be limited by forage availability above the snow in late winter, so the observed increase in shrub habitat could be causing the northward moose establishment, but a previous hypothesis suggested that hunting cessation triggered moose establishment. Here, we use recent changes in shrub cover and empirical relationships between shrub height and growing season temperature to estimate available moose habitat in Arctic Alaska c. 1860. We estimate that riparian shrubs were approximately 1.1 m tall c. 1860, greatly reducing the available forage above the snowpack, compared to 2 m tall in 2009. We believe that increases in riparian shrub habitat after 1860 allowed moose to colonize tundra regions of Alaska hundreds of kilometers north and west of previous distribution limits. The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have likely had pronounced impacts on the structure and function of these shrub communities. These northward range shifts are a bellwether for other boreal species and their associated predators.

  6. Range Expansion of Moose in Arctic Alaska Linked to Warming and Increased Shrub Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken D Tape

    Full Text Available Twentieth century warming has increased vegetation productivity and shrub cover across northern tundra and treeline regions, but effects on terrestrial wildlife have not been demonstrated on a comparable scale. During this period, Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas extended their range from the boreal forest into tundra riparian shrub habitat; similar extensions have been observed in Canada (A. a. andersoni and Eurasia (A. a. alces. Northern moose distribution is thought to be limited by forage availability above the snow in late winter, so the observed increase in shrub habitat could be causing the northward moose establishment, but a previous hypothesis suggested that hunting cessation triggered moose establishment. Here, we use recent changes in shrub cover and empirical relationships between shrub height and growing season temperature to estimate available moose habitat in Arctic Alaska c. 1860. We estimate that riparian shrubs were approximately 1.1 m tall c. 1860, greatly reducing the available forage above the snowpack, compared to 2 m tall in 2009. We believe that increases in riparian shrub habitat after 1860 allowed moose to colonize tundra regions of Alaska hundreds of kilometers north and west of previous distribution limits. The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have likely had pronounced impacts on the structure and function of these shrub communities. These northward range shifts are a bellwether for other boreal species and their associated predators.

  7. Does microcurrent stimulation increase the range of movement of ankle dorsiflexion in children with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Helena; Jaakkola, Riitta; Sandström, Marita; Von Wendt, Lennart

    2004-06-03

    To determine whether microcurrent stimulation (MENS) increases the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint in children with cerebral palsy. Twelve children with spastic hemiplegia (age range 4.5 to 16 years) with moderate myocontracture of the triceps surae, received MENS for 1 h five times a week for 4 weeks. An equally long baseline period was preceded. The assessments were: active and passive ROM of ankle dorsiflexion, popliteal flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in maximal flexion of knees in standing position while maintaining the heels in contact with the floor, one foot standing and hopping on one foot. After the treatment with MENS, the passive ROM of ankle dorsiflexion with both knees flexed and extended (p<0.001) increased significantly. Increases were also observed in popliteal flexion (p<0.001) and ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.0012) during maximal flexion of the knees in a standing position. The ROM of active dorsiflexion with the knee flexed (p<0.05) and one foot standing (p<0.05) also improved. Children and parents found this treatment easy to carry out. MENS relieves myocontracture and can enhance conventional rehabilitation programmes for children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves with increasing cooperativity in an experimental microbial population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Saurabh; Yurtsev, Eugene; Korolev, Kirill; Gore, Jeff

    Range expansions are becoming more frequent due to environmental changes and rare long distance dispersal, often facilitated by anthropogenic activities. Simple models in theoretical ecology explain many emergent properties of range expansions, such as a constant expansion velocity, in terms of organism-level properties such as growth and dispersal rates. Testing these quantitative predictions in natural populations is difficult because of large environmental variability. Here, we used a controlled microbial model system to study range expansions of populations with and without intra-specific cooperativity. For non-cooperative growth, the expansion dynamics were dominated by population growth at the low-density front, which pulled the expansion forward. We found these expansions to be in close quantitative agreement with the classical theory of pulled waves by Fisher and Skellam, suitably adapted to our experimental system. However, as cooperativity increased, the expansions transitioned to being pushed, i.e. controlled by growth in the bulk as well as in the front. Although both pulled and pushed waves expand at a constant velocity and appear otherwise similar, their distinct dynamics leads to very different evolutionary consequences. Given the prevalence of cooperative growth in nature, understanding the effects of cooperativity is essential to managing invading species and understanding their evolution.

  9. The effect of increasing amount of glucogenic precursors on reproductive performance in young postpartum range cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Kemp, M E; Cox, S H; Hawkins, D E; Cibils, A F; Vanleeuwen, D M; Petersen, M K

    2011-09-01

    Supplementing CP and propionate salts (PS) may improve economic returns in young range beef cows by increasing the dietary supply of glucogenic precursors. A 3-yr study conducted at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (Corona, NM) from February to mid-July in 2005 (n = 80), 2006 (n = 81), and 2007 (n = 80) evaluated days to first estrus, calf weaning weight, BW change, and metabolic responses in 2- and 3-yr-old postpartum cows grazing native range. Cows were individually fed one of three 36% CP supplement treatments after parturition, with increasing glucogenic potential (GP) supplied by RUP and PS. Supplements were isoenergetic and fed at a rate of 908 g/cow per day twice weekly. Supplementation was initiated 7 d after calving and continued for an average of 95 d. Supplement treatments provided 1) 328 g of CP, 110 g of RUP and 0 g of PS (PS0); 2) 328 g of CP, 157 g of RUP, and 40 g of PS (PS40); or 3) 329 g of CP, 158 g of RUP, and 80 g of PS (PS80). Ultimately, PS0, PS40, and PS80 provided 44, 93, and 124 g of GP, respectively. Body weight was recorded weekly and serum was collected twice weekly for progesterone analysis to estimate days to first estrus. Cows were exposed to bulls for 60 d or less beginning in mid-May. Days to first estrus exhibited a quadratic (P = 0.06) response to GP resulting from the fewest days to first estrus with the consumption of PS40. Pregnancy rates were 88, 96, and 94% for cows fed PS0, PS40, and PS80, respectively (P = 0.11). Total kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed to bulls for the supplementation and following year increased quadratically (P = 0.09). However, supplement did not affect milk composition or yield (P ≥ 0.53). Serum acetate half-life decreased linearly (P = 0.08) with increasing GP in 2007. Predicted margins were the greatest (quadratic; P = 0.03) for cows fed PS40. Even though supplement costs were greater for PS40 and PS80, cows fed PS40 had increased profits ($33.47/cow) compared with cows fed PS0 and

  10. Ramjet Application Possibilities for Increasing Fire Range of the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility to increase a flying range of the perspective rockets equipped with the control unit with aerodynamic controllers for the multiple launch rocket systems “Smerch”.To increase a flying range and reduce a starting mass of the rocket, the paper studies a possibility to replace the single-mode rocket engine used in the solid-fuel rocket motor for the direct-flow propulsion jet engine (DFPJE with not head sector air intakes. The DFPJE is implemented according to the classical scheme with a fuel charged in the combustion chamber. A separated solid propellant starting accelerator provides the rocket acceleration to reach a speed necessary for the DFPJE to run.When designing the DFPJE a proper choice of not head air intake parameters is one of the most difficult points. For this purpose a COSMOS Flow Simulation software package and analytical dependences were used to define the following: a boundary layer thickness where an air intake is set, maximum permissible and appropriate angles of attack and deviation angles of controllers at the section where the DFPJE works, and some other parameters as well.Calculation of DFPJE characteristics consisted in determining parameters of an air-gas path of the propulsion system, geometrical sizes of the pipeline flow area, sizes of a fuel charge, and dependence of the propulsion system impulse on the flight height and speed. Calculations were performed both in thermodynamic statement of problem and in using software package of COSMOS Flow Simulation.As a result of calculations and design engineering activities the air intake profile is created and mass-dimensional characteristics of DFPJE are defined. Besides, calculations of the starting solid fuel accelerator were carried out. Further design allowed us to create the rocket shape, estimate its mass-dimensional characteristics, and perform ballistic calculations, which proved that achieving a range of 120 km for the rocket is

  11. Extreme soil acidity from biodegradable trap and skeet targets increases severity of pollution at shooting ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTee, Michael R; Mummey, Daniel L; Ramsey, Philip W; Hinman, Nancy W

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution at shooting ranges overshadows the potential for contamination issues from trap and skeet targets. We studied the environmental influence of targets sold as biodegradable by determining the components of the targets and sampling soils at a former sporting clay range. Targets comprised approximately 53% CaCO3, 41% S(0), and 6% modifiers, and on a molar basis, there was 2.3 times more S(0) than CaCO3. We observed a positive correlation between target cover and SO4(2-) (ρ=0.82, Psoil pH (ρ=0.62, P=0.006). For sites that had pH values below 3, 24tons of lime per 1000tons of soil would be required to raise soil pH to 6.5. Lime-facilitated pH increases would be transitory because S(0) would continue to oxidize to H2SO4 until the S(0) is depleted. This study demonstrates that biodegradable trap and skeet targets can acidify soil, which has implications for increasing the mobility of Pb from shotgun pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hailing, E-mail: h.fu14@imperial.ac.uk; Yeatman, Eric M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic “plucking” of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy and chemical long-range order in epitaxial ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 films

    CERN Document Server

    Maret, M; Köhler, J; Poinsot, R; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C; Tonnerre, J M; Berar, J F; Bucher, E

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of CrPt sub 3 were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on both Al sub 2 O sub 3 (0 0 0 1) and MgO(0 0 1) substrates, either directly by co-deposition of Cr and Pt at high temperatures or after in situ annealing of superlattices [Cr(2 A)/Pt(7 A)]. In situ RHEED observations and X-ray diffraction measurements have allowed us to check the single-crystal quality of CrPt sub 3 films and to determine the degree of L1 sub 2 -type long-range order (LRO). In films co-deposited between 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C a nearly perfect LRO has been observed. As in bulk alloys, such ordering yields a ferrimagnetic order, while the disordered films are non-magnetic. In contrast with the ferromagnetic L1 sub 2 -type ordered CoPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films, the ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with quality factors, K sub u /K sub d , as large as 5 and large coercivities around 450 kA/m. Such anisotropy could be related to the arrangement of Cr atoms, which owing to their large mag...

  14. Long-range magnetic order and spin-lattice coupling in delafossite CuFeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyert, Volker; Frésard, Raymond; Maignan, Antoine

    2008-08-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the delafossite CuFeO2 are investigated by means of electronic structure calculations. They are performed using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation, as well as the new full-potential augmented spherical wave method. The calculations reveal three different spin states at the iron sites. Using for the first time the experimentally determined low-temperature crystal structure, we find long-range antiferromagnetic ordering in agreement with experiment. In addition, our calculations show that nonlocal interactions as covered by the generalized gradient approximation lead to a semiconducting ground state.

  15. Range expansion of moose in arctic Alaska linked to warming and increased shrub habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Gustine, David D.; Reuss, Roger W.; Adams, Layne G.; Clark, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Twentieth century warming has increased vegetation productivity and shrub cover across northern tundra and treeline regions, but effects on terrestrial wildlife have not been demonstrated on a comparable scale. During this period, Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) extended their range from the boreal forest into tundra riparian shrub habitat; similar extensions have been observed in Canada (A. a. andersoni) and Eurasia (A. a. alces). Northern moose distribution is thought to be limited by forage availability above the snow in late winter, so the observed increase in shrub habitat could be causing the northward moose establishment, but a previous hypothesis suggested that hunting cessation triggered moose establishment. Here, we use recent changes in shrub cover and empirical relationships between shrub height and growing season temperature to estimate available moose habitat in Arctic Alaska c. 1860. We estimate that riparian shrubs were approximately 1.1 m tall c. 1860, greatly reducing the available forage above the snowpack, compared to 2 m tall in 2009. We believe that increases in riparian shrub habitat after 1860 allowed moose to colonize tundra regions of Alaska hundreds of kilometers north and west of previous distribution limits. The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have likely had pronounced impacts on the structure and function of these shrub communities. These northward range shifts are a bellwether for other boreal species and their associated predators.

  16. Increased Alpha-Rhythm Dynamic Range Promotes Recovery from Visuospatial Neglect: A Neurofeedback Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent attempts to use electroencephalogram (EEG neurofeedback (NFB as a tool for rehabilitation of motor stroke, its potential for improving neurological impairments of attention—such as visuospatial neglect—remains underexplored. It is also unclear to what extent changes in cortical oscillations contribute to the pathophysiology of neglect, or its recovery. Utilizing EEG-NFB, we sought to causally manipulate alpha oscillations in 5 right-hemisphere stroke patients in order to explore their role in visuospatial neglect. Patients trained to reduce alpha oscillations from their right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC for 20 minutes daily, over 6 days. Patients demonstrated successful NFB learning between training sessions, denoted by improved regulation of alpha oscillations from rPPC. We observed a significant negative correlation between visuospatial search deficits (i.e., cancellation test and reestablishment of spontaneous alpha-rhythm dynamic range (i.e., its amplitude variability. Our findings support the use of NFB as a tool for investigating neuroplastic recovery after stroke and suggest reinstatement of intact parietal alpha oscillations as a promising target for reversing attentional deficits. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of EEG-NFB in neglect patients and provide evidence that targeting alpha amplitude variability might constitute a valuable marker for clinical symptoms and self-regulation.

  17. Increased Alpha-Rhythm Dynamic Range Promotes Recovery from Visuospatial Neglect: A Neurofeedback Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michela, Abele; Bellman, Anne; Vuadens, Philippe; Saj, Arnaud; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent attempts to use electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) as a tool for rehabilitation of motor stroke, its potential for improving neurological impairments of attention—such as visuospatial neglect—remains underexplored. It is also unclear to what extent changes in cortical oscillations contribute to the pathophysiology of neglect, or its recovery. Utilizing EEG-NFB, we sought to causally manipulate alpha oscillations in 5 right-hemisphere stroke patients in order to explore their role in visuospatial neglect. Patients trained to reduce alpha oscillations from their right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) for 20 minutes daily, over 6 days. Patients demonstrated successful NFB learning between training sessions, denoted by improved regulation of alpha oscillations from rPPC. We observed a significant negative correlation between visuospatial search deficits (i.e., cancellation test) and reestablishment of spontaneous alpha-rhythm dynamic range (i.e., its amplitude variability). Our findings support the use of NFB as a tool for investigating neuroplastic recovery after stroke and suggest reinstatement of intact parietal alpha oscillations as a promising target for reversing attentional deficits. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of EEG-NFB in neglect patients and provide evidence that targeting alpha amplitude variability might constitute a valuable marker for clinical symptoms and self-regulation. PMID:28529806

  18. Knee arthritis pain is reduced and range of motion is increased following moderate pressure massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Gonzalez, Gladys; Funk, C G

    2015-11-01

    The literature on massage therapy effects on knee pain suggests that pain was reduced based on self-report, but little is known about range of motion (ROM) effects. Medical School staff and faculty who had knee arthritis pain were randomly assigned to a moderate pressure massage therapy or a waitlist control group (24 per group). Self-reports included the WOMAC (pain, stiffness and function) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. ROM and ROM-related pain were assessed before and after the last sessions. The massage group showed an immediate post-massage increase in ROM and a decrease in ROM-associated pain. On the last versus the first day of the study, the massage group showed greater increases in ROM and decreases in ROM-related pain as well as less self-reported pain and sleep disturbances than the waitlist control group. These data highlight the effectiveness of moderate pressure massage therapy for increasing ROM and lessening ROM-related pain and long-term pain and sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased Range of Motion and Decreased Strength of the Thumb in Massage Practitioners with Thumb Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Si-hyun; KWON, Oh-yun; AN, Mi-ryung; KIM, Yoon-shin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the range of motion (ROM) and strength of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints among massage practitioners with and without thumb pain and control subjects. Sixteen massage practitioners with thumb pain, 16 practitioners without thumb pain, and 16 control subjects participated in this study. ROM of flexion, extension, and abduction in the MP joint; ROM of flexion and extension in the IP joint of the thumb; strength of the flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis longus (FPL), and extensor pollicis longus measured in all subjects. ROM of extension and abduction in the MP joint were significantly increased in massage practitioners with and without thumb pain compared with control subjects. ROM of extension in the IP joint was significantly increased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain. The strength of the EPB and FPL muscle was significantly decreased in massage practitioners with thumb pain compared with those without thumb pain and control subjects, respectively. In addition, there was significantly increased EPB/FPB strength in massage practitioners without thumb pain compared to those with thumb pain and control subjects. PMID:24739763

  20. Stabilization of Néel order in frustrated magnets with increasing magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalmeier Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For low-dimensional frustrated quantum magnets, the dependence of the staggered moment ms on a magnetic field is nonmonotonic: For small and intermediate fields, quantum fluctuations are gradually suppressed, leading to an increase of ms (H. For large applied magnetic fields however, the classically expected monotonous decrease is recovered. For the same reasons, the Néel ordering temperature TN of such compounds first increases and then exhibits a reentrant behavior as a function of the field strength. The quantitative analysis of this behavior is an excellent tool to determine the frustration parameter of a given compound. We have derived a general linear spin-wave (LSW theory in the presence of a magnetic field. Based on our LSW theory, including a small interlayer coupling, we use a self-consistent approach determining TN by the condition of a vanishing total moment. We apply our findings to the recently measured field dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature TN of Cu(pz2 (ClO42 in the framework of the S = 1/2 two-dimensional J1-J2 Heisenberg model. The observed increase with increasing field strength can be understood naturally using an intermediate frustration ratio J2/J1 ≈ 0.2, which is in accordance with the field dependence of the staggered moment.

  1. Single fluorescent protein-based Ca2+ sensors with increased dynamic range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Yulii A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically encoded sensors developed on the basis of green fluorescent protein (GFP-like proteins are becoming more and more popular instruments for monitoring cellular analytes and enzyme activities in living cells and transgenic organisms. In particular, a number of Ca2+ sensors have been developed, either based on FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer changes between two GFP-mutants or on the change in fluorescence intensity of a single circularly permuted fluorescent protein (cpFP. Results Here we report significant progress on the development of the latter type of Ca2+ sensors. Derived from the knowledge of previously reported cpFP-based sensors, we generated a set of cpFP-based indicators with different spectral properties and fluorescent responses to changes in Ca2+ concentration. Two variants, named Case12 and Case16, were characterized by particular high brightness and superior dynamic range, up to 12-fold and 16.5-fold increase in green fluorescence between Ca2+-free and Ca2+-saturated forms. We demonstrated the high potential of these sensors on various examples, including monitoring of Ca2+ response to a prolonged glutamate treatment in cortical neurons. Conclusion We believe that expanded dynamic range, high brightness and relatively high pH-stability should make Case12 and Case16 popular research tools both in scientific studies and high throughput screening assays.

  2. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. DEATH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristics of the water, and food resource levels were measured, and the invertebrate fauna collected at 4 distances (0, 100, 500 m and 1 km from seven springs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Temperature variability was greater for run-off-fed streams than for springs, and increased in the spring-fed streams with distance from the source. Periphyton and physico-chemical characteristics of the water did not change markedly over the 1 km studied, with the exception of water velocity and organic matter biomass, which increased and decreased, respectively. The rate of increase in temperature amplitude differed greatly for the studied springs, probably being affected by flow, altitude, and the number and type of tributaries (i.e., spring- or run-off-fed joining the spring-fed stream channel. Longitudinal changes in the number and evenness of invertebrate taxa were positively correlated to thermal amplitude (rs = 0.8. Moving downstream, invertebrate communities progressively incorporated taxa with higher mobility and taxa more common in nearby run-off-fed streams. Chironomids and non-insect taxa were denser at the sources. Chironomid larvae also numerically dominated communities 100 and 500 m downstream from the sources, together with Pycnocentria spp. and Zelolessica spp., while taxa such as Hydora sp. and Hydraenidae beetles, the mayflies Deleatidium spp. and Coloburiscus humeralis, and the Trichoptera Pycnocentrodes spp., all had greater abundances 1 km

  3. Increasing cardiopulmonary emergency visits by long-range transported Asian dust storms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chang, Wei-Tien; Lee, Chung-Te; Peng, Chi-Ming

    2008-03-01

    This study aims to explore whether Asian dust storms can affect health after 4000 km long-range transport from their origins to downwind areas. Asian dust storms reaching Taipei, Taiwan are tracked by satellite images and confirmed by backward trajectory analysis and ground air pollution monitoring between 1995 and 2002. Our outcome variables include emergency visits for ischaemic heart diseases (ICD-9-CM 410-411, 414), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-9-CM 430-437), and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (ICD-9-CM 493, 496) from the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). We use simple paired t-test and Poisson regression models to compare difference in emergency visits, air pollution levels and meteorological conditions for the pairs of Asian dust events and pre-dust periods. There were 39 high dust events with PM(10) greater than 90 microg/m(3) and another 46 low dust events with PM(10) less than 90 microg/m(3). Compared to their pre-dust periods, PM(10) concentrations are significantly increased by 77 microg/m(3) per event for the high dust events. Asian dust storms increase cardiopulmonary emergency visits during storm-affecting periods in Taipei when ambient PM(10) concentrations are above 90 microg/m(3). Compared to their pre-dust periods, emergency visits for ischaemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and COPD during high dust events are increased by 0.7 case (35%), 0.7 case (20%), and 0.9 case (20%) per event, respectively, by paired t-tests. By comparing the model-predicted to the observed emergency visits, we find emergency visits for cardiovascular diseases (ICD-9-CM 410-411, 414, 430-437) were significantly increased by 2.9 cases (67%) per event for the 39 high Asian dust events.

  4. Inflammatory challenge increases measures of oxidative stress in a free-ranging, long-lived mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-12-15

    Oxidative stress - the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutralising antioxidants - has been under debate as the main cause of ageing in aerobial organisms. The level of ROS should increase during infection as part of the activation of an immune response, leading to oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Yet, it is unknown how long-lived organisms, especially mammals, cope with oxidative stress. Bats are known to carry a variety of zoonotic pathogens and at the same time are, despite their high mass-specific basal metabolic rate, unusually long lived, which may be partly the result of low oxidative damage of organs. Here, we asked whether an immune challenge causes oxidative stress in free-ranging bats, measuring two oxidative stress markers. We injected 20 short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) with bacterially derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 20 individuals with phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) as a control. Individuals injected with LPS showed an immune reaction by increased white blood cell count after 24 h, whereas there was no significant change in leukocyte count in control animals. The biological antioxidant potential (BAP) remained the same in both groups, but reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) increased after treatment with LPS, indicating a significant increase in oxidative stress in animals when mounting an immune reaction toward the inflammatory challenge. Control individuals did not show a change in oxidative stress markers. We conclude that in a long-lived mammal, even high concentrations of antioxidants do not immediately neutralise free radicals produced during a cellular immune response. Thus, fighting an infection may lead to oxidative stress in bats.

  5. Definition of ingredient composition of caramel mass in order to increase shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shvetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Principles of State Policy of the Russian Federation in the field of healthy nutrition for the period up to 2020 we set the task of expanding the range of specialized food for various population groups, in particular, enriched with vitamins and minerals. The range of sugar confectionery is constantly updated and expanded, increasing the scale of production. Note particularly the increase in consumer demand for bakery products with improved organoleptic properties, increased food and reduced energy value. Given the popularity of sugary confectionery products to the public, subject to foodstuffs enrichment of biologically active components can serve as caramel. Of particular interest are sugar confectionery suckable characterized pleasant taste and increased comfort of use, combined with the speed and completeness of release of active substances absorption. Earlier studies have shown that the molecule biologically active substances surrounded by sugar “glass”, as it were covered by an inert gas-tight shell, and are resistant chemical changes. Important advantages of this group of products are relatively large periods of storage and good portability, which expands the geographical possibilities of its use. However, the use of sucrose as a main flavor component and preservative, is an unfavorable factor for a healthy diet as a whole, and particularly for certain groups of the population for health. Therefore, when designing articles of caramel syrup containing as a sugar substitute, the authors suggested the use of polyols in combination with a sweetener vegetable isomalt and stevioside.

  6. Neck arthritis pain is reduced and range of motion is increased by massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Gonzalez, Gladys; Funk, C G

    2014-11-01

    The literature on the effects of massage therapy on neck arthritis pain is mixed depending on the dose level, and it is also based on self-report. In the present study an attempt was made to enhance the effects of weekly massage therapy by having the participants massage themselves daily. And in addition to self-reports on pain, range of motion (ROM) and the associated ROM pain were assessed before and after the first massage session and pre-post the last session one month later. Staff and faculty members at a medical school who were eligible for the study if they had neck arthritis pain were randomly assigned to a massage or a waitlist control group (N = 24 per group). The massage group received moderate pressure massages weekly by a massage therapist plus daily self-massages. The waitlist control group received the same schedule massages one month after being control subjects. The massage group showed significant short-term reductions after the first and last day massages in self-reported pain and in ROM-associated pain as well as an increase in ROM. Comparisons between the massage group (N = 23) and the control group (N = 14) on the last versus the first day data suggested significantly different changes including increased ROM and reduced ROM-associated pain for the massage group and reduced ROM and increased ROM-associated pain for the control group. These changes occurred specifically for flexion and right and left lateral flexion motions. These data highlight the importance of designing massage therapy protocols that target the most affected neck muscle groups and then assessing range of motion and related pain before and after the massage therapy. Comparisons with other studies also suggest that moderate pressure may contribute to the massage effects, and the use of daily self-massages between sessions may sustain the effects and serve as a cost-effective therapy for individuals with neck arthritis pain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Does stretching increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, J A; Burns, J; Buchbinder, R; Landorf, K B; Cook, C

    2006-10-01

    Many lower limb disorders are related to calf muscle tightness and reduced dorsiflexion of the ankle. To treat such disorders, stretches of the calf muscles are commonly prescribed to increase available dorsiflexion of the ankle joint. To determine the effect of static calf muscle stretching on ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion. A systematic review with meta-analyses. A systematic review of randomised trials examining static calf muscle stretches compared with no stretching. Trials were identified by searching Cinahl, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, and Central and by recursive checking of bibliographies. Data were extracted from trial publications, and meta-analyses performed that calculated a weighted mean difference (WMD) for the continuous outcome of ankle dorsiflexion. Sensitivity analyses excluded poorer quality trials. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the quantity I2. Five trials met inclusion criteria and reported sufficient data on ankle dorsiflexion to be included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analyses showed that calf muscle stretching increases ankle dorsiflexion after stretching for 15-30 minutes (WMD 3.03 degrees; 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 5.75), and > 30 minutes (WMD 2.49 degrees; 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 4.82). There was a very low to moderate statistical heterogeneity between trials. The meta-analysis results for 15-30 minutes of stretching were considered robust when compared with sensitivity analyses that excluded lower quality trials. Calf muscle stretching provides a small and statistically significant increase in ankle dorsiflexion. However, it is unclear whether the change is clinically important.

  8. The effect of heat applied with stretch to increase range of motion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Jiro; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Scott, Alex; Reid, W Darlene

    2012-08-01

    Application of heat to muscle is commonly advocated to enhance the efficacy of stretching. However, the effect of this combined therapy using different methods of heating, applied to different muscles, and after one or multiple treatments, is not known. To perform a systematic review to address the question: Does stretching augmented by heat application result in greater gains in range of motion (ROM) compared to stretch alone? The following databases were searched for original articles that evaluated our question: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SPORTDiscus and PEDro databases. After title and abstract screening followed by full-text screening, the quality of included articles was assessed and their data was abstracted. Screening, data abstraction and quality assessment was performed and consensus was achieved by two reviewers. Range of motion (ROM) data were synthesized by meta-analyses for overall effect and subgroup analysis according to muscle group, method of heat application, single or multiple treatments, and reported tightness of muscle. Twelve studies were included and reported the effects of stretch with or without heat on ROM of 352 participants. Heat applications included ultrasound, shortwave diathermy and hot packs. Meta-analyses and subgroup analyses demonstrated greater increases in ROM after heat and stretch (H + S) than heat alone. Subgroup analysis of muscle groups and the method of heat application showed some trends, but no significant differences. Multiple treatments (more so than single treatments) showed consistent treatment effects of H + S versus stretch alone amongst subgroups. Muscles described as tight did not show a greater treatment effect in response to H + S compared to muscles not reported as tight. Heating provides an added benefit on stretch related gains of ROM in healthy people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, S. K. L., E-mail: sjue@lanl.gov; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  10. A ring graph method for approximating atomic short-range order in disordered multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong

    2007-03-01

    The atomic short-range order (ASRO) in an alloy provides valuable information on the atomic structure to which the disordered alloy is tending. Mean field models with Onsager corrections have been used to calculate the ASRO in lattice models of disordered multi-component alloys. The Onsager correction is composition and temperature dependent and corrects for the over-correlation inherent to mean-field methods so that ASRO calculated satisfies the sum rule. However, it is does not take into account the k-dependence of the corrections. We present an analytical method based on ring graphs which provides for a k-dependent correction to the mean field. The ASRO in a simple ternary Ising model in a FCC lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is calculated using our method and compared to the results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. We find that, above the transition temperature, the analytical results are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations.

  11. Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Okur, Halil I; Gomopoulos, Nikolaos; Macias-Romero, Carlos; Cremer, Paul S; Petersen, Poul B; Tocci, Gabriele; Wilkins, David M; Liang, Chungwen; Ceriotti, Michele; Roke, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Electrolytes interact with water in many ways: changing dipole orientation, inducing charge transfer, and distorting the hydrogen-bond network in the bulk and at interfaces. Numerous experiments and computations have detected short-range perturbations that extend up to three hydration shells around individual ions. We report a multiscale investigation of the bulk and surface of aqueous electrolyte solutions that extends from the atomic scale (using atomistic modeling) to nanoscopic length scales (using bulk and interfacial femtosecond second harmonic measurements) to the macroscopic scale (using surface tension experiments). Electrolytes induce orientational order at concentrations starting at 10 μM that causes nonspecific changes in the surface tension of dilute electrolyte solutions. Aside from ion-dipole interactions, collective hydrogen-bond interactions are crucial and explain the observed difference of a factor of 6 between light water and heavy water.

  12. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan, E-mail: jgcolin@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Ariel A., E-mail: valladar@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu{sub x}Zr{sub 100−x} (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  13. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu-Zr alloys: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan; Valladares, Ariel A.; Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of CuxZr100-x (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  14. On-demand weighing of single dry biological particles over a 5-order-of-magnitude dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Bin-Da; Icoz, Kutay; Huang, Wanfeng; Chang, Chun-Li; Savran, Cagri A

    2014-11-07

    We report a simple and highly versatile system to select and weigh individual dry biological particles. The system is composed of a microtweezer to pick and place individual particles and a cantilever-based resonator to weigh them. The system can weigh entities that vary from a red blood cell (~10(-11) g) to the eye-brain complex of an insect (~10(-6) g), covering a 5-order-of-magnitude mass range. Due to its versatility and ease of use, this weighing method is highly compatible with established laboratory practices. The system can provide complementary mass information for a wide variety of individual particles imaged using scanning electron microscopy and determine comparative weights of individual biological entities that are attached to microparticles as well as weigh fractions of individual biological entities that have been subjected to focused ion beam milling.

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Short and Medium Range Order in Amorphous Ta2O5 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Badri; Stone, Kevin H.; Bassiri, Riccardo; Fejer, Martin M.; Toney, Michael F.; Mehta, Apurva

    2016-08-01

    Amorphous films and coatings are rapidly growing in importance. Yet, there is a dearth of high-quality structural data on sub-micron films. Not understanding how these materials assemble at atomic scale limits fundamental insights needed to improve their performance. Here, we use grazing-incidence x-ray total scattering measurements to examine the atomic structure of the top 50-100 nm of Ta2O5 films; mirror coatings that show high promise to significantly improve the sensitivity of the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors. Our measurements show noticeable changes well into medium range, not only between crystalline and amorphous, but also between as-deposited, annealed and doped amorphous films. It is a further challenge to quickly translate the structural information into insights into mechanisms of packing and disorder. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that allows translation of observed structural features to a physically intuitive packing of a primary structural unit based on a kinked Ta-O-Ta backbone. Our modeling illustrates how Ta-O-Ta units link to form longer 1D chains and even 2D ribbons, and how doping and annealing influences formation of 2D order. We also find that all the amorphousTa2O5 films studied in here are not just poorly crystalline but appear to lack true 3D order.

  16. The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel germanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Z.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation is concerned with the interplay of long-range order and anisotropy in the tetragonal RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = rare earth) family of compounds. Microscopic magnetic structures were studied using both neutron and x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES) techniques. The magnetic structures of Tb, Dy, Eu and Gd members have been determined using high-quality single-crystal samples. This work has correlated a strong Fermi surface nesting to the magnetic ordering in the RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compounds. Generalized susceptibility, {chi}{sub 0}(q), calculations found nesting to be responsible for both incommensurate ordering wave vector in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, and the commensurate structure in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. A continuous transition from incommensurate to commensurate magnetic structures via band filling is predicted. The surprisingly higher T{sub N} in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} than that in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is also explained. Next, all the metamagnetic phases in TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} with an applied field along the c axis have been characterized with neutron diffraction measurements. A mixed phase model for the first metamagnetic structure consisting of fully-saturated as well as reduced-moment Tb ions is presented. The moment reduction may be due to moment instability which is possible if the exchange is comparable to the low-lying CEF level splitting and the ground state is a singlet. In such a case, certain Tb sites may experience a local field below the critical value needed to reach saturation.

  17. Modification of modulated plasma plumes for the quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonics in different spectral ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeev, R. A., E-mail: rashid-ganeev@mail.ru [Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, 33 Dormon Yoli Street, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Boltaev, G. S.; Sobirov, B.; Reyimbaev, S.; Sherniyozov, H.; Usmanov, T. [Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, 33 Dormon Yoli Street, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H. [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    We demonstrate the technique allowing the fine tuning of the distance between the laser-produced plasma plumes on the surfaces of different materials, as well as the variation of the sizes of these plumes. The modification of plasma formations is based on the tilting of the multi-slit mask placed between the heating laser beam and target surface, as well as the positioning of this mask in the telescope placed on the path of heating radiation. The modulated plasma plumes with the sizes of single plume ranging between 0.1 and 1 mm were produced on the manganese and silver targets. Modification of the geometrical parameters of plasma plumes proved to be useful for the fine tuning of the quasi-phase-matched high-order harmonics generated in such structures during propagation of the ultrashort laser pulses. We show the enhancement of some groups of harmonics along the plateau range and the tuning of maximally enhanced harmonic by variable modulation of the plasma.

  18. Luminescence Dating of Sediments: An Increasingly Diverse Family of Methods and Range of Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the term 'luminescence dating' has expanded its meaning such that today it encompasses a range of luminescence dating methods and materials. Whilst the fundamental principles that underlie these different dating methods are essentially the same, namely that the event typically being recorded is the last exposure of the material to light or to heat, the various luminescence dating techniques do differ in their suitability in different situations. Today, in the field of luminescence dating of sediments, there are a number of minerals that can be used for dating (quartz and feldspar being the most commonly used), and for each mineral it is possible to obtain a number of different luminescence signals (some obtained using optical stimulation, and some obtained by heating). These different luminescence signals may build-up and deplete in the natural environment at different rates from each other, and can span quite different time ranges. Additionally, the scale of analysis used in luminescence dating can now be varied (ranging from single sand-sized grains to multiple grains), as can the size range of the materials used for dating (ranging from fine-silt, coarse-silt, and sand-sized grains, through to large clasts and rock surfaces). Having such flexibility in the range of minerals, luminescence signals, grain sizes, and the scales of analysis available for dating, means that it is now possible to optimise the materials and methods selected for dating in any particular study in response to the precise scientific question to be addressed, the time-range of interest, and the likely mechanisms of re-setting of the luminescence signal in the context that is to be dated. In this paper, the flexibility offered by the growing family of luminescence techniques will be outlined by considering some of the different minerals, luminescence signals, and dramatically different timescales (tens of years to millions of years) potentially available for sediment dating

  19. Heredity of medium-range order structure from melts to the microstructure of Ni-Cr-W superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhongtang; Hu, Rui; Wang, Jun; Li, Jinshan [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China)

    2015-07-15

    The structure factor S(Q), intensities and pair distribution function g(r) of liquid Ni-Cr-W superalloy at different temperatures have been measured by a high-temperature X-ray diffractometer. Coordination N{sub min}, correlation radius r{sub c}, the nearest atomic distance r{sub 1}, solidification microstructure and compression performance have been studied. The results show that a pre-peak exists on the structure factor curve at the liquidus temperature, and a fine structure of equiaxed, globular and non-dendritic primary grains can be achieved by casting the alloy at liquidus temperature. Liquid structure feature of Ni-Cr-W superalloy is found to depend on temperature. During the solidification, some structural information carried by the medium-range order (MRO) structure is inherited from the melt to the microstructure, which is beneficial for grain refinement. The maximum yield strength measured from typical microstructure of the equiaxed and non-dendritic grains at 1400 C is 543 MPa. The results show that refinement and non-dendritic grain is beneficial to the improvement of the yield strength. (orig.)

  20. Optically Tunable Chiral Plasmonic Guest-Host Cellulose Films Weaved with Long-range Ordered Silver Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guang; Wang, Xuesi; Chen, Tianrui; Gao, Jianxiong; Gai, Fangyuan; Wang, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-06-10

    Plasmonic materials with large chiroptical activity at visible wavelength have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in metamaterials. Here we demonstrate a novel guest-host chiral nematic liquid crystal film composed of bulk self-co-assembly of the dispersed plasmonic silver nanowires (AgNWs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The AgNWs-CNCs composite films show strong plasmonic optical activities, that are dependent on the chiral photonic properties of the CNCs host medium and orientation of the guest AgNWs. Tunable chiral distribution of the aligned anisotropic AgNWs with long-range order is obtained through the CNCs liquid crystal mediated realignment. The chiral plasmonic optical activity of the AgNWs-CNCs composite films can be tuned by changing the interparticle electrostatic repulsion between the CNCs nanorods and AgNWs. We also observe an electromagnetic energy transfer phenomena among the plasmonic bands of AgNWs, due to the modulation of the photonic band gap of the CNCs host matrix. This facile approach for fabricating chiral macrostructured plasmonic materials with optically tunable property is of interest for a variety of advanced optics applications.

  1. Short range order and stability of amorphous Ge(x)Te(100-x) alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóvári, P; Piarristeguy, A; Escalier, R; Kaban, I; Bednarčik, J; Pradel, A

    2013-05-15

    Amorphous Ge(x)Te(100-x) alloys were obtained over a broad composition range (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6) by thermal co-evaporation. Their structure was investigated by x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. Experimental datasets were fitted simultaneously by the reverse Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that Te is mostly twofold coordinated and the majority of Ge atoms have four neighbours. The number of Ge-Ge and Te-Te bonds evolves monotonically with composition. Ge-Ge bonding can be observed already at x = 24 while Te-Te bonds can be found even in Ge44.6Te55.4. The models obtained by simulation show that the structure of compositions with x > 24 should be considered as a random covalent network but there is chemical ordering for x ≤ 24, exactly in the composition range where glasses can be obtained from the melt by fast quenching. The composition dependences of some physical properties also point to the connection between chemical short range order and the stability of the amorphous phase: while the glass transition temperature and microhardness increase monotonically with the composition, the thermal stability of the amorphous films goes through a maximum around x = 20-24.

  2. High order quaternary arrangement confers increased structural stability to Brucella Spp. lumazine synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zylberman, V.; Craig, P.O.; Klinke, S.; Cauerhff, A.; Goldbaum, F.A. [Instituto Leloir, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Braden, B.C. [Bowie State Univ., Maryland (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The penultimate step in the pathway of riboflavin biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme lumazine synthase (LS). One of the most distinctive characteristics of this enzyme is the structural quaternary divergence found in different species. The protein exists as pentameric and icosahedral forms, built from practically the same structural monomeric unit. The pentameric structure is formed by five 18 kDa monomers, each extensively contacting neighboring monomers. The icosahedral structure consists of 60 LS monomers arranged as twelve pentamers giving rise to a capsid exhibiting icosahedral 532 symmetry. In all lumazine synthases studied, the topologically equivalent active sites are located at the interfaces between adjacent subunits in the pentameric modules. The Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS) sequence clearly diverges from pentameric and icosahedral enzymes. This unusual divergence prompted to further investigate on its quaternary arrangement. In the present work, we demonstrate by means of solution Light Scattering and X-ray structural analyses that BLS assembles as a very stable dimer of pentamers representing a third category of quaternary assembly for lumazine synthases. We also describe by spectroscopic studies the thermodynamic stability of this oligomeric protein, and postulate a mechanism for dissociation/unfolding of this macromolecular assembly. The higher molecular order of BLS increases its stability 20 deg C compared to pentameric lumazine synthases. The decameric arrangement described in this work highlights the importance of quaternary interactions in the stabilization of proteins. (author)

  3. Increased use of antipsychotic long-acting injections with community treatment orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maxine X; Matonhodze, Jane; Baig, Mirza K; Gilleen, James; Boydell, Jane; Holloway, Frank; Taylor, David; Szmukler, George; Lambert, Tim; David, Anthony S

    2011-04-01

    Community treatment orders (CTOs) are increasingly being used, despite a weak evidence base, and problems continue regarding Second Opinion Appointed Doctor (SOAD) certification of medication. The aim of the current study was to describe current CTO usage regarding patient characteristics, prescribed medication and CTO conditions. A 1-year prospective cohort study with consecutive sampling was conducted for all patients whose CTO was registered in a large mental health trust. Only the first CTO for each patient was included. Measures included sociodemographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, CTO date of initiation and conditions, psychotropic medication and date of SOAD certification for medication. This study was conducted in the first year of CTO legislation in England and Wales. A total of195 patients were sampled (mean age 40.6 years, 65% male, 52% black ethnic origin). There was significant geographical variability in rates of CTO use (χ(2) = 11.3, p = 0.012). A total of 53% had their place of residence specified as a condition and 29% were required to allow access into their homes. Of those with schizophrenia, 64% were prescribed an antipsychotic long-acting injection (LAI). Of the total group, 7% received high-dose antipsychotics, 10% were prescribed two antipsychotics and only 15% received SOAD certification in time. There was geographical and ethnic variation in CTO use but higher rates of hospital detention in minority ethnic groups may be contributory. Most patients were prescribed antipsychotic LAIs and CTO conditions may not follow the least restrictive principle.

  4. Methodologies to increase the transformation efficiencies and the range of bacteria that can be transformed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Trond Erik Vee; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund

    2010-02-01

    Methods for transfer of exogenous DNA into cells are essential for genetics and molecular biology, and the lack of effective methods hampers research on many different species of bacteria which have shown to be particularly recalcitrant to transformation. This review presents the progress on the development of methods for artificial transformation of bacteria with emphasis on different methodologies and the range of bacteria that can be transformed. The methods' strengths and weaknesses are described.

  5. Aligning Order Picking Methods, Incentive Systems, and Regulatory Focus to Increase Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; de Koster, R.; Stam, D.

    2016-01-01

    A controlled field experiment investigates order picking performance in terms of productivity. We examined three manual picker-to-parts order picking methods (parallel, zone, and dynamic zone picking) under two different incentive systems (competition-based vs. cooperation-based) for pickers with

  6. Aligning order picking methods, incentive systems, and regulatory focus to increase performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Vries (Jelle); M.B.M. de Koster (René); D.A. Stam (Daan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA unique controlled field experiment investigates order picking performance (in terms of productivity and quality). We examined three manual picker-to-parts order picking methods (parallel, zone, and dynamic zone picking) under two different incentive systems (competition- based versus

  7. How a simple adaptive foraging strategy can lead to emergent home ranges and increased food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Teilmann, Jonas; Tougaard, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    the optimal balance between alternative movement strategies is therefore selectively advantageous. Recent theory suggests that animals are capable of switching movement mode depend- ing on heterogeneities in the landscape, and that different modes may predominate at different temporal scales. Here we develop...... investigate whether the model is capable of producing emergent home ranges and use pattern-oriented modeling to evaluate whether it can reproduce the large-scale movement patterns observed for porpoises in nature. Finally we investigate whether the model enables animals to forage optimally. We found...

  8. Study of long-range orders of hard-core bosons coupled to cooperative normal modes in two-dimensional lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Yarlagadda, S.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the microscopic mechanism of coexisting long-range orders (such as lattice supersolidity) in strongly correlated systems is a subject of immense interest. We study the possible manifestations of long-range orders, including lattice-supersolid phases with differently broken symmetry, in a two-dimensional square lattice system of hard-core bosons (HCBs) coupled to archetypal cooperative/coherent normal-mode distortions such as those in perovskites. At strong HCB-phonon coupling, using a duality transformation to map the strong-coupling problem to a weak-coupling one, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian involving nearest-neighbor, next-nearest-neighbor, and next-to-next-nearest-neighbor hoppings and repulsions. Using stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo, we construct the phase diagram of the system. As coupling strength is increased, we find that the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a checkerboard solid at half-filling and from a superfluid to a diagonal striped solid [with crystalline ordering wave vector Q ⃗=(2 π /3 ,2 π /3 ) or (2 π /3 ,4 π /3 )] at one-third filling without showing any evidence of supersolidity. On tuning the system away from these commensurate fillings, checkerboard supersolid is generated near half-filling whereas a rare diagonal striped supersolid is realized near one-third filling. Interestingly, there is an asymmetry in the extent of supersolidity about one-third filling. Within our framework, we also provide an explanation for the observed checkerboard and stripe formations in La2 -xSrxNiO4 at x =1 /2 and x =1 /3 .

  9. Low Oxygen Saturation Target Range is Associated with Increased Incidence of Intermittent Hypoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Juliann M.; Walsh, Michele; Wrage, Lisa; Rich, Wade; Finer, Neil; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that preterm infants randomized to a low vs high O2 saturation target range have a higher incidence of intermittent hypoxemia. Study design A subcohort of 115 preterm infants with high resolution pulse oximetry enrolled in the Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial were randomized to low (85%-89%) or high (91%-95%) O2 saturation target ranges. Oxygen saturation was monitored until 36 weeks postmenstrual age or until the infant was breathing room air without respiratory support for ≥72 hours. Results The low target O2 saturation group had a higher rate of intermittent hypoxemia (≤80% for ≥10 seconds and ≤3 minutes) prior to 12 days and beyond 57 days of life (P hypoxemia events in the low target group was associated with a time interval between events of hypoxemia events that was dependent on postnatal age. The duration and severity of events was comparable between target groups. Further investigation is needed to assess the role of intermittent hypoxemia and their timing on neonatal morbidity. PMID:22738947

  10. Thermodynamic Aspects of Homogeneous Nucleation Enhanced by Icosahedral Short Range Order in Liquid Fcc-Type Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaz, Michel; Kurtuldu, Güven

    2015-08-01

    We have recently shown that minute solute element additions to liquid metallic alloys can strongly influence the nucleation of the fcc phase and act as a grain refinement method. Electron back-scattered diffraction observations revealed a concomitant increase in the percentage of nearest neighbor (nn) grains that are in a twin relationship. Furthermore, multiple-twinned (MT) nn grain configurations with a fivefold symmetry around a common direction have been identified, an occurrence that can be explained when the symmetry of the icosahedron is accounted for. It was then conjectured that a new nucleation mechanism occurs in two steps: first, the formation of small icosahedral quasicrystals in the melt, followed by heteroepitaxy of the fcc phase on facets of these quasicrystals. In the present contribution, based on thermodynamics arguments, it is proposed that the first step occurs by spinodal decomposition of the liquid, in a manner similar to Guinier-Preston zones formation in solid state precipitation, while the second step is a transformation of these quasicrystal precursors into MT-fcc nanocrystals once the driving force for this transformation is sufficient to overcome the fcc-liquid interfacial energy and the elastic strains associated with MT-fcc nanoparticles. This explanation sets up guidelines for finding solute elements and composition ranges that favor this grain refinement mechanism.

  11. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie

    2014-01-01

    -up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0.......13) and weight (69.3 versus 69.3 kg, P = 0.71). Patients on thyroxin treatment did not gain weight. TSH increase was significantly correlated with weight gain (r = 0.43, P thyroid function is lowered within the laboratory...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individual pay increase. An employee who meets or exceeds performance expectations (i.e., has a rating of record above the unacceptable performance level for the most recently completed appraisal period) must... completed appraisal period, he or she must be treated in the same manner as an employee who meets or exceeds...

  13. High-Maneuverability Airframe: Initial Investigation of Configuration’s Aft End for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    High-Maneuverability Airframe: Initial Investigation of Configuration’s Aft End for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability by Sidra ...for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability Sidra I. Silton and Frank Fresconi Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Maneuverability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sidra I. Silton and Frank Fresconi 5d. PROJECT

  14. The enhancement of photoresponse of an ordered inorganic-organic hybrid architecture by increasing interfacial contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Xudong; Ma, Shaohua; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Mingqiu

    2010-02-10

    A modified ZnO quantum dot/polythiophene (ZnO/PTh) inorganic-organic hybrid architecture was fabricated by using ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) as the retaining template. First, a two-step strategy was developed to synthesize an ordered organic conducting polymer composite (PTh/SBA-15). Then, ZnO quantum dots were in situ formed on the pore walls of the ordered PTh/SBA-15 composite. Photoresponse of the inorganic-organic hybrid was studied with respect to its incident photon to collected electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and morphology. The presence of SBA-15 proved to be critical for controlling the interfacial morphology and hence enlarging the interfacial area of the inorganic-organic heterojunction. The proposed approach may act as a key method to open up potential applications in photovoltaic devices.

  15. Consumption of dried apple peel powder increases joint function and range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Attridge, Victoria L; Benson, Kathleen F; Beaman, Joni L; Carter, Steve G; Ager, David

    2014-11-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of dried apple peel powder (DAPP) on joint function and range of motion (ROM). Additional in vitro and clinical testing was performed to suggest specific mechanisms of action. An open-label clinical pilot study involved 12 healthy people with moderate loss of joint ROM and associated chronic pain. The subjects consumed 4.25 g DAPP daily for 12 weeks, with evaluations at baseline, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. ROM was evaluated at each visit using dual digital inclinometry. Pain scores were collected using Visual Analogue Scales. Blood draws enabled testing of serum antioxidant protective capacity using the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay. Additional in vitro testing involved testing of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lipoxygenase inhibition, cellular antioxidant protection by the CAP-e bioassay, and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells by flow cytometry. Twelve weeks of consumption of DAPP was associated with improved ROM. DAPP provided antioxidants that were available to enter into and protect cells from oxidative damage in vitro, and consumption of DAPP for 12 weeks was associated with a statistically significant improvement in serum antioxidant protective status. DAPP inhibited both COX-2 and lipoxygenase enzymes, and pretreatment of inflammatory PMN cells with DAPP before inflammatory stimulus resulted in reduced ROS formation. This suggests multifaceted anti-inflammatory properties of DAPP. Consumption of DAPP was associated with improved joint function and improved serum antioxidant protection status. The observed pain reduction may be associated with the improved antioxidant status and linked to the apple polyphenols' anti-inflammatory effects.

  16. Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3...spectroscopy (EELS) measurements that the long range ferromagnetic (FM) order in vanadium (V)-doped topological insulator Sb2Te3 has the nature of van...Vleck-type ferromagnetism . The positions and the relative amplitudes of two core-level peaks (L3 and L2) of the V EELS spectrum show unambiguous change

  17. AUTOMATIC REGULATOR FOR NON-STATIONARY OBJECTS WITH AN INCREASED RANGE OF NORMAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pavlov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many objects automatic control unsteady. This is manifested in the change of their parameters. Therefore, periodically adjust the required parameters of the controller. This work is usually carried out rarely. For a long time, regulators are working with is not the optimal settings. The consequence of this is the low quality of many industrial control systems. The solution problem is the use of robust controllers. Explores the possibility of increasing the survivability of automatic control systems by expanding the area of their normal work. This is achieved by using an artificial neural network simple structure. The method is based on the cooperative effect of neural structures. In this block diagram of the controller is very simple. Such control effectively compensates the coordinate perturbations if they act on the control channel.

  18. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bianca C.; Brune, William H.; Miller, David O.; Blake, Donald; Long, Russell; Wisthaler, Armin; Cantrell, Christopher; Fried, Alan; Heikes, Brian; Brown, Steven; McDuffie, Erin; Flocke, Frank; Apel, Eric; Kaser, Lisa; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3), to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3) calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3) is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3) to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measured net P(O3) in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3) was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3) was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO) levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3) for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3) behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3) and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2) discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3) discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model-data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3), then these results would imply that P(O3) in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3) regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone regulations

  19. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  20. Range-separated time-dependent density-functional theory with a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Rebolini, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of four small molecules: N2, CO2, H2CO, and C2H4. The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.

  1. 3 CFR 13515 - Executive Order 13515 of October 14, 2009. Increasing Participation of Asian Americans and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any of the original peoples of East Asia, Southeast Asia, or South Asia, or any of the aboriginal... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13515 of October 14, 2009..., medicine, education, and politics. While we acknowledge the many contributions of the AAPI communities to...

  2. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... on U.S. mango demand was conducted by Dr. Ronald Ward of the University of Florida (2010 economic..., including whether to pass back the cost of assessments to producers, are made by handlers and importers... is favored by organizations in Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, Haiti, Ecuador and Brazil. In order to...

  3. 78 FR 29258 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... ranged from $1,522,519 in 2004 to $3,931,296 in 2012. Expenditures for health and nutrition research have... relating to various health issues, including cardiovascular health and cancer. However, most of these... incorporate specific areas of research into expanded clinical (human) trials. Clinical trials are important...

  4. The Holistic Information Communication and Technology in Order to Increase Number of Tourist in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Taqwa Hariguna; Min-Tsai Lai

    2015-01-01

    Information communication and technology has been used not only in business sector but also in government, tourism is one of business activity need collaboration between government and business practitioner to implement tourism activities. Government as the authority must be provide information related to business tourism activities, this study provide a holistic information system between government and business practitioner through website, in order to provide better service and to be incre...

  5. [Increase in orders for specific IgE tests and more positive results in children in 1985-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatenburg de Jong, A; Dikkeschei, L D; Brand, P L P

    2008-08-09

    To describe changes over time in the number of allergy tests for specific IgE ordered and outcomes in children, to help address the question whether the increase in allergies is due to an actual increase in sensitisation or an increase in diagnostic awareness of allergies among physicians. Retrospective and descriptive. We reviewed the results of all specific IgE tests performed in our hospital's laboratory for children 0-18 years of age in the period 1985-2003. This included tests ordered by both general practitioners and hospital-based specialists. We analysed trends over time in the number of tests ordered (as an indicator ofdiagnostic awareness) and test results (as an indicator ofsensitisation). Between 1989 and 1995, the annual number of tests ordered increased from 1 per 10,000 children to 95 per 10,000 children and remained stable thereafter. Before 1990, more than 90% of tests were ordered by hospital-based specialists; after 1990, approximately 70% of the tests were ordered by general practitioners (p < 0.001). The proportion of positive tests remained stable at approximately 27% until 1991, after which it increased to more than 45% (p < 0.001). The increase in the proportion of positive tests suggests an increase in atopic sensitization between 1985 and 2000 which has stabilized since.

  6. Detection and characterization of symmetry-broken long-range orders in the spin-1/2 triangular Heisenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, S. N.; McCulloch, I. P.

    2017-08-01

    We present new numerical tools to analyze symmetry-broken phases in the context of SU (2 ) -symmetric translation-invariant matrix product states (MPS) and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) methods for infinite cylinders, and determine the phase diagram of the geometrically frustrated triangular Heisenberg model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor (NN and NNN) interactions. The appearance of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the excitation spectrum is characterized by "tower of states" levels in the momentum-resolved entanglement spectrum. Symmetry-breaking phase transitions are detected by a combination of the correlation lengths and second and fourth cumulants of the magnetic order parameters (which we call the Binder ratio), even though symmetry implies that the order parameter itself is strictly zero. Using this approach, we have identified a 120∘ order, a columnar order, and an algebraic spin liquid (specific to width-6 systems), alongside the previously studied topological spin liquid phase. For the latter, we also demonstrate robustness against chiral perturbations.

  7. Broadband high-efficiency zero-order surface grating coupler for the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, J. Gonzalo; Luque-González, José Manuel; Molina-Fernández, Íñigo; Cheben, Pavel; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos A.; Halir, Robert; Schmid, Jens H.; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    Efficient coupling of light from a chip into an optical fiber is a major issue in silicon photonics, as the dimensions of high-index-contrast photonic integrated waveguides are much smaller than conventional fiber diameters. Surface grating couplers address the coupling problem by radiating the optical power from a waveguide through the surface of the chip to the optical fiber, or vice versa. However, since the grating radiation angle substantially varies with the wavelength, conventional surface grating couplers cannot offer high coupling efficiency and broad bandwidth simultaneously. To overcome this limitation, for the near-infrared band we have recently proposed SOI-based zero-order grating couplers, which, making use of a subwavelength-engineered waveguide and a high-index prism, suppress the explicit dependence between the radiation angle and the wavelength, achieving a 1-dB bandwidth of 126 nm at λ = 1.55 μm. However, in the near-infrared, the bandwidth enhancement of zero-order grating couplers is limited by the effective index wavelength dispersion of the grating. In the mid-infrared spectral region, the waveguide dispersion is lower, alleviating the bandwidth limitation. Here we demonstrate numerically our zero-order grating coupler concept in the mid-infrared at λ = 3.8 μm. Several couplers for the silicon-on-insulator and the germanium-on-silicon nitride platforms are designed and compared, with subdecibel coupling efficiencies and 1-dB bandwidths up to 680 nm.

  8. ANALYSIS OF MARKETING TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES WITHIN EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ORGANIZATIONS, IN ORDER TO INCREASE THEIR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Andreea Mihaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian education, which is an important pillar for human resource forming process and the basis for economic development, suffered a lot of changes in the last decades. The main factors that have influenced the undergraduate and university training programs are the political and social-cultural ones. Educational services organizations are facing various challenges as: creating and maintaining a good institutional image, managing all types of resources efficiently, motivating the academic personnel, satisfying the community needs and supporting the public policy. The marketing tools and activities help these entities to improve the educational programs and adapt them to the individual needs of the clients, to keep under control the production costs, which are limited by the small public budget and to perform and promote these services efficiently, leading to an increased organizational performance. The paper begins by presenting the current situation of higher education in Romania, underlining the fierce competition among the universities, the increased market potential and the financing sources. It continues by mentioning the advantages of strategic marketing planning for universities, as superior results and effectiveness, improved decision making and multiple benefits for the people involved. The paper reveals also the characteristics of segmenting and positioning on higher education market and the specific of marketing mix. Thereby, educational product is more easily adapted to customer needs when it is designed in collaboration with existing and future students, their parents, with other universities in the field or even with graduates. Students themselves can contribute to the increase the quality of their education. Price may be a factor of choice when future student chooses to pursue a university course, especially in those situations where the price does not include only the payment of annual fees for education. Distribution takes into

  9. First-order convex feasibility algorithms for iterative image reconstruction in limited angular-range X-ray CT

    CERN Document Server

    Sidky, Emil Y; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms in Computed Tomography (CT) are based on algorithms for solving a particular optimization problem. Design of the IIR algorithm, therefore, is aided by knowledge of the solution to the optimization problem on which it is based. Often times, however, it is impractical to achieve accurate solution to the optimization of interest, which complicates design of IIR algorithms. This issue is particularly acute for CT with a limited angular-range scan, which leads to poorly conditioned system matrices and difficult to solve optimization problems. In this article, we develop IIR algorithms which solve a certain type of optimization called convex feasibility. The convex feasibility approach can provide alternatives to unconstrained optimization approaches and at the same time allow for efficient algorithms for their solution -- thereby facilitating the IIR algorithm design process. An accelerated version of the Chambolle-Pock (CP) algorithm is adapted to various convex fea...

  10. Deuterium short-range order in Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 by diffuse neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschko, O.; Klemencic, R.; Fratzl, P.

    1983-01-01

    By diffuse neutron scattering the D short-range order in a Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 crystal was investigated at 50 and 70K. The results are compared with the D ordering in the PdDx system previously investigated, and it is shown that the isointensity contours around the (1/2,1,0) point are similar to...

  11. Survey on the Viewpoints of Credit Beneficiaries Qua Consumers in Order to increase Banking Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Ilie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate that the unprecedented granting of consumer credits to population in recent years, under the circumstances of a spectacular goods supply growth, has adversely affected some consumers, and jeopardized the protection of their life, health and safety. The research method consists in a survey that gave, to a number of 560 credit beneficiaries, qua consumers, the opportunity to freely express their viewpoints. Data collection and processing has resulted in the filling of a 14 queries questionnaire by each of the 560 consumers in the South-Western Oltenia region and, subsequently, in data analysis. The main findings show that consumers have experienced a decline in what concerns their standard of living and that sustainable consumption of goods was barely stimulated. Based on the survey results, the paper proposes a banking accountability indicators system and a consumer credits quality pattern of analysis that would increase banking accountability towards such credits by reducing their negative externalities on people’s lives, stimulating sustainable consumption, giving thorough and accurate information, managing complaints and disputes, educating and raising consumers awareness.

  12. Orders of Magnitude Extension of the Effective Dynamic Range of TDC-Based TOFMS Data Through Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, Andreas; Ebbels, Timothy M. D.

    2014-10-01

    In a recent article, we derived a probability distribution that was shown to closely approximate that of the data produced by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) instruments employing time-to-digital converters (TDCs) as part of their detection system. The approach of formulating detailed and highly accurate mathematical models of LC/MS data via probability distributions that are parameterized by quantities of analytical interest does not appear to have been fully explored before. However, we believe it could lead to a statistically rigorous framework for addressing many of the data analytical problems that arise in LC/MS studies. In this article, we present new procedures for correcting for TDC saturation using such an approach and demonstrate that there is potential for significant improvements in the effective dynamic range of TDC-based mass spectrometers, which could make them much more competitive with the alternative analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The degree of improvement depends on our ability to generate mass and chromatographic peaks that conform to known mathematical functions and our ability to accurately describe the state of the detector dead time—tasks that may be best addressed through engineering efforts.

  13. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Prolonged Long-Duration Stretching Increase Dorsiflexion Range of Motion More Than Identical Stretching Without Diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Steven E; Draper, David O; Knight, Kenneth L; Ricard, Mark D

    2002-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 3 treatments on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: prolonged long-duration stretching, pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by stretching, and pulsed shortwave diathermy, stretching, and ice combined. DESIGN AND SETTING: A 2 x 5 x 15 repeated-measures (on 2 factors) design guided this study. Range-of-motion change in triceps surae flexibility was the dependent variable. The 3 independent variables were treatment group, pretest and posttest measurements, and day. Treatment group had 4 levels: control, stretching (10 minutes of stretching via the weight and pulley), diathermy and stretching (20 minutes of diathermy and 10 minutes of stretching), and diathermy, stretching, and ice (20 minutes of diathermy, 10 minutes of stretching applied after 15 minutes of diathermy, and 5 minutes of ice applied during the last 5 minutes of stretching). Each subject received 14 treatments throughout 3 weeks, with a follow-up measurement taken 6 days after the last treatment. SUBJECTS: Forty-four healthy college-student volunteers not involved in any flexibility program. MEASUREMENTS: We measured ankle dorsiflexion using a digital inclinometer before and after treatment. RESULTS: After 14 days of treatment, the range-of-motion increase was greater after heat and stretching than after stretching alone. After 6 additional days of rest, the heat and stretching range-of-motion increase was greater than that for stretching alone. CONCLUSION: Pulsed shortwave diathermy application before prolonged long-duration static stretching was more effective than stretching alone in increasing flexibility throughout 3 weeks. After 14 treatments, prolonged long-duration stretching combined with pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by ice application caused greater immediate and net range-of-motion increases than prolonged long-duration stretching alone.

  14. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Prolonged Long-Duration Stretching Increase Dorsiflexion Range of Motion More Than Identical Stretching Without Diathermy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Steven E.; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3 treatments on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: prolonged long-duration stretching, pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by stretching, and pulsed shortwave diathermy, stretching, and ice combined. Design and Setting: A 2 × 5 × 15 repeated-measures (on 2 factors) design guided this study. Range-of-motion change in triceps surae flexibility was the dependent variable. The 3 independent variables were treatment group, pretest and posttest measurements, and day. Treatment group had 4 levels: control, stretching (10 minutes of stretching via the weight and pulley), diathermy and stretching (20 minutes of diathermy and 10 minutes of stretching), and diathermy, stretching, and ice (20 minutes of diathermy, 10 minutes of stretching applied after 15 minutes of diathermy, and 5 minutes of ice applied during the last 5 minutes of stretching). Each subject received 14 treatments throughout 3 weeks, with a follow-up measurement taken 6 days after the last treatment. Subjects: Forty-four healthy college-student volunteers not involved in any flexibility program. Measurements: We measured ankle dorsiflexion using a digital inclinometer before and after treatment. Results: After 14 days of treatment, the range-of-motion increase was greater after heat and stretching than after stretching alone. After 6 additional days of rest, the heat and stretching range-of-motion increase was greater than that for stretching alone. Conclusion: Pulsed shortwave diathermy application before prolonged long-duration static stretching was more effective than stretching alone in increasing flexibility throughout 3 weeks. After 14 treatments, prolonged long-duration stretching combined with pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by ice application caused greater immediate and net range-of-motion increases than prolonged long-duration stretching alone. PMID:12937443

  15. Medium-Range Order in Amorphous Silicon Measured by Fluctuation Electron Microscopy: Final Report, 23 June 1999--23 August 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, P. M.; Abelson, J. R.

    2003-10-01

    Despite occasional experimental hints, medium-range structural order in covalently bonded amorphous semiconductors had largely escaped detection until the advent of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) in 1996. Using FEM, we find that every sample of amorphous silicon and germanium we have investigated, regardless of deposition method or hydrogen content, is rich in medium-range order. The paracrystalline structural model, which consists of small, topologically ordered grains in an amorphous matrix, is consistent with the FEM data; but due to strain effects, materials with a paracrystalline structure appear to be amorphous in diffraction measurements. We present measurements on hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited by different methods, some of which are reported to have greater stability against the Staebler-Wronski effect. FEM reveals that the matrix material of these samples is relatively similar, but the order changes in different ways upon both light soaking and thermal annealing. Some materials are inhomogeneous, with either nanocrystalline inclusions or large area-to-area variation in the medium-range order. We cite recent calculations that electronic states in the conduction band tail are preferentially located around the boundaries of the nm-scale paracrystalline regions that we have identified. This is new evidence in support of spatially inhomogeneous conduction mechanisms in a-Si. The key discovery in our work is that all samples of amorphous silicon must be described as having nm-scale topological crystalline order. This strongly modifies the long-standing model of a covalent random network. Our new understanding of medium-range order must be considered in all future models of electronic properties and the Staebler-Wronski effect.

  16. Effect of short-range order on magnetic and transport properties of Fe2MnGa Heusler alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Melnyk, A. K.; Trachevskyi, V. V.; Gościańska, I.; Dubowik, J.

    2017-11-01

    Fe56Mn20Ga24, Fe46Mn35Ga19 and Fe39Mn25Ga36 Heusler alloy (HA) films are investigated. It is shown that as-deposited Fe-Mn-Ga films are fine crystalline with a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. Annealing of the films leads to the formation of a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The BCC to FCC transformation results in a drastic increase in the magnetization, the Curie temperature as well as in a change of the sign of temperature coefficient of resistivity from negative to positive. These effects are discussed in terms of band structures of L21 and L12 phases of stoichiometric Fe2MnGa HA.

  17. Fe2+-Ti4+ vs. Fe2+-Fe3+ charge-transfer and short-range order in single chains of face-sharing octahedra: ellenbergerite and dumortierite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, C.; Langer, K.; Khomenko, V.

    2009-04-01

    In zoned pyrope megacrysts from the Dora-Maira UHP terrane, new, dark-violet colour varieties of the hexagonal, high-pressure silicate ellenbergerite extend the range of known Fe contents for this mineral from 0-0.1 to 0-0.4 atom pfu, for Ti contents commonly in the range 0.2-0.4 pfu. The new varieties show an extremely intense pleochroism, colourless for E perpendicular to c to deep Prussian blue for E//c, as compared to colourless to lilac or reddish purple for classical Fe-poor ellenbergerite. These features were the incentive for an electronic absorption spectroscopic study and a reappraisal of the interpretation of the charge transfers (CT), colour and ordering schemes in this group and the structurally related borosilicate dumortierite. Both structures are characterized by the presence of infinite single chains of face-sharing, partly vacant octahedra along the 6-fold screw axis and pseudo-hexad axis, respectively, in which the Fe and Ti atoms are partitioned. In the spectra of Fe-poor ellenbergerite, the presence of a single Fe2+-Ti4+ CT band near 19000 cm˘1 was taken as evidence for complete short-range ordering of Mg(Fe), Ti and vacancies in the octahedral single chain [1]. The E//c spectra of Fe-rich ellenbergerite show the same absorption band near 19000 cm˘1 but consistently flanked by another CT band near 14000 cm˘1 , the intensity of which increases with total Fe content. The latter is similar to the 12400 cm˘1 CT band observed as the single feature in E//c spectra of the isotructural (Ti-free and Fe-bearing) phosphoellenbergerite, and clearly assigned to Fe2+-Fe3+ CT in the octahedral single chain [1]. The same colour pattern occurs in the dumortierite group, with red Fe-poor, Ti-rich crystals showing a single CT band near 20000 cm˘1, blue Ti-poor crystals showing a single CT band near 16500 cm˘1, and violet Fe- and Ti-rich crystals showing a combination of the two bands [2]. In the light of the new data, we reinterpret the dumortierite colour

  18. Local breaking of fourfold rotational symmetry by short-range magnetic order in heavily overdoped Ba (Fe1 -xCux)2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyi; Song, Yu; Hu, Ding; Li, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Harriger, L. W.; Tian, Wei; Cao, Huibo; Dai, Pengcheng

    2017-10-01

    We investigate Cu-doped Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 with transport, magnetic susceptibility, and elastic neutron scattering measurements. In the heavily Cu-doped regime where long-range stripe-type antiferromagnetic order in BaFe2As2 is suppressed, Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 (0.145 ≤x ≤0.553 ) samples exhibit spin-glass-like behavior in magnetic susceptibility and insulating-like temperature dependence in electrical transport. Using elastic neutron scattering, we find stripe-type short-range magnetic order in the spin-glass region identified by susceptibility measurements. The persistence of short-range magnetic order over a large doping range in Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 likely arises from local arrangements of Fe and Cu that favor magnetic order, with Cu acting as vacancies relieving magnetic frustration and degeneracy. These results indicate locally broken fourfold rotational symmetry, suggesting that stripe-type magnetism is ubiquitous in iron pnictides.

  19. Short-range order of undercooled melts of PdZr 2 intermetallic compound studied by X-ray and neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Herlach, D. M.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.

    2013-05-01

    The short-range order in undercooled melts of the intermetallic Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy is investigated by combining electrostatic levitation (ESL) with high-energy X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. Experimentally determined structure factors are measured and analyzed with respect to various structures of short-range order. The comparative X-ray and neutron scattering experiments allow for investigations of topological and chemical short-range order. Based on these studies, no preference of a specific short-range order is found for the liquid Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy, even in the metastable state of the deeply undercooled melt. This is in agreement with an earlier report from X-ray diffraction and molecular-dynamics studies of a Zr75.5Pd24.5 liquid, which showed a broad distribution of cluster types. The results for the Zr2Pd liquid are discussed with respect to the glass-forming ability of this melt.

  20. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction study of the short-range ordering structure of alpha-LiFeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitome, Masanori; Kohiki, Shigemi; Murakawa, Yusuke; Hori, Kyoko; Kurashima, Keiji; Bando, Yoshio

    2004-12-01

    The basic structure of alpha-LiFeO2, lithium iron oxide, is a cubic NaCl-type structure with a lattice constant of 0.42 nm; some short-range ordering characterized by octahedral clusters exists. The local structure of the short-range ordering was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. A new short-range ordering structure was found in local areas. The local structure has a cubic lattice with a doubled lattice constant. The occupation factors of cations on Wyckoff sites 4(a) and 4(b) are different from those on 24(d) sites, but the stoichiometric composition in cubic clusters is the same as the macroscopic composition. The number of pairs in which iron cations exist in nearest-neighbor sites and next nearest-neighbor sites is reduced in the structure. This means that a magnetic interaction between the iron cations is reduced by cation ordering even without spin ordering at room temperature.

  1. On the effect of impurities on resistivity recovery, short-range ordering, and defect migration in electron-irradiated concentrated Fe-Cr alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, A L; Davletshin, A E

    1997-01-01

    The resistivity recovery of pure and impurity-doped (0.2-1.5% Si, 0.15% C+N) concentrated ferritic Fe-Cr alloys after electron irradiation at 50-60 K has been investigated over the temperature range 110-390 K. A fine recovery spectrum structure consisting of five peaks has been observed over the range 135-230 K. Short-range ordering starts with the onset of vacancy long-range migration. Doping with both types of impurity suppresses the recovery spectrum structure over the range 160-220 K in a similar manner. Additional effects of impurity doping on the resistivity recovery caused by deviation from Matthiessen's rule have been analysed. A stage III peak is found at 210 K, and two peaks - at 175 K and 195 K - are interpreted as being due to the vacancy short-range migration. It is supposed that such a manifestation of short-range vacancy migration is due to a strong immobilization of self-interstitial atoms, and suppression of short-range and long-range defect annealing processes in stage I, according to a conf...

  2. The Application of Problem-Based Learning Strategy to Increase High Order Thinking Skills of Senior Vocational School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Edy; Fahrizal; Priyono; Basri, K.

    2017-01-01

    This research is to apply and develop a strategy of problem-based learning to increase the ability of higher order thinking skills of senior vocational schools students. The research was done due to a fact that the quality of outputs of the senior vocational schools has not met the competency needed by the stakeholders in the field, that has made…

  3. Formation of incommensurate long-range magnetic order in the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antiferromagnet Ba2CuGe2O7 studied by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, S.; Brandl, G.; Mânsson, M.; Garst, M.

    2017-10-01

    Neutron diffraction on a triple-axis spectrometer and a small-angle neutron scattering instrument is used to study the magnetic phase transition in tetragonal Ba2CuGe2O7 at zero magnetic field. In addition to the incommensurate cycloidal antiferromagnetic (AFM) long-range order, we establish that weak incommensurate ferromagnetism (FM) also arises below the transition temperature TN identified by sharp Bragg peaks close to the Γ point. The intensities of both the incommensurate AFM and FM Bragg peaks vanish abruptly at TN, which is indicative of a weak first-order transition. Above TN, evidence is presented that the magnetic intensity within the tetragonal (a ,b ) plane is distributed on a ring in momentum space whose radius is determined by the incommensurate wave vector of the cycloidal order. We speculate that the associated soft fluctuations are at the origin of the weak first-order transition in the spirit of a scenario proposed by Brazovskii.

  4. Comparison of an indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique and a hot pack for increasing range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Jay; Martorello, Laura; Swanson, Edward; Sego, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the randomized clinical study was to scientifically assess which intervention increases passive range of motion most effectively: the indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique or the application of hot packs for gleno-humeral joint flexion, extension, and abduction. A total of 31 participants from a sample of convenience were randomly assigned to examine whether or not MFR was as effective in increasing range of motion as hot packs. The sample consisted of students at American International College. Students were randomly assigned to two groups: hot pack application (N=13) or MFR technique (N=18). The independent variable was the intervention, either the tri-planar MFR technique or the hot pack application. Group one received the indirect tri-planar MFR technique once for 3min. Group two received one hot pack application for 20min. The dependent variables, passive gleno-humeral shoulder range of motion in shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction, were taken pre- and post-intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed through the use of a two-way factorial design with mixed-factors ANOVA. Prior to conducting the study, inter-rater reliability was established using three testers for goniometric measures. A 2 (type of intervention: hot packs or MFR) by 2 (pre-test or post-test) mixed-factors ANOVA was calculated. Significant increases in range of motion were found for flexion, extension and abduction when comparing pre-test scores to post-test scores. The results of the ANOVA showed that for passive range of motion no differences were found for flexion, extension and abduction between the effectiveness of hot packs and MFR. For each of the dependent variables measured, MFR was shown to be as effective as hot packs in increasing range of motion, supporting the hypothesis. Since there was no significant difference between the types of intervention, both the hot pack application and the MFR technique were found to be

  5. About accuracy increase of fractional order derivative and integral computations by applying the Grünwald-Letnikov formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Dariusz W.; Ostalczyk, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to gather and to survey various formulas for fractional order derivative and integral calculations according to their Grünwald-Letnikov definition. The paper presents evaluation results for some factors, which influence its accuracy and efficiency of computations: different formulas for the coefficients calculations, different forms of the formula and different schemas for the function discretization, including more points per step of summation. It also hints how to solve some of the serious programming issues when applying the formulas. The objective is to determine a recipe for the increase the default low computational accuracy and efficiency of this popular method of fractional order derivative and integral calculations.

  6. Absence of magnetic long-range order in Y2CrSbO7 : Bond-disorder-induced magnetic frustration in a ferromagnetic pyrochlore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L.; Greaves, C.; Riyat, R.; Hansen, T. C.; Blackburn, E.

    2017-09-01

    The consequences of random nonmagnetic-ion dilution for the pyrochlore family Y2(M 1 -xN x)2O7 (M = magnetic ion, N = nonmagnetic ion) have been investigated. As a first step, we experimentally examine the magnetic properties of Y2CrSbO7 (x =0.5 ), in which the magnetic sites (Cr3 +) are percolative. Although the effective Cr-Cr spin exchange is ferromagnetic, as evidenced by a positive Curie-Weiss temperature, ΘCW ≃19.5 K , our high-resolution neutron powder diffraction measurements detect no sign of magnetic long-range order down to 2 K. In order to understand our observations, we construct a lattice model to numerically study the bond disorder introduced by the ionic size mismatch between M and N , which reveals that the bond disorder percolates at xb ≃0.23 , explaining the absence of magnetic long-range order. This model could be applied to a series of frustrated magnets with a pyrochlore sublattice, for example, the spinel compound Zn (Cr1 -xGax )2O4 , wherein a Néel to spin glass phase transition occurs between x =0.2 and 0.25 [Lee et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 014405 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.014405]. Our study stresses the non-negligible role of bond disorder on magnetic frustration, even in ferromagnets.

  7. Reduced bone breakage and increased bone strength in free range laying hens fed omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlton, John F; Wilkins, Lindsay J; Toscano, Michael J; Avery, Nick C; Knott, Lynda

    2013-02-01

    The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the immediate precursors to a number of important mediators of immunity, inflammation and bone function, with products of omega-6 generally thought to promote inflammation and favour bone resorption. Western diets generally provide a 10 to 20-fold deficit in omega-3 PUFAs compared with omega-6, and this is thought to have contributed to the marked rise in incidence of disorders of modern human societies, such as heart disease, colitis and perhaps osteoporosis. Many of our food production animals, fed on grains rich in omega-6, are also exposed to a dietary deficit in omega-3, with perhaps similar health consequences. Bone fragility due to osteoporotic changes in laying hens is a major economic and welfare problem, with our recent estimates of breakage rates indicating up to 95% of free range hens suffer breaks during lay. Free range hens housed in full scale commercial systems were provided diets supplemented with omega-3 alpha linolenic acid, and the skeletal benefits were investigated by comparison to standard diets rich in omega-6. There was a significant 40-60% reduction in keel bone breakage rate, and a corresponding reduction in breakage severity in the omega-3 supplemented hens. There was significantly greater bone density and bone mineral content, alongside increases in total bone and trabecular volumes. The mechanical properties of the omega-3 supplemented hens were improved, with strength, energy to break and stiffness demonstrating significant increases. Alkaline phosphatase (an osteoblast marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (an osteoclast marker) both showed significant increases with the omega-3 diets, indicating enhanced bone turnover. This was corroborated by the significantly lower levels of the mature collagen crosslinks, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline, lysyl pyridinoline and histidinohydroxy-lysinonorleucine, with a corresponding significant shift in the mature

  8. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  9. Short-range magnetic ordering in the geometrically frustrated layered compound YBaCo4O7 with an extended Kagomé structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Banerjee, S.

    2013-02-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated layered compound YBaCo4O7 have been studied by magnetization and neutron diffraction. A layered type crystal structure, with alternating tetrahedral layers of Kagomé and triangular types, along the c axis (hexagonal symmetry, space group P63mc) has been found. The oxygen content of the present compound was determined by iodometric titration to be 7.00 ± 0.01. Presence of a short-range antiferromagnetic ordering (below TN ˜ 110 K) has been concluded from the appearance of an addition broad magnetic peak (at Q ˜ 1.35 Å-1) in the neutron diffraction pattern. A staggered chiral type (√{3}×√{3}) spin structure in the Kagomé layers has been found. Presence of a significant magneto-structural coupling is concluded from the changes in lattice parameters across the magnetic ordering temperature TN ˜ 110 K.

  10. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Satheesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit coupled with the traction drive during braking events increases the recoverable energy by 8.4%. In addition, the simulation revealed that, on average, the energy drawn from the battery is reduced by 3.2% when traction drive is integrated with the air-conditioning compressor (an auxiliary electrical load. A practical design solution of the integrated unit is also included in the paper. Based on the findings, it is evident that the integration of an auxiliary unit with the traction drive results in enhancing the energy capturing capacity of the regenerative braking mechanism and decreases the power consumed from the battery. Further, the integrated unit boosts other advantages such as reduced material cost, improved reliability, and a compact and lightweight design.

  11. Atomic long-range order effects on Curie temperature and adiabatic spin-wave dynamics in strained Fe-Co alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönecker, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqing; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-08-01

    The strained Fe-Co alloy in body-centered tetragonal (bct) structure has raised considerable interest due to its giant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. On the basis of the classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian with ab initio interatomic exchange interactions, we perform a theoretical study of fundamental finite temperature magnetic properties of Fe1 -xCox alloy films as a function of three variables: chemical composition 0.3 ≤x ≤0.8 , bct geometry [a ,c (a )] arising from in-plane strain and associated out-of-plane relaxation, and atomic long-range order (ALRO). The Curie temperatures TC(x ,a ) obtained from Monte Carlo simulations display a competition between a pronounced dependence on tetragonality, strong ferromagnetism in the Co-rich alloy, and the beginning instability of ferromagnetic order in the Fe-rich alloy when c /a →√{2 } . Atomic ordering enhances TC and arises mainly due to different distributions of atoms in neighboring coordination shells rather than altering exchange interactions significantly. We investigate the ordering effect on the shape of the adiabatic spin-wave spectrum for selected pairs (x ,a ) . Our results indicate that long-wavelength acoustic spin-wave excitations show dependencies on x , a , and ALRO similar to those of TC. The directional anisotropy of the spin-wave stiffness d (x ,a ) peaks in narrow ranges of composition and tetragonality. ALRO exhibits a strong effect on d for near equiconcentration Fe-Co. We also discuss our findings in the context of employing Fe-Co as perpendicular magnetic recording medium.

  12. Deficits in Glenohumeral Passive Range of Motion Increase Risk of Shoulder Injury in Professional Baseball Pitchers: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Porterfield, Ron A; Harker, Paul; Evans, Timothy J; Andrews, James R

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder injuries from repetitive baseball pitching continue to be a serious, common problem. To determine whether passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was predictive of shoulder injury or shoulder surgery in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with a bubble goniometer during spring training for all major and minor league pitchers of a single professional baseball organization over a period of 8 successive seasons (2005-2012). Investigators performed a total of 505 examinations on 296 professional pitchers. Glenohumeral external and internal rotation was assessed with the pitcher supine and the arm abducted to 90° in the scapular plane with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. Total rotation was defined as the sum of internal and external glenohumeral rotation. Passive shoulder flexion was measured with the pitcher supine and the lateral border of the scapula manually stabilized. After examination, shoulder injuries and injury durations were recorded by each pitcher's respective baseball organization and reported to the league as an injury transaction as each player was placed on the disabled list. Highly significant side-to-side differences were noted within subjects for each range of motion measurement. There were 75 shoulder injuries and 20 surgeries recorded among 51 pitchers, resulting in 5570 total days on the disabled list. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, total rotation deficit, and flexion deficit were not significantly related to shoulder injury or surgery. Pitchers with insufficient external rotation (<5° greater external rotation in the throwing shoulder) were 2.2 times more likely to be placed on the disabled list for a shoulder injury (P = .014; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1) and were 4.0 times more likely to require shoulder surgery (P = .009; 95% CI, 1.5-12.6). Insufficient shoulder external rotation on the throwing side

  13. Understanding the Cu-Zn brass alloys using a short-range-order cluster model: significance of specific compositions of industrial alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, H. L.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2014-11-01

    Metallic alloys show complex chemistries that are not yet understood so far. It has been widely accepted that behind the composition selection lies a short-range-order mechanism for solid solutions. The present paper addresses this fundamental question by examining the face-centered-cubic Cu-Zn α-brasses. A new structural approach, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model, is introduced, which suits specifically for the description of short-range-order structures in disordered systems. Two types of formulas are pointed out, [Zn-Cu12]Zn1~6 and [Zn-Cu12](Zn,Cu)6, which explain the α-brasses listed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications. In these formulas, the bracketed parts represent the 1st-neighbor cluster, and each cluster is matched with one to six 2nd-neighbor Zn atoms or with six mixed (Zn,Cu) atoms. Such a cluster-based formulism describes the 1st- and 2nd-neighbor local atomic units where the solute and solvent interactions are ideally satisfied. The Cu-Ni industrial alloys are also explained, thus proving the universality of the cluster-formula approach in understanding the alloy selections. The revelation of the composition formulas for the Cu-(Zn,Ni) industrial alloys points to the common existence of simple composition rules behind seemingly complex chemistries of industrial alloys, thus offering a fundamental and practical method towards composition interpretations of all kinds of alloys.

  14. Spin dynamics, short range order and spin freezing in Y0.5Ca0.5BaCo4O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, John Ross [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Fouquet, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Mutka, Hannu [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Payen, Christophe [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes-CNRS; Lortz, Rolf [University of Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Y0.5Ca0.5BaCo4O7 was recently introduced as a possible candidate for capturing some of the predicted classical spin kagome ground-state features. Stimulated by this conjecture, we have taken up a more complete study of the spin correlations in this compound with neutron scattering methods on a powder sample characterized with high-resolution neutron diffraction and the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. We have found that the frustrated near-neighbor magnetic correlations involve not only the kagome planes but concern the full Co sublattice, as evidenced by the analysis of the wave-vector dependence of the short-range order. We conclude from our results that the magnetic moments are located on the Co sublattice as a whole and that correlations extend beyond the two-dimensional kagome planes. We identify intriguing dynamical properties, observing high-frequency fluctuations with a Lorentzian linewidth G?20 meV at ambient temperature. On cooling a low-frequency ({approx}1 meV) dynamical component develops alongside the high-frequency fluctuations, which eventually becomes static at temperatures below T {approx} 50 K. The high-frequency response with an overall linewidth of {approx}10 meV prevails at T?2 K, coincident with a fully elastic short-range-ordered contribution.

  15. Pop-up messages in order communication systems can increase awareness of osteoporosis among physicians and improve osteoporosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Yub; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Ji Wan; Sung, Gwang Young; Jung, Jae Hong; Cho, Yohan; Park, Jai Hyung

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of pop-up messages (regarding a history of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) on the identification and management of osteoporosis after osteoporotic hip or spine fractures. We hypothesized that these pop-up messages would increase the awareness and management of osteoporosis among clinicians and patients. We introduced pop-up messages regarding a history of DXA in our Order Communication System (March 2012) and evaluated the records of 404 patients who were treated between January 2011 and December 2012. The patients were categorized as being treated without the pop-up messages (Group I, before March 2012) or with the pop-up messages (Group II, after March 2012). We compared their rates of DXA prescription, osteoporosis medication, exercise, mortality and subsequent refractures during a 2-year follow-up. After introducing the pop-up messages, the DXA prescription rate increased from 35.1 to 57.1% (P < 0.001), the osteoporosis medication rate increased from 21.1 to 25.2% (P = 0.05) and the exercise rate increased from 35.6 to 40.5% (P = 0.018). During the 2-year follow-up, the mortality rates were 4.64% in Group I and 6.67% in Group II (P = 0.4). Subsequent refractures were found in 12.9% of Group I patients and 9.52% of Group II patients (P = 0.87). The pop-up messages positively affected the behaviours of orthopaedic surgeons and were associated with increased rates of prescription of DXA, osteoporosis medication, and might affect the behaviour of patient, increased exercise rate. Therefore, we recommend using this simple and effective method to improve physicians' awareness of osteoporosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E. Thomason

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development.

  17. Altering Residue 134 Confers an Increased Substrate Range of Alkylated Nucleosides to the E. coli OGT Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia M. Schoonhoven

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferases (AGTs are proteins responsible for the removal of mutagenic alkyl adducts at the O6-atom of guanine and O4-atom of thymine. In the current study we set out to understand the role of the Ser134 residue in the Escherichia coli AGT variant OGT on substrate discrimination. The S134P mutation in OGT increased the ability of the protein to repair both O6-adducts of guanine and O4-adducts of thymine. However, the S134P variant was unable, like wild-type OGT, to repair an interstrand cross-link (ICL bridging two O6-atoms of guanine in a DNA duplex. When compared to the human AGT protein (hAGT, the S134P OGT variant displayed reduced activity towards O6-alkylation but a much broader substrate range for O4-alkylation damage reversal. The role of residue 134 in OGT is similar to its function in the human homolog, where Pro140 is crucial in conferring on hAGT the capability to repair large adducts at the O6-position of guanine. Finally, a method to generate a covalent conjugate between hAGT and a model nucleoside using a single-stranded oligonucleotide substrate is demonstrated.

  18. Altering Residue 134 Confers an Increased Substrate Range of Alkylated Nucleosides to the E. coli OGT Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonhoven, Nadia M; O'Flaherty, Derek K; McManus, Francis P; Sacre, Lauralicia; Noronha, Anne M; Kornblatt, M Judith; Wilds, Christopher J

    2017-11-11

    O⁶-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferases (AGTs) are proteins responsible for the removal of mutagenic alkyl adducts at the O⁶-atom of guanine and O⁴-atom of thymine. In the current study we set out to understand the role of the Ser134 residue in the Escherichia coli AGT variant OGT on substrate discrimination. The S134P mutation in OGT increased the ability of the protein to repair both O⁶-adducts of guanine and O⁴-adducts of thymine. However, the S134P variant was unable, like wild-type OGT, to repair an interstrand cross-link (ICL) bridging two O⁶-atoms of guanine in a DNA duplex. When compared to the human AGT protein (hAGT), the S134P OGT variant displayed reduced activity towards O⁶-alkylation but a much broader substrate range for O⁴-alkylation damage reversal. The role of residue 134 in OGT is similar to its function in the human homolog, where Pro140 is crucial in conferring on hAGT the capability to repair large adducts at the O⁶-position of guanine. Finally, a method to generate a covalent conjugate between hAGT and a model nucleoside using a single-stranded oligonucleotide substrate is demonstrated.

  19. New clues to the local atomic structure of short-range ordered ferric arsenate from extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Mandaliev, Petar N; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-04-02

    Short-range ordered ferric arsenate (FeAsO4 · xH2O) is a secondary As precipitate frequently encountered in acid mine waste environments. Two distinct structural models have recently been proposed for this phase. The first model is based on the structure of scorodite (FeAsO4 · 2H2O) where isolated FeO6 octahedra share corners with four adjacent arsenate (AsO4) tetrahedra in a three-dimensional framework (framework model). The second model consists of single chains of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra being bridged by AsO4 bound in a monodentate binuclear (2)C complex (chain model). In order to rigorously test the accuracy of both structural models, we synthesized ferric arsenates and analyzed their local (absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We found that both As and Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra were most compatible with isolated FeO6 octahedra being bridged by AsO4 tetrahedra (RFe-As = 3.33 ± 0.01 Å). Our shell-fit results further indicated a lack of evidence for single corner-sharing FeO6 linkages in ferric arsenate. Wavelet-transform analyses of the Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra of ferric arsenates complemented by shell fitting confirmed Fe atoms at an average distance of ∼5.3 Å, consistent with crystallographic data of scorodite and in disagreement with the chain model. A scorodite-type local structure of short-range ordered ferric arsenates provides a plausible explanation for their rapid transformation into scorodite in acid mining environments.

  20. Proton inelastic mean free path in a group of bioorganic compounds and water in 0.05-10 MeV range - Including higher-order corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Zhenyu, E-mail: tzy@sdu.edu.c [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China); Xia Yueyuan; Zhao Mingwen; Liu Xiangdong [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China)

    2010-07-15

    The systematic calculations of the inelastic mean free paths (MFP) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in a group of eleven important bioorganic compounds, i.e. DNA, five bases, three fatty acids, cellulose and {beta}-carotene, have been performed. The expressions for the calculations are derived from the Ashley's optical-data model and from the higher-order correction terms in stopping power calculations. Especially, the Bloch correction for the inelastic MFP is proposed empirically in this work. The inelastic MFPs for energetic protons in water are also evaluated and compared with other theoretical calculations. The proton inelastic MFPs for these 11 bioorganic compounds in the energy range from 0.05 to 10 MeV are presented here for the first time, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials.

  1. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark

    2009-07-07

    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  2. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Prolonged Long-Duration Stretching Increase Dorsiflexion Range of Motion More Than Identical Stretching Without Diathermy

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Steven E.; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3 treatments on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: prolonged long-duration stretching, pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by stretching, and pulsed shortwave diathermy, stretching, and ice combined.

  3. Increasing risks related to landslides from degrading permafrost into new lakes in de-glaciating mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian

    2017-09-01

    While glacier volumes in most cold mountain ranges rapidly decrease due to continued global warming, degradation of permafrost at altitudes above and below glaciers is much slower. As a consequence, many still existing glacier and permafrost landscapes probably transform within decades into new landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, sparse vegetation, numerous new lakes and steep slopes with slowly degrading permafrost. These new landscapes are likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended future time periods, such new landscapes will be characterized by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. This especially involves long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in mechanical strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost degradation. Thereby, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large mass movements into lakes systematically increases with the formation of many new lakes and systems of lakes in close neighborhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes. Results of recent studies in the Swiss Alps are reviewed and complemented with examples from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru and the Mount Everest region in Nepal. Hot spots of future hazards from potential flood waves caused by large rock falls into new lakes can already now be recognized. To this end, integrated spatial information on glacier/permafrost evolution and lake formation can be used together with scenario-based models for rapid mass movements, impact waves and flood propagation. The resulting information must then be combined with exposure and vulnerability considerations related to settlements and infrastructure. This enables timely planning of risk reduction options. Such risk reduction options consist of two components: Mitigation of hazards, which in the present

  4. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  5. Emotional Branding as an Effort to Improve the Quality of Library Service in Order to Increase the Use of Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneng Komariah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of implementation of emotional branding in library services.    Emotional branding is a new paradigm in marketing world. It means create emotional nuance and its objective is to create an emotional nearness between a brand and its consumer. The library as an institution which provide information services may implement emotional branding concept in creating emotional nuance which will build emotional nearness between the library and its users. It is hope that the emotional nearness  will create users’ satisfaction and  loyality, so the use of library will  increase. Emotional branding in library can be created through working performance of librarian who always try to create and maintain good relationships with users. Some strategies could be implemented, those are always ask the user first, ask their name and try to remember it, know information which usually needed, tell them when there is new information which relevant for them, create a situation that librarian always ready to help, show them that the librarian like to discuss with them, be a good listener, the librarian should be wear uniform with name tag, and be a mobile staff and ask the user if they need some helps.  The implementation of emotional branding in library services need a crucial change in mindset of library management in order to provide qualified services which suitable with users’ demand.

  6. PROBLEM TOPICALITY OF OFFSET ABSENCE ORDER INCREASE IN CONTROLLERS DURING CONTROL OF OBJECTS WITH VARYING TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Khobin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-stationary control objects, especially with varying transmission coefficient, are fairly common in practice. Creation of automatic control systems (ACS for them is topical issue. This task of creating ACS for these kind of control objects is more difficult than for stationary control objects (with constant parameters because process value deviations relative to set point value are caused not only by coordinate disturbances but also by parametric ones. The issue of offset absence order increase impact on the levels of stabilization and reference tracking errors traditionally is dealt with when making synthesis of stationary ACS, particularly follow-up and program systems. For analytical solution of the non-stationary ACS analysis and synthesis problems, which contain control objects with varying transmission coefficient ko(t, it is necessary to utilize mathematical methods of linear systems with varying parameters. They are based on the concept of parametric transfer function. At the same time analytical calculation of stabilization and reference tracking errors, even for steady processes, is, apparently, extremely difficult, because there were found no examples of solution to this problem in technical publications. Computer modeling is considered more productive. It does not allow to obtain analytical expressions for control errors. But computer experiment goal planning allows to mark out their basic features and to evaluate effective methods of decreasing these mistakes.

  7. RESEARCHES CONCERNING PRODUCTION DIVERSIFICATION AND INTEGRATION IN ORDER TO INCREASE PROFITABILITY AND COMPETITIVENESS OF FAMILY SERICICULTURAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present different management variants for family sericicultural farms .These variants assures family reproduction sericicultural integrated management along production – processing – marketing chain, a larger range of marketable products, a better marketing for unreeling cocoons, increased income and profit for silk worm breede, a higher profitability and competitiveness of the agricultural unit. The matrix of experimental variants combinations between Mulberry tree culture and Silk worm rearing show that the most profitable alternative is CD V3 + VM V2, which assures Lei 556,874 profit during the first years of farm activity. The matrix of integrated combinative variants between Mulberry the culture, Silk worm rearing and unreeling cocoons processing in handicrafts (P5 show that the most profitable alternative is CDV3 + VMV1 + P5, that is 0.5 ha mulberry tree plantation + 0.2 ha Seeding field + 0.1. ha Sowing field 1 + 0.2 ha Pricking out field, silk worm rearing for delivering 1,000 egg boxes, 10 kg silk filament, 25 kg fresh pupa and 1,298 Wowen belts, assuring Lei 504,336 profit during the 8 years of farm operating. No matter what variant of integrated management is chosen by silk worm Breeders as long as economical and financial perfomances are superior the ones which are obtained in case of the lack of integration .

  8. Structure of short-range-ordered iron(III)-precipitates formed by iron(II) oxidation in water containing phosphate, silicate, and calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegelin, A.; Frommer, J.; Vantelon, D.; Kaegi, R.; Hug, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The oxidation of Fe(II) in water leads to the formation of Fe(III)-precipitates that strongly affect the fate of nutrients and contaminants in natural and engineered systems. Examples include the cycling of As in rice fields irrigated with As-rich groundwater or the treatment of drinking water for As removal. Knowledge of the types of Fe(III)-precipitates forming in such systems is essential for the quantitative modeling of nutrient and contaminant dynamics and for the optimization of water purification techniques on the basis of a mechanistic understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes. In this study, we investigated the local coordination of Fe, P, and Ca in Fe(III)-precipitates formed by aeration of synthetic Fe(II)-containing groundwater with variable composition (pH 7, 2-30 mg/L Fe(II), 2-20 mg/L phosphate-P, 2-20 mg/L silicate-Si, 8 mM Na-bicarbonate or 2.5 mM Ca-&1.5 mM Mg-bicarbonate). After 4 hours of oxidation, Fe(III)-precipitates were collected on 0.2 µm nylon filters and dried. The precipitates were analyzed by Fe K-edge EXAFS (XAS beamline, ANKA, Germany) and by P and Ca K-edge XANES spectroscopy (LUCIA beamline, SLS, Switzerland). The Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra indicated that local Fe coordination in the precipitates systematically shifted with water composition. As long as water contained P, mainly short-range-ordered Fe(III)-phosphate formed (with molar P/Fe ~0.5). In the absence of P, Fe(III) precipitated as hydrous ferric oxide at high Si/Fe>0.5, as ferrihydrite at intermediate Si/Fe, and mainly as lepidocrocite at Si/Fepatterns. The P K-edge XANES spectra revealed that phosphate was bound to both Fe as well as Ca (if present). The Ca K-edge XANES spectra showed that the mode of Ca uptake by the Fe(III)-precipitates shifted from mainly adsorption at high Fe/P to coprecipitation at low Fe/P ratio. Despite oversaturation, neither calcite nor hydroxyapatite formed to a significant extent. The results from this study indicated that

  9. Crystal fields, disorder, and antiferromagnetic short-range order in (Yb{sub 0.24}Sn{sub 0.76})Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimczuk, T; Wang, C H; Lawrence, J M; Xu, Q; Durakiewicz, T; Ronning, F; Llobet, A; Trouw, F; Kurita, N; Tokiwa, Y; Lee, Han-oh; Booth, C H; Gardner, J S; Bauer, E D; Joyce, J J; Zandbergen, H W; Movshovich, R; Cava, R J; Thompson, J D

    2011-07-18

    We report extensive measurements on a new compound (Yb{sub 0.24}Sn{sub 0.76})Ru that crystallizes in the cubic CsCl structure. Valence band photoemission and L{sub 3} x-ray absorption show no divalent component in the 4f configuration of Yb. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) indicates that the eight-fold degenerate J-multiplet of Yb{sup 3+} is split by the crystalline electric field (CEF) into a Γ{sub 7} doublet ground state and a Γ{sub 8} quartet at an excitation energy 20 meV. The magnetic susceptibility can be fit very well by this CEF scheme under the assumption that a Γ{sub 6} excited state resides at 32 meV; however, the Γ{sub 8}/Γ{sub 6} transition expected at 12 meV was not observed in the INS. The resistivity follows a Bloch-Grüneisen law shunted by a parallel resistor, as is typical of systems subject to phonon scattering with no apparent magnetic scattering. All of these properties can be understood as representing simple local moment behavior of the trivalent Yb ion. At 1 K, there is a peak in specific heat that is too broad to represent a magnetic phase transition, consistent with absence of magnetic reflections in neutron diffraction. On the other hand, this peak also is too narrow to represent the Kondo effect in the Γ{sub 7} ground state doublet. On the basis of the field-dependence of the specific heat, we argue that antiferromagnetic shortrange order (possibly co-existing with Kondo physics) occurs at low temperatures. The long-range magnetic order is suppressed because the Yb site occupancy is below the percolation threshold for this disordered compound.

  10. A roadmap to defining the clinical reportable ranges of chemistry analytes: Increasing automation efficiency and decreasing manual dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sheng-Ying; Baird, Geoffrey S; Greene, Dina N

    2015-12-07

    Proper utilization of resources is an important operational objective for clinical laboratories. To reduce unnecessary manual interventions on automated instruments, we conducted a workflow analysis that optimized dilution parameters and reporting of abnormally high chemistry results for the Beckman AU series of chemistry analyzers while maintaining clinically acceptable reportable ranges. Workflow analysis for the Beckman AU680/5812 and DxC800 chemistry analyzers was performed using historical data. Clinical reportable ranges for 53 chemistry analytes were evaluated. Optimized dilution parameters and upper limit of reportable ranges for the AU680/5812 instruments were derived and validated to meet these reportable ranges. The number of specimens that required manual dilutions before and after optimization was determined for both the AU680/5812 and DxC800, with the DxC800 serving as the reference instrument. Retrospective data analysis revealed that 7700 specimens required manual dilutions on the DxC over a 2-y period. Using our optimized AU-specific dilution and reporting parameters, the data-driven simulation analysis showed a 61% reduction in manual dilutions. For the specimens that required manual dilutions on the AU680/5812, we developed standardized dilution procedures to further streamline workflow. We provide a data-driven, practical outline for clinical laboratories to efficiently optimize their use of automated chemistry analyzers. The outcomes can be used to assist laboratories wishing to improve their existing procedures or to facilitate transitioning into a new line of instrumentation, regardless of the instrument model or manufacturer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling Evidence-Based Application: Using Team-Based Learning to Increase Higher Order Thinking in Nursing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nursing practice is comprised of knowledge, theory, and research [1]. Because of its impact on the profession, the appraisal of research evidence is critically important. Future nursing professionals must be introduced to the purpose and utility of nursing research, as early exposure provides an opportunity to embed evidence-based practice (EBP into clinical experiences. The AACN requires baccalaureate education to include an understanding of the research process to integrate reliable evidence to inform practice and enhance clinical judgments [1]. Although the importance of these knowledge competencies are evident to healthcare administrators and nursing leaders within the field, undergraduate students at the institution under study sometimes have difficulty understanding the relevance of nursing research to the baccalaureate prepared nurse, and struggle to grasp advanced concepts of qualitative and quantitative research design and methodologies. As undergraduate nursing students generally have not demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between theoretical concepts found within the undergraduate nursing curriculum and the practical application of these concepts in the clinical setting, the research team decided to adopt an effective pedagogical active learning strategy, team-based learning (TBL. Team-based learning shifts the traditional course design to focus on higher thinking skills to integrate desired knowledge [2]. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of course design with the integration of TBL in an undergraduate nursing research course on increasing higher order thinking. [1] American Association of Colleges of Nursing, The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice, Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008. [2] B. Bloom, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain, New York: McKay, 1956.

  12. Functionalized 2D-MoS2-Incorporated Polymer Ternary Solar Cells: Role of Nanosheet-Induced Long-Range Ordering of Polymer Chains on Charge Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Razi; Srivastava, Ritu; Yadav, Sushma; Chand, Suresh; Sapra, Sameer

    2017-10-04

    In this paper, we demonstrated the enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) by incorporation of functionalized 2D-MoS 2 nanosheets (NSs) as an additional charge-transporting material. The enhancement in PCE of ternary solar cells arises due to the synergic enhancement in exciton dissociation and the improvement in mobility of both electrons and holes through the active layer of the solar cells. The improved hole mobility is attributed to the formation of the long-range ordered nanofibrillar structure of polymer phases and improved crystallinity in the presence of 2D-MoS 2 NSs. The improved electron mobility arises due to the highly conducting 2D network of MoS 2 NSs which provides additional electron transport channels within the active layer. The nanosheet-incorporated ternary blend solar cells exhibit 32% enhancement in PCE relative to the binary blend P3HT/PC 71 BM.

  13. Perturbation-based moment equation approach for flow in heterogeneous porous media: applicability range and analysis of high-order terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyong; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2003-06-01

    We present detailed comparisons between high-resolution Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and low-order numerical solutions of stochastic moment equations (SMEs) for the first and second statistical moments of pressure. The objective is to quantify the difference between the predictions obtained from MCS and SME. Natural formations with high permeability variability and large spatial correlation scales are of special interest for underground resources (e.g. oil and water). Consequently, we focus on such formations. We investigated fields with variance of log-permeability, σY2, from 0.1 to 3.0 and correlation scales (normalized by domain length) of 0.05 to 0.5. In order to avoid issues related to statistical convergence and resolution level, we used 9000 highly resolved realizations of permeability for MCS. We derive exact discrete forms of the statistical moment equations. Formulations based on equations written explicitly in terms of permeability ( K-based) and log-transformed permeability ( Y-based) are considered. The discrete forms are applicable to systems of arbitrary variance and correlation scales. However, equations governing a particular statistical moment depend on higher moments. Thus, while the moment equations are exact, they are not closed. In particular, the discrete form of the second moment of pressure includes two triplet terms that involve log-permeability (or permeability) and pressure. We combined MCS computations with full discrete SME equations to quantify the importance of the various terms that make up the moment equations. We show that second-moment solutions obtained using a low-order Y-based SME formulation are significantly better than those from K-based formulations, especially when σY2>1. As a result, Y-based formulations are preferred. The two triplet terms are complex functions of the variance level and correlation length. The importance (contribution) of these triplet terms increases dramatically as σY2 increases above one. We also

  14. Large normal-range TBP and ATXN7 CAG repeat lengths are associated with increased lifetime risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, S L; van Belzen, M J; Boogaard, M W; van Roon-Mom, W M C; Rozing, M P; van Hemert, A M; Smit, J H; Beekman, A T F; van Grootheest, G; Schoevers, R A; Oude Voshaar, R C; Comijs, H C; Penninx, B W J H; van der Mast, R C; Roos, R A C; Aziz, N A

    2017-06-06

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disorders worldwide. Recently, we showed that both relatively short and relatively long cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT) are associated with an increased risk of lifetime depression. However, to what extent the variations in CAG repeat length in the other eight polyglutamine disease-associated genes (PDAGs) are associated with depression is still unknown. We determined the CAG repeat sizes of ATXN1, ATXN2, ATXN3, CACNA1A, ATXN7, TBP, ATN1 and AR in two well-characterized Dutch cohorts-the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons-including 2165 depressed and 1058 non-depressed individuals-aged 18-93 years. The association between PDAG CAG repeat size and the risk for depression was assessed via binary logistic regression. We found that the odds ratio (OR) for lifetime depression was significantly higher for individuals with >10, compared with subjects with ≤10, CAG repeats in both ATXN7 alleles (OR=1.90, confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.85). For TBP we found a similar association: A CAG repeat length exceeding the median in both alleles was associated with an increased risk for lifetime depression (OR=1.33, CI 1.00-1.76). In conclusion, we observed that carriers of either ATXN7 or TBP alleles with relatively large CAG repeat sizes in both alleles had a substantially increased risk of lifetime depression. Our findings provide critical evidence for the notion that repeat polymorphisms can act as complex genetic modifiers of depression.

  15. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal.

  16. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Emde

    Full Text Available Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens, Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454, Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695 and Orchestia cavimana (1,448 were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby and invertebrates (amphipods under special consideration of parasite dispersal.

  17. Grafting aptamers onto gold nanostars increases in vitro efficacy in a wide range of cancer cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Duncan Hieu M; Culver, Kayla S B; Odom, Teri W

    2014-02-03

    We report the design of a nanoconstruct that can function as a cell-type independent agent by targeting the ubiquitous protein nucleolin. Gold nanostars (AuNS) loaded with high densities of nucleolin-specific DNA aptamer AS1411 (Apt-AuNS) produced anticancer effects in a panel of 12 cancer lines containing four representative subcategories. We found that the nanoconstructs could be internalized by cancer cells and trafficked to perinuclear regions. Apt-AuNS resulted in downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA expression by ca. 200% compared to cells without the nanoconstructs. The caspase 3/7 activity (apoptosis) and cell death in cancer cells treated with Apt-AuNS increased by 1.5 times and by ca. 17%, respectively, compared to cells treated with free AS1411 at over 10 times the concentration. Moreover, light-triggered release of aptamer from the AuNS further enhanced the in vitro efficacy of the nanoconstructs in the cancer line panel with a 2-fold increase in caspase activity and a 40% decrease in cell viability compared to treatment with Apt-AuNS only. In contrast, treatments of the nanoconstructs with or without light-triggered release on a panel of normal cell lines had no adverse effects.

  18. Large normal-range TBP and ATXN7 CAG repeat lengths are associated with increased lifetime risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardiner, S. L.; van Belzen, M. J.; Boogaard, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    —the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons—including 2165 depressed and 1058 non-depressed individuals—aged 18–93 years. The association between PDAG CAG repeat size and the risk for depression was assessed via binary logistic regression. We found......Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disorders worldwide. Recently, we showed that both relatively short and relatively long cytosine–adenine–guanine (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT) are associated with an increased risk of lifetime depression. However......, to what extent the variations in CAG repeat length in the other eight polyglutamine disease-associated genes (PDAGs) are associated with depression is still unknown. We determined the CAG repeat sizes of ATXN1, ATXN2, ATXN3, CACNA1A, ATXN7, TBP, ATN1 and AR in two well-characterized Dutch cohorts...

  19. INCREASE OF READABILITY AND ACCURACY OF 3D MODELS USING FUSION OF CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gašparović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of laser scanning technology has opened a new page in geodesy and enabled an entirely new way of presenting data. Products obtained by the method of laser scanning are used in many sciences, as well as in archaeology. It should be noted that 3D models of archaeological artefacts obtained by laser scanning are fully measurable, written in 1:1 scale and have high accuracy. On the other hand, texture and RGB values of the surface of the object obtained by a laser scanner have lower resolution and poorer radiometric characteristics in relation to the textures captured with a digital camera. Scientific research and the goal of this paper are to increase the accuracy and readability of the 3D model with textures obtained with a digital camera. Laser scanning was performed with triangulation scanner of high accuracy, Vivid 9i (Konica Minolta, while for photogrammetric recording digital camera Nikon D90 with a lens of fixed focal length 20 mm, was used. It is important to stress that a posteriori accuracy score of the global registration of point clouds in the form of the standard deviation was ± 0.136 mm while the average distance was only ± 0.080 mm. Also research has proven that the quality projection texture model increases readability. Recording of archaeological artefacts and making their photorealistic 3D model greatly contributes to archaeology as a science, accelerates processing and reconstruction of the findings. It also allows the presentation of findings to the general public, not just to the experts.

  20. Comparison of soil thickness in a zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range using a soil probe and electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael S.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.; Revil, André; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the soil thickness distribution in steepland drainage basins is essential for understanding ecosystem and subsurface response to infiltration. One important aspect of this characterization is assessing the heavy and antecedent rainfall conditions that lead to shallow landsliding. In this paper, we investigate the direct current (DC) resistivity method as a tool for quickly estimating soil thickness over a steep (33–40°) zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range, a landslide prone region. Point measurements throughout the basin showed bedrock depths between 0.55 and 3.2 m. Resistivity of soil and bedrock samples collected from the site was measured for degrees of saturation between 40 and 92%. Resistivity of the soil was typically higher than that of the bedrock for degrees of saturation lower than 70%. Results from the laboratory measurements and point-depth measurements were used in a numerical model to evaluate the resistivity contrast at the soil-bedrock interface. A decreasing-with-depth resistivity contrast was apparent at the interface in the modeling results. At the field site, three transects were surveyed where coincident ground truth measurements of bedrock depth were available, to test the accuracy of the method. The same decreasing-with-depth resistivity trend that was apparent in the model was also present in the survey data. The resistivity contour of between 1,000 and 2,000 Ωm that marked the top of the contrast was our interpreted bedrock depth in the survey data. Kriged depth-to-bedrock maps were created from both the field-measured ground truth obtained with a soil probe and interpreted depths from the resistivity tomography, and these were compared for accuracy graphically. Depths were interpolated as far as 16.5 m laterally from the resistivity survey lines with root mean squared error (RMSE) = 27 cm between the measured and interpreted depth at those locations. Using several transects and analysis of the subsurface

  1. Increasing the Oral Bioavailability of Poorly Water-soluble Valsartan Using Non-ordered Mesoporous Silica Microparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Bahirat Santosh

    2016-01-01

      Aim: To evaluate the use of mesoporous silica SYLOID® 244 FP to increase the dissolution rate of valsartan, antihypertensive poorly water soluble, Biopharmaceutical Classification System Class II drug...

  2. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Increased internal higher-order aberrations as a useful parameter for indication of vitrectomy in three asteroid hyalosis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Sho; Kojima, Takashi; Kaga, Tatsushi; Ichikawa, Kazuo

    2015-12-23

    We report three asteroid hyalosis cases in which internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were improved concomitant with improved visual symptoms after vitrectomy. Cases 1 and 2 reported severe floaters and glare disability, although their visual acuities were fairly good. Case 3 showed poor visual acuity since this patient also suffered from mild macular degeneration. For these three asteroid hyalosis cases, we were unsure if treatment with vitrectomy could improve visual symptoms. Therefore, we measured internal HOAs with an aberrometer, and found that the internal HOA values in these cases were high. We suspected that internal high HOAs values were associated with visual disturbance, and performed vitrectomy. After the vitrectomy, the internal HOA values in these three asteroid hyalosis cases markedly decreased, and visual symptoms improved. These observations suggested that measurement of internal HOAs may be useful to determine the indication for vitrectomy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Computer simulation of CaSiO3 glass under compression: correlation between Si-Si pair radial distribution function and intermediate range order structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mai Thi; Thuy Duong, Tran; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Van Hong, Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    The structural organization of CaSiO3 glass at 600 K and under pressure of 0-100 GPa is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). Results show that the atomic structure of CaSiO3 comprises SiO n and CaO m units considered as basic structural polyhedra. At low pressure, most of the basic structural polyhedra are SiO4, CaO5, CaO6 and CaO7. At high pressure most of the basic structural polyhedra are SiO5, SiO6 and CaO9, CaO10 and CaO11. The distribution of basic structural polyhedra is not uniform resulting in formation of Ca-rich and Si-rich regions. The distribution of SiO4, SiO5 and SiO6 polyhedra is also not uniform, but it tends to form SiO4-, SiO5-, and SiO6-clusters. For the Si-O network, under compression there is a gradual transition from the tetrahedral network (SiO4) to the octahedral network (SiO6) via SiO5 polyhedra. The SiO5-clusters are the same as immediate-phase in the transformation process. The size and shape of SiO4 tetrahedra change strongly under compression. While the size of SiO5 and SiO6 has also changed significantly, but the shape is almost unchanged under compression. The SiO n polyhedra can connect to each other via one common oxygen ion (corner-sharing bond), two common oxygen ions (edge-sharing bond) or three common oxygen ions (face-sharing bond). The Si-Si bond length in corner-sharing bonds is much longer than the ones in edge-sharing and face-sharing bonds. The change of intermediate range order (IRO) structure under compression relating to edge- and face-sharing bonds amongst SiO n at high pressure is the origin of the first peak splitting of the radial distribution functions of Si-Si pair. Under compression, the number of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) decreases. This makes the Si-O network more polymerized. At low pressure, most of the Ca2+ ions incorporate into the Si-O network via NBOs. At high pressure, the amount of NBO decreases, Ca2+ ions mainly incorporate into the Si-O network via bridging oxygen (BO) that

  5. Quantum features in the spin dynamics of S=1/2 and 1 Heisenberg antiferromagnets in spite of long-range ordered phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enderle, M.; Kiefer, K.; Klopperpieper, A.

    2000-01-01

    Uniform S = 1 and 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains have a quantum singlet ground state which is an eigenstate of the total spin with S(tot) = 0. However, the 'internal' order of these ground states is quite different, and is reflected in gapless excitations in the S = 1/2 state, while the ...

  6. Increase in the proportion of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction with do-not-resuscitate orders already in place between 2001 and 2007: a nonconcurrent prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saczynski JS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jane S Saczynski,1–3 Ezra Gabbay,4 David D McManus,1–3 Richard McManus,3 Joel M Gore,1,3 Jerry H Gurwitz,1–3 Darleen Lessard,3 Robert J Goldberg31Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 2Meyers Primary Care Institute, Worcester, 3Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 4Division of Nephrology, Tufts Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground and objective: Shared decision making and advance planning in end-of-life decisions have become increasingly important aspects of the management of seriously ill patients. Here, we describe the use and timing of do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI.Study design and setting: The nonconcurrent prospective study population consisted of 4182 patients hospitalized with AMI in central Massachusetts in four annual periods between 2001 and 2007.Results: One-quarter (25% of patients had a DNR order written either prior to or during hospitalization. The frequency of DNR orders remained constant (24% in 2001; 26% in 2007. Among patients with DNR orders, there was a significant increase in orders written prior to hospitalization (2001: 9%; 2007: 55%. Older patients and those with a medical history of heart failure or myocardial infarction were more likely to have prior DNR orders than respective comparison groups. Patients with prior DNR orders were less likely to die 1 month after hospitalization than patients whose DNRs were written during hospitalization.Conclusion: Although the use of DNR orders in patients hospitalized with AMI was stable during the period under study, in more recent years, patients are increasingly being hospitalized with DNR orders already in place.Keywords: epidemiology, myocardial infarction, survival, end of life, longitudinal, cardiology

  7. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-02-01

    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  8. RESEARCH AND RESTORATION OF INLAND WATERS OF DAGESTAN AND THE TEREK RIVER IN ORDER TO INCREASE FISH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khizrieva S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of fish stocks and increase their productivity is one of the most important and urgent problems of fisheries. One of the important areas in the fishing and for the reproduction of fish on the west coast of the Caspian Sea is the basin of the Terek River. For long period (over 40 years without the required amount of water and in the absence of improvement measures in reservoirs downstream of the Terek River deteriorated environmental conditions. Efficiency and productivity of the natural reproduction of fish fell. To raise the value of water bodies requires the implementation of integrated fisheries management activities, and thereby restore the original state and to improve water bodies.

  9. The Contemporary Ways to Improve the Cost Management System in Order to Increase the Competitiveness of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumak Larysa F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the current directions and ways to improve the cost management systems, allowing to increase the competitiveness of enterprise. Costs of enterprise, in any conditions of existence, are the most significant aspect of the influence on formation of economic performance, as well as obtaining the important competitive advantages, playing a special role in achieving sustainable development. Cost management system of enterprise is one of the basic elements in developing and careful substantiating the managerial decisions, therefore its continuous improvement is necessary. Improving the enterprise’s cost management system requires an integrated approach to its formation, introduction of the latest modern approaches, methods, and elaborations. Analysis of directions for improving the efficiency of cost management systems allows to define the most promising way of adapting to the practical use of the most advanced automated systems.

  10. Order of magnitude increase in photocatalytic rate for hierarchically porous anatase thin films synthesized from zinc titanate coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Nathanya J; Kaye, Karl M; Limburn, Gregory J; Cosham, Samuel D; Kulak, Alexander N; Palgrave, Robert G; Hyett, Geoffrey

    2017-02-14

    In this paper we report on the use of aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) to form thin films of the zinc titanate phases using zinc acetate and titanium isopropoxide as precursors in methanol solution. Analysis by XRD and XPS found that through variation in experimental conditions we have been able to synthesize films of zinc titanate with composition of Zn2TiO4 or Zn0.3Ti2.7O4.94, which adopt the spinel and pseudobrookite structure respectively. In addition, we have also formed hybrid films of Zn2TiO4 with either ZnTiO3 or ZnO. Using a technique previously reported with powders, the mixed ZnO and Zn2TiO4 films were treated with acid to produce porous Zn2TiO4 which, through reduction and vapour leaching of zinc, were converted to hierarchically porous thin films of anatase TiO2. This conversion was monitored by XRD. Analysis of photocatalytic activity of the hierarchically porous titania, using dye and stearic acid degradation tests, found a factor of 12 to 14 increase in rates of photocatalysis over conventional TiO2 thin films. Finally we are able to report a maximum formal quantum efficiency for stearic acid degradation of 1.76 × 10-3 molecules per photon.

  11. Observation of long-range ferromagnetic order in the heavy-fermion compuound URu/sub 1. 2/Re/sub 0. 8/Si/sub 2/ by neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torikachvili, M.S.; Rebelsky, L.; Motoya, K.; Shapiro, S.M.; Dalichaouch, Y.; Maple, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have performed a neutron scattering study of the heavy-fermion compound URu/sub 1.2/Re/sub 0.8/Si/sub 2/, in order to verify the occurrence of long-range ferromagnetic order. This study consisted of measurements of elastic, inelastic, and polarized neutron scattering, measurement of low-angle critical scattering, and the determination of the temperature dependence of the order parameter. We found a sharp peak in the critical scattering at /approx/ 30 K for the wavevector q = 0.08 /angstrom//sup /minus/1/; and an enhancement of the intensity at the position of the (101) nuclear Bragg reflection below the Curie temperature. These measurements suggest the occurrence of long-range magnetic order. The value of the ordered moment is estimated to be /approx/ 0.53 /mu//sub B/ at 10 K. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Long-Range Atomic Order and Entropy Change at the Martensitic Transformation in a Ni-Mn-In-Co Metamagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez-Alarcos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the atomic order on the martensitic transformation entropy change has been studied in a Ni-Mn-In-Co metamagnetic shape memory alloy through the evolution of the transformation temperatures under high-temperature quenching and post-quench annealing thermal treatments. It is confirmed that the entropy change evolves as a consequence of the variations on the degree of L21 atomic order brought by thermal treatments, though, contrary to what occurs in ternary Ni-Mn-In, post-quench aging appears to be the most effective way to modify the transformation entropy in Ni-Mn-In-Co. It is also shown that any entropy change value between around 40 and 5 J/kgK can be achieved in a controllable way for a single alloy under the appropriate aging treatment, thus bringing out the possibility of properly tune the magnetocaloric effect.

  13. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  14. Nine orders of magnitude dynamic range: picomolar to millimolar concentration measurement in capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection employing cascaded avalanche photodiode photon counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Essaka, David C; Hindsgaul, Ole; Palcic, Monica M; Prendergast, Jillian; Schnaar, Ronald L; Dovichi, Norman J

    2011-04-01

    The dynamic range of capillary electrophoresis analysis is ultimately limited by molecular shot noise at low concentrations and by concentration-induced band broadening at high concentrations. We report a system that approaches these fundamental limits. A laser-induced fluorescence detector is reported that employs a cascade of four fiber-optic beam splitters connected in series to generate a primary signal and four attenuated signals, each monitored by a single-photon counting avalanche photodiode. Appropriate scaling of the signals from the five photodiodes produces a linear optical calibration curve for 5-carboxyl-tetramethylrhodamine from the concentration detection limit of 1 pM to the upper limit of 1 mM. Mass detection limits are 120 yoctomoles (70 molecules) injected into the instrument. The very-wide dynamic range instrument was used to study the metabolic products of the fluorescently labeled glycosphingolipid tetramethylrhodamine labeled GM1 (GM1-TMR) produced by single cells isolated from the rat cerebellum.

  15. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kong, X.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  16. Experimental increase of testosterone levels in free-ranging juvenile male African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) induces physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Julien; Müller, Karin; Schradin, Carsten

    2012-08-01

    Testosterone influences sexual differentiation in early development, and activates sexual maturation and sex-related behavior in males during puberty. Testosterone can also influence the expression of male alternative reproductive tactics, by either organizational effects (fixed tactics) or by activational effects (plastic tactics). However, the roles of testosterone in sexual maturation and at the same time the expression of alternative reproductive tactics have been little investigated experimentally, and studies of free-ranging mammals are lacking. We conducted a field experiment in free-ranging juvenile African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), a species with alternative reproductive tactics. Juvenile male striped mice reaching puberty can remain in their family as philopatric group-living males with low testosterone levels, or they can disperse and become solitary living roamers with much higher testosterone levels. We tested whether experimentally increased testosterone levels in non-scrotal juvenile males induces puberty and leads to the expression of the roaming tactic. Testosterone-treated males received the hormone for 15days by silastic implants which were empty in control-treated males. When compared to control-treated males, testosterone-treated males had higher testosterone levels, lower corticosterone levels, and became scrotal with descended testes. Testosterone-treated males also had larger testes, larger epididymides, and showed indication of spermatogenesis. Testosterone-treated males did not become solitary-living roamers, but had larger home ranges than control males. We conclude that testosterone can induce sexual maturation and causes juvenile males to increase their home ranges, maybe to search for dispersal opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medial gastrocnemius muscle stiffness cannot explain the increased ankle joint range of motion following passive stretching in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, Barbara M; Bar-On, Lynn; Cenni, Francesco; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Bass, Alfie; Holmes, Gill; Desloovere, Kaat; Barton, Gabor J; O'Brien, Thomas D

    2017-12-26

    What is the central question of this study? Can the increased range of motion seen acutely after stretching in children with cerebral palsy be explained by changes in the stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius fascicles? What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that passive muscle and tendon properties are not changed acutely after a single bout of stretching in children with cerebral palsy and, therefore, do not contribute to the increase in range of motion. This contradicts common belief and what happens in healthy adults. Stretching is often used to increase or maintain the joint range of motion (ROM) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but the effectiveness of these interventions is limited. Therefore, our aim was to determine the acute changes in muscle-tendon lengthening properties that contribute to increased ROM after a bout of stretching in children with CP. Eleven children with spastic CP [age 12.1 (3 SD) years, 5/6 hemiplegia/diplegia, 7/4 gross motor function classification system level I/II] participated. Each child received three sets of five × 20 s passive, manual static dorsiflexion stretches separated by 30 s rest, with 60 s rest between sets. Before and immediately after stretching, ultrasound was used to measure medial gastrocnemius fascicle lengthening continuously over the full ROM and an individual common ROM pre- to post-stretching. Simultaneously, three-dimensional motion of two marker clusters on the shank and the foot was captured to calculate ankle angle, and ankle joint torque was calculated from manually applied torques and forces on a six degrees-of-freedom load cell. After stretching, the ROM was increased [by 9.9 (12.0) deg, P = 0.005]. Over a ROM common to both pre- and post-measurements, there were no changes in fascicle lengthening or torque. The maximal ankle joint torque tolerated by the participants increased [by 2.9 (2.4) N m, P = 0.003], and at this highest passive torque the

  18. Not to put too fine a point on it - does increasing precision of geographic referencing improve species distribution models for a wide-ranging migratory bat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.; Ozenberger, Katharine; Cryan, Paul M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Bat specimens held in natural history museum collections can provide insights into the distribution of species. However, there are several important sources of spatial error associated with natural history specimens that may influence the analysis and mapping of bat species distributions. We analyzed the importance of geographic referencing and error correction in species distribution modeling (SDM) using occurrence records of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). This species is known to migrate long distances and is a species of increasing concern due to fatalities documented at wind energy facilities in North America. We used 3,215 museum occurrence records collected from 1950–2000 for hoary bats in North America. We compared SDM performance using five approaches: generalized linear models, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy models. We evaluated results using three SDM performance metrics (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity) and two data sets: one comprised of the original occurrence data, and a second data set consisting of these same records after the locations were adjusted to correct for identifiable spatial errors. The increase in precision improved the mean estimated spatial error associated with hoary bat records from 5.11 km to 1.58 km, and this reduction in error resulted in a slight increase in all three SDM performance metrics. These results provide insights into the importance of geographic referencing and the value of correcting spatial errors in modeling the distribution of a wide-ranging bat species. We conclude that the considerable time and effort invested in carefully increasing the precision of the occurrence locations in this data set was not worth the marginal gains in improved SDM performance, and it seems likely that gains would be similar for other bat species that range across large areas of the continent, migrate, and are habitat generalists.

  19. Design of patient-specific focused ultrasound arrays for non-invasive brain therapy with increased trans-skull transmission and steering range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alec; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-09-01

    The use of a phased array of ultrasound transducer elements to sonicate through the skull has opened the way for new treatments and the delivery of therapeutics beyond the blood-brain barrier. The limited steering range of current clinical devices, particularly at higher frequencies, limits the regions of the brain that are considered treatable by ultrasound. A new array design is introduced that allows for high levels of beam steering and increased transmission throughout the brain. These improvements are achieved using concave transducers normal to the outer-skull surface in a patient-specific configuration to target within the skull, so that the far-field of each beam is within the brain. It is shown that by using pulsed ultrasound waves timed to arrive in-phase at the desired target, sufficient levels of acoustic energy are delivered for blood-brain barrier opening throughout the brain.

  20. Roller-massager application to the hamstrings increases sit-and-reach range of motion within five to ten seconds without performance impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen M; Silvey, Dustin B J; Button, Duane C; Behm, David G

    2013-06-01

    Foam rollers are used to mimic myofascial release techniques and have been used by therapists, athletes, and the general public alike to increase range of motion (ROM) and alleviate pressure points. The roller-massager was designed to serve a similar purpose but is a more portable device that uses the upper body rather than body mass to provide the rolling force. A roller massager was used in this study to examine the acute effects on lower extremity ROM and subsequent muscle length performance. Seven male and ten female volunteers took part in 4 trials of hamstrings roller-massager rolling (1 set - 5 seconds, 1 set - 10 seconds, 2 sets - 5 seconds, and 2 sets - 10 seconds) at a constant pressure (13 kgs) and a constant rate (120 bpm). A group of 9 participants (three male, six female) also performed a control testing session with no rolling intervention. A sit and reach test for ROM, along with a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and muscle activation of the hamstrings were measured before and after each session of rolling. A main effect for testing time (p<0.0001) illustrated that the use of the roller-massager resulted in a 4.3% increase in ROM. There was a trend (p=0.069) for 10s of rolling duration to increase ROM more than 5s rolling duration. There were no significant changes in MVC force or MVC EMG activity after the rolling intervention. The use of the roller-massager had no significant effect on muscle strength, and can provide statistically significant increases in ROM, particularly when used for a longer duration.

  1. Coexistence of short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) synthesized by high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Dang, E-mail: thanhxraylab@yahoo.com [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nanto, Dwi [Physics Education, Syarif Hidayatullah States Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Tuyen, Ngo Thi Uyen [Department of Natural Science, Nha Trang Pedagogic College, Nguyen Chanh, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa (Viet Nam); Nan, Wen-Zhe [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, YiKyung [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Tartakovsky, Daniel M., E-mail: dmt@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@cbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) powders by the high energy ball milling technique, and then studied their critical properties. Our analysis reveals that the increase of Cu-doping concentration (up to x=0.3) in these powders leads to a gradual increase of the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition temperature from 406 to 452 K. The Banerjee criterion suggests that all the samples considered undergo a second-order phase transition. A modified Arrott plot and scaling analysis indicate that the critical exponents (β=0.419 and 0.442, γ=1.082 and 1.116 for x=0.0 and 0.1, respectively) are located in between those expected for the 3D-Heisenberg and the mean-field models; the values of β=0.495 and γ=1.046 for x=0.3 sample are very close to those of the mean-field model. These features reveal the coexistence of the short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in the nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al powders. Particularly, as the concentration of Cu increases, values of the critical exponent shift towards those of the mean-field model. Such results prove the Cu doping favors establishing a long-range ferromagnetic order. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al nanocrystals were prepared by a high energy ball milling method. • A coexistence of the short- and long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • Cu doping favors establishing a long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • All the ΔS{sub m}(T, H) data are followed a universal master curve.

  2. High-intensity, unilateral resistance training of a non-paretic muscle group increases active range of motion in a severely paretic upper extremity muscle group after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Urbin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Limited rehabilitation strategies are available for movement restoration when paresis is too severe following stroke. Previous research has shown that high-intensity resistance training of one muscle group enhances strength of the homologous, contralateral muscle group in neurologically-intact adults. How this cross education phenomenon might be exploited to moderate severe weakness in an upper extremity muscle group after stroke is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to examine adaptations in force-generating capacity of severely paretic wrist extensors resulting from high-intensity, dynamic contractions of the non-paretic wrist extensors. A secondary, exploratory aim was to probe neural adaptations in a subset of participants from each sample using a single-pulse, transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol. Separate samples of neurologically-intact controls (n=7 and individuals > 4 months post stroke (n=6 underwent 16 sessions of training. Following training, one-repetition maximum of the untrained wrist extensors in the control group and active range of motion of the untrained, paretic wrist extensors in the stroke group were significantly increased. No changes in corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition or interhemispheric inhibition were observed in control participants. Both stroke participants who underwent TMS testing, however, exhibited increased voluntary muscle activation following the intervention. In addition, motor-evoked potentials that were unobtainable prior to the intervention were readily elicited afterwards in a stroke participant. Results of this study demonstrate that high-intensity resistance training of a non-paretic upper extremity muscle group can enhance voluntary muscle activation and force-generating capacity of a severely paretic muscle group after stroke. There is also preliminary evidence that corticospinal adaptations may accompany these gains.

  3. An acute bout of self-myofascial release increases range of motion without a subsequent decrease in muscle activation or force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham Z; Penney, Michael D H; Mullaley, Michelle E; Cuconato, Amanda L; Drake, Corey D J; Behm, David G; Button, Duane C

    2013-03-01

    Foam rolling is thought to improve muscular function, performance, overuse, and joint range of motion (ROM); however, there is no empirical evidence demonstrating this. Thus, the objective of the study was to determine the effect of self-myofascial release (SMR) via foam roller application on knee extensor force and activation and knee joint ROM. Eleven healthy male (height 178.9 ± 3.5 cm, mass 86.3 ± 7.4 kg, age 22.3 ± 3.8 years) subjects who were physically active participated. Subjects' quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction force, evoked force and activation, and knee joint ROM were measured before, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after 2 conditions: (a) 2, 1-minute trials of SMR of the quadriceps via a foam roller and (b) no SMR (Control). A 2-way analysis of variance (condition × time) with repeated measures was performed on all dependent variables recorded in the precondition and postcondition tests. There were no significant differences between conditions for any of the neuromuscular dependent variables. However, after foam rolling, subjects' ROM significantly (p < 0.001) increased by 10° and 8° at 2 and 10 minutes, respectively. There was a significant (p < 0.01) negative correlation between subjects' force and ROM before foam rolling, which no longer existed after foam rolling. In conclusion, an acute bout of SMR of the quadriceps was an effective treatment to acutely enhance knee joint ROM without a concomitant deficit in muscle performance.

  4. A new rauisuchid (Archosauria, Pseudosuchia from the Upper Triassic (Norian of New Mexico increases the diversity and temporal range of the clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Lessner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rauisuchids are large (2–6 m in length, carnivorous, and quadrupedal pseudosuchian archosaurs closely related to crocodylomorphs. Though geographically widespread, fossils of this clade are relatively rare in Late Triassic assemblages. The middle Norian (∼212 Ma Hayden Quarry of northern New Mexico, USA, in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation, has yielded isolated postcranial elements and associated skull elements of a new species of rauisuchid. Vivaron haydeni gen. et. sp. nov. is diagnosed by the presence of two posteriorly directed prongs at the posterior end of the maxilla for articulation with the jugal. The holotype maxilla and referred elements are similar to those of the rauisuchid Postosuchus kirkpatricki from the southwestern United States, but V. haydeni shares several maxillary apomorphies (e.g., a distinct dropoff to the antorbital fossa that is not a ridge, a straight ventral margin, and a well defined dental groove with the rauisuchid Teratosaurus suevicus from the Norian of Germany. Despite their geographic separation, this morphological evidence implies a close phylogenetic relationship between V. haydeni and T. suevicus. The morphology preserved in the new Hayden Quarry rauisuchid V. haydeni supports previously proposed and new synapomorphies for nodes within Rauisuchidae. The discovery of Vivaron haydeni reveals an increased range of morphological disparity for rauisuchids from the low-paleolatitude Chinle Formation and a clear biogeographic connection with high paleolatitude Pangea.

  5. Decrease in ankle-foot dorsiflexion range of motion is related to increased knee flexion during gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Josina C; Huijing, Peter A; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Harlaar, Jaap; Jaspers, Richard T; Becher, Jules G

    2015-04-01

    To determine the effects of decreased ankle-foot dorsiflexion (A-Fdf) range of motion (ROM) on gait kinematics in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). All participants were children with spastic cerebral palsy (n = 10) who walked with knee flexion in midstance. Data were collected over 2-5 sessions, at 3-monthly intervals. A-Fdf ROM was quantified using a custom-designed hand-held ankle dynamometer that exerted 4 Nm at the ankle. Ankle-foot and knee angles during gait were quantified on sagittal video recordings. Linear regression (cross-sectional analysis) and General Estimation Equation analysis (longitudinal analysis) were performed to assess relationships between (change in) A-Fdf ROM and (change in) ankle-foot and knee angle during gait. Cross-sectional analysis showed a positive relationship between A-Fdf ROM and both ankle-foot angle in midstance and terminal swing. Longitudinal analysis showed a positive relationship between individual decreases in A-Fdf ROM and increases of knee flexion during gait (lowest knee angle in terminal stance and angle in terminal swing). For this subgroup of SCP children, our results indicate that while changes in ankle angles during gait are unrelated to changes in A-Fdf ROM, changes in knee angles are related to changes in A-Fdf ROM. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A First-Order Study of Reduced Energy Consumption via Increased Thermal Capacitance with Thermal Storage Management in a Micro-Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B. Wilson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a first-order approximation of a micro-building to investigate the major factors determining how increased thermal capacitance (ITC with thermal storage management (TSM can reduce energy consumption in locations with relatively mild weather conditions such as the southeastern part of the United States of America. In this study, ITC is achieved through water circulation between a large storage tank and pipes embedded within the building envelope. Although ITC results in a larger dominant time constant for the thermal response of a building, an adaptive allocation and control of the added capacitance through TSM significantly improves the benefits of the extra capacitance. This paper compares two first-order models for a micro-building: a reference case model with a single lumped thermal capacitance associated with the building, and another model, with the building’s capacitance plus the capacitance of the water system. Results showed that the ITC/TSM system reduced the cost of conditioning the building by reducing the operating time of both the cooling and the heating systems. May through September, the air conditioning operating time was reduced by an average of 70%, and October through April, the operation of the heating system was reduced by an average of 25%.

  7. Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Chao, Ju-Hung; Chen, Chang-Jiang; Yin, Shizhuo; Hoffman, Robert C

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, we report a three orders-of-magnitude increase in the speed of a space-charge-controlled KTN beam deflector achieved by eliminating the electric field-induced phase transition (EFIPT) in a nanodisordered KTN crystal. Previously, to maximize the electro-optic effect, a KTN beam deflector was operated at a temperature slightly above the Curie temperature. The electric field could cause the KTN to undergo a phase transition from the paraelectric phase to the ferroelectric phase at this temperature, which causes the deflector to operate in the linear electro-optic regime. Since the deflection angle of the deflector is proportional to the space charge distribution but not the magnitude of the applied electric field, the scanning speed of the beam deflector is limited by the electron mobility within the KTN crystal. To overcome this speed limitation caused by the EFIPT, we propose to operate the deflector at a temperature above the critical end point. This results in a significant increase in the scanning speed from the microsecond to nanosecond regime, which represents a major technological advance in the field of fast speed beam scanners. This can be highly beneficial for many applications including high-speed imaging, broadband optical communications, and ultrafast laser display and printing.

  8. An improved high-power battery with increased thermal operating range: C-LiFePO4//C-Li4Ti5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Dontigny, M.; Guerfi, A.; Trottier, J.; Hamel-Paquet, J.; Gariepy, V.; Galoutov, K.; Hovington, P.; Mauger, A.; Groult, H.; Julien, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    The carbon-coated LiFePO4 and C-Li4Ti5O12 particles of 90 nm in diameter have been tested as active elements of electrodes of Li-ion batteries. The 18650-size cell using the usual electrolyte 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) displays a charge capacity of 650 mAh at low C-rate and retains more than 80% of rated capacity at 60C charge rate (1 min). 2032-size coin cells have been tested with different electrolytes: 1.5 mol L-1 lithium tetrafluoroborate LiBF4 in EC+ γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and 0.5 mol L-1 lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiN(CF3SO2)2, LiTFSI) + 1 mol L-1 LiBF4 in EC + GBL, aiming to replace the less stable LiPF6 salt. The LiTFSI-based electrolyte can be used owing to the low operating voltage that avoids the corrosion of the aluminum of the collector. This electrolyte shows the best results as the performance is even higher at 60 °C. The infrared images show that the temperature of the cell never reaches this temperature during cycling, making this battery a high-power battery with remarkable thermal stability. The maximum temperature reached by the cell is 34 °C at 40C-rate and 40 °C at 60C. The free EC-based electrolytes even operate at 80 °C by using 1 mol L-1 lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) in GBL or 1 mol L-1 LiFSI in PC + GBL, thus increasing importantly the operating temperature range for the battery. The carbon coated on LTO depresses the evolution of gases during charge discharge.

  9. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  10. Combining conventional and thermal drilling in order to increase speed and reduce costs of drilling operations to access deep geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Edoardo; Kant, Michael A.; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    The exploitation of deep geothermal resources for energy production relies on finding cost effective solutions to increase the drilling performance in hard rocks. Conventional rotary drilling techniques, based on mechanical rock exportation, result in high rates of drilling tool wearing, causing significant costs. Additionally, rotary drilling results in low drilling speeds in the typically hard crystalline basement rocks targeted for enhanced geothermal energy utilization technologies. Furthermore, even lower overall drilling rates result, when considering tripping times required to exchange worn drill tools. Therefore, alternative drilling techniques, such as hammering, thermal drilling, plasma drilling, and jetting processes are widely investigated in order to provide cost-effective alternatives to conventional drilling methods. A promising approach, that combines conventional rotary and thermal drilling techniques, is investigated in the present work. Here, the rock material is thermally weakened before being exported by conventional cutters. Heat is locally provided by a flame, which moves over the rock surface, heat-treating the material. Besides reducing the rock strength, an in-depth smoothening effect of the mechanical rock properties is observed due to the thermal treatment. This results in reduced rates of drill bit wearing and higher rates of penetration, which in turn decreases drilling costs significantly, particularly for deep-drilling projects. Due to the high heating rates, rock-hardening, commonly observed at moderate temperatures, can be avoided. The flame action can be modelled as a localized, high heat transfer coefficient flame treatment, which results in orders of magnitude higher heating rates than conventional oven treatments. Therefore, we analyse rock strength variations after different maximum temperatures, flame-based heating rates, and rock confinement pressures. The results show that flame treatments lead to a monotonous decrease of

  11. Use of pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilization to increase ankle range of motion in the presence of surgical implanted metal: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiger, Cindy; Draper, David O

    2006-09-01

    Case series. Traditionally, all forms of diathermy have been contraindicated over metal implants. There is a lack of research-based evidence for harm regarding the use of pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) over orthopedic metal implants. Because PSWD is an effective modality for deep heating, we investigated whether ankle range of motion (ROM) could improve with the cautious use of PSWD and joint mobilizations, despite orthopedic metal implants being in the treatment field. Four subjects presented with decreased ankle ROM due to extensive fractures from traumatic injuries. All subjects were postsurgical, with several internal fixation devices. Subjects previously received rehabilitation therapy involving joint mobilizations, therapeutic exercises, moist heat, and ice, but continued to lack 15 degrees to 23 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion. The Human Subjects Review Board of Brigham Young University approved the methods of this case series. Subjects gave written informed consent. Initial dorsiflexion active ROM for each patient was -3 degrees, 0 degrees, 8 degrees, and 5 degrees, respectively. Treatment regime consisted of PSWD to the ankle for 20 minutes at 27.12 MHz, 800 pps, 400 microseconds (48 W). Immediately after PSWD, mobilizations were administered to the joints of the ankle and foot. Ice was applied posttreatment. Dorsiflexion improved 15 degrees, 15 degrees, 10 degrees, and 14 degrees, respectively, after 8 or 13 visits. All patients returned to normal activities with functional ROM in all planes. Follow-up 4 to 6 weeks later indicated that the subjects maintained 78% to 100% of their dorsiflexion. No discomfort, pain, or burning was reported during or after treatment. No negative effects were reported during the short-term follow-up. When applied with appropriate caution, we propose PSWD (48 W) may be an appropriate adjunct to joint mobilizations to increase ROM in peripheral joints, despite implanted metal. We continue to advise caution when applying

  12. Energy and protein intake increases with an electronic bedside spoken meal ordering system compared to a paper menu in hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Kirsty; Lazarus, Carmel; Walton, Karen; Williams, Peter; Ferguson, Maree; Beck, Eleanor

    2015-08-01

    Electronic bedside spoken meal ordering systems (BMOS) have the potential to improve patient dietary intakes, but there are few published evaluation studies. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the dietary intake and satisfaction of hospital patients, as well as the role of the Nutrition Assistant (NA), associated with the implementation of an electronic BMOS compared to a paper menu. This study evaluated the effect of a BMOS compared to a paper menu at a 210-bed tertiary private hospital in Sydney during 2011-2012. Patient dietary intake, patient satisfaction and changes in NA role were the key outcomes measured. Dietary intake was estimated from observational recordings and photographs of meal trays (before and after patient intake) over two 48 h periods. Patient satisfaction was measured through written surveys, and the NA role was compared through a review of work schedules, observation, time recordings of patient contact, written surveys and structured interviews. Baseline data were collected across five wards from 54 patients (75% response rate) whilst using the paper menu service, and after BMOS was introduced across the same five wards, from 65 patients (95% response rate). Paper menu and BMOS cohorts' demographics, self-reported health, appetite, weight, body mass index, dietary requirements, and overall foodservice satisfaction remained consistent. However, 80% of patients preferred the BMOS, and importantly mean daily energy and protein intakes increased significantly (paper menu versus BMOS): 6273 kJ versus 8273 kJ and 66 g versus 83 g protein; both p < 0.05. No additional time was required for the NA role, however direct patient interaction increased significantly (p < 0.05), and patient awareness of the NA and their role increased with the BMOS. The utilisation of a BMOS improved patient energy and protein intake. These results are most likely due to an enhancement of existing NA work processes, enabling more NA time with

  13. Scale Invariant Power Laws Capture the 3-D Coupling Between Water, Energy and Carbon Budgets Across River Basins of Increasing Horton-Strahler Orders in the Andes-Amazon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, G.; Zapata, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Andes-Amazon system exhibits complex interactions and feedbacks between hydrological, ecological, biogeochemical and climatic factors in a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. We aim to understand the coupling existing between water, energy and carbon budgets in the Andes-Amazon system, by performing a systematic study of the system for river basins of increasing Horton-Strahler orders, from the headwaters of the Amazon River basin along the Andes (order ω=1 river sub-basins) to the low-lying larger river sub-basins (order ω=10). To that end, this works introduces a 3-D generalization of the Budyko framework that aims to link the water, energy, and Carbon budgets in river basins. The newly proposed 3-D non-dimensional space is defined by: (1) the ratio between long-term mean values of Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) and Precipitation (P), α=AET/P, representing the water balance; (2) the ratio between AET and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET), β=AET/PET, representing the energy balance; and (3) the ratio between AET and Aboveground Net Primary Productivity, δ=AET/ANPP, representing the carbon budget. We use a 3" Digital Elevation Model (DEM), which allows defining river basins with Horton-Strahler orders from 1 to 10. The long-term water, energy, and carbon budgets are estimated for increasing values of the Horton-Strahler orders during the period 1987-2007. Data sets pertaining to the water balance come from ORE-HYBAM, potential evapotranspiration (PET) from GLEAM (Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology). Data for the energy budget are from the Surface Radiation Budget (SRB). Data for the Carbon budget (annual mean net primary productivity, ANPP, gross primary productivity, GPP, and respiration rates, Rr, come from AMAZALERT and ORCHEDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms), as well as from Flux Tower Data and the LBA project. Our results show that scale invariant power-laws emerge to capture the three 2-D

  14. Acoustic and Perceptual Measurement of Expressive Prosody in High-Functioning Autism: Increased Pitch Range and What it Means to Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Aparna; Shaw, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Are there consistent markers of atypical prosody in speakers with high functioning autism (HFA) compared to typically-developing speakers? We examined: (1) acoustic measurements of pitch range, mean pitch and speech rate in conversation, (2) perceptual ratings of conversation for these features and overall prosody, and (3) acoustic measurements of…

  15. Decrease in ankle-foot dorsiflexion range of motion is related to increased knee flexion during gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Harlaar, J.; Jaspers, R.T.; Becher, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of decreased ankle-foot dorsiflexion (A-Fdf) range of motion (ROM) on gait kinematics in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). Methods: All participants were children with spastic cerebral palsy (n= 10) who walked with knee flexion in midstance. Data were

  16. Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from

  17. Poppet valve control of throat stability bypass to increase stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5. inlet with 60 percent internal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. System variations included several stability bypass entrance configurations. Poppet valves controlled the bypass airflow. The inlet stable airflow range achieved with each configuration was determined for both steady state conditions and internal pulse transients. Results are compared with those obtained without a stability bypass system. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit and for the inlet with large and small stability bypass plenum volumes. Poppet valves at the stability bypass exit provided the inlet with a stable airflow range of 20 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  18. Pressure activated stability-bypass-control valves to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 40 percent internal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. The inlet stable airflow range provided by various stability-bypass entrance configurations in alternate combination with several stability-bypass exit controls was determined for both steady-state conditions and internal transient pulses. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit. Instart angles of attack were determined for the various stability-bypass entrance configurations. The response of the inlet-coldpipe system to internal and external oscillating disturbances was determined. Poppet valves at the stability-bypass exit provided an inlet stable airflow range of 28 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  19. Order and disorder in the local and long-range structure of the spin-glass pyrochlore, Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yu; Huq, Ashfia; Booth, Corwin H.; Ehlers, Georg; Greedan, John E.; Gardner, Jason S.

    2011-02-11

    To understand the origin of the spin-glass state in molybdate pyrochlores, the structure of Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} is investigated using two techniques: the long-range lattice structure was measured using neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and local structure information was obtained from the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. While the long-range structure appears generally well ordered, enhanced mean-squared site displacements on the O(1) site and the lack of temperature dependence of the strongly anisotropic displacement parameters for both the Mo and O(1) sites indicate some disorder exists. Likewise, the local structure measurements indicate some Mo-Mo and Tb-O(1) nearest-neighbor disorder exists, similar to that found in the related spin-glass pyrochlore, Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Although the freezing temperature in Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 25 K, is slightly higher than in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 22 K, the degree of local pair distance disorder is actually less in Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This apparent contradiction is considered in light of the interactions involved in the freezing process.

  20. Intervention to increase the proportion of acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass graft patients receiving an order for aspirin at hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Marcia L; Kline, Vanessa T; Sytsma, Christine S; Call, Jason T

    2010-06-01

    Chronic aspirin therapy is recommended by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons(STS) following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Aspirin therapy at discharge following a hospitalization for AMI or CABG is a common pay for-performance indicator used by third-party payers and was included asa quality measure in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)/Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration initiated in 2003. A formal prescription for aspirin, such as required for other cardiovascular drugs,could serve as a reminder to all health care providers (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) to include aspirin on a discharge medication list. To evaluate if an aspirin prescription placed in the patient chart shortly after hospital admission would increase compliance with guidelines for aspirin use at discharge in patients with AMI or CABG. This was a single-center prospective pre-intervention to post intervention comparison study in a 411-bed hospital. Patients admitted during the 3-month period from July through September 2008 with an AMI or undergoing CABG surgery served as the pre-intervention group, and patients admitted during the 3-month period from January through March 2009 were in the post-intervention group. The intervention included multiple educational sessions with clinical staff, conducted both prior to and during the pilot, and blank pre-printed aspirin prescriptions placed in the charts of patients for whom no contraindication to aspirin was present. The blank prescriptions were then completed by the attending physician (or physician extender), and the discharge nurse used the completed aspirin prescription, with other prescriptions and written orders, as a reference when creating the discharge medication list. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients who had aspirin documented on the discharge medication list

  1. Study of the pH Range for the Determination of Serum Albumin by a Dye-Binding Method Based on Absorbance Increase Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuji Suzuki

    2007-01-01

    ...) at which an absorbance increase occurs exists. In the present work, the relationship between pHUL and the buffer concentration in color reagent was investigated by a calculation and an experiment using four sulfonephthalein pH indicators...

  2. Increased prevalence of albuminuria in individuals with higher range of impaired fasting glucose: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Tae Nyun; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of albuminuria across a range of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), including normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes. A total of 5202 subjects who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Spot urine samples were taken and the albumin-creatinine ratio was calculated for each patient. Subjects were divided into five groups according to FPG levels: albuminuria were 4.1%, 6.0%, 7.6%, 12.3%, and 23.4% in the NFG1, NFG2, IFG1, IFG2 and diabetes groups, respectively (Palbuminuria in the IFG2 group was significantly higher than in the IFG1 group, even after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, and obesity. The odds ratio for the presence of albuminuria in the IFG2 group was 1.87 (95% CI, 1.19-2.94), using the NFG1 group as a control in logistic regression analyses. Albuminuria is more prevalent in subjects in the higher range of IFG. Therefore, strategies to reduce albuminuria should be emphasized especially in these subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variations of ankle-foot orthosis-constrained movements increase ankle range of movement while maintaining power output of recumbent cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Puteri N F; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Usman, Juliana; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Wahab, Ahmad K Abdul; Hasnan, Nazirah; Davis, Glen M

    2017-09-15

    Previous research investigated recumbent cycle power output (PO) from the perspective of knee and hip joint biomechanics. However, ankle-foot biomechanics and, in particular, the effect of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO)-constrained movements on cycle PO has not been widely explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether AFOs of a fixed position (FP) and in dorsi-plantarflexion (DPF)-, dorsiflexion (DF)- and plantarflexion (PF)-constrained movements might influence PO during voluntary recumbent cycling exercises. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. All underwent 1-min cycling at a fixed cadence for each of the AFOs. The peak and average PO of each condition were analyzed. The peak and average PO were 27.2±12.0 W (range 6-60) and 17.2±9.0 W (range 2-36), respectively, during voluntary cycling. There were no significant differences in the peak PO generated by the AFOs (p=0.083). There were also no significant differences in the average PO generated using different AFOs (p=0.063). There were no significant differences in the changes of the hip and knee joint angles with different AFOs (p=0.974 and p=1.00, respectively). However, there was a significant difference in the changes of the ankle joint angle (pcycling in healthy individuals. This finding might serve as a reference for future rehabilitative cycling protocols.

  4. Determining the solubility parameter and the cross-link density of medical grade silicones: effect of increasing the range of swelling liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Aziza; Kocharian, Areg

    2015-01-01

    Four samples of four medical grade silicones were swollen in six "good" liquids (i.e. those with a good swelling ability, in which silicones swell appreciably) at 25°C, until they reached constant mass (i.e. equilibrium). The volume fraction, ϕ, of the silicone in the swollen sample was calculated for each grade of silicone. Using a combination of the six ϕ values obtained in this study and four of those obtained in a previous study, for each silicone grade, ϕ was plotted against δl, the liquid solubility parameter for the ten liquids used. Using a curve fitting technique a second-order polynomial was plotted through the data points; the minimum in this polynomial provided a value for δp (the polymer solubility parameter). Furthermore, the results showed that the δp values obtained in this study (using ten liquids) were slightly but significantly greater (p<0.05) than those obtained in a previous study (using four liquids), for grade C6-165 only. Similarly, the χ and υ values obtained in the two studies were only significantly different (p<0.05) from each other, for grade C6-165.

  5. A moderate increase of physiological CO2 in a critical range during stable NREM sleep episode: A potential gateway to REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha eMadan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement (REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Studies suggest that wake-related neurons in the basal forebrain, posterior hypothalamus and brainstem and NREM sleep-related neurons in the anterior-hypothalamic area inhibit each other, thus alternating sleep-wakefulness. Similarly, pontine REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons reciprocally inhibit each other for REM sleep modulation. It has been proposed that inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC REM-OFF neurons is pre-requisite for REM sleep genesis, but it remains ambiguous how REM-OFF neurons are hyperpolarized at REM sleep onset. The frequency of breathing pattern remains high during wake, slows down during NREM sleep but further escalates during REM sleep. As a result, brain CO2 level increases during NREM sleep, which may alter REM sleep manifestation. It has been reported that hypocapnia decreases REM sleep while hypercapnia increases REM sleep periods. The groups of brainstem chemosensory neurons, including those present in LC, sense the alteration in CO2 level and respond accordingly. For example; one group of LC neurons depolarize while other hyperpolarize during hypercapnia. In another group, hypercapnia initially depolarizes but later hyperpolarizes LC neurons. Besides chemosensory functions, LC’s REM-OFF neurons are an integral part of REM sleep executive machinery. We reason that increased CO2 level during a stable NREM sleep period may hyperpolarize LC neurons including REM-OFF, which may help initiate REM sleep. We propose that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  6. Strategic Planning for Irwin Army Community Hospital: The Assessment and Implementation of Services, in Order to Meet Fort Riley's Increasing Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Besser, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    ... that is significantly increasing in size yet with the same physical support structure. The purpose of this research is to develop a strategic plan to determine an optimal "mix" of services for Irwin Army Community Hospital (IACH...

  7. Role of Short-Range Chemical Ordering in (GaN) 1–x (ZnO) x for Photodriven Oxygen Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dennis P. [Department; Neuefeind, Joerg C. [Chemical; Koczkur, Kallum M. [Department; Bish, David L. [Department; Skrabalak, Sara E. [Department

    2017-07-21

    (GaN)1–x(ZnO)x (GZNO) is capable of visible-light driven water splitting, but its bandgap at x ≤ 0.15 (>2.7 eV) results in poor visible-light absorption. Unfortunately, methods to narrow its bandgap by incorporating higher ZnO concentrations are accompanied by extensive Urbach tailing near the absorption-edge, which is indicative of structural disorder or chemical inhomogeneities. We evaluated whether this disorder is intrinsic to the bond-length distribution in GZNO or is a result of defects introduced from the loss of Zn during nitridation. Here, the synthesis of GZNO derived from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors is described which minimizes Zn loss and chemical inhomogeneities and enhances visible-light absorption. The average and local atomic structures of LDH-derived GZNO were investigated using X-ray and neutron scattering and are correlated with their oxygen evolution rates. An isotope-contrasted neutron-scattering experiment was conducted in conjunction with reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations. We showed that a bond-valence bias in the RMC refinements reproduces the short-range ordering (SRO) observed in structure refinements using isotope-contrasted neutron data. The findings suggest that positional disorder of cation–anion pairs in GZNO partially arises from SRO and influences local bond relaxations. Furthermore, particle-based oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) in AgNO3 solution reveal that the crystallite size of GZNO correlates more than positional disorder with oxygen evolution rate. These findings illustrate the importance of examining the local structure of multinary photocatalysts to identify dominant factors in particulate-based photodriven oxygen evolution.

  8. Short-Term Study Tours as a Driver for Increasing Domestic Student Mobility in Order to Generate Global Work-Ready Students and Cultural Exchange in Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent federal government programmes in Australia have seen a shift in focus from the international student towards increasing the possibilities for domestic mobility through short- and long-term exchange opportunities. The current New Colombo Plan funding scheme encourages Australian students, who have traditionally undertaken semester-long…

  9. Increasing the Contrast of the Brain MR FLAIR Images Using Fuzzy Membership Functions and Structural Similarity Indices in Order to Segment MS Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Khayati, Rasoul; Peñalver Benavent, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper presents a new approach to the fully automatic segmentation of MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. With the aim of increasing the contrast of the FLAIR MR images with respect to the MS lesions, the proposed method first estimates the fuzzy memberships of brain tissues (i.e., the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), and the lesion). The procedure for determining the fuzzy regions of their member functions is performed by maximizing fuzzy entropy through Genetic Algorithm. Research shows that the intersection points of the obtained membership functions are not accurate enough to segment brain tissues. Then, by extracting the structural similarity (SSIM) indices between the FLAIR MR image and its lesions membership image, a new contrast-enhanced image is created in which MS lesions have high contrast against other tissues. Finally, the new contrast-enhanced image is used to segment MS lesions. To evaluate the result of the proposed method, similarity criteria from all slices from 20 MS patients are calculated and compared with other methods, which include manual segmentation. The volume of segmented lesions is also computed and compared with Gold standard using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and paired samples t test. Similarity index for the patients with small lesion load, moderate lesion load and large lesion load was 0.7261, 0.7745 and 0.8231, respectively. The average overall similarity index for all patients is 0.7649. The t test result indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the automatic and manual segmentation. The validated results show that this approach is very promising. PMID:23799015

  10. Increasing the contrast of the brain MR FLAIR images using fuzzy membership functions and structural similarity indices in order to segment MS lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bijar

    Full Text Available Segmentation is an important step for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. This paper presents a new approach to the fully automatic segmentation of MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR Magnetic Resonance (MR images. With the aim of increasing the contrast of the FLAIR MR images with respect to the MS lesions, the proposed method first estimates the fuzzy memberships of brain tissues (i.e., the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT, and the lesion. The procedure for determining the fuzzy regions of their member functions is performed by maximizing fuzzy entropy through Genetic Algorithm. Research shows that the intersection points of the obtained membership functions are not accurate enough to segment brain tissues. Then, by extracting the structural similarity (SSIM indices between the FLAIR MR image and its lesions membership image, a new contrast-enhanced image is created in which MS lesions have high contrast against other tissues. Finally, the new contrast-enhanced image is used to segment MS lesions. To evaluate the result of the proposed method, similarity criteria from all slices from 20 MS patients are calculated and compared with other methods, which include manual segmentation. The volume of segmented lesions is also computed and compared with Gold standard using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and paired samples t test. Similarity index for the patients with small lesion load, moderate lesion load and large lesion load was 0.7261, 0.7745 and 0.8231, respectively. The average overall similarity index for all patients is 0.7649. The t test result indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the automatic and manual segmentation. The validated results show that this approach is very promising.

  11. Increasing the contrast of the brain MR FLAIR images using fuzzy membership functions and structural similarity indices in order to segment MS lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Khayati, Rasoul; Peñalver Benavent, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper presents a new approach to the fully automatic segmentation of MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. With the aim of increasing the contrast of the FLAIR MR images with respect to the MS lesions, the proposed method first estimates the fuzzy memberships of brain tissues (i.e., the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT), and the lesion). The procedure for determining the fuzzy regions of their member functions is performed by maximizing fuzzy entropy through Genetic Algorithm. Research shows that the intersection points of the obtained membership functions are not accurate enough to segment brain tissues. Then, by extracting the structural similarity (SSIM) indices between the FLAIR MR image and its lesions membership image, a new contrast-enhanced image is created in which MS lesions have high contrast against other tissues. Finally, the new contrast-enhanced image is used to segment MS lesions. To evaluate the result of the proposed method, similarity criteria from all slices from 20 MS patients are calculated and compared with other methods, which include manual segmentation. The volume of segmented lesions is also computed and compared with Gold standard using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and paired samples t test. Similarity index for the patients with small lesion load, moderate lesion load and large lesion load was 0.7261, 0.7745 and 0.8231, respectively. The average overall similarity index for all patients is 0.7649. The t test result indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between the automatic and manual segmentation. The validated results show that this approach is very promising.

  12. Electric field induced short range to long range structural ordering and its influence on the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence in the lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaskar, Abhijeet; Rao, Badari Narayana; Ranjan, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bangalore 560012 (India); Thomas, Tiju, E-mail: tijuthomas@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-28

    Eu{sup +3} was incorporated into the lattice of a lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) as per the nominal formula Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5−x}Eu{sub x}TiO{sub 3}. This system was investigated with regard to the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence (PL) and structural behaviour as a function of composition and electric field. Electric field was found to irreversibly change the features in the PL spectra and also in the x-ray diffraction patterns below the critical composition x = 0.025. Detailed analysis revealed that below the critical composition, electric field irreversibly suppresses the structural heterogeneity inherent of the host matrix NBT and brings about a long range ferroelectric state with rhombohedral (R3c) distortion. It is shown that the structural disorder on the nano-scale opens a new channel for radiative transition which manifests as a new emission line branching off from the main {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 0} line along with a concomitant change in the relative intensity of the other crystal field induced Stark lines with different J values. The study suggests that Eu{sup +3} luminescence can be used to probe the relative degree of field induced structural ordering in relaxor ferroelectrics and also in high performance piezoelectric alloys where electric field couples very strongly with the lattice and structural degrees of freedom.

  13. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari

    1996-01-01

    Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre-production, pu......Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre...

  14. Word Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The way constituents are ordered in a linguistic expression is determined by general principles and language specific rules. This article is mostly concerned with general ordering principles and the three main linguistic categories that are relevant for constituent order research: formal......, functional and semantic categories. The general principles appear to be motivated by cognitive considerations, which are deemed to facilitate language processing and which can all be regarded as manifestations of iconicity: non-arbitrary relations between the form and the content of a linguistic expression....... Three major iconic ordering principles are the principles of Domain Integrity, Scope, and Head Proximity....

  15. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  16. Topological signatures of medium range order in amorphous semiconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treacy, M. M. J.; Voyles, P. M.; Gibson, J. M.

    2000-05-23

    The topological local cluster (or Schlaefli cluster) concept of Marians and Hobbs is used to detect topologically crystalline regions in models of disordered tetrahedral semiconductors. The authors present simple algorithms for detecting both Wells-type shortest circuits and O'Keeffe-type rings, which can be used to delineate alternative forms of the Schlaefli cluster in models.

  17. Ferromagnetic Long Range Ordering in Copper(2) Maleate Monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-20

    Item 3 of Document Control Data - DD Form 1473. Copies of the form are available from the cognizant contract administrator . 88 U, <- Accession For seNTIS...thanks the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia for a partial fellowship. 10 References 1a) SYNTHECO, Inc., 1920 Industrial Pike, Gastonia, N.C

  18. Short-range order of germanium selenide glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Chalcogenide Ge20Se80 glass was prepared using the melt-quench technique. The radial distribution function is obtained from X-ray diffraction data in the scattering vector interval 0.28≤K≤ 6.87 Å−1. Reverse Monte. Carlo (RMC) simulations are useful to compute the partial pair distribution functions, gij (r), ...

  19. Maintaining Limited-Range Connectivity Among Second-Order Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    and R. M. Murray, “ Motion planning with wireless network constraints,” in American Control Conference, (Portland, OR), pp. 87–92, June 2005. 15 [7] M...we consider ad-hoc networks of robotic agents with double integrator dynamics. For such networks, the connectivity maintenance problems are: (i) do...hoc networks of mobile autonomous agents. This loose ter- minology refers to groups of robotic agents with limited mobility and communica- tion

  20. Short-range order of germanium selenide glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chalcogenide Ge20Se80 glass was prepared using the melt-quench technique. The radial distribution function is obtained from X-ray diffraction data in the scattering vector interval 0.28 ≤ ≤ 6.87 Å-1. ReverseMonte Carlo (RMC) simulations are useful to compute the partial pair distribution functions, g i j ( r ) , partial ...

  1. Increased treatment durations lead to greater improvements in non-weight bearing dorsiflexion range of motion for asymptomatic individuals immediately following an anteroposterior grade IV mobilisation of the talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christopher James; Campbell, Kevin; Hutt, Kim

    2015-08-01

    Manual therapy aims to minimise pain and restore joint mobility and function. Joint mobilisations are integral to these techniques, with anteroposterior (AP) talocrural joint mobilisations purported to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (DF-ROM). This study aimed to determine whether different treatment durations of single grade IV anteroposterior talocrural joint mobilisations elicit statistically significant differences in DF-ROM. Sixteen asymptomatic male football players (age = 27.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in the study. Non-weight bearing (NWB) and weight bearing (WB) DF-ROM was measured before and after 4 randomised treatment conditions: control treatment, 30 s, 1 min, 2 min. NWB DF-ROM was measured using a universal goniometer, and WB DF-ROM using the weight-bearing lunge test. A within-subjects design was employed so that all participants received each of the treatment conditions. A 4 × 4 balanced Latin square design and 1 week interval between sessions reduced any residual effects. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant improvement in DF-ROM following all AP mobilisation treatments (p < 0.001). The within subjects contrasts showed that increases in treatment duration was associated with statistically significant improvements in DF-ROM (NWB DF-ROM control = 0.01%, 30 s = 14.2%, 1 min = 21.6%, 2 min = 32.8%; WB DF-ROM control = 0.01%, 30 s = 5.0%, 1 min = 7.6%, 2 min = 10.9%; p < 0.05). However, WB DF-ROM improvements were below the minimal detectable change scores needed to conclude that improvements were not a consequence of measurement error. This research shows that single session mobilisations can elicit NWB DF-ROM improvements in asymptomatic individuals in the absence of pain, whilst increases in treatment duration confer greater improvements in NWB DF-ROM within this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lactose binding to human galectin-7 (p53-induced gene 1) induces long-range effects through the protein resulting in increased dimer stability and evidence for positive cooperativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Elena; Miller, Michelle C; Nesmelova, Irina V; López-Merino, Lara; Berbís, Manuel Alvaro; Nesmelov, Yuri; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Lagartera, Laura; Daragan, Vladimir A; André, Sabine; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Mayo, Kevin H

    2013-01-01

    The product of p53-induced gene 1 is a member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-7 (Gal-7). To move beyond structural data by X-ray diffraction, we initiated the study of the lectin by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In concert, our results indicate that lactose binding to human Gal-7 induces long-range effects (minor conformational shifts and changes in structural dynamics) throughout the protein that result in stabilization of the dimer state, with evidence for positive cooperativity. Monte Carlo fits of 15N-Gal-7 HSQC titrations with lactose using a two-site model yield K1 = 0.9 ± 0.6 × 103 M−1 and K2 = 3.4 ± 0.8 × 103 M−1. Ligand binding-induced stabilization of the Gal-7 dimer was supported by several lines of evidence: MD-based calculations of interaction energies between ligand-loaded and ligand-free states, gel filtration data and hetero-FRET spectroscopy that indicate a highly reduced tendency for dimer dissociation in the presence of lactose, CD-based thermal denaturation showing that the transition temperature of the lectin is significantly increased in the presence of lactose, and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR using a molecular probe of the monomer state whose presence is diminished in the presence of lactose. MD simulations with the half-loaded ligand-bound state also provided insight into how allosteric signaling may occur. Overall, our results reveal long-range effects on Gal-7 structure and dynamics, which factor into entropic contributions to ligand binding and allow further comparisons with other members of the galectin family. PMID:23376190

  3. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  4. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    . Peromyscus generally used and maintained several or many different home sites and refuges in various parts of their home ranges, and frequently shifted about so that their principal activities centered on different sets of holes at different times. Once established, many Peromyscus remained in the same general area for a long time, perhaps for the duration of their lives. Extent of their travels in different directions and intensity of use of different portions of their home ranges varied within a general area in response to habitat changes, loss of neighbors, or other factors. Various authors have obtained both direct and indirect evidence of territoriality, in some degree, among certain species of Peromyscus. Young mice dispersed from their birth sites to establish home ranges of their own. Adults also sometimes left their home areas; some re-established elsewhere; others returned after exploratory travels. Most populations contained a certain proportion of transients; these may have been wanderers or individuals exploring out from established home ranges or seeking new ones. When areas were depopulated by removal trapping, other Peromyscus invaded. Invasion rates generally followed seasonal trends of reproduction and population density. Peromyscus removed from their home areas and released elsewhere returned home from various distances, but fewer returned from greater distances than from nearby; speed of return increased with successive trials. The consensus from present evidence is that ho-ming is made possible by a combination of random wandering and familiarity with a larger area than the day-to-day range. Records of juvenile wanderings during the dispersal phase and of adult explorations very nearly encompassed the distances over which any substantial amount of successful homing occurred. Methods of measuring sizes of home ranges and the limitations of these measurements were discussed in brief synopsis. It was co

  5. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  6. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  7. Orderly Sovereign Debt Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto,Otaviano; Pinto, Brian; Prasad, Mona

    2014-01-01

    An orderly sovereign debt restructuring should place the debtor nation's public debt on a sustainable trajectory while minimizing procrastination and contagion. However, the experiences with the debt crisis of the 1980s, Russia 1998, Argentina 2001, and Greece 2010 indicate that orderly debt restructurings remain elusive, even with high-powered official intervention. When solvency problems are present, the chances of success increase if official money is lent at the risk-free rate, reflecting...

  8. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  9. Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pellicer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials” covers novel synthetic aspects of mesoporous materials and explores their use in diverse areas like drug delivery, photocatalysis, filtration or electrocatalysis. The range of materials tackled includes metals and alloys, aluminosilicates, silica, alumina and transition metal oxides. The variety of materials, synthetic approaches and applications examined is vivid proof of the interest that mesoporous materials spark among researchers world-wide.[...

  10. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  11. Biocatalytic induction of supramolecular order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew R.; Roy, Sangita; Arora, Meenakshi; Das, Apurba K.; Hodson, Nigel; Murray, Paul; Marshall, Stephen; Javid, Nadeem; Sefcik, Jan; Boekhoven, Job; van Esch, Jan H.; Santabarbara, Stefano; Hunt, Neil T.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2010-12-01

    Supramolecular gels, which demonstrate tunable functionalities, have attracted much interest in a range of areas, including healthcare, environmental protection and energy-related technologies. Preparing these materials in a reliable manner is challenging, with an increased level of kinetic defects observed at higher self-assembly rates. Here, by combining biocatalysis and molecular self-assembly, we have shown the ability to more quickly access higher-ordered structures. By simply increasing enzyme concentration, supramolecular order expressed at molecular, nano- and micro-levels is dramatically enhanced, and, importantly, the gelator concentrations remain identical. Amphiphile molecules were prepared by attaching an aromatic moiety to a dipeptide backbone capped with a methyl ester. Their self-assembly was induced by an enzyme that hydrolysed the ester. Different enzyme concentrations altered the catalytic activity and size of the enzyme clusters, affecting their mobility. This allowed structurally diverse materials that represent local minima in the free energy landscape to be accessed based on a single gelator structure.

  12. Charging up for the future of plug-in hybrids and range extenders. An exploration of options for increased battery utilisation; Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders. Een verkenning naar mogelijkheden voor vergroten van het elektrische gebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Schroten, A.; Aarnink, S.

    2013-05-15

    If the full potential of plug-in hybrids and electric cars with a range extender is to be usefully exploited, it is important that these vehicles be used in battery mode as much as possible. This means that users' charging and driving behaviour needs to be positively influenced. This can be achieved through suitably designed financial incentives on the part of employers and government, further expansion of battery-charging infrastructure, and transferring knowledge on driving style. Improved driving and charging behaviour will lead to lower effective fuel consumption, reduced CO2 emissions and improved air quality. These are some of the results of this study in which it is examined how the performance of plug-in hybrids and cars with a range extender can be improved. It is the first study to look into the factors governing practical usage of such vehicles and the options available to the various parties to improve that usage. To this end a literature study was carried out and interviews were held with employers, leasing companies, trade associations, government agencies and other parties [Dutch] Om het potentieel van plug-in hybrides en elektrische auto's met een range extender te benutten is het van belang dat deze auto's zoveel mogelijk elektrisch worden gereden. Hiervoor is het nodig om het oplaad- en rijgedrag van de gebruikers positief te beïnvloeden. Dit kan door het geven van slimme financiële prikkels door werkgevers en overheid, het verder uitbreiden van de laadinfrastructuur en kennisoverdracht over rijgedrag. Een verbeterd rij- en laadgedrag zorgt voor een lager brandstofpraktijkverbruik, minder CO2-uitstoot en een betere luchtkwaliteit. Dit staat onder meer in de studie 'Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders' van CE Delft, waarin op verzoek van de Nederlandse importeurs van Toyota en Opel is onderzocht hoe het elektrisch gebruik kan worden verbeterd. Hierin is voor het eerst gekeken naar de factoren

  13. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.

  14. Electron diffraction study of the sillenites Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39}: Evidence of short-range ordering of oxygen-vacancies in the trivalent sillenites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurti, Craig A.; Arenas, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Auvray, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d’Instrumentation Optique - UMR CNRS 6279, Université Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France); Lufaso, Michael W. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Takeda, Seiji [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kohno, Hideo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We present an electron diffraction study of three sillenites, Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39}, and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} synthesized using the solid-state method. We explore a hypothesis, inspired by optical studies in the literature, that suggests that trivalent sillenites have additional disorder not present in the tetravalent compounds. Electron diffraction patterns of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} show streaks that confirm deviations from the ideal sillenite structure. Multi-slice simulations of electron-diffraction patterns are presented for different perturbations to the sillenite structure - partial substitution of the M site by Bi{sup 3+}, random and ordered oxygen-vacancies, and a frozen-phonon model. Although comparison of experimental data to simulations cannot be conclusive, we consider the streaks as evidence of short-range ordered oxygen-vacancies.

  15. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  16. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  17. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  18. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  19. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  20. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...

  1. Ordered Rings and Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce ordered rings and fields following Artin-Schreier’s approach using positive cones. We show that such orderings coincide with total order relations and give examples of ordered (and non ordered rings and fields. In particular we show that polynomial rings can be ordered in (at least two different ways [8, 5, 4, 9]. This is the continuation of the development of algebraic hierarchy in Mizar [2, 3].

  2. Football Banning Orders, Proportionality and Public Order

    OpenAIRE

    Stott, Clifford; Pearson, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of the UK legislation on football banning orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights, particularly with respect to Section 14B of the Football (Disorder) Act 2000. The article then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football ‘disorder’ that questions the determining role of the banning order in the reductio...

  3. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  4. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  5. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  6. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  7. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  8. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  9. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  10. Arctic National Wildlife Range, Annual Narrative Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR) was established by executive order in 1960 for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness and recreational...

  11. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  12. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  13. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  14. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  15. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  16. Increased-order generalized synchronization of chaotic and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. K S Ojo1 2 S T Ogunjo1 A N Njah2 I A Fuwape1. Department of Physics, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, P. M. B. 704 Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P. M. B. 2240 Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria ...

  17. Increased-order generalized synchronization of chaotic and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PACS Nos 05.45.Pq; 05.45.Gg; 05.45.Ac. 1. Introduction. Chaos synchronization has gained a lot of attention over the last two decades [1] due to its potential applications in vast areas of physics and engineering sciences. Synchroniza- tion of chaotic dynamical systems has received considerable interest among scientists in.

  18. First-order inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  19. SNV's modes of ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, John; Duim, van der Rene

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an aidnographic approach to examine how internal organizational modes of ordering have influenced tourism development practices of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). Our research revealed six modes of ordering: administration, project management, enterprising,

  20. Inventory order crossovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2006-01-01

    The control policies that are used in inventory management systems assume that orders arrive in the same sequence as they were ordered. Due to changes in supply chains and markets, this assumption is no longer valid. This paper aims at providing an improved understanding of the phenomenon of order

  1. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  2. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  3. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Radio pill antenna range test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  5. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  6. Order in Chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2014-01-01

    Ballot order effects are well documented in established democracies, but less so in fragile post-conflict settings. We test for the presence of ballot order effects in the 2010 parliamentary election in Afghanistan. Turning out for the 2010 election was a potentially life-threatening endeavor...... for the Afghan voter. The election provides a first look at ballot order effects in a high stakes, post-conflict setting. In this setting limited cognitive skills and information are more likely explanations of potential ballot order effects than mechanisms of lacking of effort or ambivalence of choice...

  7. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  8. Understanding the impact of electric vehicle driving experience on range anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Nadine; Franke, Thomas; Krems, Josef F

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to increase understanding of the phenomenon of range anxiety and to determine the degree to which practical experience with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) reduces different levels of range anxiety. Limited range is a challenge for BEV users. A frequently discussed phenomenon in this context is range anxiety. There is some evidence suggesting that range anxiety might be a problem only for inexperienced BEV drivers and, therefore, might decrease with practical experience. We compared 12 motorists with high BEV driving experience (M = 60,500 km) with 12 motorists who had never driven a BEV before. The test drive was designed to lead to a critical range situation (remaining range < trip length). We examined range appraisal and range stress (i.e., range anxiety) on different levels (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral). Experienced BEV drivers exhibited less negative range appraisal and range anxiety than inexperienced BEV drivers, revealing significant, strong effects for all but one variable. Hence, BEV driving experience (defined as absolute kilometers driven with a BEV) seems to be one important variable that predicts less range anxiety. In order to reduce range anxiety in BEV drivers even when there is a critical range situation, it is important to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process.

  9. Anion order in perovskite oxynitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Oró-Solé, Judith; Rodgers, Jennifer A; Jorge, Ana Belén; Fuertes, Amparo; Attfield, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Transition-metal oxynitrides with perovskite-type structures are an emerging class of materials with optical, photocatalytic, dielectric and magnetoresistive properties that may be sensitive to oxide-nitride order, but the anion-ordering principles were unclear. Here we report an investigation of the representative compounds SrMO(2)N (M = Nb, Ta) using neutron and electron diffraction. This revealed a robust 1O/2(O(0.5)N(0.5)) partial anion order (up to at least 750 °C in the apparently cubic high-temperature phases) that directs the rotations of MO(4)N(2) octahedra in the room-temperature superstructure. The anion distribution is consistent with local cis-ordering of the two nitrides in each octahedron driven by covalency, which results in disordered zigzag M-N chains in planes within the perovskite lattice. Local structures for the full range of oxynitride perovskites are predicted and a future challenge is to tune properties by controlling the order and dimensionality of the anion chains and networks.

  10. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefmann, K.

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of {sup 109}Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 {mu}T. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs.

  11. THE ENIGMATIC ORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and SADF Champion. Shot. Medal. The continually evolving character of the Order is, to reiterate, rooted in the lack of a firm historical foundation. Thus, any discussion of the Order of the. Star of South Africa must first examine ... case of their religious ancestors, gener- ally had a patron saint and sought pa- pal confirmation.

  12. Isotropy dependence of spiral order in triangular lattice Hubbard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahebsara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of broken symmetry phases with long range order in strongly correlated electron systems is among subjects that have always been of interest to condensed matter scientists. In this paper we tried to study the existence of the 120 degrees magnetic spiral order, based on anisotropy in geometrically frustrated triangular lattices, using variational cluster approximation. We observed that by increasing the anisotropy in the system, the spiral order can be found for U≥7.5t and for t'<1.35; however, it is limited by decreasing t' since antiferromagnetism is dominant for t'<0.85t. Studying the Mott transition shows that a paramagnetic insulating phase, called quantum spin liquid, happens in the neighborhood of the spiral ordered phase

  13. Estimating order statistics of network degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.

    2018-01-01

    We model the order statistics of network degrees of big data sets by a range of generalised beta distributions. A three parameter beta distribution due to Libby and Novick (1982) is shown to give the best overall fit for at least four big data sets. The fit of this distribution is significantly better than the fit suggested by Olhede and Wolfe (2012) across the whole range of order statistics for all four data sets.

  14. Parametric Control on Fractional-Order Response for Lü Chaotic System

    KAUST Repository

    Moaddy, K

    2013-04-10

    This paper discusses the influence of the fractional order parameter on conventional chaotic systems. These fractional-order parameters increase the system degree of freedom allowing it to enter new domains and thus it can be used as a control for such dynamical systems. This paper investigates the behaviour of the equally-fractional-order Lü chaotic system when changing the fractional-order parameter and determines the fractional-order ranges for chaotic behaviour. Five different parameter values and six fractional-order cases are discussed through this paper. Unlike the conventional parameters, as the fractional-order increases the system response begins with stability, passing by chaotic behaviour then reaches periodic response. As the system parameter α increases, a shift in the fractional order is required to maintain chaotic response.Therefore, the range of chaotic response can be expanded or minimized by controlling the fractional-order parameter. The non-standard finite difference method is used to solve the fractional-order Lü chaotic system numerically to validate these responses.

  15. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    , CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  16. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  17. Second order Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Espin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU(2×SU(4⊂SO(9 unified theory.

  18. Mathematics of aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Daniel; Savinien, Jean

    2015-01-01

    What is order that is not based on simple repetition, that is, periodicity? How must atoms be arranged in a material so that it diffracts like a quasicrystal? How can we describe aperiodically ordered systems mathematically? Originally triggered by the – later Nobel prize-winning – discovery of quasicrystals, the investigation of aperiodic order has since become a well-established and rapidly evolving field of mathematical research with close ties to a surprising variety of branches of mathematics and physics. This book offers an overview of the state of the art in the field of aperiodic order, presented in carefully selected authoritative surveys. It is intended for non-experts with a general background in mathematics, theoretical physics or computer science, and offers a highly accessible source of first-hand information for all those interested in this rich and exciting field. Topics covered include the mathematical theory of diffraction, the dynamical systems of tilings or Delone sets, their cohomolog...

  19. The Order of Preachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fenelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the birth and development of the Order of Preachers during the Middle Ages along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  20. 'Good Order and Police'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    that ‘good order and police’ was in demand by the subjects and also adapted to local needs. Inspired by this research this article investigates the enforcement of police ordinances in the market towns of Aalborg and Sæby and the country district of Børglum-Jerslev. The results show that policing remained...... of governing, ‘police’ was both a way both to govern free burghers and preserve traditional order....

  1. Indicators of Range Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science-based grassland management requires an understanding of the current status of the land relative to its potential. Rangeland health assessments help increase the cost-effectiveness of management by identifying where a change in management may be required, and the types of ecological processes...

  2. 6th Conference on Non-integer Order Calculus and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Łukaniszyn, Marian; Stanisławski, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents selected aspects of non-integer, or fractional order systems, whose analysis, synthesis and applications have increasingly become a real challenge for various research communities, ranging from science to engineering. The spectrum of applications of the fractional order calculus has incredibly expanded, in fact it would be hard to find a science/engineering-related subject area where the fractional calculus had not been incorporated. The content of the fractional calculus is ranged from pure mathematics to engineering implementations and so is the content of this volume. The volume is subdivided into six parts, reflecting particular aspects of the fractional order calculus. The first part contains a single invited paper on a new formulation of fractional-order descriptor observers for fractional-order descriptor continous LTI systems. The second part provides new elements to the mathematical theory of fractional-order systems. In the third part of this volume, a bunch of new results in ap...

  3. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  4. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  5. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and reverse orientation in different proteins relative to random graphs with identical degree distributions. While these features were statistically over-represented, they are still fairly rare. Looking in detail at the proteins involved, we found strong functional relationships within each cluster. In addition, the domains tended to be involved in protein-protein interaction and are able to function as independent structural units. A particularly striking example was the human Jak-STAT signalling pathway which makes use of a set of domains in a range of orders and orientations to provide nuanced signaling functionality. This illustrated the importance of functional and structural constraints (or lack thereof on domain organisation.

  6. Nuclear order in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annila, A.J.; Clausen, K.N.; Lindgård, P-A.

    1990-01-01

    A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show the prese......A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show...

  7. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  8. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  9. Land and World Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  10. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    been a number of studies recently looking at whether order of draw remains a problem with modern phlebotomy techniques and materials, or it is an outdated practice followed simply because of historical reasons. In the following article, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory...

  11. Orbital ordering and frustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Mostovoy, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital ordering occurs in many transition metal compounds with Jahn–Teller ions (Cu2+, Mn3+, low-spin Ni3+, Ti3+ etc). It plays an important role in these materials. At the same time, exchange interactions in orbitally degenerate systems are inherently frustrated, even in materials with simple

  12. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  13. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must...

  14. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  15. Collapse and reappearance of magnetic orderings in spin frustrated TbMnO{sub 3} induced by Fe substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Fang [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, 1690 Cailun Rd. Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 80R0114, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yue, Binbin, E-mail: yuebb@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: cheng@uow.edu.au [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, 1690 Cailun Rd. Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 80R0114, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wang, Jianli [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Bragg Institute, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Studer, Andrew [The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Bragg Institute, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Fang, Chunsheng; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Cheng, Zhenxiang, E-mail: yuebb@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: cheng@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2016-09-05

    We studied the temperature dependent magnetic phase evolution in spin frustrated TbMnO{sub 3} affected by Fe doping via powder neutron diffraction. With the introduction of Fe (10% and 20%), the long range incommensurate magnetic orderings collapse. When the Fe content is increased to 30%, a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering develops, while a spin reorientation transition is found near 35 K from a canted G-type antiferromagnetic ordering to a collinear G-type antiferromagnetic ordering. This work demonstrates the complex magnetic interactions existing in transition metal oxides, which helps to understand the frustrated spin states in other similar systems and design magnetic materials as well.

  16. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  17. Order patterns and chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, Jose M. [Centro de Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E-03202 Elche (Spain)]. E-mail: jm.amigo@umh.es; Kocarev, Ljupco [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0402 (United States); Szczepanski, Janusz [Institute for Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, PL-00-049 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-06-19

    Chaotic maps can mimic random behavior in a quite impressive way. In particular, those possessing a generating partition can produce any symbolic sequence by properly choosing the initial state. We study in this Letter the ability of chaotic maps to generate order patterns and come to the conclusion that their performance in this respect falls short of expectations. This result reveals some basic limitation of a deterministic dynamic as compared to a random one. This being the case, we propose a non-statistical test based on 'forbidden' order patterns to discriminate chaotic from truly random time series with, in principle, arbitrarily high probability. Some relations with discrete chaos and chaotic cryptography are also discussed.

  18. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2017-02-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution, we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  19. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  20. Third order trace formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The symbols Dom(A), Ker(A), Ran(A) and. TrA denote the domain, kernel, range and trace of the operator A respectively. Let A (possibly unbounded) and V be two self-adjoint operators in H such that V ∈. B1(H). Then Krein [10,11] proved that there exists a unique real-valued L1(R)-function ξ with support in the interval [a, ...

  1. Gender Orders Unbound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity....

  2. Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2013-01-01

    , followed by a discussion of how newer approaches within post-ANT urge us to face the ontological politics, which we engage in when performing tourism research. In conclusion we argue that ANT enables a radical new way at looking at tourism, tourism destinations and objects and investigations......In this article we discuss how ANT has been translated into tourism research and show how it has impacted the field by presenting three concepts integral to the ANT approach: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. We first introduce ANT and draw attention to current ANT studies in tourism...... into the ontological condition of tourism....

  3. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  4. Ordered sets and lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Drashkovicheva, Kh; Igoshin, V I; Katrinyak, T; Kolibiar, M

    1989-01-01

    This book is another publication in the recent surveys of ordered sets and lattices. The papers, which might be characterized as "reviews of reviews," are based on articles reviewed in the Referativnyibreve Zhurnal: Matematika from 1978 to 1982. For the sake of completeness, the authors also attempted to integrate information from other relevant articles from that period. The bibliography of each paper provides references to the reviews in RZhMat and Mathematical Reviews where one can seek more detailed information. Specifically excluded from consideration in this volume were such topics as al

  5. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  6. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  7. Structural Orders of Wheat Starch Do Not Determine the In Vitro Enzymatic Digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Shaokang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we elucidated the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the rate-limiting step for wheat starch digestion. Wheat starch samples with a degree of gelatinization (DG) ranging from 0 to 100% were prepared. As DG increased, the ordered structures of the starch were disrupted increasingly. In contrast, almost all of the increase in the rate and extent of in vitro enzymatic digestion coincided with a DG of only 6% and a minor loss of structural order. As DG increased beyond 6%, digestibility of the starch increased only slightly. We propose that the access and binding of enzymes to starch is greatly increased with only a small DG, which is followed by the simultaneous hydrolysis of crystalline and amorphous areas in gelatinized starch. In vitro enzymatic digestibility of starch was determined predominantly by enzyme binding to starch rather than the ordered structures of starch.

  8. Working for the New Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    Damned if you do - damned if you don't. During the Second World War, the collaboration dilemma regarding Europe's business life came to the forefront as business leaders were faced with the necessity of cooperating with the German enemy in order to maintain production and essing a wide range...... of European countries under German control during the Second World War, this book analyzes the conditions of business during the war, showing how contrary to many beliefs and post-war conceptions, occupation and dependency on the German market - as part of a formal or informal empire - was not solely a story...... way or Europe's business during the Second World War is a story of corporate survival in a highly unstable business environment. Cooperation with the dominant European power aimed at securing the future for business, national economies - and the nation states of Europe. With this point of reference...

  9. Working for the New Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    Damned if you do - damned if you don't. During the Second World War, the collaboration dilemma regarding Europe's business life came to the forefront as business leaders were faced with the necessity of cooperating with the German enemy in order to maintain production and essing a wide range...... of European countries under German control during the Second World War, this book analyzes the conditions of business during the war, showing how contrary to many beliefs and post-war conceptions, occupation and dependency on the German market - as part of a formal or informal empire - was not solely a story...... of survival for an individual company, but also an actual source of stabilization. The conditions of business survival varied according to the politics of the occupying power, the cooperation potential of local business and what was left of local political authority. However, in most European countries, one...

  10. Working for the New Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    Damned if you do - damned if you don't. During the Second World War, the collaboration dilemma regarding Europe's business life came to the forefront as business leaders were faced with the necessity of cooperating with the German enemy in order to maintain production and essing a wide range...... of survival for an individual company, but also an actual source of stabilization. The conditions of business survival varied according to the politics of the occupying power, the cooperation potential of local business and what was left of local political authority. However, in most European countries, one...... way or Europe's business during the Second World War is a story of corporate survival in a highly unstable business environment. Cooperation with the dominant European power aimed at securing the future for business, national economies - and the nation states of Europe. With this point of reference...

  11. Using normal ranges for interpreting results of monitoring and tiering to guide future work: A case study of increasing polycyclic aromatic compounds in lake sediments from the Cold Lake oil sands (Alberta, Canada) described in Korosi et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkittrick, Kelly R; Arciszewski, Tim J

    2017-12-01

    Since the publishing of the Kelly et al. papers (2009, 2010) describing elevated contaminants in snow near the Alberta oil sands, there has been a significant expansion of monitoring efforts, enhanced by $50M a year contributed by industry to a regional Joint Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM) program. In parallel to the intensification of research and monitoring efforts, including expansion of measured indicators, techniques for chemical analysis have also become more sensitive. Both factors contribute to the increased sensitivity and power, and improve our capacity to detect any change. The increase in capability requires a counterbalance to account for trivial change. This can be done using an interpretative approach that requires contextualization of differences to meaningfully inform environmental monitoring programs and provide focus for action. Experience obtained through 25 years of involvement with Canada's Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program has shown that a tiered program informed by triggers can provide the context to make decisions about monitoring priorities. Here we provide a potential interpretation framework using a case study around the Korosi et al. (2016) study which found recent increases in alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (aPACs) in the Cold Lake in situ oil sands area. Public contaminant profiles from the JOSM studies in the oil sands region are used to evaluate the changes using an interpretation framework based on estimated normal ranges using existing data for site-specific, local and regional (distant) levels that was modelled after the tiered Canadian EEM design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hopf bifurcation and chaos in a third-order phase-locked loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are devices able to recover time signals in several engineering applications. The literature regarding their dynamical behavior is vast, specifically considering that the process of synchronization between the input signal, coming from a remote source, and the PLL local oscillation is robust. For high-frequency applications it is usual to increase the PLL order by increasing the order of the internal filter, for guarantying good transient responses; however local parameter variations imply structural instability, thus provoking a Hopf bifurcation and a route to chaos for the phase error. Here, one usual architecture for a third-order PLL is studied and a range of permitted parameters is derived, providing a rule of thumb for designers. Out of this range, a Hopf bifurcation appears and, by increasing parameters, the periodic solution originated by the Hopf bifurcation degenerates into a chaotic attractor, therefore, preventing synchronization.

  13. Beyond fourth-order texture discrimination: generation of extreme-order and statistically-balanced textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W

    2004-01-01

    Julesz introduced the concept of statistically defined textures and their perceptual discrimination. Julesz showed that discrimination was possible with statistics equated to third-order, specifying fourth-order textures. Klein and Tyler offered a variety of paradigms suggesting that fourth order might be the limit on human texture processing. To go beyond this limit, new texture paradigms are now introduced to avoid contamination by luminance extrema, to control local and long-range texture properties, and to provide textures without global statistical structure. Local luminance contamination is avoided by novel orientation plaids, in which higher-order rules govern the orientation of local elements rather than their coloring. These textures allow evaluation of texture discrimination up to thirty-second order by cortical pattern elements. Long-range processing is studied by random strip rotation and by interlacing of independent textures. Each substantially degrades the visibility of the fourth-order textures, revealing that the fourth-order information is conveyed largely by local rather than long-range perturbations from random statistics. Finally, textures equated at all orders can be defined in terms of their global statistics, but may nevertheless readily be discriminated in human vision. The discrimination on the basis of local perturbations implies that human vision assesses textures through a local sampling window, and is largely insensitive to longer-range statistical properties.

  14. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  15. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others....... The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...

  16. Order without design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurakin Alexei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and

  17. Order without design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakin, Alexei

    2010-04-14

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents.

  18. Range contraction in large pelagic predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P

    2011-07-19

    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range-abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11-29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range.

  19. Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range Designed by Air Liquide DTA, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, A.; Crispel, S.; Grabié, V.; Delcayre, F.; Aigouy, G.

    2008-03-01

    The standard helium liquefier and refrigerator range, called Helial and designed by Air Liquide DTA, has recently been upgraded in order to improve the efficiency of these machines. Indeed, over the multi-range markets requiring these cryogenic systems, (international laboratories, aerospace applications, synchrotrons, HTS applications…), the technological solution has to provide increasingly high performances. The new Helial Evolution range, equipped with very reliable DTA turbo-expanders, constitutes a highly efficient product for this wide application field. The optimizations, adaptations and results of the Helial Evolution series, doubling the performance for the same power consumption, will be presented.

  20. Distributed chaos and inertial ranges in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that appearance of inertial range of scales, adjacent to distributed chaos range, results in adiabatic invariance of an energy correlation integral for isotropic homogeneous turbulence and for buoyancy driven turbulence (with stable or unstable stratification, including Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone). Power spectrum of velocity field for distributed chaos dominated by this adiabatic invariant has a stretched exponential form $\\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{3/5}$. Results of recent direct numerical simulations have been used in order to support these conclusions.

  1. Análisis biomecánico del efecto de un aumento del ángulo de salida en el alcance del lanzamiento de peso. (Biomechanics analysis of the influence in the range of the shot-put with increasing release angle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Berral de la Rosa

    2009-01-01

    force with low release angles. The objective of this work is to asses if, with an appropriate training, it is possible to condition the athletes to exert more force at bigger release angles, improving considerably the range of the shot put. A research has been carried out with 12 inexperienced throwers. In the pre-test they threw the same medicinal ball 30 times over a range of release angles from 25º to 45º. After a period of four weeks of training, focused on increasing progressively the release angle, a post-test, similar to the initial one, was carried out. All of the throws were filmed and a 2-D video analysis with the best throw of each thrower in both tests was made. There were significant differences in the average values of release speed,release angle and total range between the pre-test and the post-test. The significant differences in the average release angle with which the throwers obtained their best range show that the period of training made the throwers develop more force at bigger release angles.Key words: shot-put; release speed; initial height; release angle; flight distance; optimal angle.

  2. Visual Control of Robots Using Range Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, 3D-vision systems based on the time-of-flight (ToF principle have gained more importance in order to obtain 3D information from the workspace. In this paper, an analysis of the use of 3D ToF cameras to guide a robot arm is performed. To do so, an adaptive method to simultaneous visual servo control and camera calibration is presented. Using this method a robot arm is guided by using range information obtained from a ToF camera. Furthermore, the self-calibration method obtains the adequate integration time to be used by the range camera in order to precisely determine the depth information.

  3. On the ranges of discrete exponentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Caragiu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp.

  4. On the ranges of discrete exponentials

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Caragiu; Mihai Caragiu

    2004-01-01

    Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X) in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p)=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp).

  5. Higher Order and Fractional Diffusive Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Assante

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the solution of various generalized forms of the Heat Equation, by means of different tools ranging from the use of Hermite-Kampé de Fériet polynomials of higher and fractional order to operational techniques. We show that these methods are useful to obtain either numerical or analytical solutions.

  6. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  7. Beyond global order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, D N

    1995-01-01

    Patriarchal disciplines dominate in territorial species when they outgrow environmental habitats. This started for mainstream human societies some 6,000 years ago. A few food gatherer-hunter communities still inhabit stable ecosystems. Arts, crafts, languages, creeds and other traditions launched them into cultural diversity. This brought about territorial distinctions. With territorial challenges came uniquely human destruction, conflict and instability. Competitive male-dominated crafts progressively controlled and eliminated species, ecosystems and rival cultures to increase the progeny of dominant males. Technologies, including verbal hierarchies, peculiar to humans, create power pyramids converging in transnational elites. They invade and erode the resources and self-sufficiency of more egalitarian communities, which then strive defensively to join the elites. We need goals and institutions to develop a multiculturally tolerant, intergenerational and ecologically sustainable global co-operative with widening participation and inculcation of social value standards beyond money and male-centred dominance. Some promising techniques are emerging.

  8. Ordered and Unordered Top-K Range Reporting in Large Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Zeh, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    contribution is to show that this solution is nearly optimal. To be precise, we show that achieving a query bound of O(logα n + fK/B) I/Os, for any constant α, requires ΩN f−1 logM n log(f−1 logM n) space, assuming B = Ω(logN). ForM ≥ B1+ε, this is within a log logm n factor of the upper bound. The lower bound...

  9. Short-range order and its effect on the electronic structure of binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Abhijit Mookerjee1 2 Kartick Tarafder3 Atisdipankar Chakrabarti3 4 Kamal Krishna Saha5. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India; On sabbatical leave from: S.N. Bose National Center for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098, India; S.N. ...

  10. Short-range order and its effect on the electronic structure of binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    06120. Halle (Saale), Germany. 4On sabbatical leave from: S.N. Bose National Center for Basic Sciences, JD Block,. Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098, India. 5Permanent address: Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College ...

  11. Quasi-Long-Range Order in Trapped 2D Bose Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We study the fate of algebraic decay of correlations in a harmonically trapped two-dimensional degenerate Bose gas. The analysis is inspired by recent experiments on ultracold atoms where power-law correlations have been observed despite the presence of the external potential. We generalize the spin wave description of phase fluctuations to the trapped case and obtain an analytical expression for the one-body density matrix within this approximation. We show that algebraic decay of the central correlation function persists to lengths of about 20% of the Thomas--Fermi radius. We establish that the trap-averaged correlation function decays algebraically with a strictly larger exponent weakly changing with trap size and find indications that the recently observed enhanced scaling exponents receive significant contributions from the normal component of the gas. We discuss radial and angular correlations and propose a local correlation approximation which captures the correlations very well. Our analysis goes beyo...

  12. Off-diagonal long-range order in generalized Hubbard models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, Kristel; Raedt, Hans De

    1997-01-01

    We present stochastic diagonalization results for the ground-state energy and the largest eigenvalue of the two-fermion density matrix of the BCS reduced Hamiltonian, the Hubbard model, and the Hubbard model with correlated hopping. The system-size dependence of this eigenvalue is used to study the

  13. Investigating the medium range order in amorphous Ta2O5 coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Bassiri, Riccardo; Hart, Martin; Byer, Robert L.; Konstantin B. Borisenko; Evans, Keith; Martin M. Fejer; Lin, Angie C.; MacLaren, Ian; Markosyan, Ashot S.; Martin, Iain W.; Roger K. Route; Rowan, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtered amorphous heavy metal oxides, such as Ta2O5, are widely used as the high refractive index layer of highly reflective dielectric coatings. Such coatings are used in the ground based Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), in which mechanical loss, directly related to Brownian thermal noise, from the coatings forms an important limit to the sensitivity of the LIGO detector. It has previously been shown that heat-treatment and TiO2 doping of amorphous Ta2O5...

  14. Long-range order of organized oligonucleotide monolayers on Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wackerbarth, Hainer; Grubb, Mikala; Zhang, Jingdong

    2004-01-01

    , with electrochemical potential control of both the sample electrode and the tip. All the data are based on single-crystal, atomically planar Au(111)-electrode surfaces. The high sensitivity of such surfaces provides accurate HS-10A and HS-10AT electrode coverages on the basis of the reductive desorption of the Au......Oligonucleotides modified by a hexamethylene linker group adsorb on gold electrodes via Au-S bond formation. We have obtained novel data for adsorption of thiol-modified (HS) single-strand HS-10A and double-stranded HS-10AT oligonucleotides and for analogous thiol-free 10A (A = adenine) and 10T (T......-S bond. The coverage is high and in keeping with dense monolayers of adsorbed HS-10A and HS-10AT in an upright or tilted orientation, with the oligonucleotide backbone repelled from the strongly negatively charged electrode surface. Adsorbed thiol-free 10A only gives aAu(111)-reconstruction peak, while...

  15. Effect of Jahn-Teller distortion on the short range magnetic order in copper ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdellatif, M.H., E-mail: Mohamed.abdellatif@iit.it [Nanostrctures Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Innocenti, Claudia [INSTM—Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Liakos, Ioannis [Nanostrctures Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Scarpellini, Alice; Marras, Sergio [Nanochemistry Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Salerno, Marco [Nanostrctures Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Copper ferrite of spinel crystal structure was synthesized in the form of nano-particles using citrate-gel auto-combustion method. The sample morphology and composition were identified using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray spectroscopy. The latter technique reveals an inverse spinel structure with Jahn-Teller tetragonal distortion. The static magnetization was measured using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic force microscopy was used in combination with the magnetization data to demonstrate the finite size effect of the magnetic spins and their casting behavior due to the introduction of copper ions in the tetrahedral magnetic sub-lattices, which results in tetragonal distorting the spinel structure of the copper ferrite. The magnetic properties of materials are a result of the collective behavior of the magnetic spins, and magnetic force microscopy can probe the collective behavior of the magnetic spins in copper ferrite, yet providing a sufficient resolution to map the effects below the micrometer size scale, such as the magnetic spin canting. A theoretical study was done to clarify the finite size effect of Jahn-Teller distortion on the magnetic properties of the material. When the particles are in the nano-scale, below the single domain size, their magnetic properties are very sensitive to their size change. - Highlights: • The spin canting due to Jahn-Teller distortion in Copper ferrite can be detected using magnetic force microscope. • The contrast in the magnetic AFM image can be analyzed to give information not only about the surface spins but also about the canting of the core spins inside the aggregated cluster of magnetic nanoparticle.

  16. Vehicle Based Laser Range Finding in Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Juergen Horn; Rolf Adamek; Detlef Ehlert

    2009-01-01

    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinder...

  17. Charge order, superconducting correlations, and positive muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonier, J.E., E-mail: jsonier@sfu.ca

    2015-02-15

    The recent discoveries of short-range charge-density wave order in the normal state of several hole-doped cuprate superconductors constitute a significant addition to the known intrinsic properties of these materials. Besides likely being associated with the normal-state pseudogap, the charge-density wave order presumably influences the build-up of known superconducting correlations as the temperature is lowered toward the superconducting state. As a pure magnetic probe, muon spin rotation (μ SR) is not directly sensitive to charge order, but may sense its presence via the effect it has on the magnetic dipolar coupling of the muon with the host nuclei at zero or low magnetic field. At higher field where μ SR is completely blind to the effects of charge order, experiments have revealed a universal inhomogeneous normal-state response extending to temperatures well above T{sub c}. The measured inhomogeneous line broadening has been attributed to regions of superconducting correlations that exhibit varying degrees of fluctuation diamagnetism. Here, the compatibility of these results with other measurements showing charge order correlations or superconducting fluctuations above T{sub c} is discussed. - Highlights: • Superconducting fluctuations in high-T cuprates probed by positive muons are discussed. • Superconducting fluctuations are detected at higher temperatures than by other methods. • The muon experiments indicate that the superconducting fluctuations are inhomogeneous. • The compatibility with short-range charge order in the normal state is considered.

  18. Order acceptance with reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainegra Hing, M.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Order Acceptance (OA) is one of the main functions in a business control framework. Basically, OA involves for each order a 0/1 (i.e., reject/accept) decision. Always accepting an order when capacity is available could unable the system to accept more convenient orders in the future. Another

  19. Small-radius jets to all orders in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    As hadron collider physics continues to push the boundaries of precision, it becomes increasingly important to have methods for predicting properties of jets across a broad range of jet radius values R, and in particular for small R. In this paper we resum all leading logarithmic terms, $\\alpha_s^n \\ln^n R$, in the limit of small R, for a wide variety of observables. These include the inclusive jet spectrum, jet vetoes for Higgs physics and jet substructure tools. Some of the quantities that we consider are relevant also for heavy-ion collisions. Furthermore, we examine and comment on the underlying order-by-order convergence of the perturbative series for different R values. Our results indicate that small-R effects can be substantial. Phenomenological studies will appear in a forthcoming companion paper.

  20. High-Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Seimetz, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Catering to the current interest in increasing the spectral efficiency of optical fiber networks by the deployment of high-order modulation formats, this monograph describes transmitters, receivers and performance of optical systems with high-order phase and quadrature amplitude modulation. In the first part of the book, the author discusses various transmitter implementation options as well as several receiver concepts based on direct and coherent detection, including designs of new structures. Hereby, both optical and electrical parts are considered, allowing the assessment of practicability and complexity. In the second part, a detailed characterization of optical fiber transmission systems is presented, regarding a wide range of modulation formats. It provides insight in the fundamental behavior of different formats with respect to relevant performance degradation effects and identifies the major trends in system performance.

  1. Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oikonomou

    Full Text Available Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering.This 'quantitative model' makes predictions for the effect of locking cyclin at fixed levels for a protracted period: at low cyclin levels, early events should occur rapidly, while late events should be slow, defective, or highly variable (depending on threshold mechanism. We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. These events require increasingly more Clb2 according to their normal order of occurrence. Events occur efficiently and with low variability at fixed Clb2 levels similar to those observed when the events normally occur. A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. Moderate (<2-fold overexpression of Clb2 accelerates all events of mitosis, resulting in consistently rapid sequential cell cycles. However, this moderate overexpression also causes a significant frequency of premature mitoses leading to inviability, suggesting that Clb2 expression level is optimized to balance the fitness costs of variability and catastrophe.We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological processes a graded input must be translated into discrete outputs. In such systems, expression of the central regulator is likely to be tuned to an optimum level, as we

  2. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  3. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  4. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  5. On orderability of topological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rangan

    1985-01-01

    can be induced by a total order compatible with the group structure is given and such groups are called ordered or orderable topological groups. A separable totally disconnected ordered topological group is proved to be non-archimedean metrizable while the converse is shown to be false by means of an example. A necessary and sufficient condition for a no-totally disconnected locally compact abelian group to be orderable is also given.

  6. Comparison of range migration correction algorithms for range-Doppler processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Faruk

    2017-07-01

    The next generation digital radars are able to provide high-range resolution by the advancement of radar hardware technologies. These systems take advantage of coherent integration and Doppler processing technique to increase the target's signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the high-range resolution (small range cells) and fast target motion, a target migrates through multiple range cells within a coherent processing interval. Range cell migration (also known as range walk) occurs and degrades the coherent integration gain. There are many approaches in the literature to correct these unavoidable effects and focus the target in the range-Doppler domain. We demonstrate some of these methods on an operational frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and point out practical issues in the application.

  7. Experimental demonstration of fractional-order oscillators of orders 2.6 and 2.7

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, A.S.

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this work is to provide an experimental demonstration for the development of sinusoidal oscillations in a fractional-order Hartley-like oscillator. Solid-state fractional-order electric double-layer capacitors were first fabricated using graphene-percolated P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) composite structure, and then characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The devices exhibit the fractional orders of 0.6 and 0.74 respectively (using the model Zc=Rs+1/(jω)αCα), with the corresponding pseudocapacitances of approximately 93nFsec−0.4 and 1.5nFsec−0.26 over the frequency range 200kHz–6MHz (Rs < 15Ω). Then, we verified using these fractional-order devices integrated in a Hartley-like circuit that the fractional-order oscillatory behaviors are of orders 2.6 and 2.74.

  8. Quantifying methane emissions and sources in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Townsend-Small, A.; Schroeder, J.; Blake, N. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is relatively constant throughout the atmosphere, at 1.8 ppmv. This value, however, is increasing primarily due to anthropogenic sources, including agriculture and natural gas extraction. Here we present atmospheric methane fluxes measured during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in July - August 2014 in the Colorado Front Range on the NCAR C-130. During this campaign 775 advanced whole air samples (AWAS) were collected onboard the aircraft and 248 samples were collected on the ground in order to quantify and evaluate air pollution sources. Methane concentrations were measured continuously aboard the aircraft using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Major sources of methane in this region are oil and natural gas extraction and distribution, landfills, and cattle feed lots. In order to assess the impact of methane emissions on this area, methane flux was evaluated by comparing upwind and downwind concentrations where significant enhancements were observed downwind. We also present information from other hydrocarbons measured in canisters to attribute methane emissions to urban, agricultural, and oil and gas sources. The state of Colorado recently enacted legislation to reduce emissions of hydrocarbons from oil and gas facilities and our measurements will provide a preliminary estimate of whether these regulations are effective.

  9. Storm surge and tidal range energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  10. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  11. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  12. Hyperfine Interactions, Magnetic Impurities and Ordering in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Jensen, J. Z.; Wulff, M.

    1982-01-01

    The antiferromagnetic ordering in Pr due to the coupling of the 4f electronic system to the nuclei and to magnetic Nd impurities has been studied by neutron diffraction. A pure monocrystal of Pr develops true long-range order at about 50-60 mK. The ordering in both this crystal and a PrNd alloy i...

  13. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  14. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  15. Order Quantity Distributions in Make-to-Order Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both an analytical and a numerical investigation into the order quantities received by a company in the form of customer orders. A discussion of assumptions regarding the behavior of demand in the form of customer orders from various perspectives within manufacturing planning...

  16. Recursive regularization step for high-order lattice Boltzmann methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coreixas, Christophe; Wissocq, Gauthier; Puigt, Guillaume; Boussuge, Jean-François; Sagaut, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with enhanced stability and accuracy is presented for various Hermite tensor-based lattice structures. The collision operator relies on a regularization step, which is here improved through a recursive computation of nonequilibrium Hermite polynomial coefficients. In addition to the reduced computational cost of this procedure with respect to the standard one, the recursive step allows to considerably enhance the stability and accuracy of the numerical scheme by properly filtering out second- (and higher-) order nonhydrodynamic contributions in under-resolved conditions. This is first shown in the isothermal case where the simulation of the doubly periodic shear layer is performed with a Reynolds number ranging from 104 to 106, and where a thorough analysis of the case at Re=3 ×104 is conducted. In the latter, results obtained using both regularization steps are compared against the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook LBM for standard (D2Q9) and high-order (D2V17 and D2V37) lattice structures, confirming the tremendous increase of stability range of the proposed approach. Further comparisons on thermal and fully compressible flows, using the general extension of this procedure, are then conducted through the numerical simulation of Sod shock tubes with the D2V37 lattice. They confirm the stability increase induced by the recursive approach as compared with the standard one.

  17. Recent Advances in Higher-Order, Multimodal, Biomedical Imaging Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-09-16

    Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through the analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and, in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, the higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents is reviewed, spanning a range of material and structural classes, and demonstrating utility in three (or more) imaging modalities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Compact ranges in antenna and RCS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audone, B.

    1989-09-01

    With the increased complexity and extended frequency range of operation model measurements and far field test ranges are no longer suitable to satisfy the demand of accurate testing. Moreover plane wave test conditions are required for Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements which represent a key point in stealth technology. Compact ranges represent the best test facilities available presently since they allow for indoor measurements under far field conditions in real time without any calculation effort. Several types of compact ranges are described and compared discussing their relevant advantages with regard to RCS and antenna measurements. In parallel to measuring systems sophisticated computer models were developed with such a high level of accuracy that it is questionable whether experiments give better results than theory. Tests performed on simple structures show the correlation between experimental results and theoretical ones derived on the basis of GTD computer codes.

  19. On Dynamic Range Limitations of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dynamic range of continuous time CMOS current mode circuits. As a representative current mode device a class AB current conveyor is examined. First, the voltage input range of the high impedance Y input is investigated. Next, the current input range of the low...... impedance X input is investigated. It is compared to the thermal noise in the X to Z signal path in order to evaluate the dynamic range, and the dependencies of the dynamic range on the supply voltage and the transistor lay-out is derived, both for the situation where the conveyor is used over a narrow...... frequency band and for the situation where the conveyor is used over the full bandwidth achievable. Finally, the optimisation of the current input range is related to the distortion characteristics and it is pointed out that to a first order approximation the distortion is independent of the current range....

  20. Infinitely robust order and local order-parameter tulips in Apollonian networks with quenched disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, C. Nadir; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2009-06-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder. We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns.

  1. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  2. RANGE ECONOMICS RESEARCH (THE NATIONAL INTEREST)

    OpenAIRE

    Crom, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  3. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  4. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  5. Does this range suit me? Range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2017-11-01

    User satisfaction is a vital design criterion for sustainable systems. The present research aimed to understand factors relating to individually perceived range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle (BEV) users. Data from a large-scale BEV field trial (N = 72) were analyzed. Apart from an initial drop in range satisfaction, increasing practical experience was related to increased range satisfaction. Classical indicators of users' mobility profiles (daily travel distances) were only weakly related to lower range satisfaction (not significant), after controlling for practical experience and preferred coverage of mobility needs. The regularity/predictability of users' mobility patterns, the percentage of journeys not coverable because of range issues, and users' individual comfortable range accounted for variance in range satisfaction. Finally, range satisfaction was related to key indicators of general BEV acceptance (e.g., purchase intentions). These results underline the complex dynamics involved in individual range satisfaction, as well as its central role for BEV acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic Ordering in Gold Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrachev, Mikhail; Antonello, Sabrina; Dainese, Tiziano; Ruzzi, Marco; Zoleo, Alfonso; Aprà, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Sementa, Luca; Maran, Flavio

    2017-06-12

    Several research groups have observed magnetism in monolayer-protected gold-cluster samples, but the results were often contradictory and thus a clear understanding of this phenomenon is still missing. We used Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180, which is a paramagnetic cluster that can be prepared with atomic precision and whose structure is known precisely. Previous magnetometry studies only detected paramagnetism. We used samples representing a range of crystallographic orders and studied their magnetic behaviors by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). As a film, Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180 displays paramagnetic behavior but, at low temperature, ferromagnetic interactions are detectable. One or few single crystals undergo physical reorientation with the applied field and display ferromagnetism, as detected through hysteresis experiments. A large collection of microcrystals is magnetic even at room temperature and shows distinct paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, and ferromagnetic behaviors. Simulation of the EPR spectra shows that both spin-orbit coupling and crystal distortion are important to determine the observed magnetic behaviors. DFT calculations carried out on single cluster and periodic models predict values of spin6orbit coupling and crystal6splitting effects in agreement with the EPR derived quantities. Magnetism in gold nanoclusters is thus demonstrated to be the outcome of a very delicate balance of factors. To obtain reproducible results, the samples must be (i) controlled for composition and thus be monodispersed with atomic precision, (ii) of known charge state, and (iii) well defined also in terms of crystallinity and experimental conditions. This study highlights the efficacy of EPR spectroscopy to provide a molecular understanding of these phenomena

  7. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  8. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  9. Pathogenicity gene variations within the order Entomophthorales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Lange, Lene

    Fungi within the order Entomophthorales (subphylum Entomophthoromycotina) are obligate biotrophic pathogens of arthropods with a remarkable narrow host range. Infection takes place through the cuticle when conidia hit a susceptible host, facilitated by enzymatic and mechanical mechanisms. In the ...... pathogenicity genes within genera Entomophthora and Pandora, using fungal genomic DNA originating from field-collected, infected insect host species of dipteran (flies, mosquitoes) or hemipteran (aphid) origin....

  10. Scaffolding of long read assemblies using long range contact information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurye, Jay; Pop, Mihai; Koren, Sergey; Bickhart, Derek; Chin, Chen-Shan

    2017-07-12

    Long read technologies have revolutionized de novo genome assembly by generating contigs orders of magnitude longer than that of short read assemblies. Although assembly contiguity has increased, it usually does not reconstruct a full chromosome or an arm of the chromosome, resulting in an unfinished chromosome level assembly. To increase the contiguity of the assembly to the chromosome level, different strategies are used which exploit long range contact information between chromosomes in the genome. We develop a scalable and computationally efficient scaffolding method that can boost the assembly contiguity to a large extent using genome-wide chromatin interaction data such as Hi-C. we demonstrate an algorithm that uses Hi-C data for longer-range scaffolding of de novo long read genome assemblies. We tested our methods on the human and goat genome assemblies. We compare our scaffolds with the scaffolds generated by LACHESIS based on various metrics. Our new algorithm SALSA produces more accurate scaffolds compared to the existing state of the art method LACHESIS.

  11. Engineering Biosensors with Dual Programmable Dynamic Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benmei; Zhang, Juntao; Ou, Xiaowen; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2018-01-10

    Although extensively used in all fields of chemistry, molecular recognition still suffers from a significant limitation: host-guest binding displays a fixed, hyperbolic dose-response curve, which limits its usefulness in many applications. Here we take advantage of the high programmability of DNA chemistry and propose a universal strategy to engineer biorecognition-based sensors with dual programmable dynamic ranges. Using DNA aptamers as our model recognition element and electrochemistry as our readout signal, we first designed a dual signaling "signal-on" and "signal-off" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor composed of a ferrocene-labeled ATP aptamer in complex to a complementary, electrode-bound, methylene-blue labeled DNA. Using this simple "dimeric" sensor, we show that we can easily (1) tune the dynamic range of this dual-signaling sensor through base mutations on the electrode-bound DNA, (2) extend the dynamic range of this sensor by 2 orders of magnitude by using a combination of electrode-bound strands with varying affinity for the aptamers, (3) create an ultrasensitive dual signaling sensor by employing a sequestration strategy in which a nonsignaling, high affinity "depletant" DNA aptamer is added to the sensor surface, and (4) engineer a sensor that simultaneously provides extended and ultrasensitive readouts. These strategies, applicable to a wide range of biosensors and chemical systems, should broaden the application of molecular recognition in various fields of chemistry.

  12. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.

  13. Demonstration of extended capture range for James Webb Space Telescope phase retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, R Elizabeth; Acton, D Scott

    2015-07-20

    A geometrical phase retrieval (GPR) algorithm is applied to the problem of image stacking in order to extend the capture range of normal phase retrieval (PR) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and potentially eliminate a lengthy image-stacking process that is based on centroids. Computer simulations are used to establish the capture range of the existing PR algorithm for JWST and demonstrate that it is increased by more than a factor of 10 when combined with GPR, guaranteeing PR capture 95% of the time. An experiment using a scale optical model of JWST was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the GPR algorithm in both coherent and incoherent imaging.

  14. A study of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation Jason de Villiersa,b, Fintan Wilsona and Fred Nicollsb aCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; bUniversity of Cape Town, Cape Town, South... and not scintillation and remove it from the list. 6. Interpolate between identified matches to create a complete de-warping mesh for the image. 7. Use de-warping mesh to create stabilised image. 6. RESULTS The resultant depth images in this paper are small in order...

  15. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  16. Spin-lattice dynamics simulation of external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Chui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of field-induced magnetization in ferromagnetic materials has been an active topic in the last dozen years, yet a dynamic treatment of distance-dependent exchange integral has been lacking. In view of that, we employ spin-lattice dynamics (SLD simulations to study the external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron. Our results show that an external field can increase the inflection point of the temperature. Also the model provides a better description of the effect of spin correlation in response to an external field than the mean-field theory. An external field has a more prominent effect on the long range magnetic order than on the short range counterpart. Furthermore, an external field allows the magnon dispersion curves and the uniform precession modes to exhibit magnetic order variation from their temperature dependence.

  17. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  18. The Ranges Of Subauroral Geomagnetic Field Elements | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... On quiet condition, the range in j season dominates over d- and e- seasons in all elements. ... Generally, the seasonal range in the D component for all the years as well as in H and Z components - apart from the anomaly - maintain the order e>j>d of seasonal variation which is ...

  19. A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and monod biotransformation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K(s), this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. We present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K(S) and in the zero-order approximation the error is K(s)/S. We then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K(s), it may better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of KS for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, we apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set.A formal error analysis is presented showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/KS and in the zero-order approximation the error is KS/S where S is the substrate

  20. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  1. Toward the Elimination of Paper Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo; Webster, S. Luke

    2016-01-01

    Summary With the adoption of Computerized Patient Order Entry (CPOE), many physicians – particularly consultants and those who are affiliated with multiple hospital systems – are faced with the challenge of learning to navigate and commit to memory the details of multiple EHRs and CPOE software modules. These physicians may resist CPOE adoption, and their refusal to use CPOE presents a risk to patient safety when paper and electronic orders co-exist, as paper orders generated in an electronic ordering environment can be missed or acted upon after delay, are frequently illegible, and bypass the Clinical Decision Support (CDS) that is part of the evidence-based value of CPOE. We defined a category of CPOE Low Frequency Users (LFUs) – physicians issuing a total of less than 10 orders per month – and found that 50.4% of all physicians issuing orders in 3 urban/suburban hospitals were LFUs and actively issuing orders across all shifts and days of the week. Data are presented for 2013 on the number of LFUs by month, day of week, shift and facility, over 2.3 million orders issued. A menu of 6 options to assist LFUs in the use of CPOE, from which hospital leaders could select, was instituted so that paper orders could be increasingly eliminated. The options, along with their cost implications, are described, as is the initial option selected by hospital leaders. In practice, however, a mixed pattern involving several LFU support options emerged. We review data on how the option mix selected may have impacted CPOE adoption and physician use rates at the facilities. The challenge of engaging LFU physicians in CPOE adoption may be common in moderately sized hospitals, and these options can be deployed by other systems in advancing CPOE pervasiveness of use and the eventual elimination of paper orders. PMID:27081405

  2. Waltzing between Order and Ordering - a Social Practice Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2007-01-01

    and produce strategic outcomes. This paper aims to understand these social systems dynamics, which it treats as a mutually shaping interplay between order and ordering. The paper illustrates this interplay though two case studies concerning two small and medium sized companies' efforts to enable strategic...

  3. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  4. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... proposes and discusses the term Order Specification Decoupling Line (OSDL), which is to be used to explain the separation of industrial specifications into some information created prior to order acquisition and some information created during order acquisition and order fulfillment. For instance one may...... find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant...

  5. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  6. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  7. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  8. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  9. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  10. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  11. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  12. Executive Orders-Barack Obama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Executive orders are official documents, numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government....

  13. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  14. Effect of dispersal at range edges on the structure of species ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, V.; O'Connor, R.J.; Krohn, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Range edges are of particular interest to ecology because they hold key insights into the limits of the realized niche and associated population dynamics. A recent feature of Oikos summarized the state of the art on range edge ecology. While the typical question is what causes range edges, another important question is how range edges influence the distribution of abundances across a species geographic range when dispersal is present. We used a single species population dynamics model on a coupled-lattice to determine the effects of dispersal on peripheral populations as compared to populations at the core of the range. In the absence of resource gradients, the reduced neighborhood and thus lower connectivity or higher isolation among populations at the range edge alone led to significantly lower population sizes in the periphery of the range than in the core. Lower population sizes mean higher extinction risks and lower adaptability at the range edge, which could inhibit or slow range expansions, and thus effectively stabilize range edges. The strength of this effect depended on the potential population growth rate and the maximum dispersal distance. Lower potential population growth rates led to a stronger effect of dispersal resulting in a higher difference in population sizes between the two areas. The differential effect of dispersal on population sizes at the core and periphery of the range in the absence of resource gradients implies that traditional, habitat-based distribution models could result in misleading conclusions about the habitat quality in the periphery. Lower population sizes at the periphery are also relevant to conservation, because habitat removal not only eliminates populations but also creates new edges. Populations bordering these new edges may experience declines, due to their increased isolation. ?? OIKOS.

  15. Warehouse order-picking process. Order-picker routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Korobkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article continues “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle and describes order-picker routing sub-problem of a warehouse order-picking process. It draws analogies between the orderpickers’ routing problem and traveling salesman’s problem, shows differences between the standard problem statement of a traveling salesman and routing problem of warehouse orderpickers, and gives the particular Steiner’s problem statement of a traveling salesman.Warehouse layout with a typical order is represented by a graph, with some its vertices corresponding to mandatory order-picker’s visits and some other ones being noncompulsory. The paper describes an optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal algorithm to solve order-picker’s routing problem for the single-block warehouses, i.e. warehouses with only two crossing aisles, defines seven equivalent classes of partial routing sub-graphs and five transitions used to have an optimal routing sub-graph of a order-picker. An extension of optimal Ratliff-Rosenthal order-picker routing algorithm for multi-block warehouses is presented and also reasons for using the routing heuristics instead of exact optimal algorithms are given. The paper offers algorithmic description of the following seven routing heuristics: S-shaped, return, midpoint, largest gap, aisle-by-aisle, composite, and combined as well as modification of combined heuristics. The comparison of orderpicker routing heuristics for one- and two-block warehouses is to be described in the next article of the “Warehouse order-picking process” cycle.

  16. Relation between birth order and interpersonal styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and 239 women with ranging in age from 18 to 40 years (M = 23,3 answered the BASIS-A (Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Styles and a brief demographic questionnaire. Interactions between sex and birth order were found. Lastborn women showed greater tendency to search for success and social approval than firstborn women and lastborn men. Among men, lastborn revealed less need for social approval compared to firstborn and only children. First born men showed a higher need to attend social conventions and obtain success. The interaction between sex and birth order was relevant for the understanding of personality development in the context of family relations.   Keywords: birth order; interpersonal styles; personality.

  17. The effects of tidal range on saltmarsh morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guillaume; Mudd, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Saltmarshes are highly productive coastal ecosystems that act simultaneously as flood barriers, carbon storage, pollutant filters and nurseries. As halophytic plants trap suspended sediment and decay in the settled strata, innervated platforms emerge from the neighbouring tidal flats, forming sub-vertical scarps on their eroding borders and sub-horizontal pioneer zones in areas of seasonal expansion. These evolutions are subject to two contrasting influences: stochastically generated waves erode scarps and scour tidal flats, whereas tidally-generated currents transport sediment to and from the marsh through the channel network. Hence, the relative power of waves and tidal currents strongly influences saltmarsh evolution, and regional variations in tidal range yield marshes of differing morphologies. We analyse several sheltered saltmarshes to determine how their morphology reflects variations in tidal forcing. Using tidal, topographic and spectral data, we implement an algorithm based on the open-source software LSDTopoTools to automatically identify features such as marsh platforms, tidal flats, erosion scarps, pioneer zones and tidal channels on local Digital Elevation Models. Normalised geometric properties are then computed and compared throughout the spectrum of tidal range, highlighting a notable effect on channel networks, platform geometry and wave exposure. We observe that micro-tidal marshes typically display jagged outlines and multiple islands along with wide, shallow channels. As tidal range increases, we note the progressive disappearance of marsh islands and linearization of scarps, both indicative of higher hydrodynamic stress, along with a structuration of channel networks and the increase of levee volume, suggesting higher sediment input on the platform. Future research will lead to observing and modelling the evolution of saltmarshes under various tidal forcing in order to assess their resilience to environmental change.

  18. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    We here study some problems concerned with the computational analysis of finite partially ordered sets. We begin (in § 1) by showing that the matrix representation of a binary relationR may always be taken in triangular form ifR is a partial ordering. We consider (in § 2) the chain structure...

  19. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  20. Order and disorder in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Careri, Giorgio

    1984-01-01

    Order and Disorder in Matter offers a comprehensive and up-to-date view of structures and processes in matter, in terms of the evolving concepts of order and disorder. Particular emphasis is given to the recent evolution of these concepts and their relationship to the more complex systems in nature.

  1. Chaos and order in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    source of order" (Brown & Moffett, 1999:21); "complex systems ... contain both order and chaos" (Badenhorst, 1995:13). These state- ments are commonly presented as supported by the assured findings of the physical sciences and mathematics, and commonly linked, in particular, to "chaos theory". Whilst such descriptions ...

  2. Improving Order Lead Time: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Bernardo; Salido, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of globally competing companies is to increase their level of customer satisfaction, by devising and implementing strategies aimed at providing better price, quality, and service. This paper describes the efforts of a Mexican company to achieve this goal, and in particular, with the need to decrease order lead time…

  3. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  4. Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, D. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Becker, P., E-mail: pbecker@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Pastore, A. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, Y010 5DD (United Kingdom); Navarro, J. [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), Apartado Postal 22085, E-46.071-Valencia (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin–orbit terms from the spin–isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin–orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.

  5. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  6. Countering short range ballistic missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  7. Enzymatic induction of supramolecular order and bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbiao; Ren, Xinrui; Ding, Dan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2016-05-01

    We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine adjuvant because it accelerated the DC maturation and elicited stronger T-cells cytokine production than the nanofibers. Our study demonstrated that biocatalytic triggering is a useful method for preparing supramolecular nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order and probably better bioactivity.We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine

  8. Order-constrained linear optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  10. Visualization and processing of higher order descriptors for multi-valued data

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques and computational simulations yield complex multi-valued data that require higher-order mathematical descriptors. This book addresses topics of importance when dealing with such data, including frameworks for image processing, visualization, and statistical analysis of higher-order descriptors. It also provides examples of the successful use of higher-order descriptors in specific applications and a glimpse of the next generation of diffusion MRI. To do so, it combines contributions on new developments, current challenges in this area, and state-of-the-art surveys.   Compared to the increasing importance of higher-order descriptors in a range of applications, tools for analysis and processing are still relatively hard to come by. Even though application areas such as medical imaging, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics are very different in nature they face many shared challenges. This book provides an interdisciplinary perspective on this topic with contributions from key rese...

  11. Multiobjective Order Assignment Optimization in a Global Multiple-Factory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to radically increasing competition, many manufacturers who produce time-sensitive products have expanded their production plants to worldwide sites. Given this environment, how to aggregate customer orders from around the globe and assign them quickly to the most appropriate plants is currently a crucial issue. This study proposes an effective method to solve the order assignment problem of companies with multiple plants distributed worldwide. A multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA is used to find solutions. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, this study employs some real data, provided by a famous garment company in Taiwan, as a base to perform some experiments. In addition, the influences of orders with a wide range of quantities demanded are discussed. The results show that feasible solutions can be obtained effectively and efficiently. Moreover, if managers aim at lower total costs, they can divide a big customer order into more small manufacturing ones.

  12. Selection-endogenous ordered probit and dynamic ordered probit models

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Miranda; Massimiliano Bratti

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation we define two qualitatitive response models: 1) Selection Endogenous Dummy Ordered Probit model (SED-OP); 2) a Selection Endogenous Dummy Dynamic Selection Ordered Probit model (SED- DOP). The SED-OP model is a three-equation model constituted of an endogenous dummy equation, a selection equation, and a main equation which has an ordinal response form. The main feature of the model is that the endogenous dummy enters both the selection equation and the main equation. The ...

  13. Order controlled dislocations and grain boundary mobility in Fe-Al-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambri, O.A., E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET (Argentina); Laboratorio de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Perez-Landazabal, J.I.; Recarte, V. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia s/n, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Cuello, G.J. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Golovin, I.S. [Department of Physical Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metals of National Research Technological University ' MISiS' , Leninsky Ave. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solute grain boundary relaxation in Fe-Al-Cr alloys was discovered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solute grain boundary peak appears after the order decreases by annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In ordered alloys the mobility of dislocations and grain boundaries is reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in order degree leads to the increase in damping. - Abstract: The dislocations and grain boundary mobility in elastic range of loading has been analysed by means of mechanical spectroscopy and neutron diffraction studies in Fe-25at.%Al-8at.%Cr and Fe-25at.%Al-25at.%Cr alloys, in relation to the order degree of the structure. If the alloys are in the ordered state (D0{sub 3} or B2), the mobility of dislocations and grain boundaries is markedly reduced promoting small values of damping. In contrast, when the ordering is suppressed by annealing at temperatures above 973 K, the mobility of dislocations and grain boundaries increases. This leads to an increase in overall damping. In particular, thermally activated damping peaks related to the solute grain boundary peaks due to presence of the aluminium and chromium atoms appear within the temperature interval from 900 to 1100 K, depending on the substitutional atomic content.

  14. Discrete filtering techniques applied to sequential GPS range measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangraas, Frank

    1987-01-01

    The basic navigation solution is described for position and velocity based on range and delta range (Doppler) measurements from NAVSTAR Global Positioning System satellites. The application of discrete filtering techniques is examined to reduce the white noise distortions on the sequential range measurements. A second order (position and velocity states) Kalman filter is implemented to obtain smoothed estimates of range by filtering the dynamics of the signal from each satellite separately. Test results using a simulated GPS receiver show a steady-state noise reduction, the input noise variance divided by the output noise variance, of a factor of four. Recommendations for further noise reduction based on higher order Kalman filters or additional delta range measurements are included.

  15. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    with the partial order model restricted to total terms. Hence, partial order convergence constitutes a conservative extension of metric convergence, which additionally offers a fine-grained distinction between different levels of divergence. In the second part, we focus our investigation on strong convergence...... of orthogonal systems. The main result is that the gap between the metric model and the partial order model can be bridged by extending the term rewriting system by additional rules. These extensions are the well-known Böhm extensions. Based on this result, we are able to establish that -- contrary...

  16. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  17. Order Theory in Environmental Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Brüggemann, R.; Lerche, D. B.

    This is the proceeding from the fifth workshop in Order Theory in Environ-mental Science. In this workshop series the concept of Partial Order Theory is development in relation to application and the use is tested based on specific problems. The Partial Order Theory will have a potential use...... in cases where more than one criterion is included in a prioritisation problem both in relation to decision support and in relation to data-mining and interpretation. Espe-cially the problems where a high degree of complexity results in considerable uncertainty are good candidates for application...

  18. Electronically Tunable Fully Integrated Fractional-Order Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Tsirimokou, Georgia

    2017-03-20

    A fully integrated implementation of a parallel fractional-order resonator which employs together a fractional order capacitor and a fractional-order inductor is proposed in this paper. The design utilizes current-controlled Operational Transconductance Amplifiers as building blocks, designed and fabricated in AMS 0:35m CMOS process, and based on a second-order approximation of a fractional-order differentiator/ integrator magnitude optimized in the range 10Hz–700Hz. An attractive benefit of the proposed scheme is its electronic tuning capability.

  19. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  20. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  1. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  2. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões BrunoAscenso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures and . This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  4. Proposed Closing Order : St. Vincent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached letter directed to Secretary Morton from the Florida Chapter of The Nature Conservancy recommends the establishment of a Secretarial closing order on...

  5. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  6. First-Order Twistor Lifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ascenso Simões

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of twistor methods in the study of Jacobi fields has proved quite fruitful, leading to a series of results. L. Lemaire and J. C. Wood proved several properties of Jacobi fields along harmonic maps from the two-sphere to the complex projective plane and to the three- and four-dimensional spheres, by carefully relating the infinitesimal deformations of the harmonic maps to those of the holomorphic data describing them. In order to advance this programme, we prove a series of relations between infinitesimal properties of the map and those of its twistor lift. Namely, we prove that isotropy and harmonicity to first order of the map correspond to holomorphicity to first order of its lift into the twistor space, relatively to the standard almost complex structures J1 and J2. This is done by obtaining first-order analogues of classical twistorial constructions.

  7. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905

    2005-01-01

    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM 54.50.20.168.5) may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  8. Inference Procedures for Ordering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frank B.; Hubert, Lawrence J.

    1977-01-01

    Given a set of dichotomously scored items, ordering theory attempts to identify a hierarchy among those items. A graphic representation is presented for an empirically obtained hierarchy and a testing procedure to evaluate hypothesized hierarchical relationships. (Author/JKS)

  9. Topological Order in Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0037 Topological orders in Silicon photonics Mohammad Hafezi MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK 3112 LEE BLDG COLLEGE PARK, MD 20742...15 SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topological Order in Silicon Photonics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA-9550-14-1-0267 5c. PROGRAM...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Topological features

  10. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  12. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. An integer order approximation method based on stability boundary locus for fractional order derivative/integrator operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Furkan Nur; Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Tan, Nusret; Atherton, Derek P

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces an integer order approximation method for numerical implementation of fractional order derivative/integrator operators in control systems. The proposed method is based on fitting the stability boundary locus (SBL) of fractional order derivative/integrator operators and SBL of integer order transfer functions. SBL defines a boundary in the parametric design plane of controller, which separates stable and unstable regions of a feedback control system and SBL analysis is mainly employed to graphically indicate the choice of controller parameters which result in stable operation of the feedback systems. This study reveals that the SBL curves of fractional order operators can be matched with integer order models in a limited frequency range. SBL fitting method provides straightforward solutions to obtain an integer order model approximation of fractional order operators and systems according to matching points from SBL of fractional order systems in desired frequency ranges. Thus, the proposed method can effectively deal with stability preservation problems of approximate models. Illustrative examples are given to show performance of the proposed method and results are compared with the well-known approximation methods developed for fractional order systems. The integer-order approximate modeling of fractional order PID controllers is also illustrated for control applications. Copyright © 2016 ISA. All rights reserved.

  14. 221 THE ROLE OF BIRTH ORDER IN SUBSTANCE RELATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    recruited for the study. Their age ranged from 18-50 years of age. The Psychological. Birth Order Inventory (PBOI) by Campbell, White & Stewart (1991) was used ..... Cited in Kalkan, M. (2008). The Relationship of. Psychological Birth Order to Irrational Relationship Beliefs. Social Behaviour and Personality, 36(4), 455-466.

  15. 221 THE ROLE OF BIRTH ORDER IN SUBSTANCE RELATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    centre. The second objective was to investigate whether psychological birth order (a person's perception of their ordinal birth order) was more prevalent in relation to substance related disorders. 28 male participants admitted in a rehabilitation centre were recruited for the study. Their age ranged from 18-50 years of age.

  16. Fractional Brownian motion of director fluctuations in nematic ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Otnes, K.

    1993-01-01

    Temporal director fluctuations in nematic ordering were studied by computer simulation on the Lebwohl-Lasher model as well as by neutron-scattering experiments on the nematogen d-PAA. The time-series data have been analyzed by the rescaled-range method and in terms of the power spectrum in order ...

  17. Ordering dynamics in collectively swimming Surf Scoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeman, Ryan

    2014-08-21

    One striking feature of collective motion in animal groups is a high degree of alignment among individuals, generating polarized motion. When order is lost, the dynamic process of reorganization, directly resulting from the individual interaction rules, provides significant information about both the nature of the rules, and how these rules affect the functioning of the collective. By analyzing trajectories of collectively swimming Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) during transitions between order and disorder, I find that individual speed and polarization are positively correlated in time, such that individuals move more slowly in groups exhibiting lower alignment. A previously validated zone-based model framework is used to specify interactions that permit repolarization while maintaining group cohesion and avoiding collisions. Polarization efficiency is optimized under the constraints of cohesion and collision-avoidance for alignment-dominated propulsion (versus autonomous propulsion), and for repulsion an order of magnitude larger than attraction and alignment. The relative strengths of interactions that optimize polarization also quantitatively recover the speed-polarization dependence observed in the data. Parameters determined here through optimizing polarization efficiency are essentially the same as those determined previously from a different approach: a best-fit model for polarized Surf Scoter movement data. The rules governing these flocks are therefore robust, accounting for behavior across a range of order and structure, and also highly responsive to perturbation. Flexibility and efficient repolarization offers an adaptive explanation for why specific interactions in such animal groups are used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiaxial magnetic ordering in NdMg

    CERN Document Server

    Deldem, M; Galera, R M; Morin, P; Schmitt, D; Ouladdiaf, B

    1998-01-01

    NdMg is a cubic compound (CsCl-type) which orders antiferromagnetically at T sub N =61 K. The magnetization measurements show a second transition at T sub R =35 K. Over the whole order range, the powder neutron diffraction pattern can be indexed on the hypothesis of a collinear structure, the magnetic moments being parallel to the wave vector. The neutron diffraction experiments on a single crystal, under an applied magnetic field, establish that the transition at T sub R corresponds to a change from a collinear structure to a multiaxial one. The magnetic moments successively point along a fourfold axis, in the collinear structure, and along twofold axes in the multiaxial one. This sequence of magnetic structures is consistent with the coexistence of ferroquadrupolar gamma-couplings and antiferroquadrupolar epsilon-couplings. (author)

  19. Quantum Fluctuations of a Superconductor Order Parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, K Yu; Lehtinen, J S

    2016-12-01

    Tunneling I-V characteristics between very narrow titanium nanowires and "massive" superconducting aluminum were measured. The clear trend was observed: the thinner the titanium electrode, the broader the singularity at eV = Δ1(Al) + Δ2(Ti). The phenomenon can be explained by broadening of the gap edge of the quasi-one-dimensional titanium channels due to quantum fluctuations of the order parameter modulus |Δ2|. The range of the nanowire diameters, where the effect is pronounced, correlates with dimensions where the phase fluctuations of the complex superconducting order parameter Δ = |Δ|e(iφ), the quantum phase slips, broadening the R(T) dependencies, have been observed.

  20. Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Hagmeijer, R.; Bastiaens, H. M. J.; Goh, S. J.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Boller, K.-J.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify the contribution of harmonic generation from clusters versus that from gas monomers, we measure the high-order harmonic output over a broad range of the total atomic number density in the jet (from 3×1016 to 3 × 1018 {{cm}}-3) at two different reservoir temperatures (303 and 363 K). For the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements, the variation of the liquid mass fraction, g, versus pressure and temperature is taken into consideration, which we determine, reliably and consistently, to be below 20% within our range of experimental parameters. By comparing the measured harmonic yield from a thin jet with the calculated corresponding yield from monomers alone, we find an increased emission of the harmonics when the average cluster size is less than 3000. Using g, under the assumption that the emission from monomers and clusters add up coherently, we calculate the ratio of the average single-atom response of an atom within a cluster to that of a monomer and find an enhancement of around 100 for very small average cluster size (∼200). We do not find any dependence of the cut-off frequency on the composition of the cluster jet. This implies that HHG in clusters is based on electrons that return to their parent ions and not to neighboring ions in the cluster. To fully employ the enhanced average single-atom response found for small average cluster sizes (∼200), the nozzle producing the cluster jet must provide a large liquid mass fraction at these small cluster sizes for increasing the harmonic yield. Moreover, cluster jets may allow for quasi-phase matching, as the higher mass of clusters allows for a higher density contrast in spatially structuring the nonlinear medium.