Sample records for range order minerals

  1. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.


    Short range-ordered (SRO) aluminosilicates (e.g., allophane) and nanophase ferric oxides (npOx) are common SRO minerals derived during aqueous alteration of basaltic materials. NpOx refers to poorly crystalline or amorphous alteration products that can be any combination of superparamagnetic hematite and/or goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, iddingsite, and nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles that pigment palagonitic tephra. Nearly 30 years ago, SRO phases were suggested as alteration phases on Mars based on similar spectral properties for altered basaltic tephra on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Martian bright regions measured by Earth-based telescopes. Detailed characterization of altered basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea have identified a variety of alteration phases including allophane, npOx, hisingerite, jarosite, alunite, hematite, goethite, ferrihydrite, halloysite, kaolinite, smectite, and zeolites. The presence of npOx and other Fe-bearing minerals (jarosite, hematite, goethite) was confirmed by the Mössbauer Spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although the presence of allophane has not been definitely identified on Mars robotic missions, chemical analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and thermal infrared spectral orbital measurements suggest the presence of allophane or allophane-like phases on Mars. SRO phases form under a variety of environmental conditions on Earth ranging from cold and arid to warm and humid, including hydrothermal conditions. The formation of SRO aluminosilicates such as allophane (and crystalline halloysite) from basaltic material is controlled by several key factors including activity of water, extent of leaching, Si activity in solution, and available Al. Generally, a low leaching index (e.g., wet-dry cycles) and slightly acidic to alkaline conditions are necessary. NpOx generally form under aqueous oxidative weathering conditions, although thermal oxidative alteration may occasional be

  2. Short Range-Ordered Minerals: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Golden, D. C.


    Short range-ordered (SRO) aluminosilicates (e.g., allophane) and nanophase ferric oxides (npOx) are common SRO minerals derived during aqueous alteration of basaltic materials. NpOx refers to poorly crystalline or amorphous alteration products that can be any combination of superparamagnetic hematite and/or goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, iddingsite, and nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles that pigment palagonitic tephra. Nearly 30 years ago, SRO phases were suggested as alteration phases on Mars based on similar spectral properties for altered basaltic tephra on the slopes of Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Martian bright regions measured by Earth-based telescopes. Detailed characterization of altered basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea have identified a variety of alteration phases including allophane, npOx, hisingerite, jarosite, alunite, hematite, goethite, ferrihydrite, halloysite, kaolinite, smectite, and zeolites. The presence of npOx and other Fe-bearing minerals (jarosite, hematite, goethite) was confirmed by the M ssbauer Spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although the presence of allophane has not been definitely identified on Mars robotic missions, chemical analysis by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers and thermal infrared spectral orbital measurements suggest the presence of allophane or allophane-like phases on Mars. SRO phases form under a variety of environmental conditions on Earth ranging from cold and arid to warm and humid, including hydrothermal conditions. The formation of SRO aluminosilicates such as allophane (and crystalline halloysite) from basaltic material is controlled by several key factors including activity of water, extent of leaching, Si activity in solution, and available Al. Generally, a low leaching index (e.g., wet-dry cycles) and slightly acidic to alkaline conditions are necessary. NpOx generally form under aqueous oxidative weathering conditions, although thermal oxidative alteration may occasional be

  3. Extended-range order in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Egami, T.; Hu, Rui-Zhong [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Howells, W.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)


    A new type of order is identified in complex glasses, characterized by diffraction peaks at values of the wave vector below those typical of intermediate-range order. Combined neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction studies of one glass exhibiting this behavior, vitreous rubidium germanate, indicate it to be associated with chemical ordering of the two cations with respect to each other.

  4. Strategic Minerals in the New World Order (United States)


    strategies on the part of mineral producers or consumers. They are unlikely to be undertaken without government incentives. Governmental incentives for the...these mineral products on the world markt can no longer be assured. Part of the problem is political, but economic malaise and environmental health

  5. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  6. Long-range order in canary song. (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J


    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  7. Short-range order in undercooled metallic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Moritz, D.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.; Bellissent, R.; Convert, P.; Hansen, T.; Herlach, D.M


    The containerless processing technique of electromagnetic levitation was combined with elastic neutron scattering in order to study the short-range order (SRO) of stable and deeply undercooled liquids of the pure elements Ni, Fe and Zr and of the quasicrystal-forming alloy Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 25}Co{sub 10}. The results deliver experimental evidence for an icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) prevailing in the investigated metallic melts.

  8. Quasicrystals as alloys with short-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulston, K.W., E-mail: sulston@upei.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Burrows, B.L. [Mathematics Section, Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Technology, Staffordshire University, Beaconside, Stafford ST18 0DG (United Kingdom)


    The electronic structure of quasiperiodic lattices is studied. An alloy theory, including short-range order effects, is used to approximate Fibonacci and Thue-Morse lattices. Short-range order is treated by embedding small clusters in an alloy that itself incorporates a two-site approximation, and the probabilities of these clusters are used to construct an efficient procedure for the calculation of electronic properties. This approach allows easy identification of the contributions of particular clusters to the electronic density of states. As the short-range order is increased via the number of clusters, the density of states can be clearly seen to transition from that of an alloy to that of a quasicrystal. It is shown that the techniques may be applied to other lattices defined by substitution rules.

  9. Short range order in elemental liquids of column IV. (United States)

    Mayo, M; Shor, S; Yahel, E; Makov, G


    The short range order (SRO) in liquid elements of column IV is analysed within the quasi-crystalline model across a wide range of temperatures. It is found that l-Si, Ge, and Sn are well described with a beta-tin like SRO. In contrast, Pb retains a bcc-like SRO similar to other simple elemental liquids. However, a distinction is found between the SRO in Si and Ge and that in Sn, where the latter has a more rigid structure. This difference persists across the entire temperature range examined but is overcome in Si at pressures above 8 GPa, where the liquid structure evolves towards that of Sn.

  10. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A


    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  11. Atomistic microstructures in short-range ordered alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Hata, S


    Short-range order (SRO) in Ni-Mo alloys and their relatives has been controversial for decades, since it causes clearly diffraction intensity maxima at positions which do not coincide with the superlattice reflections in the long-range order (LRO) state. This paper gives an overview of recent studies on the structure of SRO and the transition from SRO to LRO in Ni-Mo alloys, including our results obtained in atomic level by combination of kinetic Monte Carlo simulation and semi-quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is rationalized in our results that the SRO state is set up by local ordering of A sub 4 B, A sub 3 B and A sub 2 B types in sub-unit cell scale. The dispersed mixture of the sub-unit cell clusters gives diffraction intensity maxima at the particular positions. An LRO state is formed by selected growth of the A sub 4 B, A sub 3 B and A sub 2 B type clusters into LRO domains depending on alloy-composition.

  12. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable... Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter... INFORMATION: The Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension for the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Winter Range...

  13. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Short-range Lattice Distortions with Long-range Cubic Order (United States)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Shi, Chenyang; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Puma, Eric; Bang, Sun Hwi; Bean, Nathaniel J. H.; de Sugny, Jean-Claude; Gambee, Robert G.; Hightower, Adrian; Monson, Todd C.

    Small barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles (atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). Fits to PDFs at temperatures of 20° to 220°C suggest that Ti atom displacements from the center of the unit cell are comparable to or even greater than those in the bulk material and persist at temperatures well above 120°C where the tetragonal to pseudo-cubic phase transition occurs in the bulk. Raman spectra acquired over a temperature range of 20° to 220°C confirm that small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a distorted unit cell even above 120°C. On the other hand, small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a long-range order consistent with a cubic lattice as recorded by laboratory XRD Bragg reflections at temperatures of 20° to 150°C. We have reconciled these seemingly contradictory data sets by fitting the PDFs over their full range of 6 nm to reveal a long-range structure with a reduced lattice distortion that still manages to support tetragonal Raman lines but is sufficiently close to cubic to yield apparent Bragg peak singlets. US DOE NNSA contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and US DOE Office of Science contract DE-SC00112704.

  14. Natural gels: crystal-chemistry of short range ordered components in Al, Fe, and Si systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G. [Paris-6 et 7 Univ. and IPGP, Lab. de Mineralogie-Cristallographie, UA CNRS 09, 75 (France)


    In this review, the most important inorganic natural gels are presented: opal, aluminosilicate (allophanes) and hydrous iron oxides and silicates. It is demonstrated that natural gels are ordered at the atomic scale. In allophanes, Al is distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The amount of Al increases as Al/Si ratio decreases. Si-rich allophane have a local structure around Al and Si very different of that is known in kaolinite or halloysite. Transformation of Si-rich allophanes to crystallized minerals implies dissolution-recrystallization processes. On the contrary, in iron silicate with Fe/Si = 0.72, Si and Fe environments are close to those found in nontronite. The gel transformation to Fe-smectite may occur by long range ordering during ageing. In ferric silicate gels, the similarity of local structure around Fe in poorly ordered precursors and what is known in crystallized minerals suggests a solid transformation during ageing. This difference between iron and aluminium is mainly due to the ability of Al to enter both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, while the affinity of iron for octahedral sites is higher at low temperature.

  15. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková


    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  16. Distinct Short-Range Order Is Inherent to Small Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Clusters (<2 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shengtong [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany; School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Materials Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road Shanghai 200237 P.R. China; Chevrier, Daniel M. [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 Canada; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 Canada; Gebauer, Denis [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany; Cölfen, Helmut [Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10 78457 Konstanz Germany


    Amorphous intermediate phases are vital precursors in the crystallization of many biogenic minerals. While inherent short-range orders have been found in amorphous calcium carbonates (ACCs) relating to different crystalline forms, it has never been clarified experimentally whether such orders already exist in very small clusters less than 2 nm in size. Here, we studied the stability and structure of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) protected ACC clusters with a core size of ca. 1.4 nm consisting of only seven CaCO3 units. Ligand concentration and structure are shown to be key factors in stabilizing the ACC clusters. More importantly, even in such small CaCO3 entities, a proto-calcite short-range order can be identified but with a relatively high degree of disorder that arises from the very small size of the CaCO3 core. Our findings support the notion of a structural link between prenucleation clusters, amorphous intermediates, and final crystalline polymorphs, which appears central to the understanding of polymorph selection.

  17. Long-range ordered nanodomains of grafted electroactive molecules. (United States)

    Breitwieser, R; Marsault, M; Repain, V; Lagoute, J; Chacon, C; Girard, Y; Rousset, S; Qin, Z; Battaglini, N; Zrig, S; Lang, P


    We demonstrate the capability to build zero and one-dimensional electroactive molecular nanostructures ordered over a macroscopic scale and stable under ambient conditions. To realize these arrays, we use the selective grafting of functionalized thiols (juglon and terthiophene based) on a self-organized metallic template. The nanoscale patterning of the molecular conductance is demonstrated and analyzed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Finally, the influence of the nanostructuring on electro-chemical properties is measured, paving the way to an all-bottom-up fabrication of nanostructured templates for nanosciences.

  18. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of CNC Development, Ltd...

  19. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles. (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C


    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  20. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.


    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  1. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic long-range order in Tb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    and implies no change in the long-range order. In the close vicinity of the Neacuteel temperature TN = 226deg K the spiral magnetic long-range order varies as (TN-T)0.25plusmn 0.01, whereas the total order within a wider temperature range roughly follows (TN-T)1/3. The turn angle per layer varies from 16.5deg...

  2. Chemical short range order obtained from the atomic pair distribution function


    Proffen, Th.; Petkov, V.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Vogt, T.


    Many crystalline materials show chemical short range order and relaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) obtained from powder diffraction data. In this paper, we present the successful extraction of chemical short range order parameters from the x-ray PDF of a quenched Cu_3Au sample.

  3. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides


    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z. G.; Bishop, A. R.; Neto, A. H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels


    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. We show that the main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a dipolar short-range interaction generated by the short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. We find four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the de...

  4. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad, E-mail: [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sanyal, Biplab, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Mookerjee, Abhijit, E-mail: [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)


    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments. - Highlights: • The magnetism in FeCr is sensitively depended on the ordering of the atoms : disordered or with short ranged ordering. • This work uses the SQS technique suggested by Zunger has been used to generate various degrees of short range ordering in FeCr. • The electronic structure and pair energies have been obatined from first principles ASR and Lichtenstein methods. • The effect of chemical ordering on magnetic ordering is studied in detail. • Only those situations where the chemical ordering is complete have been studied.

  5. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.


    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  6. Nurses' opinions on appropriate administration of PRN range opioid analgesic orders for acute pain. (United States)

    Gordon, Debra B; Pellino, Teresa A; Higgins, Gerry Ann; Pasero, Chris; Murphy-Ende, Kathleen


    The use of "as needed" or "pro re nata" (PRN) range opioid analgesic orders is a common clinical practice in the management of acute pain, designed to provide flexibility in dosing to meet an individual's unique needs. Range orders enable necessary adjustments in doses based on individual response to treatment. However, PRN range opioid orders have recently come under scrutiny as a source of confusion and as a medication management safety issue. How nurses administer range orders may vary based on their interpretation of the intent of an order, inadequate knowledge of analgesic titration, or exaggerated concerns about opioid safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' opinions of the appropriate implementation of range orders. Six hundred two nurses from one large academic medical center and one multihospital system completed an online survey using theoretic clinical vignettes to examine their opinions of appropriate analgesic administration practices. The majority of participants chose appropriate responses to the vignettes; however, there was a great deal of variability in responses. Those who had attended pain management courses were more likely to have a higher percentage of appropriate responses than those who had not attended courses. Years in practice and educational level were not significantly related to percentage of appropriate responses; however, there was a trend for nurses with a master's degree to have a higher percentage than nurses with other educational preparation. Consideration of opioid pharmacokinetics can provide logic to develop a new paradigm where range orders are replaced with orders that provide more explicit instructions to titrate an opioid to the most effective dose.

  7. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  8. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen and chlorine isotope compositions (United States)

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.


    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and View the MathML source values range from +0.2‰ to +1.9‰ (average=+1.0±0.4‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004 and Leeman et al., 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. View the MathML source values of the lavas range from −0.1 to +0.8‰ (average = +0.4±0.3‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive View the MathML source values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with View the MathML source values >+1.0‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor–liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid–rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through

  9. Simultaneous first order derivative spectrophotometric determination of vanadium and zirconium in alloy steels and minerals. (United States)

    Varghese, Anitha; George, Louis


    A simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the individual and simultaneous determination of trace amounts of vanadium(V) and zirconium(IV) in acetic acid medium using a newly synthesised reagent diacetylmonoxime salicyloylhydrazone (DMSH), without any prior separation. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the coloured species are 1.30 x 10(4) and 1.82 x 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 3.9 and 2.5 ng cm(-2) for V(V) and Zr(IV), respectively. Beer's law is obeyed between 0.26-2.80 and 0.30-3.20 μg mL(-1) concentration of vanadium (V) and zirconium (IV) at 405 and 380 nm respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) for V(V) and 1:2 for Zr(IV) complexes. These metal ions interfere with the determination of each other in zero order spectrophotometry. The first derivative spectra of these complexes permitted a simultaneous determination of V(V) and Zr(IV) at zero crossing wavelengths of 445 nm and 405 nm, respectively. The optimum conditions for maximum colour development and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of zirconium and vanadium in standard alloy steel samples, mineral and soil samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hidden long-range order in a two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled Bose gas

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Shih-Wei; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Liao, Renyuan; Fialko, Oleksandr; Brand, Joachim


    A two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled Bose gas is shown to simultaneously possess quasi and true long-range orders in the total and relative phases, respectively. The total phase undergoes a conventional Berenzinskii- Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, where an quasi long-range order is expected. Additionally, the relative phase undergoes an Ising-type transition building up true long-range order, which is induced by the anisotropic spin- orbit coupling. Based on the Bogoliubov approach, expressions for the total- and relative-phase fluctuations are derived analytically for the low temperature regime. Numerical simulations of the stochastic projected Gross- Pitaevskii equation give a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  11. Long-Range Charge Order in the Extended Holstein-Hubbard Model (United States)

    Miyao, Tadahiro


    This study investigated the extended Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling as a model for describing the interplay of electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings. When the electron-phonon and nearest-neighbor electron-electron interactions are strong, we prove the existence of long-range charge order in three or more dimensions at a sufficiently low temperature. As a result, we rigorously justify the phase competition between the antiferromagnetism and charge orders.

  12. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora. (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Snyder, Rebecca J; Zhihe, Zhang; Marr, M Jackson; Maple, Terry L


    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed otters, a related monogamous species in which males and females share home ranges. These results provide the first evidence of sex differences in spatial ability in the order Carnivora, and are consistent with the range size hypothesis.

  13. Longe-Range Order in beta-Brass Studied by Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    The long-range order, M(T), in β-brass has been measured by neutron diffraction from a small extinction-free crystal. The results agree with those obtained recently by x-ray diffraction. Near Tc our data are in accordance with a power law M(T)=D(1-T/Tc)β with the critical exponent β=0...

  14. Magnetic structures of vanadium iodide (VI2): long- and short-range order and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, S. R.; Sanchez, J. P.; Haas, C.


    Neutron diffraction data of VI2 show a magnetic phase transition at 14 K from a 120° magnetic structure to a collinear structure. The collinear structure is compatible with low-temp. Moessbauer spectra. The 120° structure is not a magnetic phase with long-range order but rather a paramagnetic phase

  15. Charge Ordering and Long-Range Interactions in Layered Transition Metal Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, B.P.; Yu, Z.G.; Bishop, A.R.; Gro/nbech-Jensen, N. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Neto, A.H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)


    We study the competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes within a continuum formulation of the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. We focus on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram. The main interactions are the long-range Coulomb interaction and a magnetic dipolar short-range interaction generated by short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations. Four different phases depending on the strength of the dipolar interaction and the density of holes exist: Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, horizontal-vertical stripes (loops). and a glassy-clumped phase. The effect of temperature, disorder, and lattice effects on these phases are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Long-range order between the planets in the Solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper


    The Solar System is investigated for positional correlations between the planets using a logarithmic distance scale. The pair correlation function for the logarithm of the semimajor axis shows a regular distribution with 5-7 consecutive peaks, and the Fourier transform hereof shows reciprocal peaks...... of first and second order. A procedure involving random permutations for the shuffling of the inter--logarithmic distances is employed to check for the significance of the presence of order of longer range than neighbor planets correlations. The use of permutations is a particular helpful analysis when...... the number of data points is small. The pair correlation function of the permutated planets lacks the sequence of equidistant peaks and its Fourier transform has no second order peak. This analysis demonstrates the existence of longer ranged correlations in the Solar System....

  17. Methodology to unmix spectrally similar minerals using high order derivative spectra

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available signatures Debba (CSIR) Unmixing spectrally similar minerals Rhodes University 2009 6 / 40 Introduction to Unmixing If research could be as easy as eating a chocolate cake . . . Figure: Can you guess the ingredients for this chocolate cake? Debba (CSIR...) Unmixing spectrally similar minerals Rhodes University 2009 7 / 40 Introduction to Unmixing Ingredients Quantity unsweetened chocolate unsweetened cocoa powder boiling water flour baking powder baking soda salt unsalted butter white sugar eggs...

  18. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hao, Shaogang; Kramer, Matthew; Yao, Yongxin; Mendelev, Mikhail; Napolitano, Ralph; Ho, Kai-Ming


    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe 'Bergman triacontahedron' packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  19. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass. (United States)

    Fang, X W; Wang, C Z; Hao, S G; Kramer, M J; Yao, Y X; Mendelev, M I; Ding, Z J; Napolitano, R E; Ho, K M


    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu(64.5)Zr(35.5) alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe "Bergman triacontahedron" packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  20. Polariton Chimeras: Bose-Einstein Condensates with Intrinsic Chaoticity and Spontaneous Long-Range Ordering (United States)

    Gavrilov, S. S.


    The system of cavity polaritons driven by a plane electromagnetic wave is found to undergo the spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetry, which results in a lifted phase locking with respect to the driving field and, consequently, in the possibility of internal ordering. In particular, periodic spin and intensity patterns arise in polariton wires; they exhibit strong long-range order and can serve as media for signal transmission. Such patterns have the properties of dynamical chimeras: they are formed spontaneously in perfectly homogeneous media and can be partially chaotic. The reported new mechanism of chimera formation requires neither time-delayed feedback loops nor nonlocal interactions.

  1. Long-range nematic order and anomalous fluctuations in suspensions of swimming filamentous bacteria (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Daiki; Nagai, Ken H.; Chaté, Hugues; Sano, Masaki


    We study the collective dynamics of elongated swimmers in a very thin fluid layer by devising long filamentous nontumbling bacteria. The strong confinement induces weak nematic alignment upon collision, which, for large enough density of cells, gives rise to global nematic order. This homogeneous but fluctuating phase, observed on the largest experimentally accessible scale of millimeters, exhibits the properties predicted by standard models for flocking, such as the Vicsek-style model of polar particles with nematic alignment: true long-range nematic order and nontrivial giant number fluctuations.

  2. Alpine lakes preserve mineral dust signatures: Implications for long-range mineral dust transport and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) tornado frequency in the United States (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Lora, J. M.; Pollen, A.; Vollmer, T.; Thomas, M.; Leithold, E. L.; Mitchell, J.; Tripati, A.


    The net amount of mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions might not be entirely sourced locally or even regionally; in fact, new evidence suggests that there could be significant contributions from distal sources. The contribution from the distal sources needs to be identified, and accounted for, in order to accurately understand the meteorological and climatologic factors, both regional and global, that control mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions. Most importantly, if identified, the two components of mineral dust accumulation- fine fraction (typically 25 microns)- could provide critical information about regional as well as global climate. There are large-scale climatological controls on the finer fraction of mineral dust, while the coarser fraction is related to intense invents (i.e., the occurrence of cyclones). However, studies attempting to separate these two size fractions in terrestrial archives have been limited. Here we separate the two size fractions using grain size analysis, and use trace element analysis in each size fraction to identify contributing source regions. We apply this technique to well-dated cores collected from three lakes that are distributed across the western, southwestern and Great Plains in the United States: Pear Lake in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA), Senator Beck Lake in the San Juan Mountains (CO), and North Lake (WY). These lakes are uniquely situated to monitor dust fluxes; previous studies have demonstrated that sedimentation in these lakes are dominated by mineral dust accumulation; there is also evidence of remotely and locally sourced dust in these lakes, and of textural differences between the two types of dust fractions. We compare our results with previously published data on dust from loess deposits in the United States, and isotopic modeling (LMDZ). We find evidence that the finer-grain size fraction in alpine lake cores could be of remote origin; work is underway to quantify this

  3. Distortion-triggered loss of long-range order in solids with bonding energy hierarchy. (United States)

    Kolobov, A V; Krbal, M; Fons, P; Tominaga, J; Uruga, T


    An amorphous-to-crystal transition in phase-change materials like Ge-Sb-Te is widely used for data storage. The basic principle is to take advantage of the property contrast between the crystalline and amorphous states to encode information; amorphization is believed to be caused by melting the materials with an intense laser or electrical pulse and subsequently quenching the melt. Here, we demonstrate that distortions in the crystalline phase may trigger a collapse of long-range order, generating the amorphous phase without going through the liquid state. We further show that the principal change in optical properties occurs during the distortion of the still crystalline structure, upsetting yet another commonly held belief that attributes the change in properties to the loss of long-range order. Furthermore, our results suggest a way to lower energy consumption by condensing phase change inducing energy into shorter pulses or through the use of coherent phonon excitation.

  4. Short- and medium-range orders in Cu46Zr54 metallic glasses under shock compression (United States)

    Jian, W. R.; Yao, X. H.; Wang, L.; Tang, X. C.; Luo, S. N.


    We investigate short- and medium-range orders in Cu46Zr54 metallic glasses, as represented by icosahedra and icosahedron networks, respectively, under shock compression with molecular dynamics simulations. Complementary isothermal compression and isobaric heating simulations reveal that compression below 60 GPa gives rise to increased coordination and thus high-coordination-number Voronoi polyhedra, such as icosahedra; however, pressure-induced collapse or thermal disintegration of icosahedra (and subsequently, icosahedron networks) occurs at pressures above 60 GPa or at melting, accompanied by free volume increase. The evolutions of the short- and medium-range orders upon shock loading are the effects of compression combined with shock-induced melting. The structural changes are partially reversible for weak shocks without melting (below 60 GPa) and irreversible for strong shocks. Crystallization does not occur under isothermal or shock compression at molecular dynamics scales.

  5. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transitionmetal oxides: a quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P.; Yu, Z.G.; Chernyshev, A.L.; Bishop, A.R.; Neto, A.H. Castro; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels


    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF), is studied within a model derived from the spin density wave picture of layered transition metal oxides. A novel numerical approach is developed which allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of order hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge-phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange, and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal shapes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops) and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist.At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed.

  6. Charge ordering and long-range interactions in layered transition metal oxides: A quasiclassical continuum study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Branko P. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Yu, Z. G. [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Chernyshev, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Bishop, A. R. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Castro Neto, A. H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Groenbech-Jensen, Niels [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 and NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    The competition between long-range and short-range interactions among holes moving in an antiferromagnet (AF) is studied within a model derived from the spin-density-wave picture of layered transition metal oxides.A novel numerical approach is developed that allows one to solve the problem at finite hole densities in very large systems (of the order of hundreds of lattice spacings), albeit in a quasiclassical limit, and to correctly incorporate the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. The focus is on the problem of charge ordering and the charge phase diagram: at low temperatures four different phases are found, depending on the strength of the magnetic (dipolar) interaction generated by the spin-wave exchange and the density of holes. The four phases are the Wigner crystal, diagonal stripes, a grid phase (horizontal-vertical stripe loops), and a glassy-clumped phase. In the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane charged impurities the stripe ordering is suppressed, although finite stripe segments persist. At finite temperatures multiscale (intermittency) dynamics is found, reminiscent of that in glasses. The dynamics of stripe melting and its implications for experiments is discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Short- and medium-range order in Zr[subscript 80]Pt[subscript 20] liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, N.A.; Wessels, V.; Bendert, J.C.; Klein, S.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Kramer, M.J.; Hao, S.G.; Rustan, G.E.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A.I.; Kelton, K.F. (WU); (ETH Zurich); (Iowa State); (IMW-Germany)


    The atomic structures in equilibrium and supercooled liquids of Zr{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} were determined as a function of temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron diffraction studies of the levitated liquids (containerless processing) using the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) technique. The presence of a pronounced pre-peak at q - 1.7 {angstrom}{sup -1} in the static structure factor indicates medium-range order (MRO) in the liquid. The position and intensity of the pre-peak remain constant with cooling, indicating that the MRO is already present in the liquid above its melting temperature. An analysis of the liquid atomic structures obtained using the Reverse Monte Carlo method utilizing both the structure factor S(q) from x-ray diffraction experiments and the partial pair-correlation functions from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the pre-peak arises from a Pt-Pt correlation that can be identified with icosahedral short-range order around the Pt atoms. The local atomic ordering is dominated by icosahedral-like structures, raising the nucleation barrier between the liquid and these phases, thus assisting glass formation.

  8. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl (United States)

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.


    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  9. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimakura, H. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Ohara, K. [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, T. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Takeda, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)


    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  10. Long-range dipolar order and dispersion forces in polar liquids. (United States)

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Christofferson, Andrew Joseph; Liu, Maoyuan; Yarovsky, Irene


    Complex solvation phenomena, such as specific ion effects, occur in polar liquids. Interpretation of these effects in terms of structure and dispersion forces will lead to a greater understanding of solvation. Herein, using molecular dynamics, we probe the structure of polar liquids through specific dipolar pair correlation functions that contribute to the potential of mean force that is "felt" between thermally rotating dipole moments. It is shown that unique dipolar order exists at separations at least up to 20 Å for all liquids studied. When the structural order is compared with a dipolar dispersion force that arises from local co-operative enhancement of dipole moments, a strong agreement is found. Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces was compared with the structural order, where the theory is validated for all liquids that do not have significant local dipole correlations. For liquids that do have significant local dipole correlations, specifically liquid water, Lifshitz theory underestimates the dispersion force by a factor of 5-10, demonstrating that the force that leads to the increased structure in liquid water is missed by Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. We apply similar correlation functions to an ionic aqueous system, where long-range order between water's dipole moment and a single chloride ion is found to exist at 20 Å of separation, revealing a long-range perturbation of water's structure by an ion. Furthermore, we found that waters within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd solvation shells of a chloride ion exhibit significantly enhanced dipolar interactions, particularly with waters at larger distances of separation. Our results provide a link between structures, dispersion forces, and specific ion effects, which may lead to a more robust understanding of solvation.

  11. Long-range dipolar order and dispersion forces in polar liquids (United States)

    Besford, Quinn Alexander; Christofferson, Andrew Joseph; Liu, Maoyuan; Yarovsky, Irene


    Complex solvation phenomena, such as specific ion effects, occur in polar liquids. Interpretation of these effects in terms of structure and dispersion forces will lead to a greater understanding of solvation. Herein, using molecular dynamics, we probe the structure of polar liquids through specific dipolar pair correlation functions that contribute to the potential of mean force that is "felt" between thermally rotating dipole moments. It is shown that unique dipolar order exists at separations at least up to 20 Å for all liquids studied. When the structural order is compared with a dipolar dispersion force that arises from local co-operative enhancement of dipole moments, a strong agreement is found. Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces was compared with the structural order, where the theory is validated for all liquids that do not have significant local dipole correlations. For liquids that do have significant local dipole correlations, specifically liquid water, Lifshitz theory underestimates the dispersion force by a factor of 5-10, demonstrating that the force that leads to the increased structure in liquid water is missed by Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces. We apply similar correlation functions to an ionic aqueous system, where long-range order between water's dipole moment and a single chloride ion is found to exist at 20 Å of separation, revealing a long-range perturbation of water's structure by an ion. Furthermore, we found that waters within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd solvation shells of a chloride ion exhibit significantly enhanced dipolar interactions, particularly with waters at larger distances of separation. Our results provide a link between structures, dispersion forces, and specific ion effects, which may lead to a more robust understanding of solvation.

  12. Shiga toxin induces membrane reorganization and formation of long range lipid order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Johannes, Ludger; Simonsen, Adam Cohen


    microscopy. A content of 1% of glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor lipids in a bilayer was used to bind the Shiga toxin B-subunit to the surface of gel domains. Binding of the Shiga toxin B-subunit to lipids led to the modulation of orientational membrane texture in gel domains and induced...... membrane reordering. When Shiga toxin was added above the lipid chain melting temperature, the toxin interaction with the membrane induced rearrangement and clustering of Gb3 lipids that resulted in the long range order and alignment of lipids in gel domains. The toxin induced redistribution of Gb3 lipids...

  13. Short-range second order screened exchange correction to RPA correlation energies (United States)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian


    Direct random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energies have become increasingly popular as a post-Kohn-Sham correction, due to significant improvements over DFT calculations for properties such as long-range dispersion effects, which are problematic in conventional density functional theory. On the other hand, RPA still has various weaknesses, such as unsatisfactory results for non-isogyric processes. This can in parts be attributed to the self-correlation present in RPA correlation energies, leading to significant self-interaction errors. Therefore a variety of schemes have been devised to include exchange in the calculation of RPA correlation energies in order to correct this shortcoming. One of the most popular RPA plus exchange schemes is the second order screened exchange (SOSEX) correction. RPA + SOSEX delivers more accurate absolute correlation energies and also improves upon RPA for non-isogyric processes. On the other hand, RPA + SOSEX barrier heights are worse than those obtained from plain RPA calculations. To combine the benefits of RPA correlation energies and the SOSEX correction, we introduce a short-range RPA + SOSEX correction. Proof of concept calculations and benchmarks showing the advantages of our method are presented.

  14. Local Structure and Short-Range Order in a NiCoCr Solid Solution Alloy (United States)

    Zhang, F. X.; Zhao, Shijun; Jin, Ke; Xue, H.; Velisa, G.; Bei, H.; Huang, R.; Ko, J. Y. P.; Pagan, D. C.; Neuefeind, J. C.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Yanwen


    Multielement solid solution alloys are intrinsically disordered on the atomic scale, and many of their advanced properties originate from the local structural characteristics. The local structure of a NiCoCr solid solution alloy is measured with x-ray or neutron total scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques. The atomic pair distribution function analysis does not exhibit an observable structural distortion. However, an EXAFS analysis suggests that the Cr atoms are favorably bonded with Ni and Co in the solid solution alloys. This short-range order (SRO) may make an important contribution to the low values of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the Cr-alloyed solid solutions. In addition, an EXAFS analysis of Ni ion irradiated samples reveals that the degree of SRO in NiCoCr alloys is enhanced after irradiation.

  15. Communication: Anomalous temperature dependence of the intermediate range order in phosphonium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; Margulis, Claudio J., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)


    In a recent article by the Castner and Margulis groups [Faraday Discuss. 154, 133 (2012)], we described in detail the structure of the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquid as a function of temperature using X-ray scattering, and theoretical partitions of the computationally derived structure function. Interestingly, and as opposed to the case in most other ionic-liquids, the first sharp diffraction peak or prepeak appears to increase in intensity as temperature is increased. This phenomenon is counter intuitive as one would expect that intermediate range order fades as temperature increases. This Communication shows that a loss of hydrophobic tail organization at higher temperatures is counterbalanced by better organization of polar components giving rise to the increase in intensity of the prepeak.

  16. Predicting Short-Range Order in Multicomponent Alloys from an Improved Mean-Field Theory (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Johnson, Duane


    In alloys the atomic short-range order (SRO) indicates the nascent ordering to which the disordered alloy is tending at high temperatures. Direct first-principles prediction based upon KKR-CPA and mean-field thermodynamics have been successful in predicting system-specific SRO [1], if, at a minimum, corrections are included to satisfy the diffuse scattering sum rule in k-space. However, such models do not account for k-dependence of the corrections. Here, we present an analytic generalization to multicomponent alloys that includes ``cyclic diagrams'' [2,3] for composition, temperature, and k-dependent corrections to SRO. We first explore the improvement to SRO in model fcc ternary alloys via the generalized Ising model. We find that there is much better agreement to Monte Carlo simulations than with standard Bragg-Williams with(out) Onsager corrections. Then we implement this within the KKR-CPA linear-response theory of SRO.Work was supported by DOE (Award DEFG02-03ER46026 and NSF (DMR-0325939). [1] J.B. Staunton, D.D. Johnson, and F.J. Pinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1259 (1990); Phys. Rev. B 50, 1450 (1994); ibid, 57, 15177 (1998). [2] R. Brout, Phys. Rev. 115, 824-835 (1959). [3] R.V. Chepulski, et al, Phys. Rev. 65, 064201-7 (2002).

  17. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy (United States)

    Binns, C.; Howes, P. B.; Baker, S. H.; Marchetto, H.; Potenza, A.; Steadman, P.; Dhesi, S. S.; Roy, M.; Everard, M. J.; Rushforth, A.


    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm (~200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length ~5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  18. Investigating the medium range order in amorphous Ta2O5 coatings (United States)

    Bassiri, Riccardo; Hart, Martin; Byer, Robert L.; Borisenko, Konstantin B.; Evans, Keith; Fejer, Martin M.; Lin, Angie C.; MacLaren, Ian; Markosyan, Ashot S.; Martin, Iain W.; Route, Roger K.; Rowan, Sheila


    Ion-beam sputtered amorphous heavy metal oxides, such as Ta2O5, are widely used as the high refractive index layer of highly reflective dielectric coatings. Such coatings are used in the ground based Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), in which mechanical loss, directly related to Brownian thermal noise, from the coatings forms an important limit to the sensitivity of the LIGO detector. It has previously been shown that heat-treatment and TiO2 doping of amorphous Ta2O5 coatings causes significant changes to the levels of mechanical loss measured and is thought to result from changes in the atomic structure. This work aims to find ways to reduce the levels of mechanical loss in the coatings by understanding the atomic structure properties that are responsible for it, and thus helping to increase the LIGO detector sensitivity. Using a combination of Reduced Density Functions (RDFs) from electron diffraction and Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM), we probe the medium range order (in the 2-3 nm range) of these amorphous coatings.

  19. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Howes, P B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Baker, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Marchetto, H [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Potenza, A [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Steadman, P [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Dhesi, S S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Roy, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Everard, M J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rushforth, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)


    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm ({approx}200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length {approx}5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  20. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannette, Matthew Dano [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, χ, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (~10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of TC local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in χ which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in χ well below TC which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.

  1. Recent studies of short-range order in alloys: The Cowley theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Moss, S.C. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Physics


    We present comparisons of various statistical theories for effective pair interactions (EPI) in alloys. We then evaluate these EPI`s using the Cowley theory, the Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss (KCM) approximation, the {gamma}-expansion method (GEM) of Tokar, Masanskii and coworkers, and the exact inverse Monte Carlo (IMC) method, introduced by Gerold and Kern. Via a series of model calculations on a hypothetical bcc alloy with a single nearest-neighbor interaction we show that the Cowley theory is successful in evaluating the EPI`s in more dilute alloys but tends to overestimate the magnitude of the nearest neighbor energy at higher concentrations, whereas the KCM expression becomes increasingly inaccurate at lower concentrations. In general, however, the approximate mean field theories are most accurate at higher concentrations and higher temperatures. Recent studies of short-range order in single crystals are discussed in which these EPI`s have been evaluated using the IMC, KCM, GEM and Cowley theories. Examples include the bcc alloy Fe{sub 0.53}Cr{sub 0.47} and the fcc alloys Cu{sub 3} Au, CU{sub 0.69}Zn{sub 0.31} and Ni{sub 0.89}BgCr{sub 0.11}. In all cases the approximate expressions do quite well, especially the GEM.

  2. Swellable Model POPC/POPG/DHPC Membrane with a Lamellar Long-Range Order (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nieh, Mu-Ping


    A physiological relevant biomimetic model membrane is of great necessity for the structural characterization of membrane protein. This presentation will report a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) result on two lipid bicellar series composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(POPC)/1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) and POPC/DHPC/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG). Instead of the multi-lamellae vesicle (MLV) structure observed in zwitterionic POPC/DHPC mixture, the perforated lamellae (PL) structure is found in POPC/POPG/DHPC upon addition of small amount of charged lipid, POPG R=[POPG]/([POPC]+[POPG])=0.01. The PL phase exists from 10 to 60 degree C and the interlamellar spacing (d-spacing) varies from 12.9 to 49.0 nm as the lipid concentration changes from 25 to 7.5% wt where the lamellae still indicate long-range order. The effect of temperature and charge density (R) on structural variation will be discussed in this presentation.

  3. Application of long-range order to predict unfolding rates of two-state proteins. (United States)

    Harihar, B; Selvaraj, S


    Predicting the experimental unfolding rates of two-state proteins and models describing the unfolding rates of these proteins is quite limited because of the complexity present in the unfolding mechanism and the lack of experimental unfolding data compared with folding data. In this work, 25 two-state proteins characterized by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616) using a consensus set of experimental conditions were taken, and the parameter long-range order (LRO) derived from their three-dimensional structures were related with their experimental unfolding rates ln(k(u)). From the total data set of 30 proteins used by Maxwell et al. (Protein Sci 2005;14:602–616), five slow-unfolding proteins with very low unfolding rates were considered to be outliers and were not included in our data set. Except all beta structural class, LRO of both the all-alpha and mixed-class proteins showed a strong inverse correlation of r = -0.99 and -0.88, respectively, with experimental ln(k(u)). LRO shows a correlation of -0.62 with experimental ln(k(u)) for all-beta proteins. For predicting the unfolding rates, a simple statistical method has been used and linear regression equations were developed for individual structural classes of proteins using LRO, and the results obtained showed a better agreement with experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Proof of long range order in 4-d SU(N) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, Michael


    An extended version of 4-d SU(2) lattice gauge theory is considered in which different inverse coupling parameters are used, $\\beta_H=4/g_{H}^2$ for plaquettes which are purely spacelike, and $\\beta_V$ for those which involve the Euclidean timelike direction. It is shown that when $\\beta_H = \\infty$ the partition function becomes, in the Coulomb Gauge, exactly that of a set of non-interacting 3-d O(4) classical Heisenberg models. Long range order at low temperatures (weak coupling) has been rigorously proven for this model. It is shown that the correlation function demonstrating spontaneous magnetization in the ferromagnetic phase is a continuous function of $g_H$ at $g_H =0$ and therefore that the spontaneously broken phase enters the ($\\beta_H$, $\\beta_V$) phase plane (no step discontinuity at the edge). Once the phase transition line has entered, it can only exit at another identified edge, which requires the SU(2) gauge theory within also to have a phase transition at finite $\\beta$. A phase exhibiting sp...

  5. Short-range order structure and effective pair-interaction energy in Ni-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takumi [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Hitachi, Ltd., Shinmachi Ome-shi, Tokyo 198-8512 (Japan); Osaka, Keiichi [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Industrial Application Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)], E-mail:; Takama, Toshihiko [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Chen, Haydn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    The diffuse X-ray scattering from single crystals of Ni - 11.3 at.% Si and 12.3 at.% Si, both aged at 1293 K followed by a water quench, was measured at room temperature. The measured diffuse intensities were analyzed to determine the Warren-Cowley atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters {alpha}{sub lmn}. The 17 values of {alpha}{sub lmn} obtained were fitted in a 5 x 10{sup 5} atom model crystal to simulate the SRO. It was found that the C16 and the C17 configurations are significantly enhanced in comparison to a random crystal. The pair-interaction energies V{sub lmn} were obtained using an inverse Monte Carlo method from the {alpha}{sub lmn} parameters. Assuming that V{sub lmn} are independent of temperature, the {alpha}{sub lmn} were calculated as a function of temperature on the basis of the Monte Carlo simulation. The curves of {alpha}{sub lmn} for 11.3 at.% Si showed a knee point at 1262 (19) K and for 12.3 at.% Si at 1325 (11) K. Both temperatures are higher by about 100 K than those of the (fcc/fcc + L1{sub 2}) phase boundary in an equilibrium phase diagram.

  6. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA) (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus


    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  7. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora


    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Snyder, Rebecca J.; Zhihe, Zhang; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L


    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed ...

  8. Scaling Properties of the D-Short Range Order in PdDx for Higher D Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krexner, G.; Ernst, G; Fratzl, P.


    New measurements of D-short range order (SRO) in PdDx and Pd1−yAgyDx−y are presented. A scaling behaviour of the complicated SRO- features with temperature and electronic concentration is proposed and discussed with respect to the Clapp-Moss-de Fontaine theory of ordering.......New measurements of D-short range order (SRO) in PdDx and Pd1−yAgyDx−y are presented. A scaling behaviour of the complicated SRO- features with temperature and electronic concentration is proposed and discussed with respect to the Clapp-Moss-de Fontaine theory of ordering....

  9. kinetics and mechanism of long-range pore ordering in anodic films on aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolskii, K.S.; Roslyakov, I. V.; Eliseev, A.A.; Byelov, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298392720; Petukhov, A.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829196; Grigoryeva, N.A.; Bouwman, W.G.; Lukashin, A.V.; Chumakov, A. P.; Grigoriev, S.V.


    Anodic aluminum oxide has unique and highly attractive properties, including self-ordering of porous structure during anodization. Although anodization regimes leading to formation of highly ordered porous structures had been found experimentally, many aspects of the self-organization mechanism

  10. Extending the range and physical accuracy of coarse-grained models: Order parameter dependent interactions (United States)

    Wagner, Jacob W.; Dannenhoffer-Lafage, Thomas; Jin, Jaehyeok; Voth, Gregory A.


    Order parameters (i.e., collective variables) are often used to describe the behavior of systems as they capture different features of the free energy surface. Yet, most coarse-grained (CG) models only employ two- or three-body non-bonded interactions between the CG particles. In situations where these interactions are insufficient for the CG model to reproduce the structural distributions of the underlying fine-grained (FG) model, additional interactions must be included. In this paper, we introduce an approach to expand the basis sets available in the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) methodology by including order parameters. Then, we investigate the ability of an additive local order parameter (e.g., density) and an additive global order parameter (i.e., distance from a hard wall) to improve the description of CG models in interfacial systems. Specifically, we study methanol liquid-vapor coexistence, acetonitrile liquid-vapor coexistence, and acetonitrile liquid confined by hard-wall plates, all using single site CG models. We find that the use of order parameters dramatically improves the reproduction of structural properties of interfacial CG systems relative to the FG reference as compared with pairwise CG interactions alone.

  11. Long-range ferromagnetic order in LaCoO3 -δ epitaxial films due to the interplay of epitaxial strain and oxygen vacancy ordering (United States)

    Mehta, V. V.; Biskup, N.; Jenkins, C.; Arenholz, E.; Varela, M.; Suzuki, Y.


    We demonstrate that a combination of electronic structure modification and oxygen vacancy ordering can stabilize a long-range ferromagnetic ground state in epitaxial LaCoO3 thin films. Highest saturation magnetization values are found in the thin films in tension on SrTiO3 and (La ,Sr )(Al ,Ta )O3 substrates and the lowest values are found in thin films in compression on LaAlO3. Electron microscopy reveals oxygen vacancy ordering to varying degrees in all samples, although samples with the highest magnetization are the most defective. Element-specific x-ray absorption techniques reveal the presence of high spin Co2 + and Co3 + as well as low spin Co3 + in different proportions depending on the strain state. The interactions among the high spin Co ions and the oxygen vacancy superstructure are correlated with the stabilization of the long-range ferromagnetic order.

  12. Controlled Ordering of Long-range Perpendicular Lamellae by Block Copolymer Self-assembly (United States)

    Ryu, Du Yeol; Kim, Kyunginn; Park, Sungmin; Kim, Yeongsik; Yonsei Univ Team

    We introduce a simple approach to fabricating highly stable, perpendicularly oriented lamellae through the self-assembly of high-molecular-weight polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). The desired morphology was achieved over a narrow annealing period (5 10 min) under solvent vapor, since the SVA process need to terminate immediately before the saturated BCP films begin to dewet the substrate. This narrow processing period impeded practical applications to continuous industrial processes. A controlled SVA process at a selected temperature gap was found to show the excellent long-term stability, at which highly ordered line-arrays of perpendicularly oriented lamellae were confined to topographic line patterns.

  13. Multimodal nonlinear optical polarizing microscopy of long-range molecular order in liquid crystals. (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Trivedi, Rahul P; Smalyukh, Ivan I


    We demonstrate orientation-sensitive multimodal nonlinear optical polarizing microscopy capable of probing orientational, polar, and biaxial features of mesomorphic ordering in soft matter. This technique achieves simultaneous imaging in broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, multiphoton excitation fluorescence, and multiharmonic generation polarizing microscopy modes and is based on the use of a single femtosecond laser and a photonic crystal fiber as sources of the probing light. We show the viability of this technique for mapping of three-dimensional patterns of molecular orientations and show that images obtained in different microscopy modes are consistent with each other.

  14. Chemical short range order and magnetic correction in liquid manganese–gallium zero alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosdidier, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Ben Abdellah, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier , P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Université Internationale de Rabat, Parc Technopolis Rabat-Shore, 11100 Sala El Jadida (Morocco); Osman, S.M., E-mail: [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Ataati, J. [Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Gasser, J.G. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)


    The Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} alloy at this particular composition is known to be zero alloy in which the linear combination of the two neutron scattering lengths weighted by the atomic compositions vanish. Thus for this specific concentration, the effect of the partial structure factors S{sub NN} and S{sub NC} is cancelled by a weighted term, which value is zero. Then the measured total structure factor S(q) gives directly the concentration–concentration structure factor S{sub CC}(q). We present here the first experimental results of neutron diffraction on the Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} “null matrix alloy” at 1050 °C. The main peak of the experimental S{sub CC}(q) gives a strong evidence of a hetero-atomic chemical order in this coordinated alloy. This order also appears in real space radial distribution function which is calculated by the Fourier transform of the structure factor. The degree of hetero-coordination is discussed together with other manganese-polyvalent alloys. However manganese also shows abnormal magnetic scattering in the alloy structure factor which must be corrected. This correction gives an experimental information on the mean effective spin of manganese in this liquid alloy. We present the first critical theoretical calculations of the magnetic correction factor in Mn–Ga zero-alloy based on our accurate experimental measurements of S{sub CC}(q).

  15. Mineral metabolism parameters throughout chronic kidney disease stages 1-5-achievement of K DOQI target ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craver, Lourdes; Marco, Maria Paz; Martínez, Isabel; Rue, Montserrat; Borràs, Merce; Martín, Maria Luisa; Sarró, Felipe; Valdivielso, José Manuel; Fernández, Elvira


    Background. Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study has shown that the proportion of haemodialysis patients with adequate mineral metabolism parameters according to the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI...

  16. Long-range order in V/sub 2/H near the. beta. -epsilon phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, B.; Moss, S.C.; Kjaer, K.


    The integrated intensity I of h/2 0 h/2-bar superstructure reflections has been measured with x rays for a single crystal of V/sub 2/H. Just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the ..beta..-epsilon phase transition, I varies as (1-T/T/sub c/)/sup 2//sup ..beta../ with ..beta.. = 0.153 +- 0.007, increasing to ..beta.. = 0.17 and 0.20 when referred to a rigid volume and c lattice parameter, respectively, through a lattice-expansion correction. By comparing heating and cooling runs the second-order character of this phase transition has been demonstrated. A shift of T/sub c/, however, was observed when data were taken without first thermally cycling the crystal close to T/sub c/.

  17. Formation and transformation of a short range ordered iron carbonate precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Knud; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bovet, Nicolas


    Fe(II)-carbonates, such as siderite, form in environments where O2 is scarce, e.g., during marine sediment diagenesis, corrosion and possibly CO2 sequestration, but little is known about their formation pathways. We show that early precipitates from carbonate solutions containing 0.1M Fe...... formed. Its coherent scattering domains determined from PDF analysis are slightly larger than for amorphous calcium carbonate, suggesting that the precursor could be nanocrystalline. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of Fe-carbonate polynuclear complexes yield PDF peak positions that agree...... structural order. Moreover, PDF peak positions differ from those for known iron carbonates and hydroxides. Mössbauer spectra also deviate from those expected for known iron carbonates and suggest a less crystalline structure. These data show that a previously unidentified iron carbonate precursor phase...

  18. Tuning anomalous Hall conductivity in L1[sub 0] FePt films by long range chemical ordering

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, M.


    For L10 FePt films, the anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy=-a σxx-b, where a=a0f(T), b=b 0f(T), and f (T) is the temperature dependence factor of the spontaneous magnetization. With increasing chemical long range ordering S, a0 changes its sign accompanied by a reduction of its magnitude and b0 increases monotonically. The spin-orbit coupling strength is suggested to increase with increasing S. As an approach, the long range chemical ordering can be used to control the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic alloy films. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Pressure effect on the long-range order in CeB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera, M. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Ikeda, S. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Iwakubo, H. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Hane, S. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kosaka, M. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Urawa 338-8570 (Japan); Kunii, S. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)


    The pressure effect of CeB{sub 6} was investigated. The pressure dependence of the Neel temperature, T{sub N} and the critical field from the antiferro-magnetic phase III to antiferro-quadrupolar phase II, H{sub c}{sup III-II} of CeB{sub 6} exhibits the unusual pressure dependence that the suppression rate of H{sub c}{sup III-II} is much larger than that of T{sub N}. In order to explain this unusual result, we have performed the mean field calculation for the 4-sublattice model assuming that the pressure dependence of T{sub N}, the antiferro-octupolar and quadrupolar temperatures, T{sub oct} and T{sub Q} as follows; dT{sub N}/dP<0, dT{sub oct}/dP>dT{sub Q}/dP>0 and could explain the unusual pressure dependence of T{sub N} and H{sub c}{sup III-II}.

  20. Long-Range Order and Critical Scattering of Neutrons below the Transition Temperature in β-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.


    The temperature dependence of long-range order langPrang has been determined from the temperature variation of a superlattice Bragg reflection. The results fitted a power law langPrang prop (Tc-T)beta with Tc the critical temperature and beta = 0.305plusmn0.005, in agreement with the theoretical ...

  1. Special Quasi-ordered Structures: role of short-range order in the semiconductor alloy (GaN)$_{1-x}$(ZnO)$_x$

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian; Allen, Philip B


    This paper studies short-range order (SRO) in the semiconductor alloy (GaN)$_{1-x}$(ZnO)$_x$. Monte Carlo simulations performed on a density functional theory (DFT)-based cluster expansion model show that the heterovalent alloys exhibit strong SRO because of the energetic preference for the valence-matched nearest-neighbor Ga-N and Zn-O pairs. To represent the SRO-related structural correlations, we introduce the concept of Special Quasi-ordered Structure (SQoS). Subsequent DFT calculations reveal dramatic influence of SRO on the atomic, electronic and vibrational properties of the (GaN)$_{1-x}$(ZnO)$_x$ alloy. Due to the enhanced statistical presence of the energetically unfavored Zn-N bonds with the strong Zn3$d$-N2$p$ repulsion, the disordered alloys exhibit much larger lattice bowing and band-gap reduction than those of the short-range ordered alloys. Inclusion of lattice vibrations stabilizes the disordered alloy.

  2. Photoluminescence polarization anisotropy for studying long-range structural ordering within semiconductor multi-atomic alloys and organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prutskij, T.; Percino, J. [Instituto de Ciencias, BUAP, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, col. San Miguel Huyeotlipan, 72050, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Orlova, T. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Vavilova, L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation (Russian Federation)


    Long-range structural ordering within multi-component semiconductor alloys and organic crystals leads to significant optical anisotropy and, in particular, to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission. The PL emission of ternary and quaternary semiconductor alloys is polarized if there is some amount of the atomic ordering within the crystal structure. We analyze the polarization of the PL emission from the quaternary GaInAsP semiconductor alloy grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) and conclude that it could be caused by low degree atomic ordering within the crystal structure together with the thermal biaxial strain due to difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the layer and the substrate. We also study the state of polarization of the PL from organic crystals in order to identify different features of the crystal PL spectrum.

  3. Molecular dynamics studies of short to medium range order in Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, Z.D., E-mail: [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zhang, Y.W. [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Feng, Y.P. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Li, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    Highlights: > Short- and medium-range orders in Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} metallic glass were investigated. > We employed the concept of core-shell rather than cluster packing. > The basic atomic structure has the characteristics of an icosahedral shell structure. > This finding applies to short- and medium-range orders in the optimum glass former. - Abstract: For metallic glasses, the cluster packing scheme addresses mainly the low solute concentration regime and it breaks down beyond a length scale of a few clusters. In the present work, from the viewpoint of core-shell structure rather than cluster packing, short- and medium-range orders in Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} metallic glass were investigated using the large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator. In the first three coordination shells, the total number of atoms within the nth coordination shell is 13, 61, and 169. And the number of atoms on the nth coordination shell is 12n{sup 2}. Besides, the basic atomic structure could be obtained from a central icosahedron surrounded by a shell of 12n{sup 2} atoms. From the fourth coordination shell on, the total number of atoms is 307, 561, and 924, respectively, consistent with that in an icosahedral shell structure. Our finding suggests that for the optimum glass former in the Cu-Zr binary system, the basic atomic structures over both short- and medium-range length scales have the characteristics of an icosahedral shell structure.

  4. Long-range ordered self-assembled InAs quantum dots epitaxially grown on (110) GaAs (United States)

    Bauer, J.; Schuh, D.; Uccelli, E.; Schulz, R.; Kress, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Finley, J. J.; Abstreiter, G.


    We report on a promising approach for positioning of self-assembled InAs quantum dots on (110) GaAs with nanometer precision. By combining self-assembly of quantum dots with molecular beam epitaxy on previously grown and in situ cleaved substrates (cleaved-edge overgrowth), arrays of long-range ordered InAs quantum dots have been fabricated. Both atomic force microscopy and micro-photoluminescence measurements demonstrate the ability to control size, position, and ordering of the quantum dots. Furthermore, single dot photoluminescence investigations confirm the high optical quality of the quantum dots fabricated.

  5. Mineralogical maps showing distribution of selected ore-related minerals in the nonmagnetic, heavy-mineral-concentrate fraction of stream sediment from the Mount Hayes 1 degree by 3 degrees Quadrangle, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska (United States)

    Tripp, Richard B.; Curtin, Gary C.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Huston, David L.; Hampton, James R.


    Exploratory geochemical sampling was done in 1979, 1980, and 1981. The collection of composite samples of stream sediment or glacial debris was emphasized the first 2 years; the last year was spent collecting mineralized stream pebbles, float, and outcrop samples. The stream-sediment and heavy- mineral-concentrate samples were collected at 795 sites on tributary streams having drainage basins ranging from 1 to 5 mi 2 in area. The glacial debris samples were collected at 116 sites on tributary glaciers also having drainage basins ranging from 1 to 5 mi2 in area. All of these samples were analyzed for 31 elements by six-step semiquantitative emission spectrography (Grimes and Marranzino, 1968). In addition, all samples were analyzed for zinc by an atomic absorption method (Ward and others, 1969). The spectrographic and chemical results are available in O'Leary and others (1982).

  6. Long-range magnetic order and spin-lattice coupling in the delafossite CuFeO2


    Eyert, Volker; Fresard, Raymond; Maignan, Antoine


    The electronic and magnetic properties of the delafossite CuFeO2 are investigated by means of electronic structure calculations. They are performed using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation as well as the new full-potential augmented spherical wave method. The calculations reveal three different spin states at the iron sites. Taking into account the correct crystal structure, we find long-range antiferromagnetic ordering in agreement with experiment. Contrastin...

  7. Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov.-a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae). (United States)

    Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R


    This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.

  8. Draft critical mineral list—Summary of methodology and background information—U.S. Geological Survey technical input document in response to Secretarial Order No. 3359 (United States)

    Fortier, Steven M.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Lederer, Graham W.; Brainard, Jamie; Gambogi, Joseph; McCullough, Erin A.


    Pursuant to the Presidential Executive Order (EO) No. 13817, “A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals,” the Secretary of the Interior, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, and in consultation with the heads of other relevant executive departments and agencies, was tasked with developing and submitting a draft list of minerals defined as “critical minerals” to the Federal Register within 60 days of the issue of the EO (December 20, 2017).Based on an analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey and other U.S. Government agencies, using multiple criteria, 35 minerals or mineral material groups have been identified that are currently (February 2018) considered critical. These include the following: aluminum (bauxite), antimony, arsenic, barite, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, chromium, cobalt, fluorspar, gallium, germanium, graphite (natural), hafnium, helium, indium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, niobium, platinum group metals, potash, rare earth elements group, rhenium, rubidium, scandium, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zirconium. The categorization of minerals as critical may change during the course of the review process and is thus provisional.

  9. Preparation of an Evaluated HACCP- Plan in Order to Implementation in Iranian Mineral Water Factories for Avoiding the Common Food Safety Hazards in Such Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kiyani


    Full Text Available Background: consumption of mineral waters in the world has increased in recent years, and also concerns of consumers about its contamination are growing. Thereby, implementation of such a protective system as HACCP can prevent contamination of waters by different agents. This research aimed to develop an HACCP-Plan standard for mineral waters manufacturing factories in Iran. Methods: In current study, like production lines, polyethylene terephthalate (PET containers packaging, warehouses and laboratories sections of factories were observed from view of production and quality control. To monitor, control and restrict the hazards, seven principles of HACCP were considered. In continue applicable solutions were presented inclusive and practically for all factories. Required information were verified and presented through investigation of national and international standards. Results: The results shown that lack of sanitizing mineral water supplies and factories environment, incomplete water treatment, non-standard production of PET bottles, improper storage of raw materials and final product, and lack of inspection of equipment led to the increasing health hazards of the product and endanger the consumers health. Conclusion: In order to produce safe mineral water, it is necessary to sanitize the water supplies and factory environment. In addition, the process of water treatment and the production of PET bottles must be according to national and international standards. As the implementation of the HACCP system in various mineral water producing factories is not same, application of developed system in this research will be effective to standardize the implementation of this system in plants.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy and chemical long-range order in epitaxial ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 films

    CERN Document Server

    Maret, M; Köhler, J; Poinsot, R; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C; Tonnerre, J M; Berar, J F; Bucher, E


    Thin films of CrPt sub 3 were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on both Al sub 2 O sub 3 (0 0 0 1) and MgO(0 0 1) substrates, either directly by co-deposition of Cr and Pt at high temperatures or after in situ annealing of superlattices [Cr(2 A)/Pt(7 A)]. In situ RHEED observations and X-ray diffraction measurements have allowed us to check the single-crystal quality of CrPt sub 3 films and to determine the degree of L1 sub 2 -type long-range order (LRO). In films co-deposited between 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C a nearly perfect LRO has been observed. As in bulk alloys, such ordering yields a ferrimagnetic order, while the disordered films are non-magnetic. In contrast with the ferromagnetic L1 sub 2 -type ordered CoPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films, the ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with quality factors, K sub u /K sub d , as large as 5 and large coercivities around 450 kA/m. Such anisotropy could be related to the arrangement of Cr atoms, which owing to their large mag...

  11. Long-range magnetic order and spin-lattice coupling in delafossite CuFeO2 (United States)

    Eyert, Volker; Frésard, Raymond; Maignan, Antoine


    The electronic and magnetic properties of the delafossite CuFeO2 are investigated by means of electronic structure calculations. They are performed using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation, as well as the new full-potential augmented spherical wave method. The calculations reveal three different spin states at the iron sites. Using for the first time the experimentally determined low-temperature crystal structure, we find long-range antiferromagnetic ordering in agreement with experiment. In addition, our calculations show that nonlocal interactions as covered by the generalized gradient approximation lead to a semiconducting ground state.

  12. Fe2+-Ti4+ vs. Fe2+-Fe3+ charge-transfer and short-range order in single chains of face-sharing octahedra: ellenbergerite and dumortierite (United States)

    Chopin, C.; Langer, K.; Khomenko, V.


    In zoned pyrope megacrysts from the Dora-Maira UHP terrane, new, dark-violet colour varieties of the hexagonal, high-pressure silicate ellenbergerite extend the range of known Fe contents for this mineral from 0-0.1 to 0-0.4 atom pfu, for Ti contents commonly in the range 0.2-0.4 pfu. The new varieties show an extremely intense pleochroism, colourless for E perpendicular to c to deep Prussian blue for E//c, as compared to colourless to lilac or reddish purple for classical Fe-poor ellenbergerite. These features were the incentive for an electronic absorption spectroscopic study and a reappraisal of the interpretation of the charge transfers (CT), colour and ordering schemes in this group and the structurally related borosilicate dumortierite. Both structures are characterized by the presence of infinite single chains of face-sharing, partly vacant octahedra along the 6-fold screw axis and pseudo-hexad axis, respectively, in which the Fe and Ti atoms are partitioned. In the spectra of Fe-poor ellenbergerite, the presence of a single Fe2+-Ti4+ CT band near 19000 cm˘1 was taken as evidence for complete short-range ordering of Mg(Fe), Ti and vacancies in the octahedral single chain [1]. The E//c spectra of Fe-rich ellenbergerite show the same absorption band near 19000 cm˘1 but consistently flanked by another CT band near 14000 cm˘1 , the intensity of which increases with total Fe content. The latter is similar to the 12400 cm˘1 CT band observed as the single feature in E//c spectra of the isotructural (Ti-free and Fe-bearing) phosphoellenbergerite, and clearly assigned to Fe2+-Fe3+ CT in the octahedral single chain [1]. The same colour pattern occurs in the dumortierite group, with red Fe-poor, Ti-rich crystals showing a single CT band near 20000 cm˘1, blue Ti-poor crystals showing a single CT band near 16500 cm˘1, and violet Fe- and Ti-rich crystals showing a combination of the two bands [2]. In the light of the new data, we reinterpret the dumortierite colour

  13. The effect of Pd on the isothermal relaxation of short-range order in Au(Ag)-based ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziya, A.B. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)]. E-mail:; Ohshima, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)


    The effect of Pd on the isothermal relaxation of short-range order (SRO) was studied in Au{sub x}Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 100-2x} (x=25, 40at%) alloys, using the residual resistometry at 77K. The short-range ordering resulted in an increase of electrical resistivity. The equilibrium values of this property characterizing the SRO-equilibrium states exhibit a linear dependence on the reciprocal of temperature. The analysis of the resistivity data using the fundamental laws of SRO-kinetics shows that the resistivity behavior can be satisfactorily explained by the two-exponentials law and leads to the determination of characteristic time constants and the activation enthalpies for the two processes. Further, it is found that both the equilibrium and kinetic behavior of these alloys are highly dependent on the concentration of Pd. The presence of Pd reduces the atomic mobility which results from a decrease in the vacancy mobility linked to the positive size effect of Pd in these alloys.

  14. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, S. K. L., E-mail:; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  15. A ring graph method for approximating atomic short-range order in disordered multi-component systems (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong


    The atomic short-range order (ASRO) in an alloy provides valuable information on the atomic structure to which the disordered alloy is tending. Mean field models with Onsager corrections have been used to calculate the ASRO in lattice models of disordered multi-component alloys. The Onsager correction is composition and temperature dependent and corrects for the over-correlation inherent to mean-field methods so that ASRO calculated satisfies the sum rule. However, it is does not take into account the k-dependence of the corrections. We present an analytical method based on ring graphs which provides for a k-dependent correction to the mean field. The ASRO in a simple ternary Ising model in a FCC lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is calculated using our method and compared to the results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. We find that, above the transition temperature, the analytical results are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations.

  16. Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water. (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Okur, Halil I; Gomopoulos, Nikolaos; Macias-Romero, Carlos; Cremer, Paul S; Petersen, Poul B; Tocci, Gabriele; Wilkins, David M; Liang, Chungwen; Ceriotti, Michele; Roke, Sylvie


    Electrolytes interact with water in many ways: changing dipole orientation, inducing charge transfer, and distorting the hydrogen-bond network in the bulk and at interfaces. Numerous experiments and computations have detected short-range perturbations that extend up to three hydration shells around individual ions. We report a multiscale investigation of the bulk and surface of aqueous electrolyte solutions that extends from the atomic scale (using atomistic modeling) to nanoscopic length scales (using bulk and interfacial femtosecond second harmonic measurements) to the macroscopic scale (using surface tension experiments). Electrolytes induce orientational order at concentrations starting at 10 μM that causes nonspecific changes in the surface tension of dilute electrolyte solutions. Aside from ion-dipole interactions, collective hydrogen-bond interactions are crucial and explain the observed difference of a factor of 6 between light water and heavy water.

  17. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Ariel A., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)


    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu{sub x}Zr{sub 100−x} (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  18. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu-Zr alloys: A new approach (United States)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan; Valladares, Ariel A.; Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander


    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of CuxZr100-x (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  19. On-demand weighing of single dry biological particles over a 5-order-of-magnitude dynamic range. (United States)

    Chan, Bin-Da; Icoz, Kutay; Huang, Wanfeng; Chang, Chun-Li; Savran, Cagri A


    We report a simple and highly versatile system to select and weigh individual dry biological particles. The system is composed of a microtweezer to pick and place individual particles and a cantilever-based resonator to weigh them. The system can weigh entities that vary from a red blood cell (~10(-11) g) to the eye-brain complex of an insect (~10(-6) g), covering a 5-order-of-magnitude mass range. Due to its versatility and ease of use, this weighing method is highly compatible with established laboratory practices. The system can provide complementary mass information for a wide variety of individual particles imaged using scanning electron microscopy and determine comparative weights of individual biological entities that are attached to microparticles as well as weigh fractions of individual biological entities that have been subjected to focused ion beam milling.

  20. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.


    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  1. Measurement and Modeling of Short and Medium Range Order in Amorphous Ta2O5 Thin Films (United States)

    Shyam, Badri; Stone, Kevin H.; Bassiri, Riccardo; Fejer, Martin M.; Toney, Michael F.; Mehta, Apurva


    Amorphous films and coatings are rapidly growing in importance. Yet, there is a dearth of high-quality structural data on sub-micron films. Not understanding how these materials assemble at atomic scale limits fundamental insights needed to improve their performance. Here, we use grazing-incidence x-ray total scattering measurements to examine the atomic structure of the top 50-100 nm of Ta2O5 films; mirror coatings that show high promise to significantly improve the sensitivity of the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors. Our measurements show noticeable changes well into medium range, not only between crystalline and amorphous, but also between as-deposited, annealed and doped amorphous films. It is a further challenge to quickly translate the structural information into insights into mechanisms of packing and disorder. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that allows translation of observed structural features to a physically intuitive packing of a primary structural unit based on a kinked Ta-O-Ta backbone. Our modeling illustrates how Ta-O-Ta units link to form longer 1D chains and even 2D ribbons, and how doping and annealing influences formation of 2D order. We also find that all the amorphousTa2O5 films studied in here are not just poorly crystalline but appear to lack true 3D order.

  2. The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel germanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Z.


    This dissertation is concerned with the interplay of long-range order and anisotropy in the tetragonal RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = rare earth) family of compounds. Microscopic magnetic structures were studied using both neutron and x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES) techniques. The magnetic structures of Tb, Dy, Eu and Gd members have been determined using high-quality single-crystal samples. This work has correlated a strong Fermi surface nesting to the magnetic ordering in the RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compounds. Generalized susceptibility, {chi}{sub 0}(q), calculations found nesting to be responsible for both incommensurate ordering wave vector in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, and the commensurate structure in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. A continuous transition from incommensurate to commensurate magnetic structures via band filling is predicted. The surprisingly higher T{sub N} in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} than that in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is also explained. Next, all the metamagnetic phases in TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} with an applied field along the c axis have been characterized with neutron diffraction measurements. A mixed phase model for the first metamagnetic structure consisting of fully-saturated as well as reduced-moment Tb ions is presented. The moment reduction may be due to moment instability which is possible if the exchange is comparable to the low-lying CEF level splitting and the ground state is a singlet. In such a case, certain Tb sites may experience a local field below the critical value needed to reach saturation.

  3. Modification of modulated plasma plumes for the quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonics in different spectral ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeev, R. A., E-mail: [Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, 33 Dormon Yoli Street, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Boltaev, G. S.; Sobirov, B.; Reyimbaev, S.; Sherniyozov, H.; Usmanov, T. [Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, 33 Dormon Yoli Street, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H. [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)


    We demonstrate the technique allowing the fine tuning of the distance between the laser-produced plasma plumes on the surfaces of different materials, as well as the variation of the sizes of these plumes. The modification of plasma formations is based on the tilting of the multi-slit mask placed between the heating laser beam and target surface, as well as the positioning of this mask in the telescope placed on the path of heating radiation. The modulated plasma plumes with the sizes of single plume ranging between 0.1 and 1 mm were produced on the manganese and silver targets. Modification of the geometrical parameters of plasma plumes proved to be useful for the fine tuning of the quasi-phase-matched high-order harmonics generated in such structures during propagation of the ultrashort laser pulses. We show the enhancement of some groups of harmonics along the plateau range and the tuning of maximally enhanced harmonic by variable modulation of the plasma.

  4. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils. (United States)

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S


    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heredity of medium-range order structure from melts to the microstructure of Ni-Cr-W superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhongtang; Hu, Rui; Wang, Jun; Li, Jinshan [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China)


    The structure factor S(Q), intensities and pair distribution function g(r) of liquid Ni-Cr-W superalloy at different temperatures have been measured by a high-temperature X-ray diffractometer. Coordination N{sub min}, correlation radius r{sub c}, the nearest atomic distance r{sub 1}, solidification microstructure and compression performance have been studied. The results show that a pre-peak exists on the structure factor curve at the liquidus temperature, and a fine structure of equiaxed, globular and non-dendritic primary grains can be achieved by casting the alloy at liquidus temperature. Liquid structure feature of Ni-Cr-W superalloy is found to depend on temperature. During the solidification, some structural information carried by the medium-range order (MRO) structure is inherited from the melt to the microstructure, which is beneficial for grain refinement. The maximum yield strength measured from typical microstructure of the equiaxed and non-dendritic grains at 1400 C is 543 MPa. The results show that refinement and non-dendritic grain is beneficial to the improvement of the yield strength. (orig.)

  6. Optically Tunable Chiral Plasmonic Guest-Host Cellulose Films Weaved with Long-range Ordered Silver Nanowires. (United States)

    Chu, Guang; Wang, Xuesi; Chen, Tianrui; Gao, Jianxiong; Gai, Fangyuan; Wang, Yu; Xu, Yan


    Plasmonic materials with large chiroptical activity at visible wavelength have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in metamaterials. Here we demonstrate a novel guest-host chiral nematic liquid crystal film composed of bulk self-co-assembly of the dispersed plasmonic silver nanowires (AgNWs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The AgNWs-CNCs composite films show strong plasmonic optical activities, that are dependent on the chiral photonic properties of the CNCs host medium and orientation of the guest AgNWs. Tunable chiral distribution of the aligned anisotropic AgNWs with long-range order is obtained through the CNCs liquid crystal mediated realignment. The chiral plasmonic optical activity of the AgNWs-CNCs composite films can be tuned by changing the interparticle electrostatic repulsion between the CNCs nanorods and AgNWs. We also observe an electromagnetic energy transfer phenomena among the plasmonic bands of AgNWs, due to the modulation of the photonic band gap of the CNCs host matrix. This facile approach for fabricating chiral macrostructured plasmonic materials with optically tunable property is of interest for a variety of advanced optics applications.

  7. Geospatial compilation of results from field sample collection in support of mineral resource investigations, Western Alaska Range, Alaska, July 2013 (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Benzel, William M.


    This Data Series summarizes results from July 2013 sampling in the western Alaska Range near Mount Estelle, Alaska. The fieldwork combined in situ and camp-based spectral measurements of talus/soil and rock samples. Five rock and 48 soil samples were submitted for quantitative geochemi­cal analysis (for 55 major and trace elements), and the 48 soils samples were also analyzed by x-ray diffraction to establish mineralogy and geochemistry. The results and sample photo­graphs are presented in a geodatabase that accompanies this report. The spectral, mineralogical, and geochemical charac­terization of these samples and the sites that they represent can be used to validate existing remote-sensing datasets (for example, ASTER) and future hyperspectral studies. Empiri­cal evidence of jarosite (as identified by x-ray diffraction and spectral analysis) corresponding with gold concentrations in excess of 50 parts per billion in soil samples suggests that surficial mapping of jarosite in regional surveys may be use­ful for targeting areas of prospective gold occurrences in this sampling area.

  8. Highly differentiated magmas linked with polymetallic mineralization: A case study from the Cuihongshan granitic intrusions, Lesser Xing'an Range, NE China (United States)

    Fei, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhaochong; Cheng, Zhiguo; Santosh, M.; Jin, Ziliang; Wen, Bingbing; Li, Zixi; Xu, Lijuan


    The genetic link between granitoids and polymetallic skarn mineralization has remained equivocal. The Cuihongshan skarn-porphyry W-Mo-Pb-Zn-(Fe-Cu) deposit in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt provides a unique example to address this issue. The major rock types in the mine area are Early Paleozoic intrusions composed of biotite syenogranite and biotite porphyritic granite and Early Mesozoic intrusions represented by porphyritic quartz monzonite, biotite monzogranite, and porphyritic granite. The diagnostic mineralogical and geochemical features indicate that the rocks belong to A2-type granites. The Early Paleozoic suite shows zircon U-Pb ages of 501 Ma, and εHf(t) values of - 4.4 to + 2.7 and + 2.4 to + 7.6, respectively. In combination with their coherent geochemical trends, these rocks are inferred to be products of in-situ differentiation. Although the Mesozoic suite shows crystallization ages of 194-196 Ma, εHf(t) values are in the range of - 2.5 to + 7.5 for the porphyritic quartz monzonite, the - 1.8 to + 4.5 values for the monzogranite and the + 2.3 to + 8.0 range for the porphyritic granite. The porphyritic quartz monzonite displays distinct mineral assemblage and shows significant compositional gap with the other two lithofacies. In contrast, the monzogranite and porphyritic granite have similar geochemical features, and are thus inferred to be co-magmatic. Considering the high SiO2 contents, variable εHf(t) (- 4.4 to + 8.0) and εNd(t) values (- 8.4 to + 0.28) for the two suites, we infer that both episodes of granitoid magmatism resulted from partial melting of crustal materials with a mixed source containing varying proportions of juvenile and Precambrian crustal components. The Early Mesozoic porphyritic granite shows a highly evolved F-rich geochemical affinity, and experienced magma-fluid interaction. Cassiterite from the calcic skarn and the magnesian skarn that coexists with magnetite orebodies shows a mean U-Pb age of 195

  9. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter


    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral associat......The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...

  10. Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3 (United States)


    Experimental Verification of Van Vleck Nature of Long-Range Ferromagnetic Order in Vanadium-Doped Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator Sb2Te3...spectroscopy (EELS) measurements that the long range ferromagnetic (FM) order in vanadium (V)-doped topological insulator Sb2Te3 has the nature of van...Vleck-type ferromagnetism . The positions and the relative amplitudes of two core-level peaks (L3 and L2) of the V EELS spectrum show unambiguous change

  11. Range-separated time-dependent density-functional theory with a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Rebolini, Elisa


    We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of four small molecules: N2, CO2, H2CO, and C2H4. The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.

  12. Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). (United States)

    Schmidt, Debra A; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E


    Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health problems.

  13. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  14. Minerals in the Foods Eaten by Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei) (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C.; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.


    Minerals are critical to an individual’s health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods. PMID:25372712

  15. Detection and characterization of symmetry-broken long-range orders in the spin-1/2 triangular Heisenberg model (United States)

    Saadatmand, S. N.; McCulloch, I. P.


    We present new numerical tools to analyze symmetry-broken phases in the context of SU (2 ) -symmetric translation-invariant matrix product states (MPS) and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) methods for infinite cylinders, and determine the phase diagram of the geometrically frustrated triangular Heisenberg model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor (NN and NNN) interactions. The appearance of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the excitation spectrum is characterized by "tower of states" levels in the momentum-resolved entanglement spectrum. Symmetry-breaking phase transitions are detected by a combination of the correlation lengths and second and fourth cumulants of the magnetic order parameters (which we call the Binder ratio), even though symmetry implies that the order parameter itself is strictly zero. Using this approach, we have identified a 120∘ order, a columnar order, and an algebraic spin liquid (specific to width-6 systems), alongside the previously studied topological spin liquid phase. For the latter, we also demonstrate robustness against chiral perturbations.

  16. Broadband high-efficiency zero-order surface grating coupler for the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges (United States)

    Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, J. Gonzalo; Luque-González, José Manuel; Molina-Fernández, Íñigo; Cheben, Pavel; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos A.; Halir, Robert; Schmid, Jens H.; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro


    Efficient coupling of light from a chip into an optical fiber is a major issue in silicon photonics, as the dimensions of high-index-contrast photonic integrated waveguides are much smaller than conventional fiber diameters. Surface grating couplers address the coupling problem by radiating the optical power from a waveguide through the surface of the chip to the optical fiber, or vice versa. However, since the grating radiation angle substantially varies with the wavelength, conventional surface grating couplers cannot offer high coupling efficiency and broad bandwidth simultaneously. To overcome this limitation, for the near-infrared band we have recently proposed SOI-based zero-order grating couplers, which, making use of a subwavelength-engineered waveguide and a high-index prism, suppress the explicit dependence between the radiation angle and the wavelength, achieving a 1-dB bandwidth of 126 nm at λ = 1.55 μm. However, in the near-infrared, the bandwidth enhancement of zero-order grating couplers is limited by the effective index wavelength dispersion of the grating. In the mid-infrared spectral region, the waveguide dispersion is lower, alleviating the bandwidth limitation. Here we demonstrate numerically our zero-order grating coupler concept in the mid-infrared at λ = 3.8 μm. Several couplers for the silicon-on-insulator and the germanium-on-silicon nitride platforms are designed and compared, with subdecibel coupling efficiencies and 1-dB bandwidths up to 680 nm.

  17. First-order convex feasibility algorithms for iterative image reconstruction in limited angular-range X-ray CT

    CERN Document Server

    Sidky, Emil Y; Pan, Xiaochuan


    Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms in Computed Tomography (CT) are based on algorithms for solving a particular optimization problem. Design of the IIR algorithm, therefore, is aided by knowledge of the solution to the optimization problem on which it is based. Often times, however, it is impractical to achieve accurate solution to the optimization of interest, which complicates design of IIR algorithms. This issue is particularly acute for CT with a limited angular-range scan, which leads to poorly conditioned system matrices and difficult to solve optimization problems. In this article, we develop IIR algorithms which solve a certain type of optimization called convex feasibility. The convex feasibility approach can provide alternatives to unconstrained optimization approaches and at the same time allow for efficient algorithms for their solution -- thereby facilitating the IIR algorithm design process. An accelerated version of the Chambolle-Pock (CP) algorithm is adapted to various convex fea...

  18. Deuterium short-range order in Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 by diffuse neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschko, O.; Klemencic, R.; Fratzl, P.


    By diffuse neutron scattering the D short-range order in a Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 crystal was investigated at 50 and 70K. The results are compared with the D ordering in the PdDx system previously investigated, and it is shown that the isointensity contours around the (1/2,1,0) point are similar to...

  19. Orders of Magnitude Extension of the Effective Dynamic Range of TDC-Based TOFMS Data Through Maximum Likelihood Estimation (United States)

    Ipsen, Andreas; Ebbels, Timothy M. D.


    In a recent article, we derived a probability distribution that was shown to closely approximate that of the data produced by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) instruments employing time-to-digital converters (TDCs) as part of their detection system. The approach of formulating detailed and highly accurate mathematical models of LC/MS data via probability distributions that are parameterized by quantities of analytical interest does not appear to have been fully explored before. However, we believe it could lead to a statistically rigorous framework for addressing many of the data analytical problems that arise in LC/MS studies. In this article, we present new procedures for correcting for TDC saturation using such an approach and demonstrate that there is potential for significant improvements in the effective dynamic range of TDC-based mass spectrometers, which could make them much more competitive with the alternative analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The degree of improvement depends on our ability to generate mass and chromatographic peaks that conform to known mathematical functions and our ability to accurately describe the state of the detector dead time—tasks that may be best addressed through engineering efforts.

  20. Thermodynamic Aspects of Homogeneous Nucleation Enhanced by Icosahedral Short Range Order in Liquid Fcc-Type Alloys (United States)

    Rappaz, Michel; Kurtuldu, Güven


    We have recently shown that minute solute element additions to liquid metallic alloys can strongly influence the nucleation of the fcc phase and act as a grain refinement method. Electron back-scattered diffraction observations revealed a concomitant increase in the percentage of nearest neighbor (nn) grains that are in a twin relationship. Furthermore, multiple-twinned (MT) nn grain configurations with a fivefold symmetry around a common direction have been identified, an occurrence that can be explained when the symmetry of the icosahedron is accounted for. It was then conjectured that a new nucleation mechanism occurs in two steps: first, the formation of small icosahedral quasicrystals in the melt, followed by heteroepitaxy of the fcc phase on facets of these quasicrystals. In the present contribution, based on thermodynamics arguments, it is proposed that the first step occurs by spinodal decomposition of the liquid, in a manner similar to Guinier-Preston zones formation in solid state precipitation, while the second step is a transformation of these quasicrystal precursors into MT-fcc nanocrystals once the driving force for this transformation is sufficient to overcome the fcc-liquid interfacial energy and the elastic strains associated with MT-fcc nanoparticles. This explanation sets up guidelines for finding solute elements and composition ranges that favor this grain refinement mechanism.

  1. Medium-Range Order in Amorphous Silicon Measured by Fluctuation Electron Microscopy: Final Report, 23 June 1999--23 August 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, P. M.; Abelson, J. R.


    Despite occasional experimental hints, medium-range structural order in covalently bonded amorphous semiconductors had largely escaped detection until the advent of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) in 1996. Using FEM, we find that every sample of amorphous silicon and germanium we have investigated, regardless of deposition method or hydrogen content, is rich in medium-range order. The paracrystalline structural model, which consists of small, topologically ordered grains in an amorphous matrix, is consistent with the FEM data; but due to strain effects, materials with a paracrystalline structure appear to be amorphous in diffraction measurements. We present measurements on hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited by different methods, some of which are reported to have greater stability against the Staebler-Wronski effect. FEM reveals that the matrix material of these samples is relatively similar, but the order changes in different ways upon both light soaking and thermal annealing. Some materials are inhomogeneous, with either nanocrystalline inclusions or large area-to-area variation in the medium-range order. We cite recent calculations that electronic states in the conduction band tail are preferentially located around the boundaries of the nm-scale paracrystalline regions that we have identified. This is new evidence in support of spatially inhomogeneous conduction mechanisms in a-Si. The key discovery in our work is that all samples of amorphous silicon must be described as having nm-scale topological crystalline order. This strongly modifies the long-standing model of a covalent random network. Our new understanding of medium-range order must be considered in all future models of electronic properties and the Staebler-Wronski effect.

  2. Local breaking of fourfold rotational symmetry by short-range magnetic order in heavily overdoped Ba (Fe1 -xCux)2As2 (United States)

    Wang, Weiyi; Song, Yu; Hu, Ding; Li, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Harriger, L. W.; Tian, Wei; Cao, Huibo; Dai, Pengcheng


    We investigate Cu-doped Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 with transport, magnetic susceptibility, and elastic neutron scattering measurements. In the heavily Cu-doped regime where long-range stripe-type antiferromagnetic order in BaFe2As2 is suppressed, Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 (0.145 ≤x ≤0.553 ) samples exhibit spin-glass-like behavior in magnetic susceptibility and insulating-like temperature dependence in electrical transport. Using elastic neutron scattering, we find stripe-type short-range magnetic order in the spin-glass region identified by susceptibility measurements. The persistence of short-range magnetic order over a large doping range in Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 likely arises from local arrangements of Fe and Cu that favor magnetic order, with Cu acting as vacancies relieving magnetic frustration and degeneracy. These results indicate locally broken fourfold rotational symmetry, suggesting that stripe-type magnetism is ubiquitous in iron pnictides.

  3. Short-range order of undercooled melts of PdZr 2 intermetallic compound studied by X-ray and neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Herlach, D. M.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.


    The short-range order in undercooled melts of the intermetallic Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy is investigated by combining electrostatic levitation (ESL) with high-energy X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. Experimentally determined structure factors are measured and analyzed with respect to various structures of short-range order. The comparative X-ray and neutron scattering experiments allow for investigations of topological and chemical short-range order. Based on these studies, no preference of a specific short-range order is found for the liquid Zr2Pd glass-forming alloy, even in the metastable state of the deeply undercooled melt. This is in agreement with an earlier report from X-ray diffraction and molecular-dynamics studies of a Zr75.5Pd24.5 liquid, which showed a broad distribution of cluster types. The results for the Zr2Pd liquid are discussed with respect to the glass-forming ability of this melt.

  4. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction study of the short-range ordering structure of alpha-LiFeO2. (United States)

    Mitome, Masanori; Kohiki, Shigemi; Murakawa, Yusuke; Hori, Kyoko; Kurashima, Keiji; Bando, Yoshio


    The basic structure of alpha-LiFeO2, lithium iron oxide, is a cubic NaCl-type structure with a lattice constant of 0.42 nm; some short-range ordering characterized by octahedral clusters exists. The local structure of the short-range ordering was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. A new short-range ordering structure was found in local areas. The local structure has a cubic lattice with a doubled lattice constant. The occupation factors of cations on Wyckoff sites 4(a) and 4(b) are different from those on 24(d) sites, but the stoichiometric composition in cubic clusters is the same as the macroscopic composition. The number of pairs in which iron cations exist in nearest-neighbor sites and next nearest-neighbor sites is reduced in the structure. This means that a magnetic interaction between the iron cations is reduced by cation ordering even without spin ordering at room temperature.

  5. On the effect of impurities on resistivity recovery, short-range ordering, and defect migration in electron-irradiated concentrated Fe-Cr alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, A L; Davletshin, A E


    The resistivity recovery of pure and impurity-doped (0.2-1.5% Si, 0.15% C+N) concentrated ferritic Fe-Cr alloys after electron irradiation at 50-60 K has been investigated over the temperature range 110-390 K. A fine recovery spectrum structure consisting of five peaks has been observed over the range 135-230 K. Short-range ordering starts with the onset of vacancy long-range migration. Doping with both types of impurity suppresses the recovery spectrum structure over the range 160-220 K in a similar manner. Additional effects of impurity doping on the resistivity recovery caused by deviation from Matthiessen's rule have been analysed. A stage III peak is found at 210 K, and two peaks - at 175 K and 195 K - are interpreted as being due to the vacancy short-range migration. It is supposed that such a manifestation of short-range vacancy migration is due to a strong immobilization of self-interstitial atoms, and suppression of short-range and long-range defect annealing processes in stage I, according to a conf...

  6. Formation of incommensurate long-range magnetic order in the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antiferromagnet Ba2CuGe2O7 studied by neutron diffraction (United States)

    Mühlbauer, S.; Brandl, G.; Mânsson, M.; Garst, M.


    Neutron diffraction on a triple-axis spectrometer and a small-angle neutron scattering instrument is used to study the magnetic phase transition in tetragonal Ba2CuGe2O7 at zero magnetic field. In addition to the incommensurate cycloidal antiferromagnetic (AFM) long-range order, we establish that weak incommensurate ferromagnetism (FM) also arises below the transition temperature TN identified by sharp Bragg peaks close to the Γ point. The intensities of both the incommensurate AFM and FM Bragg peaks vanish abruptly at TN, which is indicative of a weak first-order transition. Above TN, evidence is presented that the magnetic intensity within the tetragonal (a ,b ) plane is distributed on a ring in momentum space whose radius is determined by the incommensurate wave vector of the cycloidal order. We speculate that the associated soft fluctuations are at the origin of the weak first-order transition in the spirit of a scenario proposed by Brazovskii.

  7. Absence of magnetic long-range order in Y2CrSbO7 : Bond-disorder-induced magnetic frustration in a ferromagnetic pyrochlore (United States)

    Shen, L.; Greaves, C.; Riyat, R.; Hansen, T. C.; Blackburn, E.


    The consequences of random nonmagnetic-ion dilution for the pyrochlore family Y2(M 1 -xN x)2O7 (M = magnetic ion, N = nonmagnetic ion) have been investigated. As a first step, we experimentally examine the magnetic properties of Y2CrSbO7 (x =0.5 ), in which the magnetic sites (Cr3 +) are percolative. Although the effective Cr-Cr spin exchange is ferromagnetic, as evidenced by a positive Curie-Weiss temperature, ΘCW ≃19.5 K , our high-resolution neutron powder diffraction measurements detect no sign of magnetic long-range order down to 2 K. In order to understand our observations, we construct a lattice model to numerically study the bond disorder introduced by the ionic size mismatch between M and N , which reveals that the bond disorder percolates at xb ≃0.23 , explaining the absence of magnetic long-range order. This model could be applied to a series of frustrated magnets with a pyrochlore sublattice, for example, the spinel compound Zn (Cr1 -xGax )2O4 , wherein a Néel to spin glass phase transition occurs between x =0.2 and 0.25 [Lee et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 014405 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.014405]. Our study stresses the non-negligible role of bond disorder on magnetic frustration, even in ferromagnets.

  8. Short range order and stability of amorphous Ge(x)Te(100-x) alloys (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6). (United States)

    Jóvári, P; Piarristeguy, A; Escalier, R; Kaban, I; Bednarčik, J; Pradel, A


    Amorphous Ge(x)Te(100-x) alloys were obtained over a broad composition range (12 ≤ x ≤ 44.6) by thermal co-evaporation. Their structure was investigated by x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. Experimental datasets were fitted simultaneously by the reverse Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that Te is mostly twofold coordinated and the majority of Ge atoms have four neighbours. The number of Ge-Ge and Te-Te bonds evolves monotonically with composition. Ge-Ge bonding can be observed already at x = 24 while Te-Te bonds can be found even in Ge44.6Te55.4. The models obtained by simulation show that the structure of compositions with x > 24 should be considered as a random covalent network but there is chemical ordering for x ≤ 24, exactly in the composition range where glasses can be obtained from the melt by fast quenching. The composition dependences of some physical properties also point to the connection between chemical short range order and the stability of the amorphous phase: while the glass transition temperature and microhardness increase monotonically with the composition, the thermal stability of the amorphous films goes through a maximum around x = 20-24.

  9. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers. (United States)

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang


    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  10. Short-range magnetic ordering in the geometrically frustrated layered compound YBaCo4O7 with an extended Kagomé structure (United States)

    Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Banerjee, S.


    Structural and magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated layered compound YBaCo4O7 have been studied by magnetization and neutron diffraction. A layered type crystal structure, with alternating tetrahedral layers of Kagomé and triangular types, along the c axis (hexagonal symmetry, space group P63mc) has been found. The oxygen content of the present compound was determined by iodometric titration to be 7.00 ± 0.01. Presence of a short-range antiferromagnetic ordering (below TN ˜ 110 K) has been concluded from the appearance of an addition broad magnetic peak (at Q ˜ 1.35 Å-1) in the neutron diffraction pattern. A staggered chiral type (√{3}×√{3}) spin structure in the Kagomé layers has been found. Presence of a significant magneto-structural coupling is concluded from the changes in lattice parameters across the magnetic ordering temperature TN ˜ 110 K.

  11. Atomic long-range order effects on Curie temperature and adiabatic spin-wave dynamics in strained Fe-Co alloy films (United States)

    Schönecker, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqing; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente


    The strained Fe-Co alloy in body-centered tetragonal (bct) structure has raised considerable interest due to its giant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. On the basis of the classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian with ab initio interatomic exchange interactions, we perform a theoretical study of fundamental finite temperature magnetic properties of Fe1 -xCox alloy films as a function of three variables: chemical composition 0.3 ≤x ≤0.8 , bct geometry [a ,c (a )] arising from in-plane strain and associated out-of-plane relaxation, and atomic long-range order (ALRO). The Curie temperatures TC(x ,a ) obtained from Monte Carlo simulations display a competition between a pronounced dependence on tetragonality, strong ferromagnetism in the Co-rich alloy, and the beginning instability of ferromagnetic order in the Fe-rich alloy when c /a →√{2 } . Atomic ordering enhances TC and arises mainly due to different distributions of atoms in neighboring coordination shells rather than altering exchange interactions significantly. We investigate the ordering effect on the shape of the adiabatic spin-wave spectrum for selected pairs (x ,a ) . Our results indicate that long-wavelength acoustic spin-wave excitations show dependencies on x , a , and ALRO similar to those of TC. The directional anisotropy of the spin-wave stiffness d (x ,a ) peaks in narrow ranges of composition and tetragonality. ALRO exhibits a strong effect on d for near equiconcentration Fe-Co. We also discuss our findings in the context of employing Fe-Co as perpendicular magnetic recording medium.

  12. Study of long-range orders of hard-core bosons coupled to cooperative normal modes in two-dimensional lattices (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Yarlagadda, S.


    Understanding the microscopic mechanism of coexisting long-range orders (such as lattice supersolidity) in strongly correlated systems is a subject of immense interest. We study the possible manifestations of long-range orders, including lattice-supersolid phases with differently broken symmetry, in a two-dimensional square lattice system of hard-core bosons (HCBs) coupled to archetypal cooperative/coherent normal-mode distortions such as those in perovskites. At strong HCB-phonon coupling, using a duality transformation to map the strong-coupling problem to a weak-coupling one, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian involving nearest-neighbor, next-nearest-neighbor, and next-to-next-nearest-neighbor hoppings and repulsions. Using stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo, we construct the phase diagram of the system. As coupling strength is increased, we find that the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a checkerboard solid at half-filling and from a superfluid to a diagonal striped solid [with crystalline ordering wave vector Q ⃗=(2 π /3 ,2 π /3 ) or (2 π /3 ,4 π /3 )] at one-third filling without showing any evidence of supersolidity. On tuning the system away from these commensurate fillings, checkerboard supersolid is generated near half-filling whereas a rare diagonal striped supersolid is realized near one-third filling. Interestingly, there is an asymmetry in the extent of supersolidity about one-third filling. Within our framework, we also provide an explanation for the observed checkerboard and stripe formations in La2 -xSrxNiO4 at x =1 /2 and x =1 /3 .

  13. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Marine minerals have been center of attraction to mankind since ancient times. The technological advances in the recent years show that the retrieval of underwater minerals from deep-sea can no longer be a dream. Marine minerals are terrigenous...

  14. Origin and pathways of the mineral dust transport to two Spanish EARLINET sites: Effect on the observed columnar and range-resolved dust optical properties (United States)

    Mandija, Florian; Sicard, Michaël; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Barragan, Ruben; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Lyamani, Hassan; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francisco; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Valenzuela, Antonio; García Vizcaíno, David


    In this paper, is presented a method for estimation of the effect of the transport process to aerosol optical properties. Aerosol optical data retrieved by lidars and sun-photometer measurements, are applied to Saharan dust events observed simultaneously at the two EARLINET/AERONET sites of Barcelona and Granada during the periods of June-September of 2012 and 2013. For this purpose, elastic lidar profiles and sun-photometer columnar retrievals are analyzed together with satellite observations and dust forecast models. Granada presents more than twice Saharan dust outbreaks compared to Barcelona. The scenarios favoring the Saharan dust outbreaks are identified in both places. The mineral dust originating in the Sahara region and arriving at both stations is usually transport wither over the Atlas Mountains or through an Atlantic pathway. Analyses of dust events affecting both stations reveal how differences in the transport process lead to differences in the aerosol optical properties measured at each station. Mean dust related Ångström exponent is 1.8 times higher in Barcelona than in Granada. This difference is a result of the additional contribution of anthropogenic aerosol, mainly in the aerosol fine mode, during the transport of the mineral dust plume over the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Understanding the Cu-Zn brass alloys using a short-range-order cluster model: significance of specific compositions of industrial alloys (United States)

    Hong, H. L.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Liaw, Peter K.


    Metallic alloys show complex chemistries that are not yet understood so far. It has been widely accepted that behind the composition selection lies a short-range-order mechanism for solid solutions. The present paper addresses this fundamental question by examining the face-centered-cubic Cu-Zn α-brasses. A new structural approach, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model, is introduced, which suits specifically for the description of short-range-order structures in disordered systems. Two types of formulas are pointed out, [Zn-Cu12]Zn1~6 and [Zn-Cu12](Zn,Cu)6, which explain the α-brasses listed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications. In these formulas, the bracketed parts represent the 1st-neighbor cluster, and each cluster is matched with one to six 2nd-neighbor Zn atoms or with six mixed (Zn,Cu) atoms. Such a cluster-based formulism describes the 1st- and 2nd-neighbor local atomic units where the solute and solvent interactions are ideally satisfied. The Cu-Ni industrial alloys are also explained, thus proving the universality of the cluster-formula approach in understanding the alloy selections. The revelation of the composition formulas for the Cu-(Zn,Ni) industrial alloys points to the common existence of simple composition rules behind seemingly complex chemistries of industrial alloys, thus offering a fundamental and practical method towards composition interpretations of all kinds of alloys.

  16. Spin dynamics, short range order and spin freezing in Y0.5Ca0.5BaCo4O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, John Ross [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Fouquet, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Mutka, Hannu [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Payen, Christophe [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes-CNRS; Lortz, Rolf [University of Geneva


    Y0.5Ca0.5BaCo4O7 was recently introduced as a possible candidate for capturing some of the predicted classical spin kagome ground-state features. Stimulated by this conjecture, we have taken up a more complete study of the spin correlations in this compound with neutron scattering methods on a powder sample characterized with high-resolution neutron diffraction and the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. We have found that the frustrated near-neighbor magnetic correlations involve not only the kagome planes but concern the full Co sublattice, as evidenced by the analysis of the wave-vector dependence of the short-range order. We conclude from our results that the magnetic moments are located on the Co sublattice as a whole and that correlations extend beyond the two-dimensional kagome planes. We identify intriguing dynamical properties, observing high-frequency fluctuations with a Lorentzian linewidth G?20 meV at ambient temperature. On cooling a low-frequency ({approx}1 meV) dynamical component develops alongside the high-frequency fluctuations, which eventually becomes static at temperatures below T {approx} 50 K. The high-frequency response with an overall linewidth of {approx}10 meV prevails at T?2 K, coincident with a fully elastic short-range-ordered contribution.

  17. New clues to the local atomic structure of short-range ordered ferric arsenate from extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Mandaliev, Petar N; Kretzschmar, Ruben


    Short-range ordered ferric arsenate (FeAsO4 · xH2O) is a secondary As precipitate frequently encountered in acid mine waste environments. Two distinct structural models have recently been proposed for this phase. The first model is based on the structure of scorodite (FeAsO4 · 2H2O) where isolated FeO6 octahedra share corners with four adjacent arsenate (AsO4) tetrahedra in a three-dimensional framework (framework model). The second model consists of single chains of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra being bridged by AsO4 bound in a monodentate binuclear (2)C complex (chain model). In order to rigorously test the accuracy of both structural models, we synthesized ferric arsenates and analyzed their local (absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We found that both As and Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra were most compatible with isolated FeO6 octahedra being bridged by AsO4 tetrahedra (RFe-As = 3.33 ± 0.01 Å). Our shell-fit results further indicated a lack of evidence for single corner-sharing FeO6 linkages in ferric arsenate. Wavelet-transform analyses of the Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra of ferric arsenates complemented by shell fitting confirmed Fe atoms at an average distance of ∼5.3 Å, consistent with crystallographic data of scorodite and in disagreement with the chain model. A scorodite-type local structure of short-range ordered ferric arsenates provides a plausible explanation for their rapid transformation into scorodite in acid mining environments.

  18. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.


    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  19. Textural, compositional, and sulfur isotope variations of sulfide minerals in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for Ore Formation (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Johnson, C.A.; Clark, J.L.; Fayek, M.; Slack, J.F.; Anderson, V.M.; Ayuso, R.A.; Ridley, W.I.


    The Red Dog Zn-Pb deposits are hosted in organic-rich mudstone and shale of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. A complex mineralization history is defined by four sphalerite types or stages: (1) early brown sphalerite, (2) yellow-brown sphalerite, (3) red-brown sphalerite, and (4) late tan sphalerite. Stages 2 and 3 constitute the main ore-forming event and are volumetrically the most important. Sulfides in stages 1 and 2 were deposited with barite, whereas stage 3 largely replaces barite. Distinct chemical differences exist among the different stages of sphalerite. From early brown sphalerite to later yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite, Fe and Co content generally increase and Mn and Tl content generally decrease. Early brown sphalerite contains no more than 1.9 wt percent Fe and 63 ppm Co, with high Mn (up to 37 ppm) and Tl (126 ppm), whereas yellow-brown sphalerite and red-brown sphalerite contain high Fe (up to 7.3 wt %) and Co (up to 382 ppm), and low Mn (sulfur isotope analyses show a progression from extremely low ??34S values for stage 1 (as low as -37.20???) to much higher values for yellow-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.3???; n = 30) and red-brown sphalerite (mean of 3.4; n = 20). Late tan sphalerite is isotopically light (-16.4 to -27.2???). The textural, chem ical, and isotopic data indicate the following paragenesis: (1) deposition of early brown sphalerite with abundant barite, minor pyrite, and trace galena immediately beneath the sea floor in unconsolidated mud; (2) deposition of yellow-brown sphalerite during subsea-floor hydrothermal recrystallization and coarsening of preexisting barite; (3) open-space deposition of barite, red-brown sphalerite and other sulfides in veins and coeval replacement of barite; and (4) postore sulfide deposition, including the formation of late tan sphalerite breccias. Stage 1 mineralization took place in a low-temperature environment where fluids rich in Ba mixed with pore water or water-column sulfate to

  20. Proton inelastic mean free path in a group of bioorganic compounds and water in 0.05-10 MeV range - Including higher-order corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Zhenyu, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China); Xia Yueyuan; Zhao Mingwen; Liu Xiangdong [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China)


    The systematic calculations of the inelastic mean free paths (MFP) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in a group of eleven important bioorganic compounds, i.e. DNA, five bases, three fatty acids, cellulose and {beta}-carotene, have been performed. The expressions for the calculations are derived from the Ashley's optical-data model and from the higher-order correction terms in stopping power calculations. Especially, the Bloch correction for the inelastic MFP is proposed empirically in this work. The inelastic MFPs for energetic protons in water are also evaluated and compared with other theoretical calculations. The proton inelastic MFPs for these 11 bioorganic compounds in the energy range from 0.05 to 10 MeV are presented here for the first time, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials.

  1. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark


    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  2. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong


    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  3. How will organic carbon stocks in mineral soils evolve under future climate? Global projections using RothC for a range of climate change scenarios


    Gottschalk, P.; Smith, J.U.; Wattenbach, M.; Bellarby, J.; Stehfest, E.; Arnell, N.; Osborn, T. J.; Jones, C.; Smith, P.


    We use a soil carbon (C) model (RothC), driven by a range of climate models for a range of climate scenarios to examine the impacts of future climate on global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. The results suggest an overall global increase in SOC stocks by 2100 under all scenarios, but with a different extent of increase among the climate model and emissions scenarios. The impacts of projected land use changes are also simulated, but have relatively minor impacts at the global scale. Whether...

  4. Radiometric Correction and 3D Integration of Long-Range Ground-Based Hyperspectral Imagery for Mineral Exploration of Vertical Outcrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lorenz


    Full Text Available Recently, ground-based hyperspectral imaging has come to the fore, supporting the arduous task of mapping near-vertical, difficult-to-access geological outcrops. The application of outcrop sensing within a range of one to several hundred metres, including geometric corrections and integration with accurate terrestrial laser scanning models, is already developing rapidly. However, there are few studies dealing with ground-based imaging of distant targets (i.e., in the range of several kilometres such as mountain ridges, cliffs, and pit walls. In particular, the extreme influence of atmospheric effects and topography-induced illumination differences have remained an unmet challenge on the spectral data. These effects cannot be corrected by means of common correction tools for nadir satellite or airborne data. Thus, this article presents an adapted workflow to overcome the challenges of long-range outcrop sensing, including straightforward atmospheric and topographic corrections. Using two datasets with different characteristics, we demonstrate the application of the workflow and highlight the importance of the presented corrections for a reliable geological interpretation. The achieved spectral mapping products are integrated with 3D photogrammetric data to create large-scale now-called “hyperclouds”, i.e., geometrically correct representations of the hyperspectral datacube. The presented workflow opens up a new range of application possibilities of hyperspectral imagery by significantly enlarging the scale of ground-based measurements.

  5. Tools used in mineral exploration for measuring the conductivity and the resistivity in drillholes and on drill core: observations on their range of sensitivity (United States)

    Parry, Devon; Smith, Richard S.; Mahmoodi, Omid


    A study has been undertaken to acquire conductivity data using the EM39 low-induction-number conductivity tool. Measurements were taken in three holes in the Sudbury, Ontario, area: at Victoria in the south-west part of the Sudbury structure; at Levack, in the north range; and at the Lady Violet deposit near Copper Cliff. These data were compared with pre-existing data acquired using four other tools and measurements taken on core extracted from the holes. The four tools are the DGI galvanic downhole resistivity tool, the IFG downhole conductivity tool, and the handheld KT-10 and GDD meters. The comparison shows that each tool has a finite range of sensitivity. The resistivity tool used by DGI Geoscience is sensitive to conductivities primarily in the range 0.01 to 100 mS/m; the EM39 tool is sensitive to conductivities in the range of ~30 mS/m to 3000 mS/m and the IFG tool to conductivities greater than 30 mS/m. In the sub-ranges where the ranges of two instruments overlap, one might expect a good correlation between the measurements derived from the two tools. However, this is not always the case, as the instruments can have a different volume of sensitivity: the EM39 has a coil separation of 50 cm and will see material greater than 20 cm away from the hole; whereas the IFG conductivity tool seems to have a smaller spatial scale of sensitivity due to its 10 cm coil size. The handheld instruments used to log the conductivity of the core are sensitive to more conductive material (greater than ~1 S/m). The scale of the sensors of these handheld instruments is a few cm, so they are focussing on a very local estimate. The spatial characteristics of the handheld instruments are similar to the IFG tool, so there is a reasonable linear correlation between the conductivities derived from these three different instruments. However, the slopes are not unity; for example, the GDD instrument gives values three times greater than the KT-10. When selecting tools for measuring

  6. Structure of short-range-ordered iron(III)-precipitates formed by iron(II) oxidation in water containing phosphate, silicate, and calcium (United States)

    Voegelin, A.; Frommer, J.; Vantelon, D.; Kaegi, R.; Hug, S. J.


    The oxidation of Fe(II) in water leads to the formation of Fe(III)-precipitates that strongly affect the fate of nutrients and contaminants in natural and engineered systems. Examples include the cycling of As in rice fields irrigated with As-rich groundwater or the treatment of drinking water for As removal. Knowledge of the types of Fe(III)-precipitates forming in such systems is essential for the quantitative modeling of nutrient and contaminant dynamics and for the optimization of water purification techniques on the basis of a mechanistic understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes. In this study, we investigated the local coordination of Fe, P, and Ca in Fe(III)-precipitates formed by aeration of synthetic Fe(II)-containing groundwater with variable composition (pH 7, 2-30 mg/L Fe(II), 2-20 mg/L phosphate-P, 2-20 mg/L silicate-Si, 8 mM Na-bicarbonate or 2.5 mM Ca-&1.5 mM Mg-bicarbonate). After 4 hours of oxidation, Fe(III)-precipitates were collected on 0.2 µm nylon filters and dried. The precipitates were analyzed by Fe K-edge EXAFS (XAS beamline, ANKA, Germany) and by P and Ca K-edge XANES spectroscopy (LUCIA beamline, SLS, Switzerland). The Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra indicated that local Fe coordination in the precipitates systematically shifted with water composition. As long as water contained P, mainly short-range-ordered Fe(III)-phosphate formed (with molar P/Fe ~0.5). In the absence of P, Fe(III) precipitated as hydrous ferric oxide at high Si/Fe>0.5, as ferrihydrite at intermediate Si/Fe, and mainly as lepidocrocite at Si/Fepatterns. The P K-edge XANES spectra revealed that phosphate was bound to both Fe as well as Ca (if present). The Ca K-edge XANES spectra showed that the mode of Ca uptake by the Fe(III)-precipitates shifted from mainly adsorption at high Fe/P to coprecipitation at low Fe/P ratio. Despite oversaturation, neither calcite nor hydroxyapatite formed to a significant extent. The results from this study indicated that

  7. Crystal fields, disorder, and antiferromagnetic short-range order in (Yb{sub 0.24}Sn{sub 0.76})Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimczuk, T; Wang, C H; Lawrence, J M; Xu, Q; Durakiewicz, T; Ronning, F; Llobet, A; Trouw, F; Kurita, N; Tokiwa, Y; Lee, Han-oh; Booth, C H; Gardner, J S; Bauer, E D; Joyce, J J; Zandbergen, H W; Movshovich, R; Cava, R J; Thompson, J D


    We report extensive measurements on a new compound (Yb{sub 0.24}Sn{sub 0.76})Ru that crystallizes in the cubic CsCl structure. Valence band photoemission and L{sub 3} x-ray absorption show no divalent component in the 4f configuration of Yb. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) indicates that the eight-fold degenerate J-multiplet of Yb{sup 3+} is split by the crystalline electric field (CEF) into a Γ{sub 7} doublet ground state and a Γ{sub 8} quartet at an excitation energy 20 meV. The magnetic susceptibility can be fit very well by this CEF scheme under the assumption that a Γ{sub 6} excited state resides at 32 meV; however, the Γ{sub 8}/Γ{sub 6} transition expected at 12 meV was not observed in the INS. The resistivity follows a Bloch-Grüneisen law shunted by a parallel resistor, as is typical of systems subject to phonon scattering with no apparent magnetic scattering. All of these properties can be understood as representing simple local moment behavior of the trivalent Yb ion. At 1 K, there is a peak in specific heat that is too broad to represent a magnetic phase transition, consistent with absence of magnetic reflections in neutron diffraction. On the other hand, this peak also is too narrow to represent the Kondo effect in the Γ{sub 7} ground state doublet. On the basis of the field-dependence of the specific heat, we argue that antiferromagnetic shortrange order (possibly co-existing with Kondo physics) occurs at low temperatures. The long-range magnetic order is suppressed because the Yb site occupancy is below the percolation threshold for this disordered compound.

  8. Mineral oils (United States)

    Furby, N. W.


    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  9. Functionalized 2D-MoS2-Incorporated Polymer Ternary Solar Cells: Role of Nanosheet-Induced Long-Range Ordering of Polymer Chains on Charge Transport. (United States)

    Ahmad, Razi; Srivastava, Ritu; Yadav, Sushma; Chand, Suresh; Sapra, Sameer


    In this paper, we demonstrated the enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) by incorporation of functionalized 2D-MoS 2 nanosheets (NSs) as an additional charge-transporting material. The enhancement in PCE of ternary solar cells arises due to the synergic enhancement in exciton dissociation and the improvement in mobility of both electrons and holes through the active layer of the solar cells. The improved hole mobility is attributed to the formation of the long-range ordered nanofibrillar structure of polymer phases and improved crystallinity in the presence of 2D-MoS 2 NSs. The improved electron mobility arises due to the highly conducting 2D network of MoS 2 NSs which provides additional electron transport channels within the active layer. The nanosheet-incorporated ternary blend solar cells exhibit 32% enhancement in PCE relative to the binary blend P3HT/PC 71 BM.

  10. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.


    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  11. Optimization and limits of electrostatic sorting by bi-polar charge of mineral mixtures in the fine grain size range. Final report. Optimierung und Grenzen der elektrostatischen Sortierung durch bipolare Aufladung von Mineralgemischen im Feinkornbereich. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this work, the charge distribution in mineral mixtures and the electrostatic sorting according to tribo-charging is examined on R-10 fractions in the particle size range of 50-200 {mu}m. The purpose of the investigations was combinations of pairs from quartz, calcite, heavy spar, river spar and the pairing anthracite/quartz. Separation experiments were also carried out for the quartz/calcite pair in the particle size range of 20-50 {mu}m. After a survey of the literature and the electrical processes in the contact of two materials, some theoretical considerations procede the investigations, which are concerned with the maximum surface charge density on particles, the electrostatic agglomeration and the calculation of particle track curves in an homogeneous electrical field. It is shown that in principle, electrostatic agglomerates can always be separated in an electrical field. (orig.).

  12. Geochemistry of altered and mineralized rocks from the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, northern Hot Creek Range, Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Nash, J.T.; John, D.A.; Malcolm, M.J.; Briggs, P.H.; Crock, J.G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey and the St. Johns River Water Management District are investigating the hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system. An essential element of this investigation is the design and construction of a monitor well network in the lower saline water-bearing zone which occurs at about 2,000 ft below land surface. During 1985, a well near Ponte Vedra in northeast St. Johns County was completed into the lower saline water-bearing zone at a depth of 1,980 to 2,035 ft below land surface. This well and other wells drilled under this or other programs will be used to monitor water levels and water chemistry of the lower saline zone. Chloride concentrations in water above the lower saline zone ranged from 14 to 270 mg/L and specific conductance ranged from 450 to 1,440 micromhos/cm c. In the lower zone, chloride concentrations were as much as 16,210 mg/L and specific conductance as much as 46,000 micromhos per centimeter. Aquifer head and artesian flow from the well generally increased with depth. Water temperatures also increased from 23 C in the upper part of the aquifer to more than 28 C in the lower saline zone. (USGS)

  13. Effects of Low-Impact Dance on Blood Biochemistry, Bone Mineral Density, the Joint Range of Motion of Lower Extremities, Knee Extension Torque, and Fall in Females. (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ying; Tu, Jui Hung; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung


    The effect of low-impact dance on blood metabolites, the joint range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities, knee extension torque, bone mass density (BMD), the number of falls, and the confidence to perform daily activities (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale [MFES]) was examined in older sedentary women (age: 59 ± 4 years) before and after a 16-week intervention. Results showed that the average score for the MFES, some parameters of blood chemistry, and joint ROM were significantly improved after low-impact intervention. In addition to improvements in blood lipids and body fat percentages, the increases shown in the parameters regarding the lower extremities may contribute to confidence in performing common daily activities in older women, although the number of falls did not significantly differ between the two groups during the 16-week period.

  14. How will organic carbon stocks in mineral soils evolve under future climate? Global projections using RothC for a range of climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gottschalk


    Full Text Available We use a soil carbon (C model (RothC, driven by a range of climate models for a range of climate scenarios to examine the impacts of future climate on global soil organic carbon (SOC stocks. The results suggest an overall global increase in SOC stocks by 2100 under all scenarios, but with a different extent of increase among the climate model and emissions scenarios. The impacts of projected land use changes are also simulated, but have relatively minor impacts at the global scale. Whether soils gain or lose SOC depends upon the balance between C inputs and decomposition. Changes in net primary production (NPP change C inputs to the soil, whilst decomposition usually increases under warmer temperatures, but can also be slowed by decreased soil moisture. Underlying the global trend of increasing SOC under future climate is a complex pattern of regional SOC change. SOC losses are projected to occur in northern latitudes where higher SOC decomposition rates due to higher temperatures are not balanced by increased NPP, whereas in tropical regions, NPP increases override losses due to higher SOC decomposition. The spatial heterogeneity in the response of SOC to changing climate shows how delicately balanced the competing gain and loss processes are, with subtle changes in temperature, moisture, soil type and land use, interacting to determine whether SOC increases or decreases in the future. Our results suggest that we should stop looking for a single answer regarding whether SOC stocks will increase or decrease under future climate, since there is no single answer. Instead, we should focus on improving our prediction of the factors that determine the size and direction of change, and the land management practices that can be implemented to protect and enhance SOC stocks.

  15. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz mineralization and repeated fragmentation along the Fountain Range Fault (Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia) (United States)

    Seybold, Lina; Blenkinsop, Tom; Heuss, Soraya; Ord, Alison; Kruhl, Jörn H.


    In large-scale fault zones fracture networks are commonly generated by high volumes of pressurized fluids, followed by quartz precipitation. In this way large amounts of quartz are formed as microcrystalline masses and as complex vein systems, with partly highly different textures, as a result of different formation processes. Based on field and microstructural data and the quantification of vein patterns, the spatial and temporal connection between fragmentation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Fountain Range Fault at Fountain Springs was investigated. Dextral strike-slip led to up to 25 km horizontal displacement along the fault. Due to various fragmentation and quartz formation processes, a ca. 100 m high, 80 - 100 m wide and km-long quartz ridge with numerous vein systems and variable microfabrics was formed. Locally, lenses of highly altered metamorphic wall-rocks occur in the quartz zone. Where exposed, the contact to wall rocks is sharp. Millimetre- to decimetre-thick quartz veins penetrate the wall-rocks only within metre distance from the contact. Several clearly distinguishable fine-grained reddish, brownish to dark and pigment-rich quartz masses form up to 50 m wide and up to several 100 m long steep lenses that build the major part of the silicified fault zone. A chronology can be established. Some of these lenses are oriented slightly oblique to the general trend of the quartz zone, in agreement with the supposed dextral strike slip along the fault. Numerous generations of typically µm-cm thick quartz veins transect the microcrystalline quartz masses and, locally, form anisotropic networks. In the quartz masses, angular fragments often composed of quartz with, again, internal fragmentation structures, indicate earlier fracturing and silicification events. Within the veins, quartz forms geodes, locally filled with fine-grained reddish quartz and palisade structures with feathery textures and fluid-inclusion zoning

  16. Comparison of soil thickness in a zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range using a soil probe and electrical resistivity tomography (United States)

    Morse, Michael S.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.; Revil, André; Coe, Jeffrey A.


    Accurate estimation of the soil thickness distribution in steepland drainage basins is essential for understanding ecosystem and subsurface response to infiltration. One important aspect of this characterization is assessing the heavy and antecedent rainfall conditions that lead to shallow landsliding. In this paper, we investigate the direct current (DC) resistivity method as a tool for quickly estimating soil thickness over a steep (33–40°) zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range, a landslide prone region. Point measurements throughout the basin showed bedrock depths between 0.55 and 3.2 m. Resistivity of soil and bedrock samples collected from the site was measured for degrees of saturation between 40 and 92%. Resistivity of the soil was typically higher than that of the bedrock for degrees of saturation lower than 70%. Results from the laboratory measurements and point-depth measurements were used in a numerical model to evaluate the resistivity contrast at the soil-bedrock interface. A decreasing-with-depth resistivity contrast was apparent at the interface in the modeling results. At the field site, three transects were surveyed where coincident ground truth measurements of bedrock depth were available, to test the accuracy of the method. The same decreasing-with-depth resistivity trend that was apparent in the model was also present in the survey data. The resistivity contour of between 1,000 and 2,000 Ωm that marked the top of the contrast was our interpreted bedrock depth in the survey data. Kriged depth-to-bedrock maps were created from both the field-measured ground truth obtained with a soil probe and interpreted depths from the resistivity tomography, and these were compared for accuracy graphically. Depths were interpolated as far as 16.5 m laterally from the resistivity survey lines with root mean squared error (RMSE) = 27 cm between the measured and interpreted depth at those locations. Using several transects and analysis of the subsurface

  17. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.


    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  18. Computer simulation of CaSiO3 glass under compression: correlation between Si-Si pair radial distribution function and intermediate range order structure (United States)

    Lan, Mai Thi; Thuy Duong, Tran; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Van Hong, Nguyen


    The structural organization of CaSiO3 glass at 600 K and under pressure of 0-100 GPa is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). Results show that the atomic structure of CaSiO3 comprises SiO n and CaO m units considered as basic structural polyhedra. At low pressure, most of the basic structural polyhedra are SiO4, CaO5, CaO6 and CaO7. At high pressure most of the basic structural polyhedra are SiO5, SiO6 and CaO9, CaO10 and CaO11. The distribution of basic structural polyhedra is not uniform resulting in formation of Ca-rich and Si-rich regions. The distribution of SiO4, SiO5 and SiO6 polyhedra is also not uniform, but it tends to form SiO4-, SiO5-, and SiO6-clusters. For the Si-O network, under compression there is a gradual transition from the tetrahedral network (SiO4) to the octahedral network (SiO6) via SiO5 polyhedra. The SiO5-clusters are the same as immediate-phase in the transformation process. The size and shape of SiO4 tetrahedra change strongly under compression. While the size of SiO5 and SiO6 has also changed significantly, but the shape is almost unchanged under compression. The SiO n polyhedra can connect to each other via one common oxygen ion (corner-sharing bond), two common oxygen ions (edge-sharing bond) or three common oxygen ions (face-sharing bond). The Si-Si bond length in corner-sharing bonds is much longer than the ones in edge-sharing and face-sharing bonds. The change of intermediate range order (IRO) structure under compression relating to edge- and face-sharing bonds amongst SiO n at high pressure is the origin of the first peak splitting of the radial distribution functions of Si-Si pair. Under compression, the number of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) decreases. This makes the Si-O network more polymerized. At low pressure, most of the Ca2+ ions incorporate into the Si-O network via NBOs. At high pressure, the amount of NBO decreases, Ca2+ ions mainly incorporate into the Si-O network via bridging oxygen (BO) that

  19. Quantum features in the spin dynamics of S=1/2 and 1 Heisenberg antiferromagnets in spite of long-range ordered phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enderle, M.; Kiefer, K.; Klopperpieper, A.


    Uniform S = 1 and 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains have a quantum singlet ground state which is an eigenstate of the total spin with S(tot) = 0. However, the 'internal' order of these ground states is quite different, and is reflected in gapless excitations in the S = 1/2 state, while the ...

  20. Observation of long-range ferromagnetic order in the heavy-fermion compuound URu/sub 1. 2/Re/sub 0. 8/Si/sub 2/ by neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torikachvili, M.S.; Rebelsky, L.; Motoya, K.; Shapiro, S.M.; Dalichaouch, Y.; Maple, M.B.


    We have performed a neutron scattering study of the heavy-fermion compound URu/sub 1.2/Re/sub 0.8/Si/sub 2/, in order to verify the occurrence of long-range ferromagnetic order. This study consisted of measurements of elastic, inelastic, and polarized neutron scattering, measurement of low-angle critical scattering, and the determination of the temperature dependence of the order parameter. We found a sharp peak in the critical scattering at /approx/ 30 K for the wavevector q = 0.08 /angstrom//sup /minus/1/; and an enhancement of the intensity at the position of the (101) nuclear Bragg reflection below the Curie temperature. These measurements suggest the occurrence of long-range magnetic order. The value of the ordered moment is estimated to be /approx/ 0.53 /mu//sub B/ at 10 K. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Long-Range Atomic Order and Entropy Change at the Martensitic Transformation in a Ni-Mn-In-Co Metamagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez-Alarcos


    Full Text Available The influence of the atomic order on the martensitic transformation entropy change has been studied in a Ni-Mn-In-Co metamagnetic shape memory alloy through the evolution of the transformation temperatures under high-temperature quenching and post-quench annealing thermal treatments. It is confirmed that the entropy change evolves as a consequence of the variations on the degree of L21 atomic order brought by thermal treatments, though, contrary to what occurs in ternary Ni-Mn-In, post-quench aging appears to be the most effective way to modify the transformation entropy in Ni-Mn-In-Co. It is also shown that any entropy change value between around 40 and 5 J/kgK can be achieved in a controllable way for a single alloy under the appropriate aging treatment, thus bringing out the possibility of properly tune the magnetocaloric effect.

  2. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)


    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  3. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    , radon etc. to locate active venting site 4. Seabed sampling for rocks and minerals looking for indications of hydrothermal mineralization 5. TV and still Photographic surveys with real- time imaging on board 6. Submersible/ROVs for direct... thriving in this unique environments. However, the study of hydrothermal systems is still relatively young, and there are many fundamental questions that remain to be addressed in the forthcoming years. Suggested reading 1. Seafloor hydrothermal...

  4. Nine orders of magnitude dynamic range: picomolar to millimolar concentration measurement in capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection employing cascaded avalanche photodiode photon counters. (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Essaka, David C; Hindsgaul, Ole; Palcic, Monica M; Prendergast, Jillian; Schnaar, Ronald L; Dovichi, Norman J


    The dynamic range of capillary electrophoresis analysis is ultimately limited by molecular shot noise at low concentrations and by concentration-induced band broadening at high concentrations. We report a system that approaches these fundamental limits. A laser-induced fluorescence detector is reported that employs a cascade of four fiber-optic beam splitters connected in series to generate a primary signal and four attenuated signals, each monitored by a single-photon counting avalanche photodiode. Appropriate scaling of the signals from the five photodiodes produces a linear optical calibration curve for 5-carboxyl-tetramethylrhodamine from the concentration detection limit of 1 pM to the upper limit of 1 mM. Mass detection limits are 120 yoctomoles (70 molecules) injected into the instrument. The very-wide dynamic range instrument was used to study the metabolic products of the fluorescently labeled glycosphingolipid tetramethylrhodamine labeled GM1 (GM1-TMR) produced by single cells isolated from the rat cerebellum.

  5. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kong, X.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)


    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  6. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  7. Perturbation-based moment equation approach for flow in heterogeneous porous media: applicability range and analysis of high-order terms (United States)

    Li, Liyong; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.; Zhang, Dongxiao


    We present detailed comparisons between high-resolution Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and low-order numerical solutions of stochastic moment equations (SMEs) for the first and second statistical moments of pressure. The objective is to quantify the difference between the predictions obtained from MCS and SME. Natural formations with high permeability variability and large spatial correlation scales are of special interest for underground resources (e.g. oil and water). Consequently, we focus on such formations. We investigated fields with variance of log-permeability, σY2, from 0.1 to 3.0 and correlation scales (normalized by domain length) of 0.05 to 0.5. In order to avoid issues related to statistical convergence and resolution level, we used 9000 highly resolved realizations of permeability for MCS. We derive exact discrete forms of the statistical moment equations. Formulations based on equations written explicitly in terms of permeability ( K-based) and log-transformed permeability ( Y-based) are considered. The discrete forms are applicable to systems of arbitrary variance and correlation scales. However, equations governing a particular statistical moment depend on higher moments. Thus, while the moment equations are exact, they are not closed. In particular, the discrete form of the second moment of pressure includes two triplet terms that involve log-permeability (or permeability) and pressure. We combined MCS computations with full discrete SME equations to quantify the importance of the various terms that make up the moment equations. We show that second-moment solutions obtained using a low-order Y-based SME formulation are significantly better than those from K-based formulations, especially when σY2>1. As a result, Y-based formulations are preferred. The two triplet terms are complex functions of the variance level and correlation length. The importance (contribution) of these triplet terms increases dramatically as σY2 increases above one. We also

  8. Modeling of phenoxy acid herbicide mineralization and growth of microbial degraders in 15 soils monitored by quantitative real-time PCR of the functional tfdA gene. (United States)

    Bælum, Jacob; Prestat, Emmanuel; David, Maude M; Strobel, Bjarne W; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    Mineralization potentials, rates, and kinetics of the three phenoxy acid (PA) herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP), were investigated and compared in 15 soils collected from five continents. The mineralization patterns were fitted by zero/linear or exponential growth forms of the three-half-order models and by logarithmic (log), first-order, or zero-order kinetic models. Prior and subsequent to the mineralization event, tfdA genes were quantified using real-time PCR to estimate the genetic potential for degrading PA in the soils. In 25 of the 45 mineralization scenarios, ∼60% mineralization was observed within 118 days. Elevated concentrations of tfdA in the range 1 × 10(5) to 5 × 10(7) gene copies g(-1) of soil were observed in soils where mineralization could be described by using growth-linked kinetic models. A clear trend was observed that the mineralization rates of the three PAs occurred in the order 2,4-D > MCPA > MCPP, and a correlation was observed between rapid mineralization and soils exposed to PA previously. Finally, for 2,4-D mineralization, all seven mineralization patterns which were best fitted by the exponential model yielded a higher tfdA gene potential after mineralization had occurred than the three mineralization patterns best fitted by the Lin model.

  9. Mineral Resources


    Ababsa, Myriam


    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...


    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.


    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  11. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.


    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  12. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.


    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  13. Geochemistry, geochronology, mineralogy, and geology suggest sources of and controls on mineral systems in the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada; with geochemistry maps of gold, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and sulfur; and with a section on lead associations, mineralogy and paragenesis, and isotopes (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Hoffman, James D.; Doe, Bruce R.; Foord, Eugene E.; Stein, Holly J.; Ayuso, Robert A.


    Geochemistry maps showing the distribution and abundance of 18 elements in about 1,400 rock samples, both mineralized and unmineralized, from the southern Toquima Range, Nev., indicate major structural and lithologic controls on mineralization, and suggest sources of the elements. Radiometric age data, lead mineralogy and paragenesis data, and lead-isotope data supplement the geochemical and geologic data, providing further insight into timing, sources, and controls on mineralization. Major zones of mineralization are centered on structural margins of calderas and principal northwest-striking fault zones, as at Round Mountain, Manhattan, and Jefferson mining districts, and on intersections of low-angle and steep structures, as at Belmont mining district. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly limestones (at Manhattan, Jefferson, and Belmont districts), and porous Oligocene ash-flow tuffs (at Round Mountain district) host the major deposits, although all rock types have been mineralized as evidenced by numerous prospects throughout the area. Principal mineral systems are gold-silver at Round Mountain where about 7 million ounces of gold and more than 4 million ounces of silver has been produced; gold at Gold Hill in the west part of the Manhattan district where about a half million ounces of gold has been produced; gold-mercury-arsenic-antimony in the east (White Caps) part of the Manhattan district where a few hundred thousand ounces of gold has been produced; and silver-lead-antimony at Belmont where more than 150,000 ounces of silver has been produced. Lesser amounts of gold and silver have been produced from the Jefferson district and from scattered mines elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. A small amount of tungsten was produced from mines in the granite of the Round Mountain pluton exposed east of Round Mountain, and small amounts of arsenic, antimony, and mercury have been produced elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. All elements show unique

  14. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  15. An Overview of Fe-Mg Interdiffusion in Mantle Minerals (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua


    The rates of Fe-Mg interdiffusion in the Earth's materials are of fundamental importance to a wide range of geochemistry and geophysics problems. In order that the Earth Scientist may readily apply the available experimentally determined diffusion rates to such problems, a brief review of experimental data for Fe-Mg interdiffusion in mantle minerals is presented concerning new advances and some recent applications. Perspectives for the future are also suggested.

  16. Amorphous calcium carbonate controls avian eggshell mineralization: A new paradigm for understanding rapid eggshell calcification. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Marie, Pauline; Nys, Yves; Hincke, Maxwell T; Gautron, Joel


    Avian eggshell mineralization is the fastest biogenic calcification process known in nature. How this is achieved while producing a highly crystalline material composed of large calcite columnar single crystals remains largely unknown. Here we report that eggshell mineral originates from the accumulation of flat disk-shaped amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles on specific organic sites on the eggshell membrane, which are rich in proteins and sulfated proteoglycans. These structures known as mammillary cores promote the nucleation and stabilization of a amorphous calcium carbonate with calcitic short range order which predetermine the calcite composition of the mature eggshell. The amorphous nature of the precursor phase was confirmed by the diffuse scattering of X-rays and electrons. The nascent calcitic short-range order of this transient mineral phase was revealed by infrared spectroscopy and HRTEM. The ACC mineral deposited around the mammillary core sites progressively transforms directly into calcite crystals without the occurrence of any intermediate phase. Ionic speciation data suggest that the uterine fluid is equilibrated with amorphous calcium carbonate, throughout the duration of eggshell mineralization process, supporting that this mineral phase is constantly forming at the shell mineralization front. On the other hand, the transient amorphous calcium carbonate mineral deposits, as well as the calcite crystals into which they are converted, form by the ordered aggregation of nanoparticles that support the rapid mineralization of the eggshell. The results of this study alter our current understanding of avian eggshell calcification and provide new insights into the genesis and formation of calcium carbonate biominerals in vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.


    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  18. Land use/mineral rights map series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineback, N.G.; Weaver, D.C.


    The ongoing Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series was designed to map the existing land uses and mineral rights in and around the Warrior Coal Basin. The map series provides baseline data for monitoring all land use changes in the Warrior Basin and for establishing a record of mineral rights useful in classifying some record discrepancies and assisting the mining industry and its regulatory agencies in organizing mineral rights data. Ten additional maps were completed during this 1981-82 funding period. Virtually all large mining and leasing companies in the Basin now have standing orders for all new maps, and orders for existing maps are being received weekly.

  19. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  20. Trade in mineral resources


    Graham A. Davis


    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  1. Mineral sources and transport pathways for arsenic release in a coastal watershed, USA (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.


    Metasedimentary bedrock of coastal Maine contains a diverse suite of As-bearing minerals that act as significant sources of elements found in ground and surface waters in the region. Arsenic sources in the Penobscot Formation include, in order of decreasing As content by weight: löllingite and realgar (c.70%), arsenopyrite, cobaltite, glaucodot, and gersdorffite (in the range of 34–45%), arsenian pyrite (realgar, niccolite, löllingite > glaucodot, arsenopyrite-cobaltian > arsenopyrite, cobaltite, gersdorffite, fine-grained pyrite, Ni-pyrite > coarse-grained pyrite. Reactions illustrate that oxidation of Fe-As disulphide group and As-sulphide minerals is the primary release process for As. Liberation of As by carbonation of realgar and orpiment in contact with high-pH groundwaters may contribute locally to elevated contents of As in groundwater, especially where As is decoupled from Fe. Released metals are sequestered in secondary minerals by sorption or by incorporation in crystal structures. Secondary minerals acting as intermediate As reservoirs include claudetite (c.75%), orpiment (61%), scorodite (c. 45%), secondary arsenopyrite (c. 46%), goethite (<4490 ppm), natrojarosite (<42 ppm), rosenite, melanterite, ferrihydrite, and Mn-hydroxide coatings. Some soils also contain Fe-Co-Ni-arsenate, Ca-arsenate, and carbonate minerals. Reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide minerals may govern the ultimate release of iron and arsenic – especially As(V) – to groundwater; however, dissolution of claudetite (arsenic trioxide) may directly contribute As(III). Processes thought to explain the release of As from minerals in bedrock include oxidation of arsenian pyrite or arsenopyrite, or carbonation of As-sulphides, and most models based on these generally rely on discrete minerals or on a fairly limited series of minerals. In contrast, in the Penobscot Formation and other metasedimentary rocks of coastal Maine, oxidation of As-bearing Fe

  2. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  3. Raising environmental awareness among miners in Iran


    Mozaffari, Ezatollah


    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners.  Miners’ attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers’ point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management in Iran. Their opinions on methods used for minerals extraction and waste production are sought in order to ...

  4. Order and disorder in the local and long-range structure of the spin-glass pyrochlore, Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yu; Huq, Ashfia; Booth, Corwin H.; Ehlers, Georg; Greedan, John E.; Gardner, Jason S.


    To understand the origin of the spin-glass state in molybdate pyrochlores, the structure of Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} is investigated using two techniques: the long-range lattice structure was measured using neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and local structure information was obtained from the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. While the long-range structure appears generally well ordered, enhanced mean-squared site displacements on the O(1) site and the lack of temperature dependence of the strongly anisotropic displacement parameters for both the Mo and O(1) sites indicate some disorder exists. Likewise, the local structure measurements indicate some Mo-Mo and Tb-O(1) nearest-neighbor disorder exists, similar to that found in the related spin-glass pyrochlore, Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Although the freezing temperature in Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 25 K, is slightly higher than in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 22 K, the degree of local pair distance disorder is actually less in Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This apparent contradiction is considered in light of the interactions involved in the freezing process.

  5. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards


    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate mine...

  6. Mineral resource of the month: tantalum (United States)



    The article offers information on a rare transition metal called tantalum. It says that the blue-gray mineral resource was discovered in 1801 or 1802 and was used for capacitors in 1940. It adds that the tantalite ore and other minerals in the ore should be separated in order to generate concentrates of tantalum. The use of tantalum are also cited.

  7. Constraints on the Mineral Evolution of Terrestrial Planets Using Statistical Correlations Among the Mineral-Forming Elements (United States)

    Hummer, D. R.; Hazen, R. M.; Golden, J.; Downs, R. T.


    The mineralogy of terrestrial planets is governed not only by size, bulk chemical composition, planetary differentiation processes, and secondary geochemical processes, but also by the fundamental way in which a planet's constituent elements parse themselves into mineral species. To gain insight into which elements tend to associate with each other to form minerals, we have used the IMA mineralogical database ( to conduct a statistical analysis of the number of known mineral species containing each of the 72 mineral-forming elements, as well as how many species contain both X and Y for every possible X-Y pair of elements. The frequency with which elements X and Y occur together in the nominal chemical formulae of minerals was compared with the expected rate of co-occurrence (assuming that elements are distributed among mineral species randomly). The results reveal that among the most strongly correlated element pairs are H-O, Na-Si, Al-Si, S-Ag, O-Si, Si-Ca, and O-Ca. Examples of strongly anti-correlated pairs are O-S, O-Ag, Si-S, O-Sb, O-Se, H-Ag, and Si-As. The strength of these correlations and anti-correlations varied by many orders of magnitude (as measured by their p-value in a chi-squared test for variable dependence), ranging from near 1 to an astounding 10-304. Out of 2520 unique element pairs, 1688 were statistically significant (p-value groups, 2) crystal chemical considerations of size and charge similarities among cations, especially within silicate structures, 3) group relationships on the periodic table, and 4) soft vs. hard ion relationships. These principles, along with the specific correlations they produce, can serve as a valuable guide in explaining the mineral evolution of Earth's crust, and predicting the mineralogy of terrestrial planets even when the bulk composition is significantly different than that of Earth.

  8. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon (United States)

    Keith, Terry E.C.; Staplese, Lloyd W.


    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence that makes up part of the Eocene Siletz River Volcanics in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Regional zoning of zeolite assemblages is not apparent; the zeolites formed in joints, fractures, and interstices, although most occur in central cavities of basalt pillows. The zeolites and associated minerals identified, in general order of paragenetic sequence, are smectite, pyrite, calcite (small spheres), thomsonite, natrolite, analcime, scolecite, mesolite, stilbite, heulandite, apophyllite, chahazite, mordenite, calcite (scalenohedra and twinned rhombohedra), laumontite, and amethystine quartz. Common three-mineral assemblages are: natrolite-analcime-sfilbite, stilbite-heulandite-chabazite, stilbite-apophyllie-chabazite, and natrolite-mesolite-laumontite.Alteration of basaltic glass, which was initially abundant, appears to have been an important factor in formation of the zeolites. Isotopic data suggest that zeolitization occurred during a low-temperature (60 ~ 70°C submarine hydrothermal event, or by reactions of cold (~ 10°C meteoric water with basalt over a long time. The occurrence of different mineral assemblages in cavities of adjacent basalt pillows indicates that these minerals crystallized in dosed systems that were isolated as fractures and joints were sealed by deposition of smectite and early zeolites. Although the total chemical composition of the mineral assemblages in cavities is similar, different mineral species formed because of the sensitivity of zeolite minerals to slight variations in physical and chemical conditions within individual cavities.

  9. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  10. Role of Short-Range Chemical Ordering in (GaN) 1–x (ZnO) x for Photodriven Oxygen Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dennis P. [Department; Neuefeind, Joerg C. [Chemical; Koczkur, Kallum M. [Department; Bish, David L. [Department; Skrabalak, Sara E. [Department


    (GaN)1–x(ZnO)x (GZNO) is capable of visible-light driven water splitting, but its bandgap at x ≤ 0.15 (>2.7 eV) results in poor visible-light absorption. Unfortunately, methods to narrow its bandgap by incorporating higher ZnO concentrations are accompanied by extensive Urbach tailing near the absorption-edge, which is indicative of structural disorder or chemical inhomogeneities. We evaluated whether this disorder is intrinsic to the bond-length distribution in GZNO or is a result of defects introduced from the loss of Zn during nitridation. Here, the synthesis of GZNO derived from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors is described which minimizes Zn loss and chemical inhomogeneities and enhances visible-light absorption. The average and local atomic structures of LDH-derived GZNO were investigated using X-ray and neutron scattering and are correlated with their oxygen evolution rates. An isotope-contrasted neutron-scattering experiment was conducted in conjunction with reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations. We showed that a bond-valence bias in the RMC refinements reproduces the short-range ordering (SRO) observed in structure refinements using isotope-contrasted neutron data. The findings suggest that positional disorder of cation–anion pairs in GZNO partially arises from SRO and influences local bond relaxations. Furthermore, particle-based oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) in AgNO3 solution reveal that the crystallite size of GZNO correlates more than positional disorder with oxygen evolution rate. These findings illustrate the importance of examining the local structure of multinary photocatalysts to identify dominant factors in particulate-based photodriven oxygen evolution.

  11. Mineral Resources Data System (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  12. Sulphur mineralization kinetics of cattle manure and green waste compost in soils. (United States)

    Saviozzi, Alessandro; Cardelli, Roberto; Cipolli, Silvia; Levi-Minzi, Renato; Riffaldi, Riccardo


    Sulphur mineralization of cattle manure (CM) and green waste compost (GWC) added to six agricultural soils with different chemical properties was monitored over 10 weeks in a laboratory incubation experiment. Although the amount of sulphur was higher in CM than in GWC, the cumulative SO4(2-)-S values in GWC-treated soils were higher than in soil amended with CM. The percentages of mineralized S were always higher in GWC-treated soil (in the range 1.3-8.5%) than in CM-treated soil (in the range 0.9-3.8%). In three of the six soils, particularly for CM, an immobilization of sulphur was observed. Three kinetic models were evaluated for their suitability to describe the mineralization process. The first-order model best described S mineralization for both amended and control soils. The GWC substantially increased the amount of potentially mineralizable S (S0) relative to the controls. In GWC-treated soils, the rates of S mineralization (k) were higher than rates in the controls. The k of CM-amended soils was often lower than the k of control soils. Parameters derived from the model were tested as indices for assessing the relationships between S mineralization and soil characteristics. The S0 was positively correlated to the amount of cumulative SO4(2-)-S and also to the content of organic C, N and S in soil.

  13. PMCR-Miner: parallel maximal confident association rules miner algorithm for microarray data set. (United States)

    Zakaria, Wael; Kotb, Yasser; Ghaleb, Fayed F M


    The MCR-Miner algorithm is aimed to mine all maximal high confident association rules form the microarray up/down-expressed genes data set. This paper introduces two new algorithms: IMCR-Miner and PMCR-Miner. The IMCR-Miner algorithm is an extension of the MCR-Miner algorithm with some improvements. These improvements implement a novel way to store the samples of each gene into a list of unsigned integers in order to benefit using the bitwise operations. In addition, the IMCR-Miner algorithm overcomes the drawbacks faced by the MCR-Miner algorithm by setting some restrictions to ignore repeated comparisons. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is a parallel version of the new proposed IMCR-Miner algorithm. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is based on shared-memory systems and task parallelism, where no time is needed in the process of sharing and combining data between processors. The experimental results on real microarray data sets show that the PMCR-Miner algorithm is more efficient and scalable than the counterparts.

  14. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals (United States)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.


    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  15. Behavior of PAH/mineral associations during thermodesorption: impact for the determination of mineral retention properties towards PAHs. (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Saada, Alain; Faure, Pierre


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with two minerals (silica sand and bentonite) presenting opposite retention properties were analyzed with a thermodesorption (Td)-GC-MS coupling in order to validate this technique as a new and rapid way to evaluate the solid sorption properties. Two analysis modes were used, evolved gas analysis (EGA) and Td with cryo-trap. EGA allowed a real-time monitoring of the compounds desorbed during a temperature program and gave a first screening of the samples while Td gave more precise indications on compound abundances for selected temperature ranges. When associated with silica sand, PAHs were released at relatively low temperatures (cracking at higher temperatures. The Td-GC-MS was proven to efficiently underline differences in retention properties of two minerals, and this study highlights the great potential of this technique to evaluate compound/matrix bond strength and interaction.

  16. Clay-mineral suites, sources, and inferred dispersal routes: Southern California continental shelf. (United States)

    Hein, James R; Dowling, Jennifer S; Schuetze, Anthony; Lee, Homa J


    Clay mineralogy is useful in determining the distribution, sources, and dispersal routes of fine-grained sediments. In addition, clay minerals, especially smectite, may control the degree to which contaminants are adsorbed by the sediment. We analyzed 250 shelf sediment samples, 24 river-suspended-sediment samples, and 12 river-bed samples for clay-mineral contents in the Southern California Borderland from Point Conception to the Mexico border. In addition, six samples were analyzed from the Palos Verdes Headland in order to characterize the clay minerals contributed to the offshore from that point source. The areas and standard weighting factors. Most fine-grained sediment is supplied to the shelf by rivers during major winter storms, especially during El Niño years. The largest sediment fluxes to the region are from the Santa Ynez and Santa Clara Rivers, which drain the Transverse Ranges. The mean clay-mineral suite for the entire shelf sediment data set (26% smectite, 50% illite, 24% kaolinite+chlorite) is closely comparable to that for the mean of all the rivers (31% smectite, 49% illite, 20% kaolinite+chlorite), indicating that the main source of shelf fine-grained sediments is the adjacent rivers. However, regional variations do exist and the shelf is divided into four provinces with characteristic clay-mineral suites. The means of the clay-mineral suites of the two southernmost provinces are within analytical error of the mineral suites of adjacent rivers. The next province to the north includes Santa Monica Bay and has a suite of clay minerals derived from mixing of fine-grained sediments from several sources, both from the north and south. The northernmost province clay-mineral suite matches moderately well that of the adjacent rivers, but does indicate some mixing from sources in adjacent provinces.

  17. The Yale Peabody Museum Mineral Collection: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Nicolescu, S.; Ague, J.


    The beginnings of what became the Yale Peabody Museum (YPM) mineral collection are intimately associated with the emergence of science teaching and scientific research in the US. In 1802 Yale College graduate Benjamin Silliman was offered the first Yale "Chymistry" and Natural History professorship. In order to fulfill his academic duties he needed a mineral collection, but in 1802 only a few specimens were available to him. Through his determined efforts and with the critical support of two Yale College presidents, by 1825 Yale was in possession of what was arguably the best mineral collection in the US. The quality of the scientific education pioneered by Silliman attracted many bright students, including future pillars of 19th century science J. D. Dana, O. C. Marsh and G. J. Brush. Silliman was also the founder of an illustrious mineralogical "dynasty", members of which, starting with his son-in-law J. D. Dana and continuing with son, B. Silliman, Jr. and grandson E. S. Dana, contributed in seminal ways to the development of mineralogy. Having access to specimens collected by the Sillimans, or the many ones described in successive editions of Dana's System of Mineralogy, is a rare privilege. The YPM was founded in 1866 and the mineral collection started by Silliman became part of it. The collection has now grown to some 40,000 specimens, at least 38 of which are type minerals (roughly one percent of all presently known mineral species). Any collection is a valuable asset only if it is "alive" through use and development; hence, further enhancing the holdings of the YPM mineral collection is a continuing effort. Preservation of historic and scientifically relevant specimens is only one of many purposes served by the collection. An important intellectual value resides in the fact that many specimens are from localities lost to anthropogenic activities. The REE and U-Th bearing pegmatites at Barringer Hill, TX are such an example. Barringer Hill has been under the

  18. Mineral evolution and Earth history (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.


    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  19. Land use/mineral rights map series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineback, N.G.; Weaver, D.C.


    The ongoing Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series was designed to map the existing land uses and mineral rights in and around the Warrior Coal Basin. The map series provides baseline data for monitoring all land use changes in the Warrior Basin. It also establishes a record of mineral rights useful in classifying some record discrepancies and assists the mining industry and its regulatory agencies in organizing mineral rights data. During the funded period, this was the only effort of this nature occurring in the United States. Ten additional maps were completed during this 1982-1983 funding period. Virtually all large mining and leasing companies operating in the Basin now have standing orders for all new maps, and orders for existing maps are regularly received. As a spinoff of this project, one additional major project has been completed during this funding period, a county-wide land use and land cover map of Cullman County, Alabama.

  20. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi


    Abstract. The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  1. 30 CFR 243.4 - How do I suspend compliance with an order? (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I suspend compliance with an order? 243.4 Section 243.4 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT General Provisions...

  2. Electric field induced short range to long range structural ordering and its influence on the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence in the lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaskar, Abhijeet; Rao, Badari Narayana; Ranjan, Rajeev, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bangalore 560012 (India); Thomas, Tiju, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Eu{sup +3} was incorporated into the lattice of a lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) as per the nominal formula Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5−x}Eu{sub x}TiO{sub 3}. This system was investigated with regard to the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence (PL) and structural behaviour as a function of composition and electric field. Electric field was found to irreversibly change the features in the PL spectra and also in the x-ray diffraction patterns below the critical composition x = 0.025. Detailed analysis revealed that below the critical composition, electric field irreversibly suppresses the structural heterogeneity inherent of the host matrix NBT and brings about a long range ferroelectric state with rhombohedral (R3c) distortion. It is shown that the structural disorder on the nano-scale opens a new channel for radiative transition which manifests as a new emission line branching off from the main {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 0} line along with a concomitant change in the relative intensity of the other crystal field induced Stark lines with different J values. The study suggests that Eu{sup +3} luminescence can be used to probe the relative degree of field induced structural ordering in relaxor ferroelectrics and also in high performance piezoelectric alloys where electric field couples very strongly with the lattice and structural degrees of freedom.

  3. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... (United States)


    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  4. Traditional foods from the Black Sea region as a potential source of minerals. (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia G; Costa, Helena S; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Santos, Mariana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Koçaoglu, Bike; Finglas, Paul


    In the past few years, minerals have assumed great importance in public health. As a consequence, considerable research has been carried out to better understand their physiological role and the health consequences of mineral-deficient diets, to establish criteria for defining the degree of public health severity of malnutrition, and to develop prevention and control strategies. In most countries, there is limited information on the mineral content of traditional foods, and consequently it is very difficult to estimate mineral intake across these countries. Ten minerals were quantified in 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries. Our results indicate a considerable variability among the analysed traditional foods; nevertheless, the most abundant components were sodium (ranging from 40.0 to 619 mg 100 g(-1), for kvass southern and herbal dish, respectively), potassium (varied between 45.5 mg 100 g(-1) for millet ale and 938 mg 100 g(-1) for roasted sunflower seeds), and phosphorus (22.2 mg 100 g(-1) and 681 mg 100 g(-1) for sauerkraut and roasted sunflower seeds, respectively). This is the first study that provides validated data on the mineral content for 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries, which is important in order to elucidate their role in the dietary pattern of populations and to preserve and promote these foods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari


    Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre-production, pu......Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre...

  6. Mineral Processing Sector (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  7. Word Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan


    The way constituents are ordered in a linguistic expression is determined by general principles and language specific rules. This article is mostly concerned with general ordering principles and the three main linguistic categories that are relevant for constituent order research: formal......, functional and semantic categories. The general principles appear to be motivated by cognitive considerations, which are deemed to facilitate language processing and which can all be regarded as manifestations of iconicity: non-arbitrary relations between the form and the content of a linguistic expression....... Three major iconic ordering principles are the principles of Domain Integrity, Scope, and Head Proximity....

  8. Epochs of intrusion-related copper mineralization in the Andes (United States)

    Sillitoe, R. H.

    Seventy-four copper deposits and prospects related intimately to intrusive activity in the Andes have been dated radiometrically during the last 18 years by many different investigators, most of whom used the KAr method. The results are summarized and some of their local and regional implications are reviewed. A number of copper deposits, mainly of the porphyry type, were emplaced in, or near to, premineral volcanic sequences and (or) equigranular plutons. Such precursor volcanism lasted for as long as 9 Ma, and preceded mineralization by intervals of from less than 1 Ma to as much as 9 Ma. Precursor plutons were emplaced no more than 2 to 3 Ma prior to mineralization at several localities in Chile, but possibly as long as 10 to 30 Ma earlier in parts of Colombia and Peru. The time separating emplacement of progenitor stocks and hydrothermal alteration and accompanying copper mineralization, and the duration of alteration-mineralization sequences generally are both less than the analytical uncertainty of the KAr method. However, on the basis of a detailed study of the Julcani vein system in Peru and less clearcut evidence from elsewhere, it may be concluded that alteration and copper mineralization followed stock or dome emplacement by substantially less than 1 Ma and lasted for 0.5 to 2 Ma and, locally, possibly as long as 3 Ma. At several localities, post-mineral magmatic activity could not be separated by the KAr method from the preceding alteration-mineralization events. As many as nine epochs of copper mineralization, ranging in age from late Paleozoic to late Pliocene-Pleistocene, are recognizable in the central Andes of Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, and at least four somewhat different epochs characterize the northern Andes of Colombia. Each epoch coincides with a discrete linear sub-belt, some of which extend for more than 2000 km along the length of the orogen. More than 90% of Andean copper resources, mainly as porphyry deposits, are

  9. An overview of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi


    Full Text Available Fluid flow is an integral part of hydrothermal mineralization, and its analysis and characterization constitute an important part of a mineralization model. The hydrodynamic study of mineralization deals with analyzing the driving forces, fluid pressure regimes, fluid flow rate and direction, and their relationships with localization of mineralization. This paper reviews the principles and methods of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization, and discusses their significance and limitations for ore deposit studies and mineral exploration. The driving forces of fluid flow may be related to fluid overpressure, topographic relief, tectonic deformation, and fluid density change due to heating or salinity variation, depending on specific geologic environments and mineralization processes. The study methods may be classified into three types, megascopic (field observations, microscopic analyses, and numerical modeling. Megascopic features indicative of significantly overpressured (especially lithostatic or supralithostatic fluid systems include horizontal veins, sand injection dikes, and hydraulic breccias. Microscopic studies, especially microthermometry of fluid inclusions and combined stress analysis and microthermometry of fluid inclusion planes (FIPs can provide important information about fluid temperature, pressure, and fluid-structural relationships, thus constraining fluid flow models. Numerical modeling can be carried out to solve partial differential equations governing fluid flow, heat transfer, rock deformation and chemical reactions, in order to simulate the distribution of fluid pressure, temperature, fluid flow rate and direction, and mineral precipitation or dissolution in 2D or 3D space and through time. The results of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization can enhance our understanding of the formation processes of hydrothermal deposits, and can be used directly or indirectly in mineral exploration.

  10. The Miner's Canary (United States)

    Guinier, Lani


    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  11. Mineral Fiber Toxicology (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  12. Minerals of Pohorje marbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Jeršek


    Full Text Available In the Pohorje Mts, mostly outcrops of calcite marble can be found, which in places turn into dolomite marbles.The protolith carbonate rocks contained also detritical minerals, which remained unchanged or formed new mineralsduring metamorphosis. Minerals in the Pohorje marbles that can be seen as crystals with the naked eye or 10x magnifyingloupe and with binocular microscope were investigated. With the aid of Raman microspectroscopy, SEM-EDSanalysis and on the basis of morphological characteristics, the presence of 17 different minerals or group of mineralswas confirmed. The most numerous and also the most significant were, apart from calcite, tremolite, diopside, grossularand epidote. For the first time, vesuvianite and scapolite were described in the Pohorje Mts. Particularly rich, as faras crystal faces are concerned, were the crystals of quartz that contained needle-like amphiboles. Other minerals thatwell supplemented the mineral paragenesis were different minerals of mica and chlorite group, feldspars, magnetite,titanite, pyrite and graphite. The determined mineral association revealed the mineral diversity of Pohorje marbles,offering us a new challenge for the investigation of the characteristics and conditions during the origin of this noblerock, which was highly esteemed already by the Romans, while today it is regaining its value and recognisability.

  13. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2018 (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.


    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  14. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.


    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  15. The application of stream sediment and heavy mineral exploratory methods on evaluation of mineralization potential in Soltan Meydan basalts, north of Shahroud

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehdi Hashemi Gahrouei; Behnam Shafiei; Gholamhossein. Shamanian; Hossein Taghizadeh


    In order to assess the potential of copper mineralization and its associated elements in Soltan Meydan basaltic formation situated in the north of Shahrud, the method of stream sediment and heavy mineral has been used...

  16. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits......The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  17. Work conditions and morbidity among coal miners in Guachetá, Colombia: The miners' perspective. (United States)

    Jiménez-Forero, Claudia P; Zabala, Ivonne T; Idrovo, Álvaro J


    Investigations in Colombia about work and health conditions in coal mining are scarce and few have focused on the perception of the exposed population and their behaviors in response to inherent risks. To determine the association between work conditions and the perception of morbidity among coal miners in Guachetá, Cundinamarca. A cross-sectional study was performed with 154 workers selected randomly from the total registered with the municipality. Information about social and demographic characteristics and work and health conditions in the mines was gathered. The prevalence was estimated for respiratory, musculoskeletal and auditory disorders. The associations between certain work conditions, and events with a prevalence over 30% were explored using bivariate and multivariate analyses with Poisson regressions with robust variance. Workers were mostly men. Ages ranged from 18 to 77 years. Most frequently reported health problems were: back pain (46.1 %), pain in an upper limb (40.3%), pain in a lower limb (34.4 %), and respiratory (17.5 %) and auditory problems (13.6 %). Significant differences in perception were found depending on time on the job and underground or ground work conditions. The most recognized risks were those associated with musculoskeletal disorders since they were closer in time to the work performed (time discount). Some actions to identify psychological traits are proposed in order to improve risk perception among coal miners.

  18. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone (United States)

    Martin, Bruce


    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  19. Mineral facilities of Europe (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric


    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (, and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  20. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar


    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  1. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards. (United States)

    Ingall, Ellery D; Brandes, Jay A; Diaz, Julia M; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Man-Made Mineral glass fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    of man made mineral wool fibres, and an improvement of the mechanical performances of man made mineral wool fibres are an evitable task for us. To do so, it is important to look into the fracture behaviour and its connection to the mechanical strength. In order to improve the understanding......; man-made mineral glass fibres. The basaltic melt is prevented from crystallizing due to the high cooling rate, forming the mineral glass wool fibres. Basaltic mineral wool fibres are of high interest in industry due to their good chemical durability and excellent heat and sound insulation properties...... and hence they are used for insulation products. In spite of those advantages, man made mineral wool fibres still show a certain degree of brittleness, which limits the further improvement of man made mineral wool fibres for both transportation and application. Therefore, a reduction in the brittleness...

  3. Characterization and modelling of the mechanical properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie


    Mineral wool designates a highly porous network of fibres drawn by spinning molten minerals. Traditionally, mineral wool products have found application as thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings. Recent concepts where mineral wool products are subjected to higher structural loads have emerged...... and as a consequence focus on the mechanical properties of mineral wool has intensified. Also understanding the deformation mechanisms during compression of low density mineral wool is crucial since better thickness recovery after compression will result in significant savings on transport costs. The mechanical...... based on image analysis to characterize the 3D structure of mineral wool materials in terms of fibre orientation, fibre diameter, contacts and pore size is proposed. The method uses 3D data obtained by X-ray tomography. The measured data are fitted to probability distributions in order to facilitate...

  4. sequenceMiner algorithm (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  5. Mineral spirits poisoning (United States)

    These substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some dry cleaning fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  6. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements (United States)

    ... Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  7. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009 (United States)



    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  8. [Synthetic mineral fibers]. (United States)

    Boillat, M A


    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (< or = 3-3.5 microns) and the length of the fibres (< 100 microns), their biopersistence, which is much shorter for man-made mineral fibres than for asbestos fibres, their physicochemical structure and surface properties, and the exposure level. The chemical composition of the various types of man-made mineral fibres depends directly on the raw material used to manufacture them. While naturally occurring fibres are crystalline in structure, most man-made mineral fibres are amorphous silicates combined with various metal oxides and additives. Observations using intracavitary administration have provided evidence that some types of man-made mineral fibres are bioactive in cellular and animal experiments and may induce lung tumours and mesothelioma. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies show more realistic results but differences are observed between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumours. There is no firm evidence that exposure to various wools is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. A possible exception may be mentioned for refractory ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are

  9. Fluid-rock interaction: mineral stability, mineral equilibria, and the propagation of metastable phases (United States)

    Harlov, D.


    The role of fluids in promoting mineral equilibria as a function of P-T-X has been documented for a variety of mineral systems both in nature as well as experimentally. In each of these cases, the rate at which equilibration occurs depends on fluid-mineral reactivity and upon the subsequent rate of dissolution- reprecipitation of the participating mineral phases (cf. review in Putnis, 2002, Mineral Mag, 66, 689). In rocks without a fluid phase, equilibration between mineral phases is entirely diffusion controlled. As a consequence, complete equilibration tends not to occur. This can then lead to the propagation of metastable mineral phases far beyond their P-T-X stability field over geological time scales. Examples of fluid-induced re-equilibration in mineral systems include formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib Mineral Petrol, 150, 268), metasomatically induced replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar (Putnis et al., 2006, Lithos, in press online), solid-state transformation of biotite and amphibole to pyroxenes (Harlov et al., 2006, J Petrol, 47, 3), formation of titantite reaction rims on ilmenite (Harlov et al., Lithos, 88, 72), and replacement of fluorapatite by Fe-bearing chlorapatite (Harlov et al., 2006, Eur J Mineral, 18, 233). In each of these examples, fluids of varying compositions, pH, and H2O activities are required to achieve both the re-equilibration of the mineral phases involved, via dissolution-reprecipitation, as well as whatever subsequent mass transfer may be required. In general this process, whether from nature or experimental, can be investigated on both the micron and nanometer scale utilizing a variety of techniques including SEM, TEM, EBSD, LA-ICPMS, SIMS and EMP analysis. Such procedures, coupled with textural analysis, then allows for a more complete understanding of fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer on scales ranging from nanometers to kilometers.

  10. Mineral Deposits and Mineral Potential of the Randsburg Wash Test Range. (United States)


    with realgar and abundant hematite that have impregnated irregular and discontinuous veins and bodies of milky white opal. Most of what people assumed to...small blotches, the colors of realgar , orpiment and sulfur. Detailed analysis of this material showed sufficient traces of arsenic to verify the

  11. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe


    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  12. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova


    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  13. In Situ identification of mineral resources with an X-ray-optical "Hand-Lens" instrument (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.


    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56).

  14. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.


    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based

  15. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant (Cij ) and bulk modulus. (KT) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (δT) as temperature-independent and then by treating δT as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when δT is ...

  16. Minerals safeguarding areas and mineral consultation areas for West Sussex


    Hannis, S.D.; Steadman, E. J.; Linley, K.A.; Newsham, R.


    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of West Sussex County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas and Mineral Consultation Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduc...

  17. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.


    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  18. High-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites (United States)

    Tomioka, Naotaka; Miyahara, Masaaki


    Heavily shocked meteorites contain various types of high-pressure polymorphs of major minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and quartz) and accessory minerals (chromite and Ca phosphate). These high-pressure minerals are micron to submicron sized and occur within and in the vicinity of shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in chondrites and lunar, howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED), and Martian meteorites. Their occurrence suggests two types of formation mechanisms (1) solid-state high-pressure transformation of the host-rock minerals into monomineralic polycrystalline aggregates, and (2) crystallization of chondritic or monomineralic melts under high pressure. Based on experimentally determined phase relations, their formation pressures are limited to the pressure range up to 25 GPa. Textural, crystallographic, and chemical characteristics of high-pressure minerals provide clues about the impact events of meteorite parent bodies, including their size and mutual collision velocities and about the mineralogy of deep planetary interiors. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the findings on natural high-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites that have been reported over the past 50 years.

  19. Comparison of authigenic minerals in sandstones and interbedded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanically infiltrated clays, grain-coating clay/hematite, quartz and feldspar overgrowths, carbonate cements and pore-filling and pore-lining clay minerals that precipitated in the sandy facies also precipitated in the fine-grained sediments. The abundance of authigenic minerals in decreasing order include: sandstone ...

  20. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization. (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae


    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  1. Predicting complex mineral structures using genetic algorithms. (United States)

    Mohn, Chris E; Kob, Walter


    We show that symmetry-adapted genetic algorithms are capable of finding the ground state of a range of complex crystalline phases including layered- and incommensurate super-structures. This opens the way for the atomistic prediction of complex crystal structures of functional materials and mineral phases.

  2. Minerals safeguarding areas for Warwickshire


    Hannis, S.D.; Brown, T J


    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of Warwickshire County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduces the obligation on all Miner...

  3. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar


    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  4. 30 CFR 243.8 - When will MMS suspend my obligation to comply with an order? (United States)


    ... with an order? 243.8 Section 243.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT... with the Bureau of Land Management for onshore leases, and MMS for OCS leases, as collateral for the...

  5. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  6. Stable Isotope Characteristics of Akiri Vein Copper Mineralization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Akiri vein copper mineralization was investigated for its carbon and oxygen isotopic composition to determine the characteristics of the mineralizing fluid. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of Akiri siderite range between δ13C values (-1.05 to -1.71‰) and δ13O values (-14.94 to -15.18) respectively. δ 13C isotopic ...

  7. Coexistence of short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) synthesized by high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Dang, E-mail: [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nanto, Dwi [Physics Education, Syarif Hidayatullah States Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Tuyen, Ngo Thi Uyen [Department of Natural Science, Nha Trang Pedagogic College, Nguyen Chanh, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa (Viet Nam); Nan, Wen-Zhe [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, YiKyung [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Tartakovsky, Daniel M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Yu, S.C., E-mail: [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)


    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) powders by the high energy ball milling technique, and then studied their critical properties. Our analysis reveals that the increase of Cu-doping concentration (up to x=0.3) in these powders leads to a gradual increase of the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition temperature from 406 to 452 K. The Banerjee criterion suggests that all the samples considered undergo a second-order phase transition. A modified Arrott plot and scaling analysis indicate that the critical exponents (β=0.419 and 0.442, γ=1.082 and 1.116 for x=0.0 and 0.1, respectively) are located in between those expected for the 3D-Heisenberg and the mean-field models; the values of β=0.495 and γ=1.046 for x=0.3 sample are very close to those of the mean-field model. These features reveal the coexistence of the short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in the nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al powders. Particularly, as the concentration of Cu increases, values of the critical exponent shift towards those of the mean-field model. Such results prove the Cu doping favors establishing a long-range ferromagnetic order. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al nanocrystals were prepared by a high energy ball milling method. • A coexistence of the short- and long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • Cu doping favors establishing a long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • All the ΔS{sub m}(T, H) data are followed a universal master curve.

  8. Topological signatures of medium range order in amorphous semiconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treacy, M. M. J.; Voyles, P. M.; Gibson, J. M.


    The topological local cluster (or Schlaefli cluster) concept of Marians and Hobbs is used to detect topologically crystalline regions in models of disordered tetrahedral semiconductors. The authors present simple algorithms for detecting both Wells-type shortest circuits and O'Keeffe-type rings, which can be used to delineate alternative forms of the Schlaefli cluster in models.

  9. Short range ordering and microstructure property relationship in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariq, A.


    A novel algorithm, ''Next Neighbourhood Evaluation (NNE)'', is enunciated during the course of this work, to elucidate the next neighbourhood atomic vicinity from the data, analysed using tomographic atom probe (TAP) that allows specifying atom positions and chemical identities of the next neighbouring atoms for multicomponent amorphous materials in real space. The NNE of the Pd{sub 55}Cu{sub 23}P{sub 22} bulk amorphous alloy reveals that the Pd atoms have the highest probability to be the next neighbours to each other. Moreover, P-P correlation corroborates earlier investigations with scattering techniques that P is not a direct next neighbour to another P atom. Analogous investigations on the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 20} metallic glass ribbons, in the as quenched state and for a state heat treated at 350 C for 1 hour insinuate a pronounced elemental inhomogeneity for the annealed state, though, it also depicts glimpse of a slight inhomogeneity for B distribution even for the as quenched sample. Moreover, a comprehensive microstructural investigation has been carried out on the Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy system. TEM and TAP investigations evince that the as cast bulk samples constitutes a composite structure of an amorphous phase and crystalline phase(s). The crystallization is essentially triggered at the mould walls due to heterogeneous nucleation. The three dimensional atomic reconstruction maps of the volume analysed by TAP reveal a complex stereological interconnected network of two phases. The phase that is rich in Zr and Al concentration is depleted in Co concentration while the phase that is rich in Co concentration is depleted both in Zr and Al. Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy splat samples exhibit a single exothermic crystallization peak contrary to the as cast bulk sample with a different T{sub g} temperature. A single homogeneous amorphous phase revealed by TEM investigations depicts that the faster cooling rate during splat quenching is sufficient for the vitrification of this alloy system. Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} bulk samples and splat samples, both exhibit very soft ferromagnetic properties. The heat treatment of as cast bulk sample results in an increase in net magnetization. The crystallization kinetics during the heat treatment, effects both the remanent magnetization, M{sub r} and coercivity, H{sub c} accordingly. Intriguingly, a salient increase in soft ferromagnetic properties is recorded for the heat treated splat samples. (orig.)

  10. Ferromagnetic Long Range Ordering in Copper(2) Maleate Monohydrate. (United States)


    Item 3 of Document Control Data - DD Form 1473. Copies of the form are available from the cognizant contract administrator . 88 U, <- Accession For seNTIS...thanks the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia for a partial fellowship. 10 References 1a) SYNTHECO, Inc., 1920 Industrial Pike, Gastonia, N.C

  11. Short-range order of germanium selenide glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Chalcogenide Ge20Se80 glass was prepared using the melt-quench technique. The radial distribution function is obtained from X-ray diffraction data in the scattering vector interval 0.28≤K≤ 6.87 Å−1. Reverse Monte. Carlo (RMC) simulations are useful to compute the partial pair distribution functions, gij (r), ...

  12. Maintaining Limited-Range Connectivity Among Second-Order Agents (United States)


    and R. M. Murray, “ Motion planning with wireless network constraints,” in American Control Conference, (Portland, OR), pp. 87–92, June 2005. 15 [7] M...we consider ad-hoc networks of robotic agents with double integrator dynamics. For such networks, the connectivity maintenance problems are: (i) do...hoc networks of mobile autonomous agents. This loose ter- minology refers to groups of robotic agents with limited mobility and communica- tion

  13. Short-range order of germanium selenide glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chalcogenide Ge20Se80 glass was prepared using the melt-quench technique. The radial distribution function is obtained from X-ray diffraction data in the scattering vector interval 0.28 ≤ ≤ 6.87 Å-1. ReverseMonte Carlo (RMC) simulations are useful to compute the partial pair distribution functions, g i j ( r ) , partial ...

  14. Vitamins and Minerals (United States)

    ... that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy ... Vitamin D Figuring Out Fat and Calories Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Vegan Food Guide Sports Supplements Food Labels Smart Snacking Calcium View more ...

  15. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))


    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Development of method for the mineral water catalase activity determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena М. Nikipelova


    Full Text Available Biological effects of mineral water depend not only on the chemical composition but also on the metabolic products of microbial cenosis. Among numerous microorganisms constituting the autochthonous microflora of mineral waters, we do evolve the saprophytic organisms producing the catalase, the saprophytes’ physiological and biological role being proven a long ago. The research aim was to develop a method for determination of mineral water catalase activity. Analyzed are various methods to determine the catalase activity in biological objects. Developed is a spectrophotometric method for determination of mineral water catalase activity. The method is efficiently tested with series of Ukrainian mineral waters. Calculated are the relative standard deviations which are significantly below normal errors, admitted at spectroscopic analysis and at the optic density range. The given method provides sufficient accuracy and convergence when estimating the mineral waters catalase activity, allowing to introduce a new index to assess the quality and biological value.

  17. [The mineral composition of the carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and dietary supplements for athletes]. (United States)

    Nikitiuk, D B; Novokshanova, A L; Abrosimova, S V; Gapparova, K M; Pozdniakov, A L


    In the article analyzes the macro- and trace element composition of sports drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives (BAA). The estimation of the mineral collection of these products compared with the recommended standards. Established mineral composition many of the carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives corresponds the physiology standards. However in some vitamin-mineral complexes and especially biologically active additives a number of minerals can be either unreasonably low or unreasonably high. Furthermore during labeling, mainly in the category D, a number of errors were revealed. Particularly there were lack of instructions about the number of declared ingredients, inaccuracies in the calculations of the daily requirement of mineral elements etc. Providing of an athlete organism with minerals should be carried out not only by carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and specialized BAA, but mainly through basal ration. Utilising of carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives can be justified only by the recommendations of experts. This is true not only in pro sports, but for the mass sports, as well as for individual physical training, in order to maintain physically fit.

  18. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  19. Mineral composition and preferred orientation of minerals in shales from Palaeozoic Baltic Basin (United States)

    Gąsiński, Arkadiusz


    Ordovician and Silurian rocks from the Palaeozoic Baltic Basin in northern Poland, often described simply as "shale", embrace a wide range of siliceos and argillaceous rocks. The little knowledge that is available about their detailed mineralogical is mainly limited to qualitative data, so the main aim of this work was to obtain their quantitative mineral composition, based on analysis of thin sections with SEM, FIB and EDS techniques supported by XRD data. The mineral composition of shales dictates their chemical properties and is also a major factor determining their physical properties, especially relating to their stability during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and hydrocarbon production. Knowledge of the mineral composition of different shales plays a very important role in identifying optimal proppants, fracture fluids and pumping schedules. The mineralogy of the shale is an important influence on total gas capacity. Carbonate-rich shales indicate adjacent carbonate platform and embayment succession origins, and commonly have a lower organic carbon content and porosity, and a corresponding lower gas capacity, than shales with lower carbonate content. All samples show a rather complex mineralogical composition with illite, micas, quartz, calcite, dolomite and chlorites as major minerals. It was possible to point out the microzones that contain higher amount of brittle minerals and therefore should be especially prone to cracking. Anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks is receiving increasing attention. This feature is very important for the prospecting for hydrocarbon deposits and for hydraulic fracturing. Anisotropy of diffusion has become relevant for environmental contaminants, including nuclear waste. In both cases, the orientation of component minerals is a critical ingredient. In this study I also show the orientation of different mineral components in shales with image analysis methods that allow me to characterize the shape of grains and its

  20. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Biondi


    Full Text Available The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars.

  1. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony


    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  2. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  3. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W


    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  4. Silicosis in barium miners. (United States)

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R


    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  5. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru


    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  6. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz


    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  7. Using an Engineered Protein Model to Constrain Protein-Mineral Interactions (United States)

    Chacon, S. S.; Reardon, P. N.; Washton, N.; Kleber, M.


    Exoenzymes are proteins that can catalyze the depolymerization of soil organic matter (SOM). Proteins can also be an important source of organic N for microorganisms, but must be fragmented into small peptides in order to be transported through their membranes. An exoenzyme's affinity to mineral surfaces found in soil affects their capacity to degrade SOM or other proteins. Our goal was to determine the range of modifications on proteins when they interact with a mineral surface. We hypothesized that pedogenic oxides would fragment or promote greater chemical modifications to a protein than phyllosilicates. A well-characterized protein proxy (Gb1, IEP 4.0, 6.2 kDA) was adsorbed onto functionally different mineral surfaces (goethite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and birnesite) at pH 5 and pH 7. We then generated three engineered proxies of Gb1 by inserting either negatively charged, positively charged or aromatic amino acids into the second loop. We used liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) and solution-state Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HSQC NMR) to observe modifications to Gb1 that was allowed to equilibrate during the adsorption process for kaolinite, goethite, birnessite, and montmorillonite. We also used Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) to determine which surface archetypes Gb1 preferentially adsorbed to as a function of the mineral type. The three engineered proxies were used to determine how variation of the amino acid sequence affects a protein interaction with a mineral surface. Preliminary results in the LC-MS/MS indicate that birnessite hydrolytically fragments Gb1 into polypeptides. Our results suggest that not all mineral surfaces in soil may act as sorbents for EEs and that chemical modification of their structure should also be considered as an explanation for decrease in EE activity. Our results also indicate an abiotic pathway for the turnover of proteins, although its relative

  8. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    by mechanical concentration and natural gravity separation of mineral particles derived from weathered rocks. The formation of placers requires factors such as: climate, source rock, weathering, transport, deposition, concentration, high specific gravity... and transport of the rocks. For example, in cold and glaciated regions, there would be limited physical weathering and less concentration and more dispersion of the weathered material and placers would not FE AT U R E FE AT U R E A RT IC LE form...

  9. A correlation exists between subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius and systemic bone mineral density. (United States)

    Rhee, Seung Hwan; Baek, Goo Hyun


    Intraarticular distal radius fractures are common and risk articular congruity owing to disruption of the subchondral bone. Studies regarding microstructure and mechanical properties of the distal radius, however, focus only on the cortical and trabecular bones in the metaphysis and not on the subchondral bone. This study was conducted to (1) quantify the regional bone mineral density of the subchondral plate in the distal radius; (2) analyze the topographic distribution pattern of the subchondral bone mineral density; and (3) evaluate the correlation between the subchondral bone mineral density and the potentially related clinical factors of age, height, weight, BMI, systemic bone mineral densities, socio-occupational classification, and hand osteoarthritis grading. Eighty postmenopausal women with a mean age of 68 years (range, 52-88 years) were enrolled in this study. Digital images of the distal radii of the subjects were scanned by conventional CT and processed to provide the regional bone mineral density of the subchondral plate using a CT osteoabsorptiometry technique. The estimated subchondral bone mineral density was analyzed to evaluate the topographic pattern and its correlation with various clinical factors, including age, height, weight, BMI, degree of hand osteoarthritis, socio-occupational class, and systemic bone mineral density measured in the lumbar spine and hip. During topographic analysis of a densitometric map, a bicentric distribution of the subchondral bone mineral density was found. Among the clinical factors, only the systemic bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spine had a significant correlation with the subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius. Systemic bone mineral density correlates substantially with the subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius as a constitutional factor, whereas other local factors arising from the gravitational load or joint

  10. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)


    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  11. Mineral Surface Rearrangement at High Temperatures: Implications for Extraterrestrial Mineral Grain Reactivity. (United States)

    King, Helen E; Plümper, Oliver; Putnis, Christine V; O'Neill, Hugh St C; Klemme, Stephan; Putnis, Andrew


    Mineral surfaces play a critical role in the solar nebula as a catalytic surface for chemical reactions and potentially acted as a source of water during Earth's accretion by the adsorption of water molecules to the surface of interplanetary dust particles. However, nothing is known about how mineral surfaces respond to short-lived thermal fluctuations that are below the melting temperature of the mineral. Here we show that mineral surfaces react and rearrange within minutes to changes in their local environment despite being far below their melting temperature. Polished surfaces of the rock and planetary dust-forming silicate mineral olivine ((Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 ) show significant surface reorganization textures upon rapid heating resulting in surface features up to 40 nm in height observed after annealing at 1200 °C. Thus, high-temperature fluctuations should provide new and highly reactive sites for chemical reactions on nebula mineral particles. Our results also may help to explain discrepancies between short and long diffusion profiles in experiments where diffusion length scales are of the order of 100 nm or less.

  12. Environmental situation and development of mineral raw material base in Russia (United States)

    Larikova, O. I.


    The necessity of the further development of mineral raw material base and exploration for new deposits in Russia, connected with the loss of traditional sources of mineral and raw material resources in the former USSR republics, let us to study several ecological problems of top priority: 1. To determine all natural factors that affect the development of mineral raw material base; to determine the availability of the Russian territory ranged according to the favorable conditions for the development of its mineral raw material base. 2. To determine all natural factors in order to find regions where natural environment is not capable of self-restoration and where additional burden resulted from deposits' development could cause irreversible environmental changes and ecological catastrophes. 3. To evaluate the main negative results arisen from deposits' development and to set up the complex of nature protection measures in order to reduce negative influence on the environment. To solve the first task, scientists from VIEMS and VNIIgeosystem have compiled the Atlas of electronic geo-ecological maps of Russia consisting of more than 20 digital geoecological maps grouped into 4 blocks: - natural factors, including continuous and discontinuous permafrost, seismological danger, avalanche and mudflow hazards, manifestation of exogenous geological processes; - unique natural resources and objects, including current and designed reservation parks, unique lake systems, areas used mainly by small-in-numbers peoples of the North; - hydro geological factors - rate of underground water resources in operation and provision of population with fresh underground water; - social and economic factors, including density and natural increase of population disease and mortality rates, the number of unemployed, etc. On the final map, the whole territory of Russia has been divided into 4 categories: - territories, where the law prohibits the exploration, - territories, those are adverse for

  13. Viscoelastic behavior of mineralized (CaCO3) chitin based PVP-CMC hydrogel scaffolds (United States)

    Čadež, Vida; Saha, Nabanita; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Saha, Petr


    Enhancement of the mechanical as well as functional properties of the perspective mineralized PVP-CMC-CaCO3 hydrogel scaffold applicable for bone tissue engineering is quite essential. Therefore, the incorporation feasibility of chitin, a bioactive, antibacterial and biodegradable material, was examined in order to test its ability to enchance mechanical properties of the PVP-CMC-CaCO3 hydrogel scaffold. Chitin based PVP-CMC hydrogels were prepared and characterized both as non-mineralized and mineralized (CaCO3) form of hydrogel scaffolds. Both α-chitin (commercially bought) and β-chitin (isolated from the cuttlebone) were individually tested. It was observed that at 1% strain all hydrogel scaffolds have linear trend, with highly pronounced elastic properties in comparison to viscous ones. The complex viscosity has directly proportional behavior with negative slope against angular frequency within the range of ω = 0.1 - 100 rad.s-1. Incorporation of β-chitin increased storage modulus of all mineralized samples, making it interesting for further research.

  14. Organic matter protection as affected by the mineral soil matrix: allophanic vs. non-allophanic volcanic ash soils (United States)

    Nierop, K. G. J.; Kaal, J.; Jansen, B.; Naafs, D. F. W.


    Volcanic ash soils (Andosols) contain the largest amounts of organic carbon of all mineral soil types. Chemical (complexes of organic matter with allophane, Al/Fe) and physical (aggregation) mechanisms are protecting the carbon from decomposition. While allophanic Andosols are dominated by short range order minerals such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite, organic matter-Al/Fe complexes dominate non-allophanic Andosols. Consequently, chemical interactions between the mineral soil matrix and organic matter differ between these two soil types. This difference could potentially lead to different organic matter compositions. In this study, the organic matter of Ah horizons of an allophanic Andosol with a non-allophanic Andosol from Madeira Island is compared using analytical pyrolysis. Both volcanic soil types showed a relative decrease of lignin-derived pyrolysis products with depth, but this decrease was more pronounced in the allophanic Andosol. Polysaccharides were more abundant in the allophanic Ah horizon, particularly at lower depth, and this was also the case for the non-plant-derived N-containing polysaccharide chitin. Most likely, these biopolymers are adsorbed onto short range order minerals such as allophane and therefore were better protected in the allophanic Andosol. In addition, the higher chitin contents combined with the more pronounced lignin degradation suggests a higher fungal activity. Aliphatic pyrolysis products (n-alkenes/n-alkanes, fatty acids) were relatively more enriched in the non-allophanic Andosol. Lower microbial activity caused by the more acidic pH and higher levels of (toxic) aluminium are the most plausible reasons for the accumulation of these compounds in the non-allophanic Andosol. Although the allophanic and non-allophanic Andosol resembled each other in containing biopolymer groups of the same orders of magnitudes, in particular the contents of chitin and aliphatic compounds were distinctly affected by the differences in

  15. Geochemical Investigation of Clay Minerals in Marte, Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Adams


    Full Text Available Clay deposit collected from various locations in Marte (Northern Borno, were studied to determine their physical and chemical characteristics in order to evaluate their suitability for industrial uses. Major and trace element analyses were carried out on clay samples using Inductively Couple Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES and X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF. The result of the chemical analysis of the ten (10 samples collected showed significant amounts of SiO2 and Al2O3. Silica content ranges from 51.48 to 62.44 % while alumina varies from 12.49 to 19.00 %. The calcium oxide ranges from 1.17 to 3.39 %, Na2O ranges from 1.1 to 8.61 %, K2O from 1.54 to 3.66 %, MgO varies from 0.04 to0.14 %, Fe2O3 varies from 0.3 to 2.7 % and MnO ranges from 0.01 to 1.03 %. The result showed that the clays are mainly smectite with quartz and felspar as the main non-clay minerals. Generally, the geochemical results of the samples do not meet the standard for industrial utilization when compared to the Industrial specifications. However, for industrial utilization, some of the clay samples may be used after necessary beneficiations.

  16. Nanofiltration renovation of mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodzek Michał


    Full Text Available There is often a need to improve the taste of mineral water by reducing the sulphate ion content. It was found that for such an effect, nanofiltration (NF process can be used. In the case, the proposed formula was assumed obtaining a mineral water with reduction of H2S and SO42- content through the following processes: stripping - UF/MF or rapid fi ltration - nanofiltration - mixing with raw water or filtration through calcium bed. The paper shows the results of the tests, with use of mineral waters and nanofiltration. Commercial nanofiltration membranes NF-270 Dow Filmtec and NF-DK GE Infrastructure Water&Process Technologies were applied. NF was carried out for mixed water from both water intakes (1 and 2, recovery of 50%, at transmembrane pressure of 0.8-1.2 MPa in the dead-end fi ltration mode. In addition, the permeate obtained in NF was filtered through a column fi lled with 1.0-3.0 mm limestone rock, in order to improve the composition of mineral water. The tested mineral water is the sulphate-chloride-sodium-calcium-magnesium in nature and contains 991 mg/L of SO42- and 2398 mg/L of TDS, while the permeate after NF showed the chloride - sodium hydrogeochemical type (TDS: 780-1470 mg/L, sulfate 10-202.7 mg/L, calcium 23-39.7 mg/L, magnesium 11-28 mg/L. As a result of water treatment in the NF process, high reduction of SO42- ions was obtained (79-98.7%, while the TDS was reduced in 51-64%. Because the process of NF allows for relatively high reduction of bivalent ions, a significant reduction in calcium ion content (84-88% and magnesium (84-89% has been also obtained. Monovalent ions were reduced to a lesser extent, i.e. sodium in 46% and bicarbonates in 39-64.1%. Despite obtaining the positive effect of the sulphate ions content reduction, the NF process significantly changed the mineralogy composition of water. The permeate filtration (DK-NF membrane on the CaCO3 deposit led to a correction of the hydrogeochemical type of water from

  17. Geoelectrical Signatures Of Microbial Stimulated Mineralization (United States)

    Personna, Y. R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; O Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.


    Bioremediation techniques are commonly utilized to address soil and groundwater contamination due to acid- mine drainage, industrial sources, and government nuclear weapon programs. One critical component of these efforts is the real time, spatially accurate monitoring of the remediation processes. For this reason non-invasive high resolution geophysical methods have been employed in the recent years to elucidate system transformations occurring during bioremediation. In our study, we performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of microbe-mediated iron sulfide (FeS) precipitation accompanying stimulated sulfate-reduction; a bioremediation technique currently utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. In order to monitor the biomineralization process, we used two geoelectrical methods - induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) - in conjunction with conventional geochemical measurements. The IP data showed significant anomalies associated with ongoing FeS mineralization accompanying microbial activity. The magnitude of the IP response can be considered a proxy for the mass of minerals accumulating in the pore space and may provide insight into the aggregation state of the mineralization. Additionally, strong SP anomalies developed during the mineralization as a result of the continuous redox state changes following the microbial induced mineral formation. Visibly black precipitates accumulated with the column indicating FeS precipitation, and high H2S content confirmed the observed geochemical and geophysical data. Overall, the results suggest that the IP and SP methods can be used to monitor the progress of the microbial induced mineralization process associated with the precipitation of insoluble metal sulfides, and indirectly monitor the microbial activity within the subsurface. These methods can be valuable tools to increase the efficiency of bioremediation techniques.

  18. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark


    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  19. Evaluation of accessible mineral surface areas for improved prediction of mineral reaction rates in porous media (United States)

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Steefel, Carl I.; Swift, Alexander M.; Voltolini, Marco; Yang, Li; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Sheets, Julia M.; Cole, David R.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Mitnick, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Shuo; Landrot, Gautier; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Mito, Saeko; Xue, Ziqiu


    The rates of mineral dissolution reactions in porous media are difficult to predict, in part because of a lack of understanding of mineral reactive surface area in natural porous media. Common estimates of mineral reactive surface area used in reactive transport models for porous media are typically ad hoc and often based on average grain size, increased to account for surface roughness or decreased by several orders of magnitude to account for reduced surface reactivity of field as opposed to laboratory samples. In this study, accessible mineral surface areas are determined for a sample from the reservoir formation at the Nagaoka pilot CO2 injection site (Japan) using a multi-scale image analysis based on synchrotron X-ray microCT, SEM QEMSCAN, XRD, SANS, and FIB-SEM. This analysis not only accounts for accessibility of mineral surfaces to macro-pores, but also accessibility through connected micro-pores in smectite, the most abundant clay mineral in this sample. While the imaging analysis reveals that most of the micro- and macro-pores are well connected, some pore regions are unconnected and thus inaccessible to fluid flow and diffusion. To evaluate whether mineral accessible surface area accurately reflects reactive surface area a flow-through core experiment is performed and modeled at the continuum scale. The core experiment is performed under conditions replicating the pilot site and the evolution of effluent solutes in the aqueous phase is tracked. Various reactive surface area models are evaluated for their ability to capture the observed effluent chemistry, beginning with parameter values determined as a best fit to a disaggregated sediment experiment (Beckingham et al., 2016) described previously. Simulations that assume that all mineral surfaces are accessible (as in the disaggregated sediment experiment) over-predict the observed mineral reaction rates, suggesting that a reduction of RSA by a factor of 10-20 is required to match the core flood

  20. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D.; Novack, Deborah


    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component to study. A standard for bone mineral clearly is needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers throughout most of the bone, but enrichment in and thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. FE-SEM shows the rostrum to consist mostly of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ~962 Δcm−1 and weak bands at ~2940 Δcm−1. Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (~8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral. PMID:23586370

  1. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral. (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D; Novack, Deborah


    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component of study. A standard for bone mineral is clearly needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is the documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers in most of the bone, but enrichment of thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy shows the rostrum mostly consists of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, i.e., Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ∼962 Δcm(-1) and weak bands at ∼2940 Δcm(-1). Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (∼8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral.

  2. Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pellicer


    Full Text Available The Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Ordered Mesoporous Nanomaterials” covers novel synthetic aspects of mesoporous materials and explores their use in diverse areas like drug delivery, photocatalysis, filtration or electrocatalysis. The range of materials tackled includes metals and alloys, aluminosilicates, silica, alumina and transition metal oxides. The variety of materials, synthetic approaches and applications examined is vivid proof of the interest that mesoporous materials spark among researchers world-wide.[...

  3. A topology of mineralization and its meaning for prospecting (United States)

    Neuerburg, G.J.


    Epigenetic mineral deposits are universal members of an orderly spatial and temporal arrangement of igneous rocks, endomorphic rocks, and hydrothermally altered rocks. The association and sequence of these rocks is invariant whereas the metric relations and configurations of the properties of these rocks are unlimited in variety. This characterization satisfies the doctrines of topology. Metric relations are statistical, and their modes are among the better guides to optimal areas for exploration. Metric configurations are graphically irregular and unpredictable mathematical surfaces like mountain topography. Each mineral edifice must be mapped to locate its mineral deposits. All measurements and observations are only positive or neutral for the occurrence of a mineral deposit. Effective prospecting is based on an increasing density of positive data with proximity to the mineral deposit. This means sampling for maximal numbers of positive data, pragmatically the highest ore-element assays at each site, by selecting rock showing maximal development of lode attributes.

  4. Characterization of environmental exposure to mineral sands by PDMS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias da Cunha, K. E-mail:; Rickman, R.D. E-mail:; Barros Leite, C.V. E-mail:


    The risk to human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of metals present in the urine sample of an individual environmentally exposed to mineral sands airborne particles. Aerosol samples were collected at a Brazilian region with high concentration of mineral sands (Buena village), using a six-stage cascade impactor. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) determined indicated that the airborne particulate was in the fine fraction of the aerosols. In order to characterize human exposure to mineral sands dust a sample from one inhabitant was analyzed by PDMS. The analysis of the results shows that the inhabitant incorporated metals from mineral sands and suggests that the source of aerosols is the mineral processing plant located at the village.

  5. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees. (United States)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W; English, Christopher J; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany


    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.

  6. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia


    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  7. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour


    Full Text Available Introduction The Irankuh mining district area located at the southern part of the Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt, south of Isfahan, consists of several Zn-Pb deposits and occurrences such as Tappehsorkh, Rowmarmar 5, Kolahdarvazeh, Blind ore, and Gushfil deposits as well as Rowmarmar 1-4 and Gushfil 1 prospects. Based on geology, alteration, form and texture of mineralization, and paragenesis assemblages, Pb-Zn mineralization is Mississippi-type deposit (Rastad, 1981; Ghazban et al., 1994; Ghasemi, 1995; Reichert, 2007; Timoori-Asl (2010; Ayati et al., 2013; Hosseini-Dinani et al., 2015. Geology of the area consists of Jurassic siltstone and shale and different types of Cretaceous dolostone and limestone. The aim of this research is new geological studies such as revision of old geologic map, study of different types of textures and mineral assemblages within carbonate and clastic host rocks, and chemistry of galena, sphalerite, and dolomite. Finally, we combined these results with isotopic and fluid inclusion data and discussed on ore-fluid conditions. Materials and Methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, 200 thin and 70 polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and galena and sphalerite minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JAX-8230 analyzer at Colorado University, USA. The chemistry of dolomite and fluid inclusion data are used after Boveiri Konari and Rastad (2016 and stable isotope is used after Ghazban et al. (1994. Discussion The Irankuh mineralization is hosted by carbonate rocks (dolostone and limestone and minor clastic rocks as epigenetic. Mineralization has occurred as breccia, veinlet, open space filling, spoted, dessiminated, and replacement (carbonate hosted rock. The mineral assemblages are Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, minor pyrite, Fe- and Mn-rich dolomite, bituminous, ankrite, calcite ± quartz ± barite

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2008 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  10. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.


    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  11. Experimental Constraints on Microbial Liberation of Structural Iron from Common Clay Minerals in Marine Sediments (United States)

    Metcalfe, K. S.; Gaines, R. R.; Trang, J.; Scott, S. W.; Crane, E. J.; Lackey, J.; Prokopenko, M. G.; Berelson, W.


    Iron is a limiting nutrient in many marine settings. The marine Fe-cycle is complex because Fe may be used as an electron donor or acceptor and cycled many times before ultimate burial in sediments. Thus, the availability of iron plays a large role in the marine carbon cycle, influencing not only the extent of primary productivity but also the oxidation of organic matter in sediments. The primary constituents of marine sediments are clay minerals, which commonly contain lattice-bound Fe in octahedral sites. In marine settings, the pool of Fe bound within silicate mineral lattices has long been considered reactive only over long timescales, and thus non-bioavailable. In vitro experimental evidence has shown that lab cultures of Fe-reducing bacteria are able to utilize structurally-bound Fe (III) from the crystal lattice of nontronite, an uncommon but particularly Fe-rich (> 12 wt.%) smectite. Importantly, this process is capable of liberating Fe (II) to solution, where it is available to biotic processes as an electron donor. In order to constrain the capacity of naturally-occurring marine bacteria to liberate structurally-coordinated Fe from the lattices of common clay minerals, we exposed a suite of 16 different clay minerals (0.8-13.9 wt.% Fe) to lab cultures of known Fe-reducer S. onenidensis MR-1 and to a natural consortium of Fe-reducing microbes from the San Pedro and Santa Monica Basins over timescales ranging from 7-120 days. Clay minerals were treated with Na-dithionite to extract surface-bound Fe prior to exposure. Crystallographic data and direct measurements of Fe in solution demonstrate the release of structural Fe from all clay minerals analyzed. Neoformation of illite and amorphous quartz were observed. The array of clay minerals and microbes used in this experiment complement past findings and suggest that common clay minerals may represent a large and previously unrecognized pool of bioavailable Fe in the world ocean that contributes significantly

  12. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Rutledge


    Full Text Available This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a specific type. Quebracho is most commonly used in industry as a method to separate fluorite from calcite, which is traditionally quite challenging as both minerals share a common ion—calcium. Other applications for quebracho in flotation with calcite minerals as the main gangue source include barite and scheelite. In sulfide systems, quebracho is a key reagent in differential flotation of copper, lead, zinc circuits. The use of quebracho in the precipitation of germanium from zinc ores and for the recovery of ultrafine gold is also detailed in this work. This analysis explores the wide range of uses and methodology of quebracho in the extractive metallurgy field and expands on previous research by Iskra and Kitchener at Imperial College entitled, “Quebracho in Mineral Processing”.

  13. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics (United States)

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.


    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  14. Biological-Chemical Oxidation of Ore Minerals at Pezinok Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chovan


    Full Text Available The article presents results of leaching experiments of the comparison between chemical and biological-chemical leaching, at the same conditions in solution, of ores from the Sb-(Au- base metal deposit Pezinok (Malé Karpaty Mts., Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The research study shows the oxidation order and the progression of present ore minerals (löllingite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, native Sb, gudmundite, berthierite, pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. There are discussed differences between chemical and biological-chemical leaching activity of various ore minerals at the surface of polished sections. The extent of the leaching of sulphide minerals is significantly higher than that without bacteria.

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.


    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  16. Quantification of mineral elements of Rheum emodi Wallr. (Polygonaceae). (United States)

    Singh, Pramod; Negi, Jagmohan S; Rawat, Mohan S M; Nee Pant, Geeta Joshi


    Present investigation was carried out to estimate mineral elements in Rheum emodi Wallr. by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples of R. emodi Wallr., both wild and cultivate populations, were collected from different localities at different altitudes of Uttarakhand, India. The concentration of micro- and macroelements was different in roots and leaves. The concentration of mineral elements was found in both the leaves and roots in the order of K > Ca > Fe > Mn > Na > Zn > Co > Li > Cu.

  17. Lightning detection and ranging (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.


    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  18. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    distributions. The next goal of this work is to investigate if modeling methods developed in the studies of single mineral components can be generalized to predict the optical properties of more authentic aerosol samples which are complex mixtures of different minerals. Samples of Saharan sand, Iowa loess, and Arizona road dust are used here as test cases. T-matrix based simulations of the authentic samples, using measured particle size distributions, empirical mineralogies, and a priori particle shape models for each mineral component are directly compared with the measured IR extinction spectra and visible scattering profiles. This modeling approach offers a significant improvement over more commonly applied models that ignore variations in particle shape with size or mineralogy and include only a moderate range of shape parameters. Mineral dust samples processed with organic acids and humic material are also studied in order to explore how the optical properties of dust can change after being aged in the atmosphere. Processed samples include quartz mixed with humic material, and calcite reacted with acetic and oxalic acid. Clear differences in the light scattering properties are observed for all three processed mineral dust samples when compared to the unprocessed mineral dust or organic salt products. These interactions result in both internal and external mixtures depending on the sample. In addition, the presence of these organic materials can alter the mineral dust particle shape. Overall, however, these results demonstrate the need to account for the effects of atmospheric aging of mineral dust on aerosol optical properties. Particle shape can also affect the aerodynamic properties of mineral dust aerosol. In order to account for these effects, the dynamic shape factor is used to give a measure of particle asphericity. Dynamic shape factors of quartz are measured by mass and mobility selecting particles and measuring their vacuum aerodynamic diameter. From this, dynamic

  19. Minerals, markets and open access


    Mitchell, Clive


    Minerals, Markets and Open Access Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a world-leading geological survey that focuses on public-good science for government and research to understand earth and environmental processes. The BGS is the UK provider of spatial and statistical minerals information, in addition it carries out research in areas such as metallogenesis, land-use im...

  20. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    ThSiO 4 ; Cassiterite 6.8 - 7.0 6 1/2 SnO 2 ; Wolframite 7.1 - 7.5 4 1/2 (Fe,Mn)WO 4 ; Uraninite 7.5 - 10 5-6 UO 2 ; Cinnabar 8.0 - 8.2 2 1/2 HgS; Platinum 14 - 19 4 Pt Gold 15.6 - 19.3 2 1/2 Au 33 Amphibole Muscovite Quartz... Ca-plagioclose Ca-Na-plagioclose Pyroxene Na. Plagioclose K. Felspar Mineral Sp. Gravity Hardness Composition Tourmaline 3.1 7 NaMg 3 Al 6 B 3 Si 6 O 27 (OH, F) 4 ; Diamond 3.5 10 C; Topaz 3.6 8 Al 2 SiO 4 (P, OH) 2 ; Garnet 3.8 - 4.2 7...

  1. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products. (United States)

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K


    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. The 'Delft' system for mineral identification. Vol. 1. 'Opaque minerals'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, R.A.; Prins, J.J.; Roorda, H.J.


    University of Technology by the late Professor A.H. van der Veen, about half a century ago, and ever since it has been part of the curriculum for students in mining and mineral engineering. Teaching students to identify minerals by means of reflected-light microscopy has always been a matter of

  3. The Role of Protein-Mineral Interactions for Protein Adsorption or Fragmentation (United States)

    Chacon, S. S.; Reardon, P.; Washton, N.; Kleber, M.


    Soil exo-enzymes (EE) are proteins with the capability to catalyze the depolymerization of soil organic matter (SOM). SOM must be disassembled by EEs in order to be transported through the microbial cell wall and become metabolized. One factor determining an EE's functionality is their affinity to mineral surfaces found in the soil. Our goal was to establish the range of protein modifications, either chemical or structural, as the protein becomes associated with mineral surfaces. We hypothesized that pedogenic oxides would generate more extensive chemical alterations to the protein structure than phyllosilicates. A well-characterized protein proxy (Gb1, IEP 4.0, 6.2 kDA) was adsorbed onto functionally different mineral surfaces (goethite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and birnesite) at pH 5 and pH 7. We used 1H 15N Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (HSQC NMR) to observe structural modifications in the unadsorbed Gb1 that was allowed to equilibrate during the adsorption process for kaolinite, goethite and birnessite. Solid state NMR was used to observe the structural modifications of Gb1 while adsorbed onto kaolinite and montmorillonite. Preliminary results in the HSQC NMR spectra observed no changes in the native conformation of Gb1 when allowed to interact with goethite and kaolinite while birnessite induced strong structural modification of Gb1 at an acidic pH. Our results suggest that not all mineral surfaces in soil act as sorbents for EEs and changes in their catalytic activity upon adsorption to minerals surfaces may not just be an indication of conformational changes but of fragmentation of the protein itself.

  4. Dependence of simulations of long range transport on meteorology, model and dust size (United States)

    Mahowald, N. M.; Albani, S.; Smith, M.; Losno, R.; Marticorena, B.; Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Qu, Z.


    Mineral aerosols interact with radiation directly, as well as modifying climate, and provide important micronutrients to ocean and land ecosystems. Mineral aerosols are transported long distances from the source regions to remote regions, but the rates at which this occurs can be difficult to deduce from either observations or models. Here we consider interactions between the details of the simulation of dust size and long-range transport. In addition, we compare simulations of dust using multiple reanalysis datasets, as well as different model basis to understand how robust the mean, seasonality and interannual variability are in models. Models can provide insight into how long observations are required in order to characterize the atmospheric concentration and deposition to remote regions.

  5. Minerals, Inorganic Substances (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI ...

  6. Hydrogeomorphology influences soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in floodplain wetlands (United States)

    Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Rybicki, Nancy B.


    Conceptual models of river–floodplain systems and biogeochemical theory predict that floodplain soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization should increase with hydrologic connectivity to the river and thus increase with distance downstream (longitudinal dimension) and in lower geomorphic units within the floodplain (lateral dimension). We measured rates of in situ soil net ammonification, nitrification, N, and P mineralization using monthly incubations of modified resin cores for a year in the forested floodplain wetlands of Difficult Run, a fifth order urban Piedmont river in Virginia, USA. Mineralization rates were then related to potentially controlling ecosystem attributes associated with hydrologic connectivity, soil characteristics, and vegetative inputs. Ammonification and P mineralization were greatest in the wet backswamps, nitrification was greatest in the dry levees, and net N mineralization was greatest in the intermediately wet toe-slopes. Nitrification also was greater in the headwater sites than downstream sites, whereas ammonification was greater in downstream sites. Annual net N mineralization increased with spatial gradients of greater ammonium loading to the soil surface associated with flooding, soil organic and nutrient content, and herbaceous nutrient inputs. Annual net P mineralization was associated negatively with soil pH and coarser soil texture, and positively with ammonium and phosphate loading to the soil surface associated with flooding. Within an intensively sampled low elevation flowpath at one site, sediment deposition during individual incubations stimulated mineralization of N and P. However, the amount of N and P mineralized in soil was substantially less than the amount deposited with sedimentation. In summary, greater inputs of nutrients and water and storage of soil nutrients along gradients of river–floodplain hydrologic connectivity increased floodplain soil nutrient mineralization rates.

  7. (MEPE) mineralization ability in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    expression and bone mineralization after the addition of glycerophosphate to osteoblast culture medium. MEPE plays a significant role in osteoblast-mediated minera- lization. These dentin-specific proteins are expressed by fully differentiated odontoblasts prior to the onset of mineralization (D'Souza et al., 1992; Bronckers ...

  8. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor


    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  9. Mineral Resources and the Environment. (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  10. From Mountain Men to Miners. (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.


    Examines three of the changes wrought by coal mining: (1) the miner's working conditions; (2) the establishment of company towns; and (3) the violence that ensued when miners from Harlan County, Kentucky, referred to as "Bloody Harlan," tried to better their lives by joining labor unions. (CMK)

  11. Removal of cadmium in aqueous solution using wheat straw biochar: effect of minerals and mechanism. (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Shisuo


    The biochars were produced from wheat straw (WSBC) at different pyrolytic temperatures. Biochars were characterized by multiple instrumental techniques and were applied to remove Cd from aqueous solution. The removal mechanism was explored, and the quantitative information regarding the relative contribution of related mechanisms to Cd sorption on biochars was provided. The results showed that pseudo-second-order kinetic model, TC (two-compartment) model, and Freundlich isotherm could well fit the process of Cd sorption on biochars. The sorption could be divided into fast and slow adsorption stages. The order of the Cd removal capacity by biochar was WSBC700 > WSBC500 > WSBC300. Adsorption amount of Cd by biochar reduced when the biochar was rinsed with 1.0 M HCl, which indicated that acid-soluble minerals in biochar played an important role during the Cd removal process, especially for the biochar obtained at high pyrolytic temperature. Various equipments were used to investigate the interaction mechanism between biochar and Cd. Mineral precipitation, surface complexation, and cation-π interaction were the main mechanisms of Cd sorption on the biochars. The contribution of cation-π mechanism was in the range of 25.42-48.58%, 2.18-19.30% for surface complexation and 32.12-72.41% for mineral precipitation, respectively. The pyrolytic temperature significantly influenced the removal capacity and mechanism of Cd on biochars. The cation-π mechanism was predominant for biochar obtained at lower pyrolytic temperature. However, mineral precipitation mechanism played a crucial role for biochar obtained at high pyrolytic temperature. These results are helpful for the design or screening of "engineered biochar" to act as sorbents to remove or immobilized Cd in polluted soil or water. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  12. Mineral oil paraffins in human body fat and milk. (United States)

    Concin, Nicole; Hofstetter, Gerda; Plattner, Barbara; Tomovski, Caroline; Fiselier, Katell; Gerritzen, Kerstin; Fessler, Siegfried; Windbichler, Gudrun; Zeimet, Alain; Ulmer, Hanno; Siegl, Harald; Rieger, Karl; Concin, Hans; Grob, Koni


    Paraffins of mineral oil origin (mineral paraffins) were analyzed in tissue fat collected from 144 volunteers with Caesarean sections as well as in milk fat from days 4 and 20 after birth of the same women living in Austria. In the tissue samples, the composition of the mineral paraffins was largely identical and consisted of an unresolved mixture of iso- and cycloalkanes, in gas chromatographic retention times ranging from n-C(17) to n-C(32) and centered at n-C(23)/C(24). Since the mineral oil products we are exposed to range from much smaller to much higher molecular mass and may contain prominent n-alkanes, the contaminants in the tissue fat must be a residue from selective uptake, elimination by evaporation and metabolic degradation. Concentrations varied between 15 and 360 mg/kg fat, with an average of 60.7 mg/kg and a median of 52.5 mg/kg. Mineral paraffins might be the largest contaminant of our body, widely amounting to 1g per person and reaching 10 g in extreme cases. If food were the main source, exposure data would suggest the mineral paraffins being accumulated over many years or even lifetime. The milk samples of day 4 contained virtually the same mixture of mineral paraffins as the tissue fat at concentrations between 10 and 355 mg/kg (average, 44.6 mg/kg; median, 30 mg/kg). The fats from the day 20 milks contained paraffins (average, 21.7; median, 10mg/kg), whereby almost all elevated concentrations were linked with a modified composition, suggesting a new source, such as the use of breast salves. The contamination of the milk fat with mineral paraffins seems to decrease more rapidly than for other organic contaminants, and the transfer of mineral paraffins to the baby amounts to only around 1% of that in the body of the mother.

  13. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.


    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  14. Non-invasive Optical Characterization of Biomaterial Mineralization (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Hunter, Martin; Cebe, Peggy; Levitt, Jonathan M.; Kaplan, David L.; Georgakoudi, Irene


    Current approaches to study biomaterial mineralization are invasive and prevent dynamic characterization of this process within the same sample. Polarized light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) may offer a non-invasive alternative for assessing the levels of mineraliazation as well as some aspects of the organization of the mineral deposits. Specifically, we used LSS to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite deposits on three types of silk films (water-annealed, methanol-treated and poly aspartic acid (PAA)-mixed) following 1, 3, 5 and 7 cycles of mineralization. We found that the total light scattering intensity provided a quantitative measure of the degree of mineralization as confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The PAA-mixed silk films yielded the highest level of mineral deposition and the water-annealed ones the least, consistent with the β sheet content of the films prior to the onset of mineralization. The wavelength dependence of the singly backscattered light was consistent with a self-affine fractal morphology of the deposited films within scales in the range of 150 to 300 nm; this was confirmed by Fourier analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the corresponding films. The deposits of minerals in the water-annealed films were predominantly flake-like, with positively correlated density fluctuations (Hurst parameter, H>0.5), whereas methanol-treated and PAA-mixed silk films resulted in densely-packed, bulk mineral deposits with negatively correlated density fluctuations (H<0.5). Therefore, LSS could serve as a valuable tool for understanding the role of biomaterial properties in mineral formation, and, ultimately, for optimizing biomaterial designs that yield mineral deposits with the desired organization. PMID:18313137

  15. [Mechanism of tritium persistence in porous media like clay minerals]. (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Jie; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Teng, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Ni


    To investigate the mechanisms of tritium persistence in clay minerals, three types of clay soils (montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite) and tritiated water were used in this study to conduct the tritium sorption tests and the other related tests. Firstly, the ingredients, metal elements and heat properties of clay minerals were studied with some instrumental analysis methods, such as ICP and TG. Secondly, with a specially designed fractionation and condensation experiment, the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in the clay minerals separated from the tritium sorption tests were fractionated for investigating the tritium distributions in the different types of adsorptive waters. Thirdly, the location and configuration of tritium adsorbed into the structure of clay minerals were studied with infrared spectrometry (IR) tests. And finally, the forces and mechanisms for driving tritium into the clay minerals were analyzed on the basis of the isotope effect of tritium and the above tests. Following conclusions have been reached: (1) The main reason for tritium persistence in clay minerals is the entrance of tritium into the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in clay minerals. The percentage of tritium distributed in these three types of adsorptive water are in the range of 13.65% - 38.71%, 0.32% - 5.96%, 1.28% - 4.37% of the total tritium used in the corresponding test, respectively. The percentages are different for different types of clay minerals. (2) Tritium adsorbed onto clay minerals are existed in the forms of the tritiated hydroxyl radical (OT) and the tritiated water molecule (HTO). Tritium mainly exists in tritiated water molecule for adsorbed water and interlayer water, and in tritiated hydroxyl radical for structural water. (3) The forces and effects driving tritium into the clay minerals may include molecular dispersion, electric charge sorption, isotope exchange and tritium isotope effect.

  16. Mineral Commodity Profiles: Selenium (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Brown, R.D.


    Overview -- Selenium, which is one of the chalcogen elements in group 16 (or 6A) of the periodic table, is a semiconductor that is chemically similar to sulfur for which it substitutes in many minerals and synthetic compounds. It is a byproduct of copper refining and, to a much lesser extent, lead refining. It is used in many applications, the major ones being a decolorizer for glass, a metallurgical additive to free-machining varieties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys, a constituent in cadmium sulfoselenide pigments, a photoreceptor in xerographic copiers, and a semiconductor in electrical rectifiers and photocells. Refined selenium amounting to more than 1,800 metric tons (t) was produced by 14 countries in 2000. Japan, Canada, the United States, and Belgium, which were the four largest producers, accounted for nearly 85 percent of world production. An estimated 250 t of the world total is secondary selenium, which is recovered from scrapped xerographic copier drums and selenium rectifiers; the selenium in nearly all other uses is dissipated (not recoverable as waste or scrap). The present selenium reserve bases for the United States and the world (including the United States), which are associated with copper deposits, are expected to be able to satisfy demand for selenium for several decades without difficulty.

  17. Electron diffraction study of the sillenites Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39}: Evidence of short-range ordering of oxygen-vacancies in the trivalent sillenites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurti, Craig A.; Arenas, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Auvray, Nicolas [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d’Instrumentation Optique - UMR CNRS 6279, Université Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France); Lufaso, Michael W. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Takeda, Seiji [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kohno, Hideo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 Japan (Japan)


    We present an electron diffraction study of three sillenites, Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}, Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39}, and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} synthesized using the solid-state method. We explore a hypothesis, inspired by optical studies in the literature, that suggests that trivalent sillenites have additional disorder not present in the tetravalent compounds. Electron diffraction patterns of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} and Bi{sub 25}InO{sub 39} show streaks that confirm deviations from the ideal sillenite structure. Multi-slice simulations of electron-diffraction patterns are presented for different perturbations to the sillenite structure - partial substitution of the M site by Bi{sup 3+}, random and ordered oxygen-vacancies, and a frozen-phonon model. Although comparison of experimental data to simulations cannot be conclusive, we consider the streaks as evidence of short-range ordered oxygen-vacancies.

  18. Mineralization and leaching process in the Jian copper deposit, northeastern Fars province: Application of petrography and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Moore


    Full Text Available Introduction One of the first principles in the formation of a reserve is mineralogical, construction and mineral textures studies and investigation of paragenetic relations in the ore minerals. In addition, to petrographic studies, isotopic investigates have wide applications in economic geology. In general, copper isotope variability in primary (high temperature mineralization forms a tight cluster, in contrast to secondary mineralization, which has a much larger isotope range. A distinct pattern of heavier copper isotope signatures is evident in supergene samples, and a lighter signature characterizes the leached cap and oxidation-zone minerals. This relationship has been used to understand oxidation–reduction processes (Hoefs, 2009. Also for a better understanding of the origin of the Jian Cu deposit, this research focuses on the origin and composition of the fluid and elucidation of its evolution during the mineralization process. In order to achieve this end, field observations, vein petrography, microthermometry of fluid inclusions and stable isotope analyses of veins and minerals were investigated. The present study also compares high and low temperature sulfide samples in an attempt to document and explain diagnostic δ65Cu ranges in minerals from the Jian deposit. Materials and methods The samples were taken from different depths to measure Cu isotope variations within each reservoir. Mineralogical composition was determined using X-ray diffractometry. In addition, chromatographic separation was carried out on all samples (except for native Cu samples in a clean lab and was conducted as outlined in Mathur et al. (Mathur et al., 2009. These samples were measured into a Multicollector Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS, the Micro mass Isoprobe at the University of Arizona in low resolution mode using a microconcentric nebulizer to increase sensitivity for the samples with lower concentrations of copper. Preparation

  19. Economic drivers of mineral supply (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.


    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of water, solution, and clay mineral-water systems (Invited) (United States)

    Kawamura, K.


    Clays and clay minerals together with zeolites are major mineral components in the earth's surface environment. These minerals interact with the atmosphere, natural water, inorganic and organic components in soils, etc. Physicochemical processes in the surface region are generally complex and difficult to understand because of the complicated "molecular" structures and the ambient conditions under wet circumstances. We have investigated the structure and physical/dynamical properties of the mineral-gas/liquid systems by means of molecular simulation methods; molecular dynamics and Metropolis Monte Carlo methods. Swelling of smectite and adsorption of inorganic molecules in clay minerals and zeolites, etc. were simulated and analyzed on the basis of the atomic and molecular processes. We have developed atomic and molecular interaction models of inorganic systems. The models compose of electrostatic, short range repulsive, van der Waals and covalent (radial and angular) terms with respect to all the elements appeared in the mineral-water systems. All of our molecular dynamics simulations (MD) were performed with full degree of freedom of atom motions. Using the model for H2O molecule, the structure and physical properties such as density, diffusion coefficients, etc. of ice polymorphs and water are well reproduced. Alkaliharide aqueous solutions and gas hydrates and their (hydrophobic) solutions are also reasonably simulated. Clay mineral-water interactions are particularly important to understand the mechanical and chemical processes in the environments, in order to develop nano-composite materials, and to use clays in engineering applications. Absorption and swelling are the most remarkable properties of clay minerals, specially smectite. We have investigate these properties by means of molecular simulation methods using various clay minerals-water/solution systems. The swelling curves, the relation between humidity and the basal spacings, were reproduced

  1. Characterization of Italian honeys (Marche Region on the basis of their mineral content and some typical quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucina Domenico


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of three types of Marche (Italy honeys (Acacia, Multifloral, Honeydew was carried out on the basis of the their quality parameters (pH, sugar content, humidity and mineral content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Mn. Pattern recognition methods such as principal components analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were performed in order to classify honey samples whose botanical origins were different, and identify the most discriminant parameters. Lastly, using ANOVA and correlations for all parameters, significant differences between diverse types of honey were examined. Results Most of the samples' water content showed good maturity (98% whilst pH values were in the range 3.50 – 4.21 confirming the good quality of the honeys analysed. Potassium was quantitatively the most relevant mineral (mean = 643 ppm, accounting for 79% of the total mineral content. The Ca, Na and Mg contents account for 14, 3 and 3% of the total mineral content respectively, while other minerals (Cu, Mn, Fe were present at very low levels. PCA explained 75% or more of the variance with the first two PC variables. The variables with higher discrimination power according to the multivariate statistical procedure were Mg and pH. On the other hand, all samples of acacia and honeydew, and more than 90% of samples of multifloral type have been correctly classified using the LDA. ANOVA shows significant differences between diverse floral origins for all variables except sugar, moisture and Fe. Conclusion In general, the analytical results obtained for the Marche honeys indicate the products' high quality. The determination of physicochemical parameters and mineral content in combination with modern statistical techniques can be a useful tool for honey classification.

  2. The role of clay minerals in the preservation of organic matter in sediments of qinghai lake, NW China (United States)

    Yu, B.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Lv, G.; Eberl, D.; Li, S.; Kim, J.


    The role of saline lake sediments in preserving organic matter has long been recognized. In order to further understand the preservation mechanisms, the role of clay minerals was studied. Three sediment cores, 25, 57, and 500 cm long, were collected from Qinghai Lake, NW China, and dissected into multiple subsamples. Multiple techniques were employed, including density fractionation, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon compound analyses, and surface area determination. The sediments were oxic near the water-sediment interface, but became anoxic at depth. The clay mineral content was as much as 36.8%, consisting mostly of illite, chlorite, and halloysite. The TEM observations revealed that organic matter occurred primarily as organic matter-clay mineral aggregates. The TOC and clay mineral abundances are greatest in the mid-density fraction, with a positive correlation between the TOC and mineral surface area. The TOC of the bulk sediments ranges from 1 to 3% with the non-hydrocarbon fraction being predominant, followed by bitumen, saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chloroform-soluble bitumen. The bimodal distribution of carbon compounds of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction suggests that organic matter in the sediments was derived from two sources: terrestrial plants and microorganisms/algae. Depthrelated systematic changes in the distribution patterns of the carbon compounds suggest that the oxidizing conditions and microbial abundance near the water-sediment interface promote degradation of labile organic matter, probably in adsorbed form. The reducing conditions and small microbial biomass deeper in the sediments favor preservation of organic matter, because of the less labile nature of organic matter, probably occurring within clay mineral-organic matter aggregates that are inaccessible to microorganisms. These results have important implications for our

  3. Phase Composition Maps integrate mineral compositions with rock textures from the micro-meter to the thin section scale (United States)

    Willis, Kyle V.; Srogi, LeeAnn; Lutz, Tim; Monson, Frederick C.; Pollock, Meagen


    Textures and compositions are critical information for interpreting rock formation. Existing methods to integrate both types of information favor high-resolution images of mineral compositions over small areas or low-resolution images of larger areas for phase identification. The method in this paper produces images of individual phases in which textural and compositional details are resolved over three orders of magnitude, from tens of micrometers to tens of millimeters. To construct these images, called Phase Composition Maps (PCMs), we make use of the resolution in backscattered electron (BSE) images and calibrate the gray scale values with mineral analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The resulting images show the area of a standard thin section (roughly 40 mm × 20 mm) with spatial resolution as good as 3.5 μm/pixel, or more than 81 000 pixels/mm2, comparable to the resolution of X-ray element maps produced by wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS). Procedures to create PCMs for mafic igneous rocks with multivariate linear regression models for minerals with solid solution (olivine, plagioclase feldspar, and pyroxenes) are presented and are applicable to other rock types. PCMs are processed using threshold functions based on the regression models to image specific composition ranges of minerals. PCMs are constructed using widely-available instrumentation: a scanning-electron microscope (SEM) with BSE and EDS X-ray detectors and standard image processing software such as ImageJ and Adobe Photoshop. Three brief applications illustrate the use of PCMs as petrologic tools: to reveal mineral composition patterns at multiple scales; to generate crystal size distributions for intracrystalline compositional zones and compare growth over time; and to image spatial distributions of minerals at different stages of magma crystallization by integrating textures and compositions with thermodynamic modeling.

  4. Mineral induction by immobilized phosphoproteins (United States)

    Saito, T.; Arsenault, A. L.; Yamauchi, M.; Kuboki, Y.; Crenshaw, M. A.


    Dentin phosphoproteins are thought to have a primary role in the deposition of mineral on the collagen of dentin. In this study we determined the type of binding between collagen and phosphoproteins necessary for mineral formation onto collagen fibrils and whether the phosphate esters are required. Bovine dentin phosphophoryn or phosvitin from egg yolk were immobilized on reconstituted skin type I collagen fibrils by adsorption or by covalent cross-linking. In some samples the ester phosphate was removed from the covalently cross-linked phosphoproteins by treatment with acid phosphatase. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C in metastable solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. Reconstituted collagen fibrils alone did not induce mineral formation. The phosphoproteins adsorbed to the collagen fibrils desorbed when the mineralization medium was added, and mineral was not induced. The mineral induced by the cross-linked phosphoproteins was apatite, and the crystals were confined to the surface of the collagen fibrils. With decreasing medium saturation the time required for mineral induction increased. The interfacial tensions calculated for apatite formation by either phosphoprotein cross-linked to collagen were about the same as that for phosphatidic acid liposomes and hydroxyapatite. This similarity in values indicates that the nucleation potential of these highly phosphorylated surfaces is about the same. It is concluded that phosphoproteins must be irreversibly bound to collagen fibrils for the mineralization of the collagen network in solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. The phosphate esters of phosphoproteins are required for mineral induction, and the carboxylate groups are not sufficient.

  5. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru


    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... The mining of bodies of our solar system like the Moon, Mars and the asteroid belt can provide abundant energy resources such as helium 3 and minerals such as potassium, rare earth elements, iron...

  7. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology]. (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole


    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print ... here’s what you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Timoracká


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the grown locality on minerals and risky metal intake from the soil and on polyphenols formation in the soybean seeds. The research was realised in five localities of Slovakia using the seven soybean varieties. From the point of the soil hygiene, all determined values of heavy metals content in soils were lower than given hygienic limits, with the exception of Cd. Minerals and heavy metals contents in the soybean samples show significant differences between cultivars and localities. The values show imbalance between the potassium contents and other minerals. The order of the elements levels was determined as following: Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr ≈ Co > Cd. The risky elements contents, with exception of Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni content (only in some localities, did not exceed a limit for legumes by Food Codex SR. The total polyphenols content ranged from 817.6 to 1281.0 μg eq. tannic acid/g and suggest the variety dependence, but the locality influence was not significantly confirmed.

  10. Derivation of elastic stiffness from site-matched mineral density and acoustic impedance maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raum, Kay [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, CNRS/Universite Paris 6, UMR 762315, rue de l' Ecole de Medecine, 75006 Paris (France); Q-BAM Group, Department of Orthopedics, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 22, 06097 Halle (Germany); Cleveland, Robin O [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, CNRS/Universite Paris 6, UMR 762315, rue de l' Ecole de Medecine, 75006 Paris (France); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, 110 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Peyrin, Francoise [CREATIS, CNRS, UMR 5515, INSERM, U630, INSA, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); ESRF, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Laugier, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, CNRS/Universite Paris 6, UMR 762315, rue de l' Ecole de Medecine, 75006 Paris (France)


    200 MHz acoustic impedance maps and site-matched synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR-{mu}CT) maps of tissue degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) were used to derive the elastic coefficient c{sub 33} in cross sections of human cortical bone. To accomplish this goal, a model was developed to relate the DMB accessible with SR-{mu}CT to mass density. The formulation incorporates the volume fractions and densities of the major bone tissue components (collagen, mineral and water), and accounts for tissue porosity. We found that the mass density can be well modelled by a second-order polynomial fit to DMB (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and appears to be consistent with measurements of many different types of mineralized tissues. The derived elastic coefficient c{sub 33} correlated more strongly with the acoustic impedance (R{sup 2} = 0.996) than with mass density (R{sup 2} = 0.310). This finding suggests that estimates of c{sub 33} made from measurements of the acoustic impedance are more reliable than those made from density measurements. Mass density and elastic coefficient were in the range between 1.66 and 2.00 g cm{sup -3} and 14.8 and 75.4 GPa, respectively. Although SAM inspection is limited to the evaluation of carefully prepared sample surfaces, it provides a two-dimensional quantitative estimate of elastic tissue properties at the tissue level.

  11. THz Spectroscopic Identification of Red Mineral Pigments in Ancient Chinese Artworks (United States)

    Yang, Yuping; Zhai, Dongwei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Zhang, Cunlin


    Nondestructive analysis of historical objects is of significance for cultural heritage conservation. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to distinguish seven red mineral pigments used in ancient Chinese artworks. Two absorption features of natural minerals HgS and four highly resolved spectral features of mineral pigment Pb3O4 were observed and identified as their fingerprints in the range 0.2 to 3.0 THz, based on which the spatial distribution of individual chemical substances including cinnabar, vermilion, and red lead were clearly revealed at various frequencies using terahertz spectroscopy imaging. Moreover, a noncontact evaluation of thickness changing and dehydration of a wet painting was monitored by inferring time delay as well as signal amplitude of THz pulses transmitted through the painting. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of THz-TDS and THz imaging for authentic artworks detection, a complete set of THz analysis of two nineteenth century wall paintings discovered in the Fuchen Temple of the Forbidden City, Beijing, was performed and the results indicate that THz measurement techniques provide a noninvasive and nondestructive solution for the care, preservation, and restoration of cultural relics.

  12. Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils (United States)

    Georgiadis, Marios; Müller, Ralph; Schneider, Philipp


    Bone's remarkable mechanical properties are a result of its hierarchical structure. The mineralized collagen fibrils, made up of collagen fibrils and crystal platelets, are bone's building blocks at an ultrastructural level. The organization of bone's ultrastructure with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils has been the matter of numerous studies based on a variety of imaging techniques in the past decades. These techniques either exploit physical principles, such as polarization, diffraction or scattering to examine bone ultrastructure orientation and arrangement, or directly image the fibrils at the sub-micrometre scale. They make use of diverse probes such as visible light, X-rays and electrons at different scales, from centimetres down to nanometres. They allow imaging of bone sections or surfaces in two dimensions or investigating bone tissue truly in three dimensions, in vivo or ex vivo, and sometimes in combination with in situ mechanical experiments. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss this broad range of imaging techniques and the different modalities of their use, in order to discuss their advantages and limitations for the assessment of bone ultrastructure organization with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils. PMID:27335222

  13. Critical mineral resources of the United States—An introduction (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    Many changes have taken place in the mineral resource sector since the publication by the U.S. Geological Survey of Professional Paper 820, “United States Mineral Resources,” which is a review of the long-term United States resource position for 65 mineral commodities or commodity groups. For example, since 1973, the United States has continued to become increasingly dependent on imports to meet its demands for an increasing number of mineral commodities. The global demand for mineral commodities is at an alltime high and is expected to continue to increase, and the development of new technologies and products has led to the use of a greater number of mineral commodities in increasing quantities to the point that, today, essentially all naturally occurring elements have several significant industrial uses. Although most mineral commodities are present in sufficient amounts in the earth to provide adequate supplies for many years to come, their availability can be affected by such factors as social constraints, politics, laws, environmental regulations, land-use restrictions, economics, and infrastructure.This volume presents updated reviews of 23 mineral commodities and commodity groups viewed as critical to a broad range of existing and emerging technologies, renewable energy, and national security. The commodities or commodity groups included are antimony, barite, beryllium, cobalt, fluorine, gallium, germanium, graphite, hafnium, indium, lithium, manganese, niobium, platinum-group elements, rare-earth elements, rhenium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium. All these commodities have been listed as critical and (or) strategic in one or more of the recent studies based on assessed likelihood of supply interruption and the possible cost of such a disruption to the assessor. For some of the minerals, current production is limited to only one or a few countries. For many, the United States currently has no mine production or any

  14. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Minerals and Rocks (United States)

    McLaren, Alex C.


    Of the many techniques that have been applied to the study of crystal defects, none has contributed more to our understanding of their nature and influence on the physical and chemical properties of crystalline materials than transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM is now used extensively by an increasing number of earth scientists for direct observation of defect microstructures in minerals and rocks. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Rocks and Minerals is an introduction to the principles of the technique and is the only book to date on the subject written specifically for geologists and mineralogists. The first part of the book deals with the essential physics of the transmission electron microscope and presents the basic theoretical background required for the interpretation of images and electron diffraction patterns. The final chapters are concerned with specific applications of TEM in mineralogy and deal with such topics as planar defects, intergrowths, radiation-induced defects, dislocations and deformation-induced microstructures. The examples cover a wide range of rock-forming minerals from crustal rocks to those in the lower mantle, and also take into account the role of defects in important mineralogical and geological processes.

  15. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi


    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  16. Range management visual impacts (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel


    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  17. Low temperature CO2 mineralization into basalt: solution chemistry and secondary mineral assemblages (United States)

    Gysi, A.; Stefánsson, A.


    CO2 represents one of the most abundant acid supplies in nature and has an important impact on element fluxes and water chemistry on the Earth surface. CO2 emissions due to increased industrialization are causing an important imbalance in this surface system and affect the global climate. Therefore, different methods to trap CO2 are developed and studied in response to the CO2 increase. CO2 sequestration into secondary minerals is considered as one possible way of reducing those CO2 levels. The Carbfix project is a pilot study in SW Iceland aiming to inject CO2-loaded waters from the Hellisheidi geothermal powerplant into basaltic rock formations. The goal is to mineralize CO2 by reacting Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 ions released by the basalt into carbonates. We investigated the geochemical aspects of CO2-water-basalt interaction at pCO2 between 0-20 bar and temperatures of 25-40°C by combining experiments and numerical modelling. The aim of our studies are to gain a better understanding of the key reactions, mass fluxes and porosity changes associated to CO2-water-basalt interaction. Modelling results show that at low reaction progress (pH 8) the main stable minerals precipitating from solution are (Ca)-Mg-Fe clays, Ca-Mg carbonates and zeolites (Gysi and Stéfansson 2008). Laboratory experiments were performed by reacting basaltic glass with aqueous solutions initially saturated at pCO2 ranging between 0-10 bar at 40°C for 120 days. Results from solution chemistry show that there are three different element mobility behaviors: i) Si+4 and Al+3 dissolve non-stochiometrically and/or precipitate into secondary minerals independent of the intial pCO2 and the water/rock ratios used in the experiments, b) Ca+2 and Mg+2 dissolve stochiometrically independent of the initial pCO2, but precipitate into secondary minerals at high water/rock ratios and low initial pCO2 after about 100 days, c) elements like Fe show a mixed behavior from mobile to immobile depending on the

  18. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.


    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  19. A kinetic approach to evaluate salinity effects on carbon mineralization in a plant residue-amended soil. (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad R


    The interaction of salinity stress and plant residue quality on C mineralization kinetics in soil is not well understood. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of salinity stress on C mineralization kinetics in a soil amended with alfalfa, wheat and corn residues. A factorial combination of two salinity levels (0.97 and 18.2 dS/m) and four levels of plant residues (control, alfalfa, wheat and corn) with three replications was performed. A first order kinetic model was used to describe the C mineralization and to calculate the potentially mineralizable C. The CO(2)-C evolved under non-saline condition, ranged from 814.6 to 4842.4 mg CO(2)-C/kg in control and alfalfa residue-amended soils, respectively. Salinization reduced the rates of CO(2) evolution by 18.7%, 6.2% and 5.2% in alfalfa, wheat and corn residue-amended soils, respectively. Potentially mineralizable C (C(0)) was reduced significantly in salinized alfalfa residue-treated soils whereas, no significant difference was observed for control treatments as well as wheat and corn residue-treated soils. We concluded that the response pattern of C mineralization to salinity stress depended on the plant residue quality and duration of incubation.

  20. Serum leptin, bone mineral density and the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Linjuan; Pan, Zhanpeng; Zeng, Yanjun


    Previously reported fracture rates in patients with spinal cord injury range from 1% to 20%. However, the exact role of spinal cord injury in bone metabolism has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effects of serum leptin and bone mineral density on the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury, 15 male SCI patients and 15 matched controls were involved in our study. The outcome indicated that at 4 and 8 weeks after bone fracture, callus production in patients with spinal cord injury was lower than that in controls. Besides, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, it was found that at each time point, patients with spinal cord injury had significantly higher serum leptin levels than controls and no association was found between serum leptin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, bone mineral density was positively correlated with bone formation in both of the groups. These findings suggest that in early phases i.e. week 4 and 8, fracture healing was impaired in patients with spinal cord injury and that various factors participated in the complicated healing process, such as hormonal and mechanical factors.

  1. A Study on the Analysis of Minerals and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun-Han; Shim, Sang-Kwon; Lee, Kil-Yong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)


    This study is concerned with the analysis of rare earth group elements especially (Lanthanum, Cerium, Praseodymium and Neodymium) in minerals and materials. Rare elements are widely used as electric, electronics, catalysts, optics, materials of super conductors. They are found wide applications in metallurgy and alloy, glass industry. Cerium, the dominant member of often-overlooked lanthanide series, is essential to many industries. Its metallurgical applications alone include use as an alloying agent or as an ingredient in coatings for iron and steel, superalloys, aluminum alloys, aluminum electrowinning, chrome plating and in welding electrodes and lighter flints. Other applications range the gamut from optical coating and radiation detection to fluorescent lighting and chemotherapy. They are found in many items of electronics industry and serve to an increasing extent as a form of investment. Rare earth elements occurs in traces in most minerals and materials. They are extracted in minute quantities from a limited number of ores. They are concentrated and separated from each other by elaborate chemical processes. In this survey, effects of various acid concentration, diverse interfering elements, various decomposition methods were observed for the determination of Lanthanum, Cerium. Praseodymium and Neodymium using standard reference materials by ICP-AES. As the results, for the determination of these elements should be separated form matrix elements by separated concentration method. Also in order to confirm specification of samples, major, minor and trace elements in samples should be analyzed by ICP-AES and XRF. All analytical results of Lanthanum, Cerium, Praseodymium and Neodymium in standard reference sample and real samples compare with the NAA. Finally the relative standard deviations of approximately 1% S are found from the precision study using standard reference sample for Lanthanum, Cerium, Praseodymium and Neodymium. (author). 22 refs., 33 tabs., 10

  2. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  3. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V


    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  4. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    , stable BET values can be obtained by increasing the outgassing time without heating iron oxides. For quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite, stableBETvalues were obtained after outgassing the minerals at 100 to 250±C for 2 h. However, outgassing these minerals at room temperature (20±C) only resulted...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  5. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka


    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  6. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  7. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M


    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  8. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals (United States)


    ... greater public awareness of the source of issuers' conflict minerals and to promote the exercise of due... directly relate to the manufacturing of the product); (2) the issuer affixes its brand, marks, logo, or...

  9. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich


    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  10. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  11. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  12. Clays and other minerals in prebiotic processes (United States)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.


    Clays and other minerals have been investigated in context with prebiotic processes, mainly in polymerization of amino acids. It was found that peptides adsorbed on the clay, prior to polymerization, influence the reaction. The ratio between the amount of the peptides adsorbed and that of the clay is important for the yield as well as for the degrees of polymerization obtained. Adsorption prior to reaction produces a certain order in the aggregates of the clay particles which might induce better reaction results. Excess of added peptides disturbs this order and causes lesser degrees of polymerization. In addition to adsorption, clays are also able to occlude between their layers substances out of the environment, up to very high concentrations.

  13. Emotions and personality traits in former mercury miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Kobal Grum


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg° on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. The study groups included 53 ex-mercury miners previously exposed to Hg° and 53 age-matched controls. Their previous occupational exposure, as well as some biological indices of actual non-occupational exposure, were evaluated. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and the Emotional States Questionnaire (ESQ. Group differences were analyzed through the application of ANOVA software. The relationship between the indices of previous occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated by machine learning methods (regression trees. The mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg° in intervals – cycles for a period of 7-31 years at air Hg° concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 0.45 mg/m3. The miners' mean cycle urine mercury (U-Hg level (range 20–120 μg/L and cumulative U-Hg level (range 1286–21390 μg/L were very high. The present non-occupational exposure to mercury was very low in both groups. The low extraversion and lie scores shown by EPQ suggest that miners are more introverted and sincere. The results obtained from ESQ indicate that mercury miners tend to be more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions (indifference, and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than the controls. The tendency towards emotional rigidity, negative self-concept, and partly also introversion seems to be associated with some biological indices of occupational Hg° exposure, but not the lower score of lie found in miners. Higher occupational Hg° exposure (cycles U-Hg level > 38.7 mg/L in interaction with moderate alcohol consumption (<26 ml/day seems to have had a decisive influence on the development of miners' depression. Despite the limitations, long-term intermittent, substantial exposure to Hg° in

  14. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers (United States)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef


    In presented research the lignite coal, peat, poultry droppings and their composts were suggested as a components of mineral-organic fertilizers. Fertility of soil is conditioned by an ability to supply plants with water and nutrients essential to their growth and development. The soil is described as tri-phase system consisting of solid, liquid and gas phase. In solid phase the soil minerals and organic matter can be distinguished. The content of micro-organisms contained in the soil i.e. microfauna and microflora is indispensable for high soil fertility. Nutrients should occur in the forms available for plants in order to obtain high yields of the high quality crops. Organic fertilizing has versatile activity. Increasing contents of humus, providing mineral nutrients included in organic substance and the improvement in physical properties of the soil belong to its main purposes. Due to applying organic fertilizers heavy soils is getting loosen and in consequence become more airy what probably influences stimulation of soil micro-organisms activity. An aqueous as well as sorption capacity of light soils is also increasing, buffer range and the stabilization of the proper level of pH value of the soil, plants are provided with basic macro and micronutrients. Conventional organic fertilizers applied in an arable farms are manure, dung, green manures and composts of different kind. Within compost group the following types can be distinguished: compost from farming, urban wastes, shredded straw, poultry droppings, industrial wastes, bark of coniferous tree etc. Properly developed fertilizer formulas should contain in their composition both mineral as well as organic elements. Such fertilizer should fit its composition to the soil and plant requirements. It should contain organic substance being characterized by a high aqueous and cations sorption capacity, substance undergoing the fast mineralization with the large calcium content. Inorganic substances e.g. bentonites

  15. [Mineral water as a cure]. (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz


    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  16. Minnesota Pheasant Range (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  17. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  18. Entomophagy among the Luo of Kenya: a potential mineral source?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Orech, Francis O; Mungai, Michael N


    Primary objective To determine the iron, zinc, and calcium content in different insects commonly eaten among the Luo of Kenya. Research design A cross-sectional design was chosen for the study in order to determine the insects eaten and their mineral content during a specific season.Methods and p...

  19. On the Adsorption of Some Anionic Collectors on Fluoride Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil


    Test flotations have been carried out in a small apparatus under standardized conditions in order to determine the dependence of the flotation yield on the reagent concentration for certain minerals and anionic collectors. The results suggest that a special adsorption mechanism is operating...

  20. Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kanji


    Full Text Available Ice nucleation in the atmosphere is central to the understanding the microphysical properties of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. Ambient conditions such as temperature (T and relative humidity (RH, as well as aerosol properties such as chemical composition and mixing state play an important role in predicting ice formation in the troposphere. Previous field studies have reported the absence of sulfate and organic compounds on mineral dust ice crystal residuals sampled at mountain top stations or aircraft based measurements despite the long-range transport mineral dust is subjected to. We present laboratory studies of ice nucleation for immersion and deposition mode on ozone aged mineral dust particles for 233 T ns are reported and observed to increase as a function of decreasing temperature. We present first results that demonstrate enhancement of the ice nucleation ability of aged mineral dust particles in both the deposition and immersion mode due to ageing. We also present the first results to show a suppression of heterogeneous ice nucleation activity without the condensation of a coating of (inorganic material. In immersion mode, low ozone exposed Ka particles showed enhanced ice activity requiring a median freezing temperature of 1.5 K warmer than that of untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD particles showed suppressed ice nucleation requiring a median freezing temperature of 3 K colder than that of untreated ATD. In deposition mode, low exposure Ka had ice active fractions of an order of magnitude higher than untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD had ice active fractions up to a factor of 4 lower than untreated ATD. From our results, we derive and present parameterizations in terms of ns(T that can be used in models to predict ice nuclei concentrations based on available aerosol surface area.

  1. Fe-Impregnated Mineral Colloids for Peroxide Activation: Effects of Mineral Substrate and Fe Precursor. (United States)

    Li, Yue; Machala, Libor; Yan, Weile


    Heterogeneous iron species at the mineral/water interface are important catalysts for the generation of reactive oxygen species at circumneutral pH. One significant pathway leading to the formation of such species arises from deposition of dissolved iron onto mineral colloids due to changes in redox conditions. This study investigates the catalytic properties of Fe impregnated on silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles (as prototypical mineral colloids). Fe impregnation was carried out by immersing the mineral nanoparticles in dilute Fe(II) or Fe(III) solutions at pH 6 and 3, respectively, in an aerobic environment. The uptake of iron per unit surface area follows the order of nTiO2 > nAl2O3 > nSiO2 for both types of Fe precursors. Impregnation of mineral particles in Fe(II) solutions results in predominantly Fe(III) species due to efficient surface-mediated oxidation. The catalytic activity of the impregnated solids to produce hydroxyl radical (·OH) from H2O2 decomposition was evaluated using benzoic acid as a probe compound under dark conditions. Invariably, the rates of benzoic acid oxidation with different Fe-laden particles increase with the surface density of Fe until a critical density above which the catalytic activity approaches a plateau, suggesting active Fe species are formed predominantly at low surface loadings. The critical surface density of Fe varies with the mineral substrate as well as the aqueous Fe precursor. Fe impregnated on TiO2 exhibits markedly higher activity than its Al2O3 and SiO2 counterparts. The speciation of interfacial Fe is analyzed with diffuse reflectance UV-vis analysis and interpretation of the data in the context of benzoic oxidation rates suggests that the surface activity of the solids for ·OH generation correlates strongly with the isolated (i.e., mononuclear) Fe species. Therefore, iron dispersed on mineral colloids is a significant form of reactive iron surfaces in the aquatic environment.

  2. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus


    employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...

  3. Biochar effect on the mineralization of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bruun


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify whether the addition of biochar to the soil affects the degradation of litter and of soil organic matter (SOM. In order to investigate the effect of biochar on the mineralization of barley straw, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled barley straw with or without unlabelled biochar. To investigate the effect of straw on the mineralization of biochar, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled biochar with or without straw. In addition, to investigate the effect of biochar on old SOM, a soil labelled by applying labelled straw 40 years ago was incubated with different levels of biochar. All experiments had a control treatment, without any soil amendment. The effect of biochar on the straw mineralization was small and nonsignificant. Without biochar, 48±0.2% of the straw carbon was mineralized within the 451 days of the experiment. In comparison, 45±1.6% of C was mineralized after biochar addition of 1.5 g kg-1. In the SOM-labelled soil, the organic matter mineralized more slowly with the increasing doses of biochar. Biochar addition at 7.7 g kg-1 reduced SOM mineralization from 6.6 to 6.3%, during the experimental period. The addition of 15.5 g kg-1 of biochar reduced the mineralized SOM to 5.7%. There is no evidence of increased degradation of either litter or SOM due to biochar addition; consequently, there is no evidence of decreased stability of SOM.

  4. Relationship between sediment clay minerals and total mercury. (United States)

    Kongchum, Manoch; Hudnall, Wayne H; DeLaune, R D


    A group of 262 sediment samples were collected from various lakes, rivers, reservoirs, and bayous of Louisiana. All samples were analyzed for total mercury. Twenty nine of the samples with total mercury content ranging from 11 to 401 ppb (μg/kg) were analyzed for clay minerals and other sediment physical and chemical properties. Clay content in sediments varied from 3 to 72%. Clay minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Identification of clay minerals was determined by MacDiff software and quantification of clay minerals was obtained by Peak Height Percentage (PHP) calculation. The dominant clay mineral was Hydrated Interlayer Vermiculite (HIV), which represented 51-83% of the total clay mineral. Significant linear correlations were observed between Hg and total clay content (r=0.538**). However Smectite was the only individual clay type correlated (r=0.465**) with mercury in sediment. Cation exchange capacity (r=0.404*), organic matter (r=0.577**), and sulfur (r=0.676**) were also correlated significantly with mercury level in sediment.

  5. Origins of life: From the mineral to the biochemical world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Jean-François


    Full Text Available In this brief review, we summarize the most influential scenarios in origins-of-life studies that have resorted to minerals surfaces. The influence of the pre-existing mineral world on the organization of matter towards the living state may have manifested at several steps in the rise towards higher complexity. Small biomolecules such as amino acids formed on mineral surfaces of interstellar dust, meteorites or comets prior to their delivery to the primordial Earth. Mineral surfaces are known to promote the polymerization of these small molecules to the corresponding biopolymers (e.g. amino acids to proteins, and they may have oriented this polymerization to the formation of specific structures. Crucial steps of protometabolism could have originated on the surface of sulfide minerals. The most daring view of the prebiotic role of minerals holds that some of them may have carried genetic information subject to darwinian selection prior to the rise of nucleic acids, today's genetic material. Finally, porous structures ranging from the nanometer to the micrometer probably helped protect the first proto-organisms from dilution and other damage. Future studies are expected to see progress towards molecular-level characterization, and to start accounting for the complexity of the prebiotic environment.

  6. Mineral accumulation in vegetative and reproductive tissues during seed development in Medicago truncatula (United States)

    Enhancing nutrient density in legume seeds is one of several strategies being explored to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. In order to develop crop varieties with increased seed mineral concentration, a more detailed understanding of mineral translocation within the plant is requi...

  7. Effect of reactive surface area of minerals on mineralization and carbon dioxide trapping in a depleted gas reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolourinejad, P.; Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Herber, R.


    In this study, a long-term (up to 1000 years) geochemical modelling of subsurface CO2 storage was carried out on sandstone reservoirs of depleted gas fields in northeast Netherlands. It was found that mineral dissolution/precipitation has only a minor effect on reservoir porosity. In order to

  8. The use of volcanic soil as mineral landfill liner--I. Physicochemical characterization and comparison with zeolites. (United States)

    Navia, Rodrigo; Hafner, Georg; Raber, Georg; Lorber, Karl E; Schöffmann, Elke; Vortisch, Walter


    The main physicochemical characteristics of the volcanic soil of Southern Chile, with allophane as the main pedogenic mineral phase were analysed and compared with common zeolites (clinoptilolite) of the European market. The ultimate goal of this study was to test volcanic soil for the use as mineral landfill liner. The main results indicated that the clay and silt fractions together of the volcanic soil were between 38 and 54%. The buffering capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared with the studied zeolites, whereas the cationic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil (between 5.2 and 6.5 cmol + kg(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of the studied zeolites (between 9.7 and 11.4 cmol + kg(-1)). Moreover, the anionic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared to the zeolites analysed. The hydraulic conductivity of the volcanic soil, measured in the laboratory at maximum proctor density, ranges between 5.16 x 10(-9) and 6.48 x 10(-9) m s(-1), a range that is comparable to the value of 4.51 x 10(-9) m s(-1) of the studied zeolite. The Proctor densities of the volcanic soil are in a lower range (between 1.11 and 1.15 g ml(-1)) compared with zeolites (between 1.19 and 1.34 g ml(-1)). The volcanic soil physicochemical characteristics are comparable to all the requirements established in the Austrian landfill directive (DVO, 2000). Therefore, the use as mineral landfill basal sealing of the analysed volcanic soil appears reasonable, having a pollutant adsorption capacity comparable to zeolites. It is of special interest for Southern Chile, because there are no alternative mineral raw materials for basal liners of landfills.

  9. Long-term variations of clay mineral composition in the Andaman Sea (IODP Exp. 353 Site U1447): preliminary result (United States)

    Lee, J.; Khim, B. K.; Cho, H. G.; Kim, S.; 353 Scientists, I. E.


    Clay mineral studies in the Bengal Fan have allowed the reconstruction of the erosional history of the Himalayan-Tibetan complex since the Early Miocene. Several factors such as climate change and tectonic activity are important for the erosion rate of the Himalaya-Tibet complex. IODP Expedition 353 Site U1447 (10°47.4'N, 93°00'E; 1391 mbsl) was drilled on a ridge 45 km offshore Little Andaman Island in the Andaman Sea, penetrating to total depths of 738 m. Riverine sediments supplied mainly by the Irrawaddy and Salween (draining the Indo-Burman Ranges; smectite-rich) and the Ganga/Brahmaputra (draining the Himalaya; illite-rich) via the surface currents have been known to deposit in the Andaman Sea. We measured clay minerals of 38 sediment samples collected from 150 to 737 m CSF-A at Site U1447 in order to reveal long-term variation patterns of clay minerals and their controlling factors. Age reconstruction of Site U1447 aided by shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data defined the study interval spanning from the Late Miocene ( 10 Ma) to Early Pleistocene ( 1.25 Ma). At this interval, clay minerals consist mainly of smectite (28-61% with an average of 47%) followed by illite (20-41% with an average of 29%), kaolinite (9-19% with an average of 14%), and chlorite (5-15% with an average of 10%). Variation of clay mineral compositions is divided into three stages; almost consistent variations of all clay minerals (from 750 to 570 m CSF-A; 10.0 to 7.5 Ma), gradual decrease of smectite and increase of illite and chlorite (from 570 to 400 m CSF-A; 7.5 to 4.5 Ma), and great fluctuation of all clay minerals (from 400 to 150 m CSF-A; 4.5 to 1.1 Ma). Such long-term clay mineral changes may be related to provenance switches, tectonic evolution of the source regions, climatic variations, degree of volcanism with basin evolution, sedimentation history by sea level changes or some combination of these factors.

  10. Minerals transnationalism and economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J.A.


    The efforts of developing countries to alter the prevailing presumptions and conditions under which their resources will become available for use in developed nations have fundamentally transformed the structure of international minerals political economy. This study attempts to contribute to an improved understanding of the complex issues that currently define the interactions among major participants in the international minerals equation. Its emphasis is directed toward an isolation and evaluation of policy options available to mineral-exporting developing nations. The study begins with a fairly detailed and comprehensive discussion of the historical and analytical issues that impose themselves on national deliberations. The intent of these chapters is to establish the major opportunities and constraints developing nations must confront in formulating appropriate minerals-sector policies. Thereafter, the core of analysis focuses upon a detailed, applied evaluation of policy options concerning ownership and control, fiscal regimes, and integrative linkage or spread-effect questions. The adduced evidence suggests the continued likelihood of instability and policy experimentation, but also indicates some hopeful avenues of establishing a more mutually beneficial and predictable structure of mineral relations.

  11. Ordered Rings and Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph


    Full Text Available We introduce ordered rings and fields following Artin-Schreier’s approach using positive cones. We show that such orderings coincide with total order relations and give examples of ordered (and non ordered rings and fields. In particular we show that polynomial rings can be ordered in (at least two different ways [8, 5, 4, 9]. This is the continuation of the development of algebraic hierarchy in Mizar [2, 3].

  12. Measurement of the dielectric constant of lunar minerals and regolith (United States)

    Trigwell, S.; Starnes, J.; Brown, C.; White, C.; White, T.; Su, M.; Mahdi, H. H.; Al-Shukri, H. J.; Biris, A.; Non Invasive ProspectingLunar Ores; Minerals


    For long-term lunar exploration, the priorities are excavation and beneficiation of lunar regolith for water, oxygen, energy production, and structural and shielding fabrication. This work is part of a project focusing on the utilization of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to identify the presence of enriched areas of sub-surface minerals for excavation and ore processing. GPR detection of sub-surface minerals depends significantly on the differences in dielectric constant of the various minerals. One of the minerals in lunar regolith of interest is ilmenite for its use in oxygen production and a supply of titanium and iron. Several pure minerals (feldspar, spodumene, olivine, and ilmenite) and lunar simulant JSC-1A were sieved into several size fractions (<25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 µm). A test cell with an attached shaker was constructed in a vacuum chamber and measurements of the dielectric constant of the minerals and simulant were taken as a function of particle size and packing density. The results showed that there was a direct correlation between the measured dielectric constant and packing density and that ilmenite had a much higher dielectric constant than the other minerals. Measurements were also taken on Apollo 14 lunar regolith as a comparison and compared to the literature to validate the results. Mixtures of pure silica powder and ilmenite in various concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 15%) were measured and it was determined that approximately 2-4% ilmenite in the mixtures could be distinguished. Core samples taken on the moon for all Apollo missions showed ilmenite concentrations ranging from 0.3-12%, depending upon whether it was in the mare or highlands regions, and so this data may significantly contribute to the use of GPR for mineral prospecting on the moon.

  13. Football Banning Orders, Proportionality and Public Order


    Stott, Clifford; Pearson, Geoff


    This article provides a critical analysis of the UK legislation on football banning orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights, particularly with respect to Section 14B of the Football (Disorder) Act 2000. The article then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football ‘disorder’ that questions the determining role of the banning order in the reductio...

  14. [Determination of mineral elements in soybean from different producing areas by ICP-AES]. (United States)

    Wan, Jie; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Liu, Wei; Tu, Zong-Cai; Li, Chu; Zhang, Wen-Qin


    Soybeans from Jiangxi, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Anhui were digested by nitric acid. The contents of mineral elements K, P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn and Na in four samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The differences between samples were determined by Duncan's multiple-range test, and evaluations were based on a significance level of P human body needs. The contents of K, P, Mg, Ca and Fe are higher than the others, and the order from high to low does not change with the producing area. The order of Mn, Zn, Al, Na varied with the producing area. Producting area does not affect the contents of elements K, P and Mg significantly (P > 0.05). It can be concluded that the demands for major mineral elements K, P and Mg are stable in the growth of soybeans with the same variety. However, producing area has a great influence on the contents of elements Al, Ca, Fe, Na, Mn and Zn in soybean (P soil and so on.

  15. Mineral acquisition from clay by budongo forest chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fallon, Brittany


    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay

  16. Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and inflammatory cytokines in ... Methods: Eighty obese asthmatic patients of both sexes, their age ranged from 41 to 53 years. Subjects were divided into two equal groups: training group (group A) received aerobic exercise training on ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  17. Mineral composition of five improved varieties of cassava | Adeniji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated daily recommended dietary allowances (RDA) from major minerals found in CMD varieties show that calcium, potassium, phosphorus and copper contributions to RDA ranged from 17.5-22.5%, 13.8-20.7%, 32.1-42.9%, and 127.8-302.8% in both adult males and females, respectively if 250g flour is eaten daily.

  18. Standardization of a traditional polyherbo-mineral formulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis showed the reduction of metals and minerals (particle size range 2-5 ìm) which indicates the proper preparation of bhasmas, the important ingredient of Brahmi vati. Findings of EDX analysis of all samples of Brahmi vati suggested the absence of Gold, an important

  19. Mineral element status of soils, native pastures and cattle blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the information obtained from soil, native pasture and serum assays, low levels of Zn, P, Cu and Mg in soil and native pasture could potentially limit livestock production in the study area. Keywords: animal nutrition; communal grazing; Horro cattle; seasonal changes; minerals. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  20. Mineral content in some Cameroonian household foods eaten in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 3, 2008 ... Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium contents expressed in mg/100 g ranged from. 32 ± 0.1 to 878.33 ... affect mineral bioavailability and health and physiological status of the .... Table 2a. Moisture, ashes, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and phosporus (P) content in meals.

  1. Jujube honey from China: physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents. (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Suo, Zhirong; Zhao, Pinpin; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei


    We investigated and compared the physicochemical properties (moisture, color, ash, pH, electrical conductivity, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, fructose, glucose, sucrose, diastase activity, and HMF) and mineral contents (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn), as well as total proline and total protein contents of 23 jujube honey samples collected from different regions of China. The mineral content was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The physicochemical values were in the range of approved limits (conforming to EU legislation) in all 23 samples. The physicochemical properties of jujube honey showed significant variations among samples. The mean pH value of the jujube honeys was 6.71. The most abundant minerals were potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium, ranging between 1081.4 and 2642.9, 97.1 and 194.2, 7.79 and 127.8, and 10.36 and 24.67 mg/kg, respectively, and potassium made up 71% of the total mineral content. This study demonstrated remarkable variation in physicochemical parameters and mineral contents of jujube honey, mainly depending on its geographic source. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Electrochemical deposition of mineralized BSA/collagen coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Junjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Jun; Li, Juan; Wang, Huiming [The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Cheng, Kui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    In this work, mineralized collagen coatings with different loading quantity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were prepared via in situ electrochemical deposition on titanium substrate. The microstructure and BSA loading quantity of the coatings could be controlled by the electrochemical deposition parameters, such as deposition potential, BSA concentration and its adding sequence in the electrolyte. The BSA loading quantity in the coatings was obtained in the range of 0.0170–0.173 mg/cm{sup 2}, enhancing the cell adhesion and proliferation of the coatings with the simultaneous release. The distinct release behaviors of BSA were attributed to their gradient distribution with different mineralization degrees, which could be adjusted by the deposition process. These results suggest that in situ electrochemical deposition is a promising way to incorporate functional molecules into the mineralized collagen coatings and the mineralized BSA/collagen coatings are highly promising for improving the rhBMP-2 loading capability (1.8-fold). - Highlights: • BSA is incorporated into mineralized collagen coating by electrochemical deposition. • The loading amount of BSA in coatings can be adjusted in the range of 0-173 ng. • The BSA/collagen coating shows good cytocompatibility with free-albumin culture. • The incorporation process is put forward for some other molecules deposition.

  3. Influence of glutamic acid enantiomers on C-mineralization. (United States)

    Formánek, Pavel; Vranová, Valerie; Lojková, Lea


    Seasonal dynamics in the mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils from selected ecosystems was determined and subjected to a range of treatments: ambient x elevated CO2 level and meadow x dense x thinned forest environment. Mineralization of glutamic acid was determined by incubation of the soil with 2 mg L- or D-glutamic acid g(-1) of dry soil to induce the maximum respiration rate. Mineralization of glutamic acid enantiomers in soils fluctuates over the course of a vegetation season, following a similar trend across a range of ecosystems. Mineralization is affected by environmental changes and management practices, including elevated CO2 level and thinning intensity. L-glutamic acid metabolism is more dependent on soil type as compared to metabolism of its D-enantiomer. The results support the hypothesis that the slower rate of D- compared to L- amino acid mineralization is due to different roles in anabolism and catabolism of the soil microbial community. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.


    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation.

  5. Relationship between Biochemical Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Phenylketonuria under Restricted Diet (United States)

    Koura, Hala M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Ismail, Nagwa A.; Salama, Emad E.; El Lebedy, Dalia H.; Effat, Laila K.


    Objective: Most of phenylketonuria (PKU) develops bone turnover impairment and low bone mineral density (BMD). Measurements of BMD reflect only bone mineral status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Bone markers are a noninvasive tool useful for the assessment of bone formation and bone resorption processes. Our study was to assess the levels of bone markers in PKU in order to select a screen marker and detect the most specific marker which can be combined with BMD for appropriate follow up. Methods: Thirty three classic PKU patients were studied. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were measured. Findings : Nineteen (57.6%) male and fourteen (42.4 %) female PKU patients were involved in the current study. Their mean age was 8.4±4.6 yrs and the age range 3-19 yrs. The control group consisted of twenty two (52.4%) males and twenty (47.6%) females. Their mean age was 8.5±3.3 yrs and th age range 2-17 yrs. Using the Z score values, there was a significant decrease of total BMC (TBMC-Z), BMD of the femoral neck BMD-FN-Z, BMD of lumbar vertebrae (BMD-L-Z), BMD-FN and DPD while RANKL increased. There was a negative correlation between CICP and TBMC and between CICP and BMD-L in these patients. Also, a negative correlation between ALP and TBMC and between ALP and BMD-L was observed. It was concluded that the ALP provides a good impression of the new bone formation in the PKU patients and it has a highly significant negative correlation with the many parameters of the bone mineral status beside the wide availability of inexpensive and simple methods. So a screening test and/or follow up for the PKU patients using ALP would be available. Once the level of ALP decrease is detected, one can combine it with BMD to explore the bone mineral


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ushko


    Full Text Available This work presents the physical properties, chemical composition, natural radionuclides’ concentrations and the relative values of δ18O, δ2H of selected bottled mineral, mineral and therapeutic waters of some water intakes localized at different therapeutic centers in Belarus. The water samples were collected in the period from January 2012 to June 2015 and analyzed at the Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection and Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science laboratories, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków Poland. The results show that the dominating ions in the majority of waters are Cl-, SO42-, Na+ and Ca2+ , the total dissolved solids (TDS of the investigated waters ranges from several hundred mg/L to near 150 g/L, pH from 6.6 to 9.2 and Eh from -283 to 259 mV. The radium isotopes concentration ranges from below the limit of detection to 17 Bq/L, and the specific activity of 228Ra is often higher than those of 226Ra. The uranium concentration range from below 0.5 mBq/L to 75 mBq/L for 238U and to 300 mBq/L for 234U. In some waters the uranium activity ratio (234U/238U is very high. The tritium concentrations are below 1.1 UT, δ18O range from -10.9‰ to -7.8‰ and δ2H from -84‰ to -59.4‰. These values indicate that groundwaters are dominated by components which were recharged during the Holocene. Due to the presence of specific elements such as iron, bromine and radon, as well as hydrogen sulfide, some mineral waters are classified as therapeutic.

  7. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  8. Biochar effect on the mineralization of soil organic matter


    Sander Bruun; Tarek EL-Zehery


    The objective of this work was to verify whether the addition of biochar to the soil affects the degradation of litter and of soil organic matter (SOM). In order to investigate the effect of biochar on the mineralization of barley straw, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled barley straw with or without unlabelled biochar. To investigate the effect of straw on the mineralization of biochar, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled biochar with or without straw. In addition, to investigate the effe...

  9. Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen John; Attenburrow, Don P [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)


    In this study we have investigated the potential of optical techniques to monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) via changes in scattering coefficient. For each of five bone samples, diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients were measured over the wavelength range 520-960 nm using an integrating sphere and CCD spectrometer. These were converted into optical absorption and scattering coefficients using a Monte Carlo inversion procedure. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time in order to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. After full demineralization, the optical scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. From the observed degree of fluctuation of the measurements, we estimate that BMD could be measured with an accuracy of 7% if optical scattering can be measured with an accuracy of 10%. We also report preliminary measurements of bone scattering using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An inter-side variability of 3% is obtained on dry samples with and without overlying periosteum. These results suggest that minimally invasive techniques for measuring optical scattering, such as OCT, may have a role in monitoring regional changes in BMD. This could be an important advance in our understanding of bone remodelling and its relationship to osteoarthritis. Both the integrating sphere and OCT measurements also suggest that light transport in bone is spatially anisotropic. OCT was used to assess probability of obtaining results in vivo.

  10. Diversity of bacterial iron mineralization (United States)

    Konhauser, Kurt O.


    Bacterial cells, growing naturally in freshwater and marine environments or experimentally in culture, can precipitate a variety of authigenic iron minerals. With the vast majority of bacteria biomineralization is a two-step process: initially metals are electrostatically bound to the anionic surfaces of the cell wall and surrounding organic polymers, where they subsequently serve as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The biogenic minerals have crystal habits and chemical compositions similar to those produced by precipitation from inorganic solutions because they are governed by the same equilibrium principles that control mineralization of their inorganic counterparts. As the latter stages of mineralization are inorganically driven, the type of biomineral formed is inevitably dependent on the available counter-ions, and hence, the chemical composition of the waters in which the microorganisms are growing. In oxygenated waters, iron hydroxides are a common precipitate and can form passively through the binding of dissolved ferric species to negatively charged polymers or when soluble ferrous iron spontaneously reacts with dissolved oxygen to precipitate as ferric hydroxide on available nucleation sites (e.g. bacteria). Alternatively, the metabolic activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria can induce ferric hydroxide precipitation as a secondary by-product. Ferric hydroxide may then serve as a precursor for more stable iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite via dissolution-reprecipitation or dehydration, respectively, or it may react with dissolved silica, phosphate or sulphate to form other authigenic mineral phases. Under suboxic to anoxic conditions, ferric hydroxide may be converted to magnetite, siderite, and iron sulphides through various reductive processes associated with organic matter mineralization. Under biologically controlled conditions, where mineralization is completely regulated, magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite and greigite as navigational

  11. Compact Antenna Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  12. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  13. Andic soils : mineralogical effect onto organic matter dynamics, organic matter effect onto mineral dynamics, or both? (United States)

    Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Amundson, Ronald; Balesdent, Jérome; Borschneck, Daniel; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Colin, Fabrice; de Junet, Alexis; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Rose, Jérôme


    From a strictly mineralogical point of view, weathering of volcanic glass produces secondary phases that are short range ordered alumino-silicates (SRO-AlSi). These are imogolite tubes (2 to 3 nm of diameter) and allophane supposedly spheres (3.5 to 5 nm). Their local structure is composed of a curved gibbsite Al layer and Si tetrahedra in the vacancies (Q0). Proto-imogolites have the same local structure but are roof-shape nanoparticles likely representing the precursors of imogolite and allophanes (Levard et al. 2010). These structures and sizes give to the SRO-AlSi large specific surfaces and high reactivities. In some natural sites, imogolites and allophanes are formed in large quantities. Aging of these phases may lead to the formation of more stable minerals (halloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite) (Torn et al 1997). In natural environments, when the weathering of volcanic glass is associated with the establishment of vegetation, the soils formed are generally andosols. These soils are particularly rich in organic matter (OM), which is explained by the high ability of SRO-AlSi mineral phases to form bonds with organic compounds. In a first order "bulk" approach, it is considered that these bonds strongly stabilize the organic compounds as their mean age can reach more than 10 kyrs in some studied sites (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2005; Torn et al. 1997). However, the structure of the mineral phases present in andosols deserves more attention. Traditionally, the presence in the SRO-AlSi andosols was shown by selective dissolution approaches by oxalate and pyrophosphate. Using spectroscopic methods, mineralogical analysis of SRO-AlSi in andosols samples showed that these mineral phases were neither imogolites nor allophanes as originally supposed, but only less organized structures remained in a state of proto-imogolites (Basile-Doelsch al. 2005 ; Levard et al., 2012). The presence of OM would have an inhibitory effect on the formation of secondary mineral phases, by

  14. Characterization of airborne mineral dusts associated with farming activities in rural Alberta, Canada. (United States)

    Green, F H; Yoshida, K; Fick, G; Paul, J; Hugh, A; Green, W F


    The dry and windy climate of the Western Canadian prairie provinces, combined with large scale agricultural activities, results in aerosolization or organic and mineral dusts. The purpose of this study was to conduct an environmental and minerological analysis of these dusts in order to estimate the risk for pneumoconiosis in exposed farmer populations. Two districts in central/southern Alberta were chosen for study. One of these regions was representative of a predominantly grain growing district with minimal use of irrigation; the other region was largely devoted to forage and irrigated crop production. Air pollution statistics showed a bi-modal distribution of total suspended particulates (TSP) with peaks corresponding with maximal farm activities in the spring and early fall. Analysis of bulk dust samples obtained from tractor cab filters showed that the majority of particles from both districts were within the respirable range (less than 5 microns). Samples from the forage-crop region contained more organic material, a greater water soluble fraction and had particles that were, on average, smaller and rounder than particles from the grain district. These differences were thought to reflect differences in irrigation patterns and use of fertilizers between the two districts. Free silica (quartz) content was also very variable and ranged from 1 to 17% on a mass basis. Respirable fibrous minerals were occasionally identified, however, no asbestos fibres, fibrous tremolite, or fibrous zeolites were identified. The results indicate that there is potential risk for mineral dust pneumoconiosis in heavily exposed farmer populations and that this risk will be influenced by local and regional factors.

  15. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.


    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  16. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  17. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.


    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  18. Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania (United States)

    Wilhelmij, Harry R.; Cabri, Louis J.


    . Impersistent, stratiform PGE mineralized horizons occur within the MCSS harzburgite from which drill core samples were taken for platinum-group mineral (PGM) characterization from two drill holes. Where the PGE reefs reach the surface there is residual PGE mineralization within the laterite regolith from which drill core samples were taken from various laterite lithological units for PGM characterization. As the harzburgite PGE reefs contain significant concentrations of both sulfide and chromite (including chromitite seams) they resemble the PGE-rich chromitite seams of the Bushveld Complex rather than the PGE-bearing Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke and Main Sulfide Layer of the Munni Munni Complex. The dominant Pd PGM in three PGE reef samples varies, ranging ( n = 164, relative wt%) from bismuthides (63 %), bismuthtellurides (19 %), and tellurides (6 %), to tellurides (39 %), bismuthtellurides (24 %), stannides (14 %), and alloys (13 %), and to antimon-arsenides (33 %), stannides (21 %), bismuthides (17 %), tellurides (13 %), and alloys (10 %). From 13.5 % to 21.0 % of the total Pd occurs as a solid solution in pentlandite. The three samples have similar Pt PGM modal distributions ( n = 172, relative wt%); the dominant Pt mineral is sperrylite (79, 58, and 47 %) followed by tellurides (15, 17, 21 %), alloys (2, 1, 1 %), and sulfides (2, 1, 0 %). Comparison of Pd/Pt ratios from assays to those calculated from minerals show that the data for the Pt and Pd PGM are very robust, confirming the concentration methodology and characterization. Study of samples from a shallow drill hole penetrating the laterite regolith shows that the primary Pd mineralization has not survived oxidation, is mainly dispersed, but some was reconstituted to form secondary minerals: cabriite, unnamed tellurides, a selenide, a Pd-Te-Hg mineral, alloys and Pd-bearing secondary sulfides (millerite and heazlewoodite). The primary Pt minerals are more resistant to oxidation and dissolution, especially

  19. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew


    ;Clumped-isotope; thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope ;clumps;). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  20. Mineralization during matrix-vesicle-mediated mantle dentine formation in molars of albino rats: a microanalytical and ultrastructural study. (United States)

    Stratmann, U; Schaarschmidt, K; Wiesmann, H P; Plate, U; Höhling, H J


    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mineralization process of mantle dentine by ultrastructural and element-analytical investigation of matrix vesicles and successive stages. Upper second molars of albino rats were cryofixed and embedded in resin after freeze drying. Semithin dry sections were prepared for analyzing the calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the mineralized matrix vesicles or noduli, larger mineralized islands, and the mantle dentine. For ultrastructural studies, it was necessary to reduce section contact with hydrous fluids to a minimum in order to avoid preparation artifacts. The first mineral deposits were recognized as dot-like formations both in the interior of matrix vesicles and in association with the inner vesicle membrane. This indicated the existence of mineral nucleating sites located both at the inner membrane and at calcium-phosphate-binding macromolecules in the interior of the matrix vesicles. A significantly higher mineral content was found in mineralized matrix vesicles than in the mineralized extravesicular regions of the mineralized islands, suggesting the existence of a rapidly and densely mineralized matrix in the matrix vesicles. A significant increase in mineral content per volume proceeding from the mineralized islands to mantle dentine suggested a further increase in the density of mineral.

  1. Home range and travels (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  2. Dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, R.V. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)


    The formation of uraniun vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of continuous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  4. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  5. Estudo mineral de plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Gomes Lopes

    Full Text Available Determinations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn were evaluated in five different samples of medicinal plant leaves. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the metals quantification. Except for Fe in Artemisia vulgaris L, significant levels of these elements were found in all investigated plant as compared to other vegetables which are abundant concerning that mineral content.

  6. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC


    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  7. Mineral of the month: indium (United States)

    George, Micheal W.


    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  8. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals (United States)

    ... breastfeeding. Source : National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Selenium Selenium is a mineral that the body needs ... or molecules that can damage cells) and infections. Selenium is present in many foods, and is ... Source : National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary ...

  9. Mineral of the month: titanium (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph


    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  10. Understanding the residence of Co in ore minerals - towards the development of novel Co extraction strategies for laterite deposits (United States)

    Dybowska, Agnieszka; Norman, Rachel; Schofield, Paul; Herrington, Richard


    Cobalt has unique properties highly valued for many applications essential to the green economy. It has been classified as a critical raw material due to the particularly high risk of supply shortage and its importance for the value chain. Despite low crustal abundance (25ppm), Co is concentrated by various geological processes to concentrations suitable for mining, however the majority of Co is recovered as a by-product of Cu and Ni processing in three principal geological settings: hydrothermal, magmatic and lateritic. Cobalt-rich laterites, which provide 20% of the world's Co, are mainly processed using energy-inefficient pyrometallurgical techniques or high-pressure acid leaching technologies often optimised for extraction of other elements, which can leave between 50 and 80% of the Co unrecovered. In order to develop more efficient Co extraction strategies, understanding the residence of Co in ore minerals is essential. To this end, we are undertaking a detailed mineralogical, chemical and atomistic-scale characterization of Co in samples from a range of laterite deposits. Bulk samples representative of the average ore material were sourced from a variety of undeveloped laterite deposits: Shevchenko (Kazakhstan), Acoje (Philippines), Nkamouna (Cameroon) and Piauí (Brazil). Bulk chemical and mineralogical characterisation was undertaken with ICP-OES/MS and XRD, followed by spatially resolved chemical and mineralogical imaging at the micron scale using µXRD, EPMA, SEM and synchrotron-based µXRF. The chemical state and local environment of Co were determined using X ray spectroscopy (μXANES and μEXAFS). The total concentrations of Co ranged from 630 to 2780 mg/kg. The ore mineral assemblage in the various samples includes goethite, maghemite, hematite, quartz, talc, serpentines, chlorites, smectites, kaolinite and chromites. Manganese oxide minerals are present but, due to their poor crystallinity and low concentration, are not routinely detectable with bulk

  11. Molecular nanomechanics of nascent bone: fibrillar toughening by mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Markus J [Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 1-272, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Mineralized collagen fibrils are highly conserved nanostructural building blocks of bone. By a combination of molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical analysis it is shown that the characteristic nanostructure of mineralized collagen fibrils is vital for its high strength and its ability to sustain large deformation, as is relevant to the physiological role of bone, creating a strong and tough material. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of protein and mineral phases under large deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils reveals a fibrillar toughening mechanism that leads to a manifold increase of energy dissipation compared to fibrils without mineral phase. This fibrillar toughening mechanism increases the resistance to fracture by forming large local yield regions around crack-like defects, a mechanism that protects the integrity of the entire structure by allowing for localized failure. As a consequence, mineralized collagen fibrils are able to tolerate microcracks of the order of several hundred micrometres in size without causing any macroscopic failure of the tissue, which may be essential to enable bone remodelling. The analysis proves that adding nanoscopic small platelets to collagen fibrils increases their Young's modulus and yield strength as well as their fracture strength. We find that mineralized collagen fibrils have a Young's modulus of 6.23 GPa (versus 4.59 GPa for the collagen fibril), yield at a tensile strain of 6.7% (versus 5% for the collagen fibril) and feature a fracture stress of 0.6 GPa (versus 0.3 GPa for the collagen fibril)

  12. Arctic National Wildlife Range, Annual Narrative Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR) was established by executive order in 1960 for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness and recreational...

  13. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan (United States)

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.


    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site ( in

  14. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)


    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  15. Laboratory experiments on ammoniated clay minerals with relevance for asteroid (1) Ceres (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Stefani, Stefania; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora


    Recent observations with VIR spectrometer onboard Dawn spacecraft [1] have suggested the presence of ammoniated phyllosilicates widespread on the surface of asteroid (1) Ceres [2,3]. The global surface composition of Ceres as suggested by VIR average infrared spectrum in the 1-4 micron range appears to be due to a mixture of NH4-bearing phyllosilicates, serpentine, carbonates and a dark absorbing phase (magnetite or amorphous carbon) [2]. An absorption feature occurring near 3.1 micron in the average spectrum is considered the main evidence for the presence of NH4-bearing phase; nevertheless in the past several authors tried to explain this feature, as observed with telescopic spectra, invoking the presence of brucite, cronstedtite, water ice or clays [4]. In this project we are carrying out laboratory experiments with the aim of studying ammoniated phyllosilicates in the visible-infrared range. A suite of 9 clay minerals has been used for this study, including illite, nontronite and montmorillonite. In order to produce the ammoniated species we followed a modified procedure based on the one described in Bishop et al. (2002) [5]. All minerals were reduced in fine grain size (treated with ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and heated in oven at 200°C for 24 h at normal pressure conditions, before the measurements. Reflectance spectra were acquired with the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) in use at INAF-IAPS/P-LAB, in the range 1-14 μm, on both clay minerals and NH4-treated clays. Almost all spectra of NH4-treated species are characterized by the occurrence of several new absorption features, appearing at different wavelengths near 2, 3, 6 and 7 micron. In some cases the spectral shape of already existent absorption bands resulted deeply modified. A few species did not show the appearance of new features. These results suggest that NH4+ ions fix in various ways in different minerals. Nontronite and montmorillonite appear to be the best candidates, among the

  16. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  17. Atlantic Test Range (ATR) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  18. Light Detection And Ranging (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  19. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François


    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  20. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Yliniemi


    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  1. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  2. Electron Transfer Strategies Regulate Carbonate Mineral and Micropore Formation (United States)

    Zeng, Zhirui; Tice, Michael M.


    Some microbial carbonates are robust biosignatures due to their distinct morphologies and compositions. However, whether carbonates induced by microbial iron reduction have such features is unknown. Iron-reducing bacteria use various strategies to transfer electrons to iron oxide minerals (e.g., membrane-bound enzymes, soluble electron shuttles, nanowires, as well as different mechanisms for moving over or attaching to mineral surfaces). This diversity has the potential to create mineral biosignatures through manipulating the microenvironments in which carbonate precipitation occurs. We used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Geothrix fermentans, and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, representing three different strategies, to reduce solid ferric hydroxide in order to evaluate their influence on carbonate and micropore formation (micro-size porosity in mineral rocks). Our results indicate that electron transfer strategies determined the morphology (rhombohedral, spherical, or long-chained) of precipitated calcium-rich siderite by controlling the level of carbonate saturation and the location of carbonate formation. Remarkably, electron transfer strategies also produced distinctive cell-shaped micropores in both carbonate and hydroxide minerals, thus producing suites of features that could potentially serve as biosignatures recording information about the sizes, shapes, and physiologies of iron-reducing organisms.

  3. Stimulation of 3,4-dichloroaniline mineralization by aniline. (United States)

    You, I S; Bartha, R


    Mineralization of free and of humus-bound 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) by a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated by analog enrichment was greatly enhanced in the presence of aniline. The addition of aniline to soil that contained 0.2 to 100 micrograms of DCA per g in free or in humus-bound form increased the mineralization rates of DCA severalfold. Within the concentration ranges tested, absolute mineralization of DCA per unit time was positively correlated with both increasing DCA and increasing aniline concentrations. The specific enrichment of microbial populations and the induction of pathways that can co-metabolize DCA are the most plausible explanations for the effect of aniline. The observed phenomenon points to a potential approach for eliminating xenobiotic pollutants from contaminated soils. PMID:7138005

  4. Kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate mineralization in sludge-amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.; Moeldrup, P.; Roslev, P. (Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Environmental Engineering Lab.)


    Sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil fertilizer although it may contain elevated concentrations of priority pollutants including di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). In the present study, the kinetics of microbial [[sup 14]C]DEHP mineralization was studied in laboratory microcosms with sewage sludge and agricultural soil. A biphasic model with two independent kinetic expressions was used to fit the mineralization data. The initial mineralization activity was described well by first-order kinetics, whereas mineralization in long-term incubations was described better by fractional power kinetics. The mineralization activity was much lower in the late phase presumably due to a decline in the bioavailability of DEHP caused by diffusion-limited desorption. The initial DEHP mineralization rate in sludge-amended soil varied between 3.7 and 20.3 ng of DEHP (g dw)[sup [minus]1]d[sup [minus]1] depending on incubation conditions. Aerobic DEHP mineralization was 4--5 times faster than anaerobic mineralization, DEHP mineralization in sludge-amended soil was much more temperature sensitive than was DEHP mineralization in soil without sludge. Indigenous microorganisms in the sewage sludge appeared to dominate DEHP degradation in sludge-amended soil. It was estimated that > 41% of the DEHP in sludge-amended soil will have escaped mineralization after 1 year. In the absence of oxygen, > 68% of the DEHP will not be mineralized within 1 year. Collectively, the data suggest that a significant fraction of the DEHP in sludge-amended soils may escape mineralization under in situ conditions.

  5. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  6. First-order inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)


    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  7. SNV's modes of ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, John; Duim, van der Rene


    This article adopts an aidnographic approach to examine how internal organizational modes of ordering have influenced tourism development practices of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). Our research revealed six modes of ordering: administration, project management, enterprising,

  8. Establishing normal reference values for liver mineral concentrations in elk and bison on Region 6 Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on a project to develop normal reference range values for minerals in elk across several habitats and management scenarios within Region 6, including...

  9. 2012 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Lidar: Rogue River Oregon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Rogue River Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI),...

  10. Water in the Martian Crust Locked in Hydrated Minerals: A Significant Planetary Reservoir of Water (United States)

    Mustard, J. F.


    Calculations for a reservoir of water locked in hydrated minerals is estimated to range from a low of < 20 m global equivalent layer to approximately 1 km for the high end. This is sufficient to strongly impact surface geomorphic processes.

  11. Inventory order crossovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.


    The control policies that are used in inventory management systems assume that orders arrive in the same sequence as they were ordered. Due to changes in supply chains and markets, this assumption is no longer valid. This paper aims at providing an improved understanding of the phenomenon of order

  12. Tooth root dentin mineralization defects in a mouse model of hypophosphatasia. (United States)

    Foster, B L; Nagatomo, K J; Tso, H W; Tran, A B; Nociti, F H; Narisawa, S; Yadav, M C; McKee, M D; Millán, J I; Somerman, M J


    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is expressed in mineralizing tissues and functions to reduce pyrophosphate (PP(i) ), a potent inhibitor of mineralization. Loss of TNAP function causes hypophosphatasia (HPP), a heritable disorder marked by increased PP(i) , resulting in rickets and osteomalacia. Tooth root cementum defects are well described in both HPP patients and in Alpl(-/-) mice, a model for infantile HPP. In Alpl(-/-) mice, dentin mineralization is specifically delayed in the root; however, reports from human HPP patients are variable and inconsistent regarding dentin defects. In the current study, we aimed to define the molecular basis for changes in dentinogenesis observed in Alpl(-/-) mice. TNAP was found to be highly expressed by mature odontoblasts, and Alpl(-/-) molar and incisor roots featured defective dentin mineralization, ranging from a mild delay to severely disturbed root dentinogenesis. Lack of mantle dentin mineralization was associated with disordered and dysmorphic odontoblasts having disrupted expression of marker genes osteocalcin and dentin sialophosphoprotein. The formation of, initiation of mineralization within, and rupture of matrix vesicles in Alpl(-/-) dentin matrix was not affected. Osteopontin (OPN), an inhibitor of mineralization that contributes to the skeletal pathology in Alpl(-/-) mice, was present in the generally unmineralized Alpl(-/-) mantle dentin at ruptured mineralizing matrix vesicles, as detected by immunohistochemistry and by immunogold labeling. However, ablating the OPN-encoding Spp1 gene in Alpl(-/-) mice was insufficient to rescue the dentin mineralization defect. Administration of bioengineered mineral-targeting human TNAP (ENB-0040) to Alpl(-/-) mice corrected defective dentin mineralization in the molar roots. These studies reveal that TNAP participates in root dentin formation and confirm that reduction of PP(i) during dentinogenesis is necessary for odontoblast differentiation, dentin matrix

  13. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC


    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  14. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  15. Miscellaneous Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  16. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  17. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  18. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population (United States)

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.


    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  19. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  20. Mineral operations outside the United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  1. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, H. Henry [PI, The George Washington University; Xu, Huifang [Co-PI, University of Wisconsin-Madison


    We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at ambient conditions from a new perspective by exploring the formation of MgCO{sub 3} and Mg{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)}CO{sub 3} in non-aqueous solutions. Data collected from our experiments in this funding period suggest that a fundamental barrier, other than cation hydration, exists that prevents Mg{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions from forming long-range ordered structures. We propose that this barrier mainly stems from the lattice limitation on the spatial configuration of CO{sub 3} groups in magnesite crystals. On the other hand, the measured higher distribution coefficients of Mg between magnesian calcites formed in the absence and presence of water give us a first direct proof to support and quantify the cation hydration effect.

  2. Comparative assessment of mineral elements and heavy metals accumulation in vegetable species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.


    Full Text Available The heavy metal (cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium and mineral element (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium levels in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six samples for each species originating from different localities were collected from green markets. The heavy metal concentrations ranged from calcium > phosphorus > magnesium. The highest mean levels of the heavy metals, as well as of potassium, calcium and magnesium, were found in spinach. A large number of samples containing high levels of toxic heavy metals, especially of cadmium and lead, impose the necessity for strict regulative guidelines concerning individual vegetable crops production, harvest, handling and storing, in order to diminish possibility of contamination.

  3. Soil phosphorus redistribution among iron-bearing minerals under redox fluctuation (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Campbell, A.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Silver, W. L.


    Phosphorus (P) is a key limiting nutrient in tropical forests that governs primary production, litter decomposition, and soil respiration. A large proportion of P in these highly weathered soils is bound to short-range ordered or poorly crystalline iron (Fe) minerals. It is well-documented that these Fe minerals are redox-sensitive; however, little is known about how Fe-redox interactions affect soil P turnover. We evaluated the impacts of oxic/anoxic fluctuation on soil P fractions and reactive Fe species in a laboratory incubation experiment. Soils from a humid tropical forest were amended with plant biomass and incubated for up to 44 days under four redox regimes: static oxic, static anoxic, high frequency fluctuating (4-day oxic/4-day anoxic), and low frequency fluctuating (8-day oxic/4-day anoxic). We found that the static anoxic treatment induced a 10-fold increase in Fe(II) (extracted by hydrochloric acid) and a 1.5-fold increase in poorly crystalline Fe (extracted by ammonium oxalate), suggesting that anoxic conditions drastically increased Fe(III) reduction and the formation of amorphous Fe minerals. Static anoxic conditions also increased Fe-bound P (extracted by sodium hydroxide) and increased the oxalate-extractable P by up to 110% relative to static oxic conditions. In two fluctuating treatments, Fe(II) and oxalate-extractable Fe and P were all increased by short-term reduction events after 30 minutes, but fell back to their initial levels after 3 hours. These results suggest that reductive dissolution of Fe(III) minerals mobilized a significant amount of P; however, this P could be rapidly re-adsorbed. Furthermore, bioavailable P extracted by sodium bicarbonate solution was largely unaffected by redox regimes and was only increased by static anoxic conditions after 20 days. Overall, our data demonstrate that a significant amount of soil P may be liberated and re-adsorbed by Fe minerals during redox fluctuation. Even though bioavailable P appears to be

  4. Identification of minerals and meteoritic materials via Raman techniques after capture in hypervelocity impacts on aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, M J; Mann, J; Creighton, J A; Kearsley, A; Graham, G A; Esposito, A P; Franchi, I A; Westphal, A J; Snead, C


    For this study, an extensive suite of mineral particles analogous to components of cosmic dust were tested to determine if their Raman signatures can be recognized after hypervelocity capture in aerogel. The mineral particles were mainly of greater than 20 micrometers in size and were accelerated onto the silica aerogel by light gas gun shots. It was found that all the individual minerals captured in aerogel could be subsequently identified using Raman (or fluorescent) spectra. The beam spot size used for the laser illumination was of the order of 5 micrometers, and in some cases the captured particles were of a similar small size. In some samples fired into aerogel there was observed a shift in the wavenumbers of some of the Raman bands, a result of the trapped particles being at quite high temperatures due to heating by the laser. Temperatures of samples under laser illumination were estimated from the relative intensities of Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman bands, or, in the case of ruby particles, from the wavenumber of fluorescence bands excited by the laser. It was found that the temperature of particles in aerogel varied greatly, dependent upon laser power and the nature of the particle. In the worst case, some particles were shown to have temperatures in the 500-700 C range at a laser power of about 3 mW at the sample. However most of the mineral particles examined at this laser power had temperatures below 200 C. This is sufficiently low a temperature not to damage most materials expected to be found captured in aerogel in space. In addition, selected meteorite samples were examined to obtain Raman signatures of their constituent minerals and were then shot into aerogel. It was possible to find several Raman signatures after capture in aerogel and obtain a Raman map of a whole grain in situ in the aerogel. Finally, a Raman analysis was carried out of a particle captured in aerogel in space and carbonaceous material identified. In general therefore it is

  5. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew


    “Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals.We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect.Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3− and CO32−. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many

  6. Of US minerals and morals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrie, R.L.


    Mining is vital to the US economy, and to the standard of living of US citizens, but it is increasingly under threat from environmental activists and politicians. There is a widespread misunderstanding about the importance of mining in the maintenance of civilisation and of the high environmental standards of the modern American mining industry. Importing minerals which can be produced cheaply in the US will damage the economy, and since environmental standards in the US are high may cause more and not less, damage to the environment of the world. Importing vital minerals such as coal, molybdenum, and trona is also an unnecessary threat to national security. This is not to say that environmental standards should not be subject to constant improvement, but ceasing mining because of local objections or international greenhouse gas treaties is insanity.

  7. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014 (United States)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  8. The application of stream sediment and heavy mineral exploratory methods on evaluation of mineralization potential in Soltan Meydan basalts, north of Shahroud


    Mehdi Hashemi Gahrouei; Behnam Shafiei; Gholamhossein. Shamanian; Hossein Taghizadeh


    In order to assess the potential of copper mineralization and its associated elements in Soltan Meydan basaltic formation situated in the north of Shahrud, the method of stream sediment and heavy mineral has been used. To achieve this aim, totally 68 samples of sediments (-80 mesh in particle size) and 6 samples of heavy minerals (-20 mesh in particle size) have been collected in an optimized network of sampling. Stream sediment samples have been analyzed in for Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe and Ni....

  9. A new intelligent method for minerals segmentation in thin sections based on a novel incremental color clustering (United States)

    Izadi, Hossein; Sadri, Javad; Mehran, Nosrat-Agha


    Mineral segmentation in thin sections is a challenging, popular, and important research topic in computational geology, mineralogy, and mining engineering. Mineral segmentation in thin sections containing altered minerals, in which there are no evident and close boundaries, is a rather complex process. Most of the thin sections created in industries include altered minerals. However, intelligent mineral segmentation in thin sections containing altered minerals has not been widely investigated in the literature, and the current state of the art algorithms are not able to accurately segment minerals in such thin sections. In this paper, a novel method based on incremental learning for clustering pixels is proposed in order to segment index minerals in both thin sections with and without altered minerals. Our algorithm uses 12 color features that are extracted from thin section images. These features include red, green, blue, hue, saturation and intensity, under plane and cross polarized lights in maximum intensity situation. The proposed method has been tested on 155 igneous samples and the overall accuracy of 92.15% and 85.24% has been obtained for thin sections without altered minerals and thin sections containing altered minerals, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the results of other similar methods in the literature, especially for segmenting thin sections containing altered minerals. The proposed algorithm could be applied in applications which require a real time segmentation or efficient identification map such as petroleum geology, petrography and NASA Mars explorations.

  10. Martian rocks, minerals, and mantles


    Albee, Arden


    The variable nature of Mars was first observed almost 400 years ago and modern observations began almost 40 years ago, culminating with the flotilla of spacecraft now at or heading for Mars. We now know that the atmosphere, which produced the visible variation of Mars, has also covered it with a mantle that makes difficult any detailed investigation of the rocks and minerals of Mars.

  11. Minerals (United States)

    ... yogurt legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils Zinc Zinc helps your immune system, which is ... peanuts legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils When people don't get enough of these ...

  12. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Pasek


    Full Text Available The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973, which were based on the kinetic effects.


    Cruickshank, Michael J.; Siapno, William


    This article briefly traces the status of marine minerals development, and it describes papers presented in this special issue on the subject. Subjects covered include types of deposits, marine mining in Canada, Manganese nodules, metalliferous sulfides as seabed minerals, metallurgical processes for reducing sulfide minerals, U. S. phosphate industry, construction materials and placers, and industry problems.

  14. provenance studies through petrography and heavy mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    are few amounts of rock fragments. The rock fragments are mostly metamorphic in origin and are dominated by gneisses and quartzite. The dominant accessory heavy minerals are composed mainly of opaque minerals magnetite and hematite. The non-opaque minerals include rutile, zircon, and chloriteare also present.

  15. Contribution of the Minerals Industry towards Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a leading producer of a number of mineral commodities, and the minerals industry is a key driver of the South African economy. Ensuring that this mineral wealth is exploited in a manner consistent with the principles of sustainable development requires policies and strategies that are underpinned by a ...

  16. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah


    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  17. Influence of inherent coal mineral matter on the structural characteristics of graphite materials prepared from anthracites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gonzalez; Miguel A. Montes-Moran; Ana B. Garcia [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)


    Anthracites with different mineral matter content and composition but similar organic matter composition-and, therefore, microtexture-were obtained by consecutive immersion in mixtures of organic liquids of increasing density from an anthracite with a low degree of graphitizability, thus reducing the characteristics of the anthracite that affect the graphitization process to the mineral matter. Graphite materials were then prepared by heating the anthracites in the temperature interval of 2400-2600{sup o}C for the purpose of studying the influence of the anthracite mineral matter (amount and composition) on their ability to graphitize. The interlayer spacing (d{sub 002}) and crystallite sizes (along the c-axis (L{sub c}) and along the a-axis (L{sub a}), calculated from X-ray diffractometry (XRD), as well as the relative intensity of the Raman D-band (I{sub D}/I{sub t}), were used to assess the degree of structural order of the materials. A progressive increase in this degree of structural order with increasing mineral matter content of the anthracite was observed. The catalytic effect of the mineral matter on the graphitization of the anthracites relies mainly on promotion of the growth of the crystallites along the basal plane. Reasonably good linear correlations between the mineral matter content and the L{sub a} value of the material were attained. Among the different constituents of the mineral matter, the clay mineral illite and the iron carbonates ankerite and siderite were observed to be the main active catalyst compounds during the graphitization of anthracites. In addition to the amount and composition of the mineral matter, the distribution of the mineral matter also influences the graphitization process of the anthracite. A fine distribution in the organic matter, such as that in the case of the iron compounds, was observed to improve the catalytic effect of the mineral matter. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green


    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  19. Electric vehicles: Driving range (United States)

    Kempton, Willett


    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  20. Eliminating Heavy Metals from Water with NanoSheet Minerals as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxian Song


    Full Text Available Heavy metals usually referred to those with atomic weights ranging from 63.5 to 200.6. Because of natural-mineral dissolution and human activities such as mining, pesticides, fertilizer, metal planting and batteries manufacture, etc., these heavy metals, including zinc, copper, mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium have been excessively released into water courses, like underground water, lake and river, etc. The ingestion of the heavy metals-contaminated water would raise serious health problems to human beings even at a low concentration. For instance, lead can bring human beings about barrier to the normal function of kidney, liver and reproductive system, while zinc can cause stomach cramps, skin irritations, vomiting and anemia. Mercury is a horrible neurotoxin that may result in damages to the central nervous system, dysfunction of pulmonary and kidney, chest and dyspnea. Chromium (VI has been proved can cause many diseases ranging from general skin irritation to severe lung carcinoma. Accordingly, the World Health Organization announced the maximum contaminant levels (MCL for the heavy metals in drinking water. There are numerous processes for eliminating heavy metals from water in order to provide citizens safe drinking water, including precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separation and biological treatment, etc. Adsorption is considered as a potential process for deeply removing heavy metals, in which the selection of adsorbents plays a predominant role. Nano-sheet minerals as the adsorbents are currently the hottest researches in the field. They are obtained from layered minerals, such as montmorillonite, graphite and molybdenite, through the processing of intercalation, electrochemical and mechanical exfoliation, etc. Nano-sheet minerals are featured by their large specific surface area, relatively low costs and active adsorbing sites, leading to be effective and potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water

  1. Effect of Natural Mineral Inclusions on the Graphitizability of a Pennsylavania Anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappano, Peter J [ORNL


    Four Pennsylvania anthracites of varied carbon content and mineral matter levels were selected from active mines and heat-treated to increasing temperatures. Carbides formed at ~2200 C and then decomposed at ~2500 C. This carbide formation and decomposition process aided in the global graphitization mechanism of the anthracites, and was the sole graphitization mechanism for at least one of the anthracite samples. The most highly graphitizing anthracite was demineralized and then heat treated to typical graphitization temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the heat treated de-mineralized sample showed that the (112) peak, which is indicate of three dimensional ordering, previously observed in the native heat-treated anthracite were no longer present. The demineralized anthracite was re-mineralized by adding four types of minerals back to the demineralized sample. The re-mineralized sample was then heat treated and was then found to exhibit the (112) in XRD. The absence of the (112) XRD peak after removal of minerals and heat- treatment, followed by re-appearance of the peaks after re-mineralization and heat treatment strongly suggests that the anthracite was only graphitizable if mineral matter was present. Mineral matter associated with anthracite must have some beneficiary role in the global graphitization mechanism, and may explain why some anthracites are more graphitizable than others.

  2. Radio pill antenna range test (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.


    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  3. On the mineral core of ferritin-like proteins: structural and magnetic characterization (United States)

    García-Prieto, A.; Alonso, J.; Muñoz, D.; Marcano, L.; Abad Díaz de Cerio, A.; Fernández de Luis, R.; Orue, I.; Mathon, O.; Muela, A.; Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.


    It is generally accepted that the mineral core synthesized by ferritin-like proteins consists of a ferric oxy-hydroxide mineral similar to ferrihydrite in the case of horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and an oxy-hydroxide-phosphate phase in plant and prokaryotic ferritins. The structure reflects a dynamic process of deposition and dissolution, influenced by different biological, chemical and physical variables. In this work we shed light on this matter by combining a structural (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Fe K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)) and a magnetic study of the mineral core biomineralized by horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and three prokaryotic ferritin-like proteins: bacterial ferritin (FtnA) and bacterioferritin (Bfr) from Escherichia coli and archaeal ferritin (PfFtn) from Pyrococcus furiosus. The prokaryotic ferritin-like proteins have been studied under native conditions and inside the cells for the sake of preserving their natural attributes. They share with HoSF a nanocrystalline structure rather than an amorphous one as has been frequently reported. However, the presence of phosphorus changes drastically the short-range order and magnetic response of the prokaryotic cores with respect to HoSF. The superparamagnetism observed in HoSF is absent in the prokaryotic proteins, which show a pure atomic-like paramagnetic behaviour attributed to phosphorus breaking the Fe-Fe exchange interaction.It is generally accepted that the mineral core synthesized by ferritin-like proteins consists of a ferric oxy-hydroxide mineral similar to ferrihydrite in the case of horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and an oxy-hydroxide-phosphate phase in plant and prokaryotic ferritins. The structure reflects a dynamic process of deposition and dissolution, influenced by different biological, chemical and physical variables. In this work we shed light on this matter by combining a structural (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM

  4. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  5. Miniature NMR spectrometer to analyse minerals at Mars (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    There are some equipments and apparatuses for the study of interesting astrobiological places as planet Mars and moons Europa, Titan and Enceladus. As for Mars, some robotic missions have already analyzed its atmosphere and surface, using equipment with resolution down to milimetric scale. The NASA's Opportunity and Spirit rovers used microscope to study the sub-surface of the red planet at milimetric depth in drilled holes on rocks. In 1996, a NASA team announced the finding of organic molecules and morphological structures at nanometric scale, inside a meteorite which came from Mars. These possibly could be derived from an ancient Martian signature of biochemical activity, hypothetically, a fossilized `Archae-type' microorgan-ism. . In order to be acquired better resolutions for the mineralogical study of samples of its surface, it is necessary the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers, with which one can obtain detailed astrobiological information below micrometer scale. NMR spectrome-ters are big equipment, but there are already miniature, lightweight, NMR spectrometers being developed which do not contain permanent magnets -they are designed to operate without applied magnetic fields; instead, they exploit the natural magnetic fields of the mineral phases (that contain iron) to be studied. These fields give rise to nuclear magnetic resonance of the isotope 57Fe at frequencies in the approximate range of 60 to 74 MHz. Such instrument has a mass of only 65 g (battery included) and consumes a power of only 0.2 W. It will be interesting the use of NMR spectroscopy at Mars. So, here in this paper, with the objective of the search for hypothetical extinct or extant life on Mars, I propose that in future robotic missions and a possible manned research at Mars, to be used miniature NMR spectrometers -rovers can have at the end of their robotic arms such those spectrometers and also astronauts can use those miniature NMR spectrometers to in-situ do very

  6. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António


    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  7. Estimating mineral requirements of Nellore beef bulls fed with or without inorganic mineral supplementation and the influence on mineral balance. (United States)

    Zanetti, D; Godoi, L A; Estrada, M M; Engle, T E; Silva, B C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L; Prados, L F; Rennó, L N; Valadares Filho, S C


    The objectives of this study were to quantify the mineral balance of Nellore cattle fed with and without Ca, P, and micromineral (MM) supplementation and to estimate the net and dietary mineral requirement for cattle. Nellore cattle ( = 51; 270.4 ± 36.6 kg initial BW and 8 mo age) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: reference ( = 5), maintenance ( = 4), and performance ( = 42). The reference group was slaughtered prior to the experiment to estimate initial body composition. The maintenance group was used to collect values of animals at low gain and reduced mineral intake. The performance group was assigned to 1 of 6 treatments: sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and soybean hulls with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; and corn silage as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation. Orthogonal contrasts were adopted to compare mineral intake, fecal and urinary excretion, and apparent retention among treatments. Maintenance requirements and true retention coefficients were generated with the aid of linear regression between mineral intake and mineral retention. Mineral composition of the body and gain requirements was assessed using nonlinear regression between body mineral content and mineral intake. Mineral intake and fecal and urinary excretion were measured. Intakes of Ca, P, S, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe were reduced in the absence of Ca, P, and MM supplementation ( requirements. Dietary mineral requirements were lower for P, Cu, and Zn and greater for Fe compared with previously published recommendations. This study provides useful information about mineral requirements and mineral supplementation to obtain adequate dietary mineral supply of Nellore cattle in

  8. Effect of subclinical hypothyroidism and obesity on whole-body and regional bone mineral content. (United States)

    Bertoli, A; Fusco, A; Andreoli, A; Magnani, A; Tulli, A; Lauro, D; De Lorenzo, A


    The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism and obesity on bone mineral content (BMC) in different body segments. Thirty-two premenopausal women (age: 37 +/- 9.9 years), with a wide range in body mass index (BMI), were studied. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined by a basal TSH > or = 4 microU/l and/or a TRH-stimulated peak > or = 30 microU/l. For each subject, weight, height, BMI (weight/height(2)) and the waist/hip ratio were measured. Total BMC, total bone mineral density (BMD), leg BMC, leg BMD, trunk BMC, trunk BMD, arm BMC and arm BMD were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Thyroid function (basal and TRH-stimulated TSH, free T(3) and free T(4)) were determined from fasting blood samples for all subjects. Anova was conducted within all the groups to observe the effect of thyroid status and/or obesity on BMC and BMD. There was no statistical difference for age. Total BMC was affected by obesity (p obesity (p hypothyroid status (p obesity seem to affect BMD differently in the body segments. An influence of gravitational force seems necessary in order to make evident the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on bone. A condition of subclinical hypothyroidism should be considered when evaluating subjects for osteoporosis, since a BMD measured at the femoral neck may induce underestimation of initial osteoporosis. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Order in Chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Olsen, Asmus Leth


    Ballot order effects are well documented in established democracies, but less so in fragile post-conflict settings. We test for the presence of ballot order effects in the 2010 parliamentary election in Afghanistan. Turning out for the 2010 election was a potentially life-threatening endeavor...... for the Afghan voter. The election provides a first look at ballot order effects in a high stakes, post-conflict setting. In this setting limited cognitive skills and information are more likely explanations of potential ballot order effects than mechanisms of lacking of effort or ambivalence of choice...

  10. Granitoid-associated gold mineralization in Egypt: a case study from the Atalla mine (United States)

    Zoheir, Basem; Deshesh, Fatma; Broman, Curt; Pitcairn, Iain; El-Metwally, Ahmed; Mashaal, Shabaan


    Gold-bearing sulfide-quartz veins cutting mainly through the Atalla monzogranite intrusion in the Eastern Desert of Egypt are controlled by subparallel NE-trending brittle shear zones. These veins are associated with pervasive sericite-altered, silicified, and ferruginated rocks. The hosting shear zones are presumed as high-order structures of the Najd-style faults in the Central Eastern Desert ( 615-585 Ma). Ore minerals include an early pyrite-arsenopyrite (±pyrrhotite) mineralization, partly replaced by a late pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite (±gold/electrum ± tetrahedrite ± hessite) assemblage. Gold occurs as small inclusions in pyrite and arsenopyrite, or more commonly as intergrowths with galena and sphalerite/tetrahedrite in microfractures. Arsenopyrite geothermometry suggests formation of the early Fe-As-sulfide mineralization at 380-340 °C, while conditions of deposition of the late base metal-gold assemblage are assumed to be below 300 °C. Rare hessite, electrum, and Bi-galena are associated with sphalerite and gold in the late assemblage. The early and late sulfide minerals show consistently a narrow range of δ34S ‰ (3.4-6.5) that overlaps with sulfur isotopic values in ophiolitic rocks. The Au-quartz veins are characterized by abundant CO2 and H2O ± CO2 ± NaCl inclusions, where three-dimensional clusters of inclusions show variable aqueous/carbonic proportions and broad range of total (bimodal) homogenization temperatures. Heterogeneous entrapment of immiscible fluids is interpreted to be caused by unmixing of an originally homogenous, low salinity ( 2 eq. mass % NaCl) aqueous-carbonic fluid, during transition from lithostatic to hydrostatic conditions. Gold deposition occurred generally under mesothermal conditions, i.e., 1.3 kbar and 280 °C, and continued during system cooling to < 200 °C and pressure decrease to 0.1 kbar. Based on the vein textures, sulfur isotope values, composition of ore fluids, and conditions of ore formation

  11. Perencanaan Strategik SBU Mineral PT Sucofindo (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Suprapto


    Full Text Available Strategic planning requires an organization in the face of today's business competition and a more complex future. Likewise, Mineral Gas Station also requires this strategic planning as a newly formed business unit of 2015. Therefore, the company analyzed its internal and external factors as well as a future review of the mineral service industry to stay afloat, grow and develop. The objectives of this study were to identify the internal performance and core competencies of Mineral Gas Station, to identify the external macro environment condition and external micro intensity of mineral service industry competition, to map the current position of the company, to recommend appropriate business strategy in facing competition pressure, and to develop the objectives and program of the company. This research used descriptive and quantitative analysis methods with a purposive sampling technique. The results show that the position of Mineral Gas Station on the intensity of mineral service competition is 'moderate' and is in quadrant of 'grow and build'. Therefore, the appropriate strategy is intensive strategy (market penetration, market development and product development. Mineral Gas Station require to conduct customer satisfaction surveys related to customer perspectives which becomes the most important strategic factor with a focus on customer complaint factor. Further research is needed by involving all external parties so that the results will be more independent.Keywords: mineral services, strategic planning, competition, mineral gas station, SucofindoABSTRAKPerencanaan strategik dibutuhkan organisasi dalam menghadapi persaingan bisnis saat ini dan masa depan yang semakin komplek. Demikian juga yang dibutuhkan SBU Mineral sebagai unit bisnis yang baru terbentuk 2015, dengan menganalisis faktor internal dan ekternal perusahaan serta tinjauan masa depan industri jasa mineral untuk tetap bertahan, tumbuh dan berkembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Iozefovich


    Full Text Available Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the mineral and vitamin complexes.Key words: vitamins, minerals, avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, treatment, prevention, children.

  13. A Process Mineralogy Approach to Gravity Concentration of Tantalum Bearing Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Ghorbani


    Full Text Available The historic Penouta mine in northwest Spain is the focus of efforts to extract tantalum from tin mining waste. This paper describes the characterisation of the tantalum mineralogy of waste material from the deposit. Characterisation was realised using quantitative mineralogy and geochemistry. This paper further identifies other phases of interest and investigates the potential for extraction using gravity separation techniques. The gravity concentrate obtained through these tests was analysed using quantitative mineralogy and electron probe microanalysis. Following characterisation of the sample material to identify the key Ta-bearing mineral phases and assess liberation, a series of gravity separation trials were conducted using Heavy Liquid Separation (HLS, Mozley table, Knelson concentrator separation and shaking table. The laboratory shaking table used to conduct a rougher test and a rougher/cleaner test to simulate a spiral-table circuit using the Penouta material. Mass balance calculations were carried out to calculate the contained metal content of the feed material and concentrate products in order to assess recovery rates for Ta, Sn and Nb across a range of grains sizes. Ta was found to be present predominantly in the solid-solution columbite-group mineral, along with minor Ta present as microlite and as impurities within cassiterite. It was found that over 70% of the Ta is contained within the −125 μm fraction, with the Ta-bearing minerals tantalite and microlite being closely associated with quartz. Mozley table separation resulted in recoveries of 89% Ta and 85% Nb for the −125 μm fraction. The Knelson Concentrator trial was carried out on the −625 μm size fraction, thereby eliminating low grade material found in the coarsest fractions. Size analysis of the recovery rate for each product, shows that the Knelson concentrator is most efficient for recovery of −125 μm particles.

  14. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  15. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W


    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  16. Numerical modelling of hydrothermal convection within a permeable mineralized zone: application to orogenic gold mineralization in Ghana (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Harcouët, V.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Adler, P.


    Fluid convection in faulted zones is recognized as an important mechanism for mineralization as it leads to fluid flow and mass transport. In order to investigate if 3D free convection in faults could be at the origin of a giant ore deposits such as the Palaeoproterozoic ore deposits of the Ashanti belt in Ghana, we have conducted several numerical simulations of heat and fluid flow applied to a realistic geological model. Such deposits are generally late orogenic and most of them are located at the vicinity of or within major structural accidents associated with particular fluid circulations and temperature distributions. In Ghana, deposits are concentrated along the western flank of the Ashanti greenstone belt where fault concentration is the highest and connection between them is maximal. In this region, several factors, identified in the field, are expected to affect hydrothermal fluid flows : (1) a 10 km-wide faulted zone is associated with a lateral permeability gradient ; (2) sedimentary and conglomeratic basins surround the faulted zone;(3) magmatic intrusions are located within the fault and at its vicinity. Our approach is defined by two steps: first, the numerical code solves equations related to heat transfer and fluid-flow in porous media with the above-cited appropriate boundary conditions; second, from the results of the modelling, we calculated the rock alteration index, RAI, which is proportional to the scalar product of the velocity by the temperature gradient. This index illustrates the geochemical alteration potential and depends on parameters such as gold solubility; it is used to identify regions where precipitation or dissolution can occur. Hydrothermal circulations are first investigated by the study of different synthetic cases corresponding to simplified models applicable to situations similar to the ones encountered in Ghana. In the case of a simple geometry, implying a fault zone surrounded by a sedimentary basin, transitions from 2D

  17. Anion order in perovskite oxynitrides. (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Oró-Solé, Judith; Rodgers, Jennifer A; Jorge, Ana Belén; Fuertes, Amparo; Attfield, J Paul


    Transition-metal oxynitrides with perovskite-type structures are an emerging class of materials with optical, photocatalytic, dielectric and magnetoresistive properties that may be sensitive to oxide-nitride order, but the anion-ordering principles were unclear. Here we report an investigation of the representative compounds SrMO(2)N (M = Nb, Ta) using neutron and electron diffraction. This revealed a robust 1O/2(O(0.5)N(0.5)) partial anion order (up to at least 750 °C in the apparently cubic high-temperature phases) that directs the rotations of MO(4)N(2) octahedra in the room-temperature superstructure. The anion distribution is consistent with local cis-ordering of the two nitrides in each octahedron driven by covalency, which results in disordered zigzag M-N chains in planes within the perovskite lattice. Local structures for the full range of oxynitride perovskites are predicted and a future challenge is to tune properties by controlling the order and dimensionality of the anion chains and networks.

  18. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefmann, K.


    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of {sup 109}Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 {mu}T. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and SADF Champion. Shot. Medal. The continually evolving character of the Order is, to reiterate, rooted in the lack of a firm historical foundation. Thus, any discussion of the Order of the. Star of South Africa must first examine ... case of their religious ancestors, gener- ally had a patron saint and sought pa- pal confirmation.

  20. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.


    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  1. Heterogeneous reactions of mineral dust aerosol: implications for tropospheric oxidation capacity (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Huang, Xin; Lu, Keding; Ge, Maofa; Li, Yongjie; Cheng, Peng; Zhu, Tong; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Gligorovski, Sasho; Song, Wei; Ding, Xiang; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming


    Heterogeneous reactions of mineral dust aerosol with trace gases in the atmosphere could directly and indirectly affect tropospheric oxidation capacity, in addition to aerosol composition and physicochemical properties. In this article we provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species as well (including HO2, H2O2, HCHO, HONO, and N2O5) by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is assessed (i) by comparing their lifetimes with respect to heterogeneous reactions with mineral dust to lifetimes with respect to other major loss processes and (ii) by discussing relevant field and modeling studies. We have also outlined major open questions and challenges in laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake by mineral dust and discussed research strategies to address them in order to better understand the effects of heterogeneous reactions with mineral dust on tropospheric oxidation capacity.

  2. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva


    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... with BMD in the control group, whereas in the juvenile obese, only lean body mass was positively associated with BMD and smoking negatively associated with BMD. Our study supports that leptin is inversely associated with BMD and may play a direct role in the bone metabolism in nonobese and obese Danish...

  3. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin


    such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...

  4. Circular Economy in Mineral Processing


    Pomykała Radosław; Tora Barbara


    The paper aims to implementation of Circular Economy in mineral processing in Poland. Circular economy represents a completely new approach to product life cycle, based on the departure from the linear model of “take – make – dispose” and turning to the circular or closed-circle model of economy. Challenges and opportunities of implementation of Circular Economy in Mining is presented. The VERAM project, financed by The European Union (by the EUR 1.4 million) to the project is described. The ...

  5. Mineral chemistry of lunar samples. (United States)

    Keil, K; Prinz, M; Bunch, T E


    Glass spherules, glass fragments, augite, ferroaugite, titanaugite, pyroxmangite, pigeonite, hypersthene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, maskelynite, olivine, silica, ilmenite, TiO(2), "ferropseudobrookite," spinel, ulvöspinel, native iron, nickel-iron, troilite, and chlorapatite were analyzed with the electron microprobe. There are no indications of large-scale chemical differentiation, chemical weathering, or hydrous minerals. Contributions of meteoritic material to lunar surface rocks are small. Rocks with igneous textures originated from a melt that crystallized at or near the surface, and oxygen fugacities have been low. Shock features indicate that at least some surface material is impact-produced.

  6. Characteristics of phosphorus adsorption by sediment mineral matrices with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang XIAO


    Full Text Available The particle size of sediment is one of the main factors that influence the phosphorus physical adsorption on sediment. In order to eliminate the effect of other components of sediment on the phosphorus physical adsorption, the sediment mineral matrices were obtained by removing inorganic matter, metal oxides, and organic matter from natural sediments, which were collected from the Nantong reach of the Yangtze River. The results show that an exponential relationship exists between the median particle size (D50 and specific surface area (Sg of the sediment mineral matrices, and the fine sediment mineral matrix sample has a larger specific surface area and pore volume than the coarse sediment particles. The kinetic equations were used to describe the phosphorus adsorption process of the sediment mineral matrices, including the Elovich equation, quasi-first-order adsorption kinetic equation, and quasi-second-order adsorption kinetic equation. The results show that the quasi-second-order adsorption kinetic equation has the best fitting effect. Using the mass conservation and Langmuir adsorption kinetic equations, a formula was deduced to calculate the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the sediment mineral matrices. The results of this study show that the phosphorus adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of D50, indicating that the specific surface area and pore volume are the main factors in determining the phosphorus adsorption capacity of the sediment mineral matrices. This study will help understand the important role of sediment in the transformation of phosphorus in aquatic environments.

  7. Phytonutrient, Antioxidant and Mineral Composition of Some Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values for total carotenoid ranged from 172.77 ìg/100 g (in C. millenii) to 1380.17 ìg/100 g (in C. albidum). The wild fruits are sources of phytonutrients, antioxidants such as vitamin C, total carotenoids and some minerals. Planting of the wild fruit trees or the incorporation in farming systems should thus be encouraged to ...

  8. Short Course Introduction to Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessments (United States)

    Singer, Donald A.


    This is an abbreviated text supplementing the content of three sets of slides used in a short course that has been presented by the author at several workshops. The slides should be viewed in the order of (1) Introduction and models, (2) Delineation and estimation, and (3) Combining estimates and summary. References cited in the slides are listed at the end of this text. The purpose of the three-part form of mineral resource assessments discussed in the accompanying slides is to make unbiased quantitative assessments in a format needed in decision-support systems so that consequences of alternative courses of action can be examined. The three-part form of mineral resource assessments was developed to assist policy makers evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action with respect to land use and mineral-resource development. The audience for three-part assessments is a governmental or industrial policy maker, a manager of exploration, a planner of regional development, or similar decision-maker. Some of the tools and models presented here will be useful for selection of exploration sites, but that is a side benefit, not the goal. To provide unbiased information, we recommend the three-part form of mineral resource assessments where general locations of undiscovered deposits are delineated from a deposit type's geologic setting, frequency distributions of tonnages and grades of well-explored deposits serve as models of grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits, and number of undiscovered deposits are estimated probabilistically by type. The internally consistent descriptive, grade and tonnage, deposit density, and economic models used in the design of the three-part form of assessments reduce the chances of biased estimates of the undiscovered resources. What and why quantitative resource assessments: The kind of assessment recommended here is founded in decision analysis in order to provide a framework for making decisions concerning mineral

  9. Estimating order statistics of network degrees (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.


    We model the order statistics of network degrees of big data sets by a range of generalised beta distributions. A three parameter beta distribution due to Libby and Novick (1982) is shown to give the best overall fit for at least four big data sets. The fit of this distribution is significantly better than the fit suggested by Olhede and Wolfe (2012) across the whole range of order statistics for all four data sets.

  10. Dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization in tea plantations converted from farmland at Western Sichuan, China. (United States)

    Zhu, Renhuan; Zheng, Zicheng; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou; He, Shuqin; Wang, Yongdong; Liu, Tao; Li, Wei


    Climate warming and land use change are some of the drivers affecting soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The Grain for Green Project, local natural resources, and geographical conditions have resulted in farmland conversion into tea plantations in the hilly region of Western Sichuan. However, the effect of such land conversion on SOC mineralization remains unknown. In order to understand the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in tea plantations converted from farmland, this study considered the different years (i.e., 2-3, 9-10, and 16-17 years) of tea plantations converted from farmland as the study site, and soil was incubated for 28 days at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C to measure the soil respiration rate, amount, and temperature coefficient (Q10). Temperature and land use type interactively affected the SOC mineralization rate, and the cumulative amount of SOC mineralization in all the plots was the largest at 35°C. SOC mineralization was greater and more sensitive to temperature changes in the farmland than in the tea plantations. Compared with the control, tea plantation soils showed lower SOC mineralization rate and cumulative mineralization amount. The 16-17-year-old tea plantation with a low SOC mineralization amount and high SOC content revealed the benefits of carbon sequestration enhancement obtained by converting farmland into tea plantations. The first-order kinetic equation described SOC mineralization dynamics well. Farmland conversion into tea plantations appeared to reduce the potentially mineralizable carbon pool, and the age of tea plantations also had an effect on the SOC mineralization and sequestration. The relatively weak SOC mineralization temperature sensitivity of the tea plantation soils suggested that the SOC pool of the tea plantation soils was less vulnerable to warming than that of the control soils.

  11. Thermal behavior of ground talc mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balek V.


    Full Text Available Microstructure development and thermal behavior of ground talc mineral samples (from locality Puebla de Lillo, Spain was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy(SEM,surface area measurements differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and emanation thermal analysis (ETA.A vibratory mill and grinding time 5 min. was used to prepare the ground talc sample. It was found that grinding caused an increase in the surface area of the natural talc from 3 m2g-1 to 110 m2g-1. A decrease of particle size after sample grinding was observed by SEM. The increase of structure disorder of the ground sample and the crystallite size reduction from 40 to 10 nm were determined from the XRD results. ETA results revealed a closing up of surface micro-cracks and healing of microstructure irregularities on heating in the range 200-500ºC of both un-ground and ground talc samples. For the ground talc sample a crystallization of non-crystalline phase into orthorhombic enstatite was characterized as by a decrease of radon mobility in the range 785-825ºC and by a DTA exothermal effect with the maximum at 830ºC. ETA results were used for the assessment of transport properties of the talc samples on heating.

  12. Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept (United States)

    Monteiro, António; Nóbrega, Clévio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste


    Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions-erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones-are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become strongly attached to their views and somehow affect subsequent learning. The main scope of this study was to understand what students consider a mineral to be and why. Therefore, the goals were (1) to identify eleventh-grade students' misconceptions about the mineral concept; (2) to understand which variables (gender, parents' education level and attitude towards science) influenced students' conceptions; and (3) to create teaching tools for the prevention of misconceptions. In order to achieve these goals, a diagnostic instrument (DI), constituted of a two-tier diagnostic test and a Science Attitude Questionnaire, was developed to be used with a sample of 89 twelfth-grade students from five schools located in central Portugal. As far as we know, this is the first DI developed for the analysis of misconceptions about the mineral concept. Data analysis allows us to conclude that students had serious difficulties in understanding the mineral concept, having easily formed misconceptions. The variables gender and parents' education level influence certain students' conceptions. This study provides a valuable basis for reflection on teaching and learning strategies, especially on this particular theme.

  13. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Stable Isotope Investigation of Gürkuyu Sb Mineralization (Gediz-Kütahya-NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ÖZEN


    Full Text Available Abstract. The Gürkuyu Sb mineralization is located in the western part of Anatolian tectonic belt, in southern part of İzmir-Ankara zone and in northern part of Menderes Massif. The mineralization located at west of the Koca hill in east of Gürkuyu village of Gediz (Kütahya-Turkey has been characterized through the detailed examinations involving sulfur and oxygen isotope. Serpentinites of Dağardı melange and crystallized limestones of Budağan limestone were hydrothermally altered by hydrothermal solutions, come from fissures and fractures due to tectonic movement during the thrust of melange and occurred silicified zone. Gürkuyu Sb mineralization suggest that occurred in this silicified zone. In Gürkuyu mineralization, primary ore minerals are antimonite and pyrite, secondary ore minerals are senarmontite, valentinite, orpiment and realgar. Quartz and calcite are the most common gangue minerals. In Gürkuyu Sb mineralization, δ34S values of stibnite are ranged from 1.0 ‰ to 1.3 ‰. δ18O values of quartz are ranged is 15.8 ‰ in Gürkuyu mineralization. Sulfur and oxygen isotope values are similar to the values for magmatic rocks and to the values for fluids of magmatic origin.Keywords: Stable isotope, Gürkuyu, Sb mineralization, Gediz, Kütahya, NW Turkey.

  14. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.


    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  15. Order of blood draw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell


    , CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...

  16. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam


    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  17. Second order Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Espin


    Full Text Available It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU(2×SU(4⊂SO(9 unified theory.

  18. Mathematics of aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Daniel; Savinien, Jean


    What is order that is not based on simple repetition, that is, periodicity? How must atoms be arranged in a material so that it diffracts like a quasicrystal? How can we describe aperiodically ordered systems mathematically? Originally triggered by the – later Nobel prize-winning – discovery of quasicrystals, the investigation of aperiodic order has since become a well-established and rapidly evolving field of mathematical research with close ties to a surprising variety of branches of mathematics and physics. This book offers an overview of the state of the art in the field of aperiodic order, presented in carefully selected authoritative surveys. It is intended for non-experts with a general background in mathematics, theoretical physics or computer science, and offers a highly accessible source of first-hand information for all those interested in this rich and exciting field. Topics covered include the mathematical theory of diffraction, the dynamical systems of tilings or Delone sets, their cohomolog...

  19. The Order of Preachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fenelli


    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the birth and development of the Order of Preachers during the Middle Ages along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  20. Orderly Sovereign Debt Restructuring


    Canuto,Otaviano; Pinto, Brian; Prasad, Mona


    An orderly sovereign debt restructuring should place the debtor nation's public debt on a sustainable trajectory while minimizing procrastination and contagion. However, the experiences with the debt crisis of the 1980s, Russia 1998, Argentina 2001, and Greece 2010 indicate that orderly debt restructurings remain elusive, even with high-powered official intervention. When solvency problems are present, the chances of success increase if official money is lent at the risk-free rate, reflecting...