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Sample records for range north victoria

  1. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in north-east Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L C; Anderson, G A; McKinnon, A O

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the reproductive efficiency of horse farms in north-east Victoria and identify aspects of management to be targeted for improving reproductive efficiency. Retrospective study. Records from seven Thoroughbred (TB) and four Standardbred (STB) studs in north-east Victoria from 1990 to 2001 were reviewed; 8813 cycles in 4455 mares were analysed. TB mares were inseminated by natural mating, whereas STB mares (89%) were artificially inseminated. The overall early pregnancy rate per cycle was 68.8% for TB mares and for STB mares, 68.3%. Multiple pregnancy per cycle was more frequent in TB (8.3%) than in STB (4.6%) mares (P reproductive status within the TB than the STB mares. Pregnancy rate per cycle among stallions ranged from 48% to 79%. On-farm pregnancy rates in both breeds were higher than previously reported and likely reflect improvements in reproductive management. The disparity between breeds in the inseminations per cycle and proportion of barren mares exposed the differing structures of the two industries, and presents a target for improving the reproductive efficiency in STBs. The difference between breeds in the multiple pregnancy rate per cycle likely reflects the higher ovulation rate of TB mares. The variability in pregnancy rate per cycle between the 22 stallions was associated with differences in individual inherent fertility and the quality of stallion management.

  2. A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Lanterman Range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni; Lisker, Frank

    2017-04-01

    During the GANOVEX XI (German North Victoria Land Expedition) in 2015-16, a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out over the Lanterman Range in northern Victoria Land (NVL). The helicopter-based survey aimed to resolve the fine structure over the so-called Lanterman Suture Zone, which represents one of the main key areas regarding geodynamic evolution of NVL during the Early Palaeozoic Ross Orogeny. This was achieved by reducing the flight line spacing to 1-2 km with 10 km tie lines and flying in a terrain-following mode. The survey was completed by ground truth magnetic susceptibility readings by using a Kappameter KM-7. The Ross-aged basement of NVL is subdivided into three tectonometamorphic so-called "terranes", comprising from W to E the Wilson-, the Bowers- and the Robertson Bay Terrane. They are generally interpreted to have formed by accretion processes at the Palaeo-Pacific active continental margin of East Gondwana in the Cambrian and Ordovician. The survey over the Lanterman Range covered parts of the two western terranes, namely the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which are separated by the Lanterman Fault Zone. This polyphase tectonic discontinuity is characterized by a belt of mafic and ultramafic rocks comprising metabasites with eclogite-facies relicts. Preliminary results show two distinct and nearly parallel magnetic lineaments in the survey area that will be further interpreted by combined magnetic susceptibility measurements and geological field data. One magnetic lineament correlates well with the known boundary between the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which comprises also a metaconglomerate belt with mafic to ultramafic clasts. The second, further easterly magnetic lineament is so far not supported by outcrops of associated highly magnetic rocks in the field. Similar parallel structures have been observed further to the southeast and seem to be offset by a major sinistral strike-slip fault zone of possibly post-Jurassic age. One

  3. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. North Pacific driftnet conference: proceedings, volume 1, July 17-19, 1989, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    ... : to assemble factual information available on the nature and impact of the North Pacific Driftnet Fisheries and, in particular, to identify any lack of information and the means of generating required data...

  5. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  6. A health-promoting community dental service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: protocol for the North Richmond model of oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martin; Christian, Bradley

    2017-10-01

    Despite the best efforts and commitment of oral health programs, there is no evidence that the current surgical output-based model of oral health care is delivering better oral health outcomes to the community. In fact, Australian evidence indicates the oral health of the community could be getting worse. It is now well-understood that this traditional surgical model of oral health care will never successfully manage the disease itself. It is proposed that a health-promoting, minimally invasive oral disease management model of care may lead to a sustainable benefit to the oral health status of the individual and community groups. The aim of this paper is to describe such a model of oral health care (MoC) currently being implemented by the North Richmond Community Health Oral Health (NRCH-OH) program in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; this model may serve as a template for other services to re-orient their healthcare delivery towards health promotion and prevention. The paper describes the guiding principles and theories for the model and also its operational components, which are: pre-engagement while on the waitlist; client engagement at the reception area; the assessment phase; oral health education (high-risk clients only); disease management; and reviews and recall.

  7. Range-wide Determinants of Plague Distribution in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Sean P.; Ellis, Christine; Gage, Kenneth L.; Enscore, Russell E.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2010-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is established across western North America, and yet little is known of what determines the broad-scale dimensions of its overall range. We tested whether its North American distribution represents a composite of individual host–plague associations (the “Host Niche Hypothesis”), or whether mammal hosts become infected only at sites overlapping ecological conditions appropriate for plague transmission and maintenance (the “Plague Niche Hypothesis”). We took advantage of a novel data set summarizing plague records in wild mammals newly digitized from paper-based records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop range-wide tests of ecological niche similarity between mammal host niches and plague-infected host niches. Results indicate that plague infections occur under circumstances distinct from the broader ecological distribution of hosts, and that plague-infected niches are similar among hosts; hence, evidence coincides with the predictions of the Plague Niche Hypothesis, and contrasts with those of the Host Niche Hypothesis. The “plague niche” is likely driven by ecological requirements of vector flea species. PMID:20889857

  8. Recent changes in the ranges of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Ilyichev, V.D.; Gavrilov, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey has provided an annual index of population change since 1966. About 2400 randomly distributed roadside routes of 50 three-minute stops each provide the basic data for computer analysis. One of the reports produced shows the percentage of routes on which each species is encountered in each state and each Canadian province. This percentage is used to show expansion and contraction of breeding range and also important changes in frequency of encounter within various portions of the range of each species. Most of the recent changes in range fall in one of these 7 categories: (1) introduced species; (2) species given special protection; (3) species benefiting from artificial feeding in winter; (4) species taking advantage of shelterbelts; (5) species nesting on large highway bridges and dams; (6) species that feed on grain lost during mechanical harvesting: and (7) species losing habitat as a result of urban expansion. Examples of each category are supported by changes in the rate of encounter.

  9. Predicted geographic ranges for North American sylvatic Trichinella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of a lack of comprehensive surveys, the geographic distributions of the North American species of Trichinella (T. nativa and its variant T6, T. murrelli, and T. spiralis) are poorly characterized. These species are potentially zoonotic, and biogeographical information is critical to monitori...

  10. Lead Shot availability to birds using the North Platte River near a trap and Skeet range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A trap and skeet shooting range gun club is located on the North Platte River, below the Guernsey Reservoir in Wyoming. In 1999, we obtained sediment samples to...

  11. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  12. Skillful long-range prediction of European and North American winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, A. A.; Arribas, A.; Blockley, E.; Brookshaw, A.; Clark, R. T.; Dunstone, N.; Eade, R.; Fereday, D.; Folland, C. K.; Gordon, M.; Hermanson, L.; Knight, J. R.; Lea, D. J.; MacLachlan, C.; Maidens, A.; Martin, M.; Peterson, A. K.; Smith, D.; Vellinga, M.; Wallace, E.; Waters, J.; Williams, A.

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability.

  13. Skillful long-range prediction of European and North American winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eade, R.; Scaife, A. A.; Arribas, A.; Blockley, E.; Brookshaw, A.; Clark, R. T.; Dunstone, N.; Fereday, D.; Folland, C. K.; Gordon, M.; Hermanson, L.; Knight, J.; Lea, D. J.; MacLachlan, C.; Maidens, A. V.; Martin, M.; Peterson, A.; Smith, D.; Vellinga, M.; Wallace, E.; Waters, J.; Williams, A.

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability.

  14. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  15. Tree range expansion in eastern North America fails to keep pace with climate warming at northern range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittaro, Fabian; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian; Nock, Charles A

    2017-08-01

    Rising global temperatures are suggested to be drivers of shifts in tree species ranges. The resulting changes in community composition may negatively impact forest ecosystem function. However, long-term shifts in tree species ranges remain poorly documented. We test for shifts in the northern range limits of 16 temperate tree species in Quebec, Canada, using forest inventory data spanning three decades, 15° of longitude and 7° of latitude. Range shifts were correlated with climate warming and dispersal traits to understand potential mechanisms underlying changes. Shifts were calculated as the change in the 95th percentile of latitudinal occurrence between two inventory periods (1970-1978, 2000-2012) and for two life stages: saplings and adults. We also examined sapling and adult range offsets within each inventory, and changes in the offset through time. Tree species ranges shifted predominantly northward, although species responses varied. As expected shifts were greater for tree saplings, 0.34 km yr -1 , than for adults, 0.13 km yr -1 . Range limits were generally further north for adults compared to saplings, but the difference diminished through time, consistent with patterns observed for range shifts within each life stage. This suggests caution should be exercised when interpreting geographic range offsets between life stages as evidence of range shifts in the absence of temporal data. Species latitudinal velocities were on average <50% of the velocity required to equal the spatial velocity of climate change and were mostly unrelated to dispersal traits. Finally, our results add to the body of evidence suggesting tree species are mostly limited in their capacity to track climate warming, supporting concerns that warming will negatively impact the functioning of forest ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. In the military history of both the British Empire and of the Western World, the highest British military decoration, namely the Victoria Cross, has attained con- siderable renown. The Victoria Cross was introduced in terms of the Royal Warrant of 29 January,. 1856 and by 1957 a total of 1346 had been ...

  17. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Shepherd, R C; Nolan, I F

    1978-10-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season.

  18. Age and correlation of the Otuk formation, North-Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, K.A.; Mull, C.G.

    1985-04-01

    Allochthonous Triassic rocks of the north-central Brooks Range thrust belt were originally mapped as part of the Middle to Upper Triassic Shublik Formation. Recently, these strata were named the Otuk Formation. Detailed paleontologic studies of 11 measured sections more precisely document the age of the Otuk and show that its base is older than the base of the Shublik and that its top is younger than the top of the Shublik. Megafossils (pelecypods and ammonites) and microfossils (radiolaria, conodonts, and foraminifers) indicate an age range of Early Triassic (Dienerian-Smithian or older) to Middle Jurassic (Bajocian). The lithology consists of 120 m (390 ft) of interbedded, very fine-grained rocks (shale, limestone, and chert) representative of very slow deposition, below wave base in an open marine environment. The Otuk formation does not contain suitable reservoir rocks, but organic geochemical data indicate that the shales are possible oil source rocks. The Otuk formation is disconformable with both the underlying Permian (Wolfcampian-Guadalupian) Siksikpuk Formation and overlying Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) coquinoid limestone and shale. These unconformities are correlative with similar unconformities in the northeastern Brooks Range and subsurface of the North Slope. Thus, the Otuk formation is a condensed, deeper water, more distal equivalent of the Ivishak and Shublik Formations, Karen Creek Sandstone, and lower Kingak Shale of the northeastern Brooks Range and equivalent subsurface units of the North Slope.

  19. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl in North America and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Jesper; Thomsen, Anders F.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    canadensis) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) in Ontario, Canada 1. Since then this genotype, now identified as ABBV-1, has been identified from a variety of wild avian species 5, predominantly waterfowl, in North America at prevalences ranging from 10 to 50%, and in 2014 an additional genotype...... was identified in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) 2. In order to determine whether avian bornavirus was present in European waterfowl, the brains of 333 hunter killed geese in Denmark were examined by real time RT-PCR for the presence of avian bornavirus; seven birds (2.1%) were positive. Sequences were 98.......18-99.83 % identical to each other, and 97.38-98.06 % identical to a reference sequence of ABBV-1 from North America. This is the first finding of ABV in wild waterfowl in Europe, and extends the range of waterfowl species in which the virus has been identified to include the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus...

  20. Predicting species’ range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

  1. Evolutionary shifts to self-fertilisation restricted to geographic range margins in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, P C; Willi, Y

    2014-04-01

    Cross-fertilisation predominates in eukaryotes, but shifts to self-fertilisation are common and ecologically and evolutionarily important. Reproductive assurance under outcross gamete limitation is one eco-evolutionary process held responsible for the shift to selfing. Although small effective population size is a situation where selfing plants could theoretically benefit from reproductive assurance, empirical tests of the role of population size are rare. Here, we show that selfing evolved repeatedly at range margins, where historical demographic processes produced low effective population sizes. Outcrossing populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata have low genetic diversity at geographic margins, with a signature of post-glacial range expansion in the north and rear-edge isolation in the south. Selfing populations occur at the margins of two genetic groups and never in their interior. These results corroborate small effective population size as the promoter of self-fertilisation and have important implications for our understanding of species turnover, range limits and range dynamics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. [The epilepsy of Guadalupe Victoria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of Mexico, passed away in 1843 uictim of an ailment that, at the time, was diagnosed as epilepsy. The clinical data and the pathologic findings, however, suggest the possibility that Victoria had an underlying disease that was responsible for the seizures that affected him. In this article I propose that Guadalupe Victoria had in fact Chagas Disease, and that he was infected with this parasitic malady while he lived in the tropical jungles of Veracruz, in eastern Mexico. Even though there aren't many published works regarding seizures secondary to chronic Chagas Disease, there are good descriptions of epileptic syndromes in patients with this infection. At the same time, the cardiac findings in Victoria's autopsy support the idea that he had some kind of cardiac pathology; in this case Chagasic dilated cardiomyopathy, which ultimately led to his death.

  3. VICTORIA'S SECRET Prepares for Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan K Speer

    2007-01-01

      After the upcoming holiday season, Victoria's Secret will take the first steps toward launching its e-commerce business on a cross-channel on-demand platform from partner n2N Commerce, a company...

  4. The middle range verification of numerical model performance for heavy rainfall in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Bin; Niu, Ruoyun

    2017-04-01

    The heavy rainfall forecast in North China is the focus and difficulty in middle range numerical weather forecast. 70 typical heavy precipitation cases in North China in summer from 2010 to 2016 are selected, which are divided into vortex type, the west trough and shear line type according to the atmospheric circulation. Based on ECMWF model and the Chinese operational model T639, a spatial verification method MODE is used, the middle range precipitation forecast abilities for heavy rain in summer in North China are evaluated according to contrast the difference of centroidal distance, axis angel and aspect ratios. It is found that the ECMWF model and the T639 model all show weak predictive ability for the low-vortex-type heavy rainfall in Northern China from all the similarities. When the area of rainfall is larger, the precipitation patterns of the two models are mostly northeast-southwest. It is consistent with the actual situation. For a large area of precipitation area, both models predict the precipitation area aspect ratio is less than 1. It shows that precipitation drop area is long and narrow, and the forecast is also consistent with the actual situation. However, as far as T639 and ECMWF models are concerned, there are systematic deviations in the precipitation area, and the predicted precipitation area is located on the southwestern side of the field. For smaller/larger areas of precipitation, the predicted precipitation area is larger/smaller than the actual situation. In addition, a sensitive test for the regional heavy precipitation process in North China (such as Huanghuai and other regions) from July 18 to 20, 2016 is also done and the results show that each numerical model of the process prediction is not successful. Therefore, further research is needed on the future correction of systematic bias of numerical models of regional heavy precipitation in medium-term forecasters.

  5. Implementation of the victoria bowel performance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Philippa; Barwich, Doris; Kirk, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    There is a lack of evidence to guide constipation management in patients receiving palliative care. Data collection requires the systematic use of validated assessment tools. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS) as an audit tool. Charts were reviewed before and after the implementation of a program to monitor constipation through repeated use of the Victoria Bowel Scale. The program was initiated at three oncology pain and symptom management clinics, four palliative care units, and four residential hospices. An additional "control" palliative care unit introduced new nursing assessment tools without the new scale. The Victoria BPS was recorded at 86% of 192 postimplementation outpatient clinic visits and was easy to use in this setting. Documentation of bowel performance at comparable visits improved from 44% to 66% (Passessment tool, uniquely incorporating the patient's usual bowel function. Modifications to the scale have been made to improve clarity and allow for the expected drop in bowel activity seen in end-of-life care. Considerable educational effort and appropriate organization of the charts are required for optimal implementation. The proportion of revised BPS scores ranging from -1 to +1 is proposed as an indicator of satisfactory bowel management for clinical, audit, and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) assisted migration potential: testing establishment north of the species range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Sierra C; Aitken, Sally N

    2012-01-01

    The translocation of species into habitable locations outside of their current ranges, termed assisted migration, has been proposed as a means of saving vulnerable species from extinction as a result of climate change. We explore the use of this controversial technique using a threatened keystone species in western North America, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), as a case study. Species distribution models predict that whitebark pine will be extirpated from most of its current range as temperatures rise over the next 70 years. However, the same models indicate that a large area within northwestern British Columbia, Canada, is climatically suitable for the species under current conditions and will remain so throughout the 21st century. To test the capacity of whitebark pine to establish relative to climatic and habitat features within its predicted climatic range, we planted seeds from seven populations in eight locations spanning from 600 km southeast to 800 km northwest of the northern boundary of the current species range. During the first three growing seasons, germination occurred in all locations. Nearly three times as many treated (induced maturation and broken dormancy) than untreated seeds germinated, and most treated seeds germinated a year earlier than the untreated seeds. Germination, survival, and growth were primarily influenced by seed mass, site climate conditions related to the duration of snow cover, and provenance temperature. Our experiment provides a preliminary test of models predicting the existence of climatically suitable whitebark pine habitat north of the current species ranges. More broadly, our techniques and results inform the development of scientific guidelines for assisting the migration of other species that are highly threatened by climate change. Applied case studies of this kind are critical for assessing the utility of species distribution models as conservation planning tools.

  7. Extinction debt and colonization credit delay range shifts of eastern North American trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Vissault, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change is already having an impact on species ranges. For species with slow demography and limited dispersal, such as trees, lags between climate change and distribution shifts are likely to increase in the future. Such lags can be of critical importance to management and biodivers......Global climate change is already having an impact on species ranges. For species with slow demography and limited dispersal, such as trees, lags between climate change and distribution shifts are likely to increase in the future. Such lags can be of critical importance to management...... and biodiversity of forests, because they can result in 'extinction debts', where populations temporarily persist under unsuitable conditions, and 'colonization credits', where suitable locations are not occupied owing to slow demography and limited dispersal. Here we use a range dynamics model based...... on metapopulation theory to show that the distributions of 21 dominant trees in eastern North America are out of equilibrium with climate and demonstrate both extinction debt and colonization credit. Moreover, lags are more severe at northern range limits, suggesting that range contraction in response to warming...

  8. Genetic diversity and host range variation of Ralstonia solanacearum strains entering North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David J; Zapata, Mildred; Gabriel, Dean W; Duan, Y P; Yuen, Jeanne M F; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Donahoo, Ryan S

    2009-09-01

    Each year, large volumes of ornamental and food plant propagative stock are imported into the North America; occasionally, Ralstonia solanacearum is found systemically infecting this plant material. In this study, 107 new R. solanacearum strains were collected over a 10-year period from imported propagative stock and compared with 32 previously characterized R. solanacearum strains using repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) element (BOX, ERIC, and REP) primers. Additional strain comparisons were made by sequencing the endoglucanase and the cytochrome b561 genes. Using rep-PCR primers, populations could be distinguished by biovar and, to a limited extent, country of origin and original host. Similarity coefficients among rep-PCR clusters within biovars were relatively low in many cases, indicating that disease outbreaks over time may have been caused by different clonal populations. Similar population differentiations of R. solanacearum were obtained when comparing strain sequences using either the endoglucanase or cytochrome b561 genes. We found that most of the new biovar 1 strains of R. solanacearum entering the United States were genetically distinct from the biovar 1 strains currently found infecting vegetable production. These introduced biovar 1 strains also had a broader host range and could infect not only tomato, tobacco, and potato but also anthurium and pothos and cause symptoms on banana. All introductions into North America of race 3, biovar 2 strains in the last few years have been linked to geranium production and appeared to be clonal.

  9. Structural Architecturing of the Western Khisor Range, North of Saiyiduwali: Implications for Hydrocarbon Prospects, KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Western Khisor Range segment of the Trans-Indus ranges is a south-vergent, east-west trending foldthrust belt that protrudes southward into Himalayan foreland deep. The frontal flanks of range are characterized by east-west trending parallel to enechelon, plunging local anticlines and synclines structures. General structural style of folds was observed asymmetric to overturn and dominantly south vergent. The frontal outskirts of the study area is demarcated by a youngest partly emergent thrust fault named as Khisor Thrust. Outcrops projection to subsurface of the structural features suggests a thin-skinned tectonic mechanism for growth of the western Khisor Range where gliding surface for the frontal thrust sheet being located within the Cambrian rocks of Jhelum Group at a maximum depth of 4km. The structural evolution of the western Khisor Range is generally ascribed to southward directed thrust transferral system along the basal décollement being observed at base of the Cambrian Khewra Sandstone. Along this detachment horizon the Khewra Sandstone emplaced over the Recent alluvium and boulder bed deposits. The Khisor Thrust fault bulldozed the fore limb of the Saiyiduwali Anticline and demarcates the north-western proximity of the Punjab Foredeep. The Khisor Thrust sheet is predominantly comprised of the shallow marine rocks of Paleozoic to Mesozoic, laterally extended along the range. The stratigraphic framework of the western Khisor Range is considerably related and correlative to the eastern Trans-Indus and Salt ranges. Cambrian strata of the western Khisor Range comprise of Jhelum Group where its apex is underlain by the Permian Nilawahan and Zaluch groups rocks, consists of the Sardhai and Amb formations. The Sardhai Formation was observed 50m thick and consists of dark gray to blackish gray and black carbonaceous shale while the lower constituents of the Amb Formation contains dark gray carbonaceous and calcareous shale up to 30m thick

  10. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted.

  11. Range Expansion and the Origin of USA300 North American Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challagundla, Lavanya; Luo, Xiao; Tickler, Isabella A.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Brown, Eric L.; Skov, Robert; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Reyes, Jinnethe; Robledo, Iraida E.; Vazquez, Guillermo J.; Rivera, Raul; Fey, Paul D.; Stevenson, Kurt; Wang, Shu-Hua; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Mediavilla, Jose R.; Arias, Cesar A.; Planet, Paul J.; Nolan, Rathel L.; Tenover, Fred C.; Goering, Richard V.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The USA300 North American epidemic (USA300-NAE) clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has caused a wave of severe skin and soft tissue infections in the United States since it emerged in the early 2000s, but its geographic origin is obscure. Here we use the population genomic signatures expected from the serial founder effects of a geographic range expansion to infer the origin of USA300-NAE and identify polymorphisms associated with its spread. Genome sequences from 357 isolates from 22 U.S. states and territories and seven other countries are compared. We observe two significant signatures of range expansion, including decreases in genetic diversity and increases in derived allele frequency with geographic distance from the Pennsylvania region. These signatures account for approximately half of the core nucleotide variation of this clone, occur genome wide, and are robust to heterogeneity in temporal sampling of isolates, human population density, and recombination detection methods. The potential for positive selection of a gyrA fluoroquinolone resistance allele and several intergenic regions, along with a 2.4 times higher recombination rate in a resistant subclade, is noted. These results are the first to show a pattern of genetic variation that is consistent with a range expansion of an epidemic bacterial clone, and they highlight a rarely considered but potentially common mechanism by which genetic drift may profoundly influence bacterial genetic variation. PMID:29295910

  12. Historical range, current distribution, and conservation status of the Swift Fox, Vulpes velox, in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Woodward, Robert O.; Igl, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) was once common in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the Great Plains of North America. The species' abundance declined and its distribution retracted following European settlement of the plains. By the late 1800s, the species had been largely extirpated from the northern portion of its historical range, and its populations were acutely depleted elsewhere. Swift Fox populations have naturally recovered somewhat since the 1950s, but overall abundance and distribution remain below historical levels. In a 1995 assessment of the species' status under the US Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that a designation of threatened or endangered was warranted, but the species was "precluded from listing by higher listing priorities." A major revelation of the 1995 assessment was the recognition that information useful for determining population status was limited. Fundamental information was missing, including an accurate estimate of the species' distribution before European settlement and an estimate of the species' current distribution and trends. The objectives of this paper are to fill those gaps in knowledge. Historical records were compiled and, in combination with knowledge of the habitat requirements of the species, the historical range of the Swift Fox is estimated to be approximately 1.5 million km2. Using data collected between 2001 and 2006, the species' current distribution is estimated to be about 44% of its historical range in the United States and 3% in Canada. Under current land use, approximately 39% of the species' historical range contains grassland habitats with very good potential for Swift Fox occupation and another 10% supports grasslands with characteristics that are less preferred (e.g., a sparse shrub component or taller stature) but still suitable. Additionally, land use on at least 25% of the historical range supports dryland farming, which can be suitable for Swift Fox

  13. Special Issue on Lake Victoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JA Mwambungu, 21-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v30i1.18384 ...

  14. Effects of post-harvest treatments on high-elevation forests in the North Cascade Range, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella Elman; David L. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of post-harvest treatments on regeneration and forest composition 13-27 years following harvest in high-elevation forests of the North Cascade Range, Washington. Eighteen sites encompassing three common post-harvest treatments were examined at elevations ranging from 830 m to 1460 m. Treatments included: (1) sites broadcast burned and planted...

  15. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    by aeolian erosion; thereby leading to mass wasting and accumulation of the large angular blocks observed on the slopes below By contrast, the shallow slope in the bays implies mass wasting is currently limited. Most likely, early mass wasting and aeolian stripping of the walls was gradually superseded by aeolian activity that proceeded most quickly along structural weaknesses and resulted in formation of the bays. Redistributed wall material contributes to crater infilling and/or was transported out of the crater. Occurrence of dark basaltic sands in the crater and in wind streaks along the north rim indicates additional transport into and out of the crater from other sources. The diminished expression of the rim, planed-off appearance of the ejecta blanket, paucity of exposed blocks, and dark wind streaks outside the crater imply efficient aeolian modification of Victoria crater, likely contributing to down-wasting and sediment transport that may be responsible for thin, local outcrops of finely bedded sediments capping the ejecta. The annulus appears to have resulted from combined erosion and planing of the ejecta, leading to evolution of a resistant lag of hematite concretions along with infilling and covering by the basaltic sand. There is no evidence for water-related erosional contributions to the present form of Victoria crater.

  16. Heat flow and hydrothermal circulation in the cascade range, north-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S E; Sherrod, D R; Mariner, R H

    1989-03-17

    In north-central Oregon a large area of near-zero near-surface conductive heat flow occurs in young volcanic rocks of the Cascade Range. Recent advective heat flux measurements and a heat-budget analysis suggest that ground-water circulation sweeps sufficient heat out of areas where rocks younger than 6 Ma (million years ago) are exposed to account for the anomalously high advective and conductive heat discharge measured in older rocks at lower elevations. Earlier workers have proposed that an extensive midcrustal magmatic heat source is responsible for this anomalously high heat flow. Instead, high heat flow in the older rocks may be a relatively shallow phenomenon caused by regional ground-water flow. Any deeper anomaly may be relatively narrow, spatially variable, and essentially confined to the Quaternary (less than 2 Ma) arc. Magmatic intrusion at a rate of 9 to 33 cubic kilometers per kilometer of arc length per million years can account for the total heat flow anomaly. Deep drilling in the areas of high heat flow in the older rocks could indicate which model is more appropriate for the near-surface heat flow data.

  17. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka. Hydrological analysis for Victoria Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, B.S. [GU Projects (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, J.V. [Gibb (Sir Alexander) and Partners (United Kingdom); Parks, Y.P. [Institute of Hydrology (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    The hydrological analyses described in this paper formed an important part of the studies for the Victoria Project of which the Victoria Dam is the major component. The purpose of the hydrological studies was to provide consistent sets of river flow and climate data at the sites of the major components of the project, and to provide flood estimates for sizing the spillway and river diversion works. This paper outlines the approach used in the overall study, and then concentrates on aspects of specific relevance to the Victoria Dam. The main hydrological characteristics of the upper Mahaweli basin are presented as an introduction to the overall water balance; the humid climate made the appraisal of flow records relatively simple. Time series modelling was used to fill gaps in the observed flow records used for reservoir operation studies. The spillway design flood was based on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) derived by maximizing a historic storm in which rainfall approaching the PMP covered most of the basin. Construction floods of moderate return period were estimated from a dimensionless analysis of regional flood records. The main lessons to be drawn are that water balance methods are of particular value in these humid monsoon conditions, while the ratio of the PMP to the maximum recorded storm is lower than would be the case in more arid regions. (author)

  18. 75 FR 9893 - Adequacy Determination for the Denver Metro Area and North Front Range 8-Hour Ozone Attainment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... North Front Range Metropolitan Planning Organization (NFR MPO), the Colorado Department of... budgets for future transportation conformity determinations once this finding becomes effective. DATES: This finding is effective March 19, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tim Russ, Air Program (8P-AR...

  19. Summer and winter space use and home range characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A.; Brooks, Robert P.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brandes, David; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Movement behavior and its relationship to habitat provide critical information toward understanding the effects of changing environments on birds. The eastern North American population of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is a genetically distinct and small population of conservation concern. To evaluate the potential responses of this population to changing landscapes, we calculated the home range and core area sizes of 52 eagles of 6 age–sex classes during the summer and winter seasons. Variability in range size was related to variation in topography and open cover, and to age and sex. In summer, eagle ranges that were smaller had higher proportions of ridge tops and open cover and had greater topographic roughness than did larger ranges. In winter, smaller ranges had higher proportions of ridge tops, hillsides and cliffs, and open cover than did larger ranges. All age and sex classes responded similarly to topography and open cover in both seasons. Not surprisingly, adult eagles occupied the smallest ranges in both seasons. Young birds used larger ranges than adults, and subadults in summer used the largest ranges (>9,000 km2). Eastern adult home ranges in summer were 2–10 times larger than those reported for other populations in any season. Golden Eagles in eastern North America may need to compensate for generally lower-quality habitat in the region by using larger ranges that support access to adequate quantities of resources (prey, updrafts, and nesting, perching, and roosting sites) associated with open cover and diverse topography. Our results suggest that climate change–induced afforestation on the breeding grounds and ongoing land cover change from timber harvest and energy development on the wintering grounds may affect the amount of suitable habitat for Golden Eagles in eastern North America.

  20. Connecting endangered brown bear subpopulations in the Cantabrian Range (north-western Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. C. Mateo-Sanchez; Samuel Cushman; S. Saura

    2014-01-01

    The viability of many species depends on functional connectivity of their populations through dispersal across broad landscapes. This is particularly the case for the endangered brown bear in north-western Spain, with a total population of about 200 individuals in two subpopulations that are separated by a wide gap with low permeability. Our goal in this paper...

  1. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  2. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  3. Monitoring cetaceans in the North Pacific: analysis of retrospective SOSUS data and acoustic detection on the Northern Edge Range

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    To comply with environmental laws, the U.S. Navy has increasingly relied on acoustic detection and tracking for marine mammal monitoring/mitigation. In the North Pacific, much of what is known about large whale seasonal occurrence comes from Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) arrays. SOSUS provides broad basin-scale assessments of large whale seasonal occurrence, but cannot provide detail at the regional level, in particular here for the Navy's Northern Edge (Training) Range in the northern...

  4. Exploration of Victoria crater by the mars rover opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; De Souza, P.A.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, J. W.; Schroder, C.; Sullivan, R.J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ???750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ???6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  5. On the diurnal ranges of sea surface temperature (SST) in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nasnodkar, N.; Rajesh, G.; Joseph, K.J.; Suresh, I.; Almeida, A.M.

    of temperature sensor. The diurnal range estimated using the drifting buoy data was higher than the diurnal range estimated using moored buoys fitted with temperature sensors at greater depths. A simple regression model based on the peak solar radiation...

  6. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  7. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  8. North slope missile testing range: a role playing approach to photoinstrumentation education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1995-10-01

    The end of the cold war and the drastic downsizing of missile research along with the steady retirement of personnel versed in the technical aspects of missile performance evaluation through photographic processes have created a situation where the number of qualified individuals to provide such services is precariously low and where the technology itself is being forgotten. At the Imaging and Photographic Technology Department at the Rochester Institute of Technology we are making a small effort to teach introductory concepts often taken directly from imaging technologies associated with missile range photography. These technologies involve near-miss analysis and basic photogrammetry, streak photography for measurements of velocity, acceleration and event duration, shadowgraph and schlieren imaging, high speed flash photography of explosive events, etc. One of the methods by which a healthy dose of respect for traditional technology is taught is by setting up a mock missile range in the Department's High Speed laboratory. This project includes a missile firing control station, a photography section, a missile assembly area and other interdependent activities. Students build their own rockets, are taught the fundamental principles related to synchroballistic photography, they become range 'officers' and are never in charge of launching their own rocket and acquiring their own data but have to depend on their classmates to perform their assigned roles without error. Eventually the students then analyze the film data and report on the performance characteristics of their missiles. It is the purpose of this paper to share with professional technologists one project that is part of the Imaging and Photographic Technology curriculum at RIT designed to help preserve the technologies which provide the foundation upon which SPIE itself was founded.

  9. Numerical simulation of hydrothermal circulation in the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Paulson, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alternate conceptual models to explain near-surface heat-flow observations in the central Oregon Cascade Range involve (1) an extensive mid-crustal magmatic heat source underlying both the Quaternary arc and adjacent older rocks or (2) a narrower deep heat source which is flanked by a relatively shallow conductive heat-flow anomaly caused by regional ground-water flow (the lateral-flow model). Relative to the mid-crustal heat source model, the lateral-flow model suggests a more limited geothermal resource base, but a better-defined exploration target. We simulated ground-water flow and heat transport through two cross sections trending west from the Cascade range crest in order to explore the implications of the two models. The thermal input for the alternate conceptual models was simulated by varying the width and intensity of a basal heat-flow anomaly and, in some cases, by introducing shallower heat sources beneath the Quaternary arc. Near-surface observations in the Breitenbush Hot Springs area are most readily explained in terms of lateral heat transport by regional ground-water flow; however, the deep thermal structure still cannot be uniquely inferred. The sparser thermal data set from the McKenzie River area can be explained either in terms of deep regional ground-water flow or in terms of a conduction-dominated system, with ground-water flow essentially confined to Quaternary rocks and fault zones.

  10. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  11. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  12. Diverse wild bird host range of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in eastern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A Dhondt

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases often result from pathogens jumping to novel hosts. Identifying possibilities and constraints on host transfer is therefore an important facet of research in disease ecology. Host transfers can be studied for the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum, predominantly a pathogen of poultry until its 1994 appearance and subsequent epidemic spread in a wild songbird, the house finch Haemorhous mexicanus and some other wild birds. We screened a broad range of potential host species for evidence of infection by M. gallisepticum in order to answer 3 questions: (1 is there a host phylogenetic constraint on the likelihood of host infection (house finches compared to other bird species; (2 does opportunity for close proximity (visiting bird feeders increase the likelihood of a potential host being infected; and (3 is there seasonal variation in opportunity for host jumping (winter resident versus summer resident species. We tested for pathogen exposure both by using PCR to test for the presence of M. gallisepticum DNA and by rapid plate agglutination to test for the presence of antibodies. We examined 1,941 individual birds of 53 species from 19 avian families. In 27 species (15 families there was evidence for exposure with M. gallisepticum although conjunctivitis was very rare in non-finches. There was no difference in detection rate between summer and winter residents, nor between feeder birds and species that do not come to feeders. Evidence of M. gallisepticum infection was found in all species for which at least 20 individuals had been sampled. Combining the present results with those of previous studies shows that a diverse range of wild bird species may carry or have been exposed to M. gallisepticum in the USA as well as in Europe and Asia.

  13. Extended-Range Ensemble Predictions of Convection in the North Australian Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosdowsky, Wasyl; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2017-04-01

    Extended-range (Bureau of Meteorology’s Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA). Hindcasts from 1980-2011 are used, initialised on the 1st, 11th and 21st of each month, with a 33-member ensemble. The measure of convection is outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) averaged over the box 120ºE-150ºE, 5ºS-17.5ºS. This averaging serves to focus on the intraseasonal and longer time scales, and is an area of interest to users. The raw hindcasts of daily OLR show a strong systematic adjustment away from their initial values during the first week, and then converge to a mean seasonal cycle of similar amplitude and phase to observations. Hence, forecast OLR anomalies are formed by removing the model’s own seasonal cycle of OLR, which is a function of start time and lead time, a usual practice for dynamical seasonal prediction. Over all hindcasts, the model forecast root-mean-square (RMS) error is smaller than the RMS error of persistence and climatological reference forecasts for leads 3-35 days. Ensemble spread is less than the forecast RMS error (i.e. under-spread) for days 1-12, but slightly greater than the RMS error for longer leads. Binning the individual forecasts based on ensemble spread shows a generally positive relationship between spread and error. Therefore, greater certainty can be given for forecasts with smaller spread.

  14. Biogeography of boreal passerine range dynamics in western North America: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralberg, Diana; Matsuoka, Steven; Handel, Colleen M.; Schmiegelow, Fiona K.A.; Hamann, Andreas; Bayne, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    Many of the Neotropical migrant bird species that breed throughout the Canadian boreal region are not found in the Alaskan boreal region, separated by the northwestern cordilleran mountains, despite the presence of climatically suitable habitat. We asked whether biological or climatic factors constrain certain species from crossing this geographic barrier. Analyzing a comprehensive dataset for 80 boreal passerine species, we used phylogenetic logistic regression to evaluate the relative importance of physical, migratory and competition metrics versus current and paleoclimatic suitability factors. Controlling for current climatic suitability within boreal Alaska, we found that species with the greatest climatic suitability across the northwestern cordillera, presently and also during the mid-Holocene period, were most likely to be regular breeders in the Alaskan boreal region. Migratory strategy also played a role, but could not be disentangled from its strong phylogenetic basis. Our analysis suggests that the perceived barrier of the northwestern cordillera may be easily weakened as climate change improves conditions there for many forest species. The weakening of this barrier may lead to relatively rapid range expansions and the reshuffling of species communities. Species’ realized distributional shifts will be a function of the interplay between a changing climate and static topographic features.

  15. Effects of intratidal and tidal range variability on circulation and salinity structure in the Cape Fear River Estuary, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, May Ling; Luettich, Richard A.; Seim, Harvey

    2009-04-01

    Tidal influences on circulation and the salinity structure are investigated in the largely unstudied Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), North Carolina, a partially mixed estuary along the southeast coast of the United States. During two different tidal conditions (high versus low tidal range) and when river flow was low, salinity and velocity data were collected over a semidiurnal tidal cycle in a 2.8 km long transect along the estuary axis. Water level data were recorded nearby. Mechanisms that influence salt transport characteristics are diagnosed from an analysis of the field data. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between tidal range and salinity through comparison of along-channel circulation characteristics, computed salt fluxes, and coefficients of vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) based on a parameterization and on salt budget analysis. Findings indicate up-estuary tidally driven salt fluxes resulting from oscillatory salt transport are dominant near the pycnocline, while mean advective transport dominates near the bottom during both tidal range periods. Earlier research related to salt transport in estuaries with significant gravitational circulation suggests that up-estuary salt transport increases during low tidal ranges as a result of increased gravitational circulation. In the CFRE, in contrast, net (tidally averaged) near-bottom along-channel velocities are greater during higher tidal range conditions than during lower tidal range conditions. Findings indicate stronger tidal forcing and associated mixing contribute to greater near-bottom salinity gradients and, consequently, increased baroclinic circulation. Lower near-bottom salinities during the higher tidal range period are a result of a combination of increased vertical turbulent salt fluxes near the pycnocline and increased bottom-generated mixing.

  16. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  17. Erosion of an ancient mountain range, the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 10Be and 26Al in bedrock (n=10), colluvium (n=5 including grain size splits), and alluvial sediments (n=59 including grain size splits), coupled with field observations and GIS analysis, suggest that erosion rates in the Great Smoky Mountains are controlled by subsurface bedrock erosion and diffusive slope processes. The results indicate rapid alluvial transport, minimal alluvial storage, and suggest that most of the cosmogenic nuclide inventory in sediments is accumulated while they are eroding from bedrock and traveling down hill slopes. Spatially homogeneous erosion rates of 25 - 30 mm Ky-1 are calculated throughout the Great Smoky Mountains using measured concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in quartz separated from alluvial sediment. 10Be and 26Al concentrations in sediments collected from headwater tributaries that have no upstream samples (n=18) are consistent with an average erosion rate of 28 ?? 8 mm Ky-1, similar to that of the outlet rivers (n=16, 24 ?? 6 mm Ky-1), which carry most of the sediment out of the mountain range. Grain-size-specific analysis of 6 alluvial sediment samples shows higher nuclide concentrations in smaller grain sizes than in larger ones. The difference in concentrations arises from the large elevation distribution of the source of the smaller grains compared with the narrow and relatively low source elevation of the large grains. Large sandstone clasts disaggregate into sand-size grains rapidly during weathering and downslope transport; thus, only clasts from the lower parts of slopes reach the streams. 26Al/10Be ratios do not suggest significant burial periods for our samples. However, alluvial samples have lower 26Al/10Be ratios than bedrock and colluvial samples, a trend consistent with a longer integrated cosmic ray exposure history that includes periods of burial during down-slope transport. The results confirm some of the basic ideas embedded in Davis' geographic cycle model, such as the reduction of relief

  18. Molecular diversity of the microsporidium Kneallhazia solenopsae reveals an expanded host range among fire ants in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascunce, Marina S; Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H; Shoemaker, Dewayne; Plowes, Robert; Gilbert, Lawrence; LeBrun, Edward G; Sánchez-Arroyo, Hussein; Sanchez-Peña, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Kneallhazia solenopsae is a pathogenic microsporidium that infects the fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri in South America and the USA. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence and molecular diversity of K. solenopsae in fire ants from North and South America. We report the first empirical evidence of K. solenopsae infections in the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, and S. geminata×Solenopsis xyloni hybrids, revealing an expanded host range for this microsporidium. We also analyzed the molecular diversity at the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in K. solenopsae from the ant hosts S.invicta, S. richteri, S. geminata and S. geminata×S. xyloni hybrids from North America, Argentina and Brazil. We found 22 16S haplotypes. One of these haplotypes (WD_1) appears to be widely distributed, and is found in S. invicta from the USA and S. geminata from southern Mexico. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S sequences revealed that K. solenopsae haplotypes fall into one of two major clades that are differentiated by 2-3%. In some cases, multiple K. solenopsae haplotypes per colony were found, suggesting either an incomplete homogenization among gene copies within the 16S gene cluster or multiple K. solenopsae variants simultaneously infecting host colonies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconstruction and paleoclimatic significance of Late Pleistocene niche glaciation at Mt Aston, Tararua Range, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Evidence for the timing of inter-hemispheric climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene is important, with reconstructed mountain glacier extents routinely used as a proxy for climate. While valley glaciers extended out from an ice sheet centred on New Zealand's Southern Alps during Pleistocene climate cooling to below present-day sea level, evidence of former glacial activity on the North Island of New Zealand is rare, in comparison. A newly-identified glaciated site is Mt Aston, an isolated cirque-like basin within the Tararua Range on New Zealand's North Island. Previously published cosmogenic isotope ages and paleo-glacier reconstructions of a 3 km-long valley glacier 30 km to the north show that paleo-equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) increased northwards across New Zealand during the regional last glacial maximum (LGM). Hence, at this latitude (41˚ 00' S), only topography >1300 m above present day sea-level was of feasible elevation to intersect the prevailing south-westerly airflow and to allow niche glaciers to form. In the basin below Mt Aston, a c. 0.38 km2 cirque glacier existed with ELA of c. 1290 ± 10 m above present-day sea level. This paleo-ELA closely approximates the extrapolated ELA trend surface for the regional LGM. The mean glacier thickness of 35 m gives a maximum basal shear stress of c. 102 kPa-1, with a mean January temperature at the ELA of c. 5.5 ˚ C. It is well-established that present-day glaciers in New Zealand are particularly sensitive to climate change, manifested by glacial advances and retreats in response to simple mass balance dynamics. Consistent with this, the paleo-glacier reconstruction implies that rather than simple temperature decreases driving paleo-ELA depression, changes in south-westerly airflow over New Zealand, bringing moisture-laden but cool air, maximized snowfall and minimised winter melt. The corollary is that (1) patterns of Pleistocene glacier fluctuations may be interpreted as responses, in-part, to

  20. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Derek W; Venette, Robert C; Maddox, Mitchell P; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in northeastern North America to this oligophagous herbivore. Due to the tightly co-evolved relationship between mountain pine beetle and western pine hosts, in which the insect utilizes the defensive chemistry of the host to stimulate mass attacks, we hypothesized that lack of co-evolutionary association would affect the host attraction and acceptance behaviors of this insect among novel hosts, particularly those with little known historical association with an aggressive stem-infesting insect. We studied how beetle behavior differed among the various stages of colonization on newly cut logs of four novel potential pine host species; jack, red (P. resinosa Ait.), eastern white (P. strobus L.) and Scots (P. sylvestris L.) pines, as well as two historical hosts, ponderosa (P. ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) and lodgepole (P. contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) pines. Overall, we found that beetle colonization behaviors at each stage in the colonization process differ between pine hosts, likely due to differing chemical and physical bark traits. Pines without co-evolved constitutive defenses against mountain pine beetle exhibited reduced amounts of defensive monoterpenoid chemicals; however, such patterns also reduced beetle attraction and colonization. Neither chemical nor physical defenses fully defended trees against the various stages of host procurement that can result in tree colonization and death.

  1. Modal analysis of the range evolution of broadband wavefields in the North Pacific Ocean: low mode numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Brown, Michael G; Duda, Timothy F; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Howe, Bruce M; Colosi, John A

    2012-06-01

    The results of mode-processing measurements of broadband acoustic wavefields made in the fall of 2004 as part of the Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (LOAPEX) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean are reported here. Transient wavefields in the 50-90 Hz band that were recorded on a 1400-m long 40 element vertical array centered near the sound channel axis are analyzed. This array was designed to resolve low-order modes. The wavefields were excited by a ship-suspended source at seven ranges, between approximately 50 and 3200 km, from the receiving array. The range evolution of broadband modal arrival patterns corresponding to fixed mode numbers ("modal group arrivals") is analyzed with an emphasis on the second (variance) and third (skewness) moments. A theory of modal group time spreads is described, emphasizing complexities associated with energy scattering among low-order modes. The temporal structure of measured modal group arrivals is compared to theoretical predictions and numerical simulations. Theory, simulations, and observations generally agree. In cases where disagreement is observed, the reasons for the disagreement are discussed in terms of the underlying physical processes and data limitations.

  2. total mercury concentration in common fish species of lake victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake. Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption. Spectrophotometric ... INTRODUCTION. The Lake Victoria ...

  3. Quantitative estimation of climatic parameters from vegetation data in North America by the mutual climatic range technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katherine H.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Strickland, Laura E.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Thompson, Robert S.; Shafer, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The mutual climatic range (MCR) technique is perhaps the most widely used method for estimating past climatic parameters from fossil assemblages, largely because it can be conducted on a simple list of the taxa present in an assemblage. When applied to plant macrofossil data, this unweighted approach (MCRun) will frequently identify a large range for a given climatic parameter where the species in an assemblage can theoretically live together. To narrow this range, we devised a new weighted approach (MCRwt) that employs information from the modern relations between climatic parameters and plant distributions to lessen the influence of the "tails" of the distributions of the climatic data associated with the taxa in an assemblage. To assess the performance of the MCR approaches, we applied them to a set of modern climatic data and plant distributions on a 25-km grid for North America, and compared observed and estimated climatic values for each grid point. In general, MCRwt was superior to MCRun in providing smaller anomalies, less bias, and better correlations between observed and estimated values. However, by the same measures, the results of Modern Analog Technique (MAT) approaches were superior to MCRwt. Although this might be reason to favor MAT approaches, they are based on assumptions that may not be valid for paleoclimatic reconstructions, including that: 1) the absence of a taxon from a fossil sample is meaningful, 2) plant associations were largely unaffected by past changes in either levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide or in the seasonal distributions of solar radiation, and 3) plant associations of the past are adequately represented on the modern landscape. To illustrate the application of these MCR and MAT approaches to paleoclimatic reconstructions, we applied them to a Pleistocene paleobotanical assemblage from the western United States. From our examinations of the estimates of modern and past climates from vegetation assemblages, we conclude that

  4. First record of Caryophyllia smithii in the central southern North Sea: artificial reefs affect range extensions of sessile benthic species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, J.W.P.; Lengkeek, W.; Lewis, G.; Bos, O.G.; Walraven, van L.; Dongen, van U.

    2015-01-01

    In the North Sea, observations of the solitary coral Caryophyllia smithii are mostly limited to the north-east coast of the United Kingdom including the Shetland and Orkney islands. To date, C. smithii has not been reported from far offshore locations in the North Sea south of 57.78N. Distribution

  5. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extended-range forecast for the temporal distribution of clustering tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim; Bai, Long; Gao, Jianyun

    2017-11-01

    Based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index for clustering tropical cyclogenesis (CTC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) was defined. Around 76 % of total CTC events were generated during the active phase of the CTC index, and 38 % of the total active phase was concurrent with CTC events. For its continuous property, the CTC index was used as the representative predictand for extended-range forecasting the temporal distribution of CTC events. The predictability sources for CTC events were detected via correlation analyses of the previous 35-5-day lead atmospheric fields against the CTC index. The results showed that the geopotential height at different levels and the 200 hPa zonal wind over the global tropics possessed large predictability sources, whereas the predictability sources of other variables, e.g., OLR, zonal wind, and relatively vorticity at 850 hPa and relatively humility at 700 hPa, were mainly confined to the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. Several spatial-temporal projection model (STPM) sets were constructed to carry out the extended-range forecast for the CTC index. By combining the output of STPMs separately conducted for the two dominant modes of intraseasonal variability, e.g., the 10-30 and the 30-80 day mode, useful forecast skill could be achieved for a 30-day lead time. The combined output successfully captured both the 10-30 and 30-80 day mode at least 10 days in advance. With a relatively low rate of false alarm, the STPM achieved hits for 80 % (69 %) of 54 CTC events during 2003-2014 at the 10-day (20-day) lead time, suggesting a practical value of the STPM for real-time forecasting WNP CTC events at an extended range.

  7. Geography and Geographical Education in Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewaldt, Jeana

    2006-01-01

    Victoria has just emerged from 10 years where Geography has been one of three strands in the key learning area of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE). The overarching framework emerged from an attempt to develop a national curriculum. Whilst the national curriculum was rejected by Australian state and territories who each hold legislative…

  8. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Levels of nitrates (NOg-N) and phosphates (PO4~P) in some satellite lakes within the Lake. Victoria basin were determined in Kagera (Lake Burigt), in Mara (River Mara) and in Mwanza region (Lake Malimbe) during August/September 2002 (dry season) and January/February 2003. (wet season).

  9. D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, D.; Olfat, H.; Briffa, M.; Rajabifard, A.

    2017-10-01

    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  10. CLARIIDAE) FROM THE MWANZA GULF, LAKE VICTORIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 107 I Clarias gariepinus examined flom the. Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a. Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea,' and fourteen endoparasites, five nematodes,. five trematodes and three ...

  11. Back mobility and interincisor distance ranges in racially diverse North American healthy children and relationship to generalized hypermobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolston Sophie L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the dearth of normal values, we conducted a cross-sectional study of North American racially diverse children to determine normal values of interincisor distance and lower spine flexion. Methods Demographs of 307 children aged 5–17 seeking treatment emergency care were obtained along with interincisor distance measured by incisor tooth-to-tooth gap, lower spine flexion measured by the Schober and modified Schober measurements, popliteal extension, hypermobility (Beighton score, weight and height. Results Normal range of motion values for the Schober was a mean of 14.3 cm (95% confidence interval (CI was 11.2 to 17. cm and the mean modified Schober’s was 21.6 cm (95% CI 18.4 cm to 24.8 cm. Retained lumbar lordosis on forward flexion was observed in 33%. Back mobility was associated with body mass index (BMI, popliteal angle, and Beighton score but not sex, race or retained lordosis. The mean interincisor distance measurement was 47 mm (95% CI 35 mm to 60 mm and was associated with height and BMI but not sex, race, or Beighton score. Conclusion Normal values for lower back range of motion and interincisor distance were obtained which are needed in pediatric rheumatologic clinics and do not significantly vary as to race or sex. Retained lordosis on forward flexion is a normal variant. Hamstring tightness, hypermobility and BMI need to be considered when ascertaining back mobility.

  12. Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Todd F; Bougher, Neale L; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trappe, James M

    2014-01-01

    An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in Sep 2010. The site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris north of Coonabarabran in an area known as the Pilliga Scrub. Although the Pilliga Scrub is characterized by frequent and often large, intense wildfires, the site showed no sign of recent fire, which suggests this species is not a postfire morel. Caps of the Morchella elata-like morel were brown with blackish ridges supported by a pubescent stipe that became brown at maturity. Because no morel has been described as native to Australia, the collections were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses to assess its identity. Results of these analyses indicated that our collection, together with collections from NSW and Victoria, represented a novel, genealogically exclusive lineage, which is described and illustrated here as Morchella australiana T. F. Elliott, Bougher, O'Donnell & Trappe, sp. nov.

  13. Epidemiology of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fielding

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the magnitude and severity of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia using surveillance data from five sources. Methods: Data from influenza notifications, sentinel general practices, a sentinel hospital network, a sentinel locum service and strain typing databases for 2012 were descriptively analysed. Results: Influenza and influenza-like illness activity was moderate compared to previous years, although a considerable increase in notified laboratory-confirmed influenza was observed. Type A influenza comprised between 83% and 87% of cases from the general practitioners, hospitals and notifiable surveillance data. Influenza A/H3 was dominant in July and August, and most tested isolates were antigenically similar to the A/Perth/16/2009 virus used in the vaccine. There was a smaller peak of influenza type B in September. No tested viruses were resistant to any neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals. Higher proportions of type A/H3, hospitalized cases and those with a comorbid condition indicated for influenza vaccination were aged 65 years or older. Influenza vaccination coverage among influenza-like illness patients was 24% in sentinel general practices and 50% in hospitals. Discussion: The 2012 influenza season in Victoria was average compared to previous years, with an increased dominance of A/H3 accompanied by increases in older and hospitalized cases. Differences in magnitude and the epidemiological profile of cases detected by the different data sources demonstrate the importance of using a range of surveillance data to assess the relative severity of influenza seasons.

  14. The Distribution and Abundance of an Island Population of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Far North of Their Geographic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Denise C.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Krockenberger, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Koalas are an iconic species of charismatic megafauna, of substantial social and conservation significance. They are widely distributed, often at low densities, and individuals can be difficult to detect, making population surveys challenging and costly. Consequently, koala population estimates have been limited and the results inconsistent. The aims of this study were to estimate the distribution, relative abundance and population size of the koalas on Magnetic Island, far north Queensland. Population densities were estimated in 18 different vegetation types present on the island using a Fecal Standing Crop Method. Koala density ranged from 0.404 ha−1, recorded in forest red gum and bloodwood woodland, to absence from eight of the vegetation types surveyed. The second highest density of 0.297 koalas ha−1 was recorded in mixed eucalypt woodland, which covers 45% of the island. The total abundance of koalas on Magnetic Island, not including those present in urban areas, was estimated at 825±175 (SEM). The large variation in koala density across vegetation types reinforces the need for sampling stratification when calculating abundance over large areas, as uniformity of habitat quality cannot be assumed. In this context, koala populations also occur in low densities in areas generally regarded as poor quality koala habitat. These results highlight the importance of protecting vegetation communities not traditionally considered to have high conservation value to koalas, as these habitats may be essential for maintaining viable, widespread, low-density populations. The results from this study provide a baseline to assess future trends in koala distribution, density and abundance on Magnetic Island. PMID:23527258

  15. Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Maguire, Anne; Tianqui, Guan; Yanguo, Shi; Zohoori, Fatemeh V

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis. The products were categorised into 10 groups according to product type. F concentrations of the samples ranged from 0.012-1.625 mg/l with a mean of 0.189 mg/l and a median of 0.076 mg/l. More than half of the products (55%) had an F concentration of ≤0.1 mg/l, while 0.7 mg/l. The 'tea with milk' group contained the highest mean F concentration (1.350 mg/l), whereas the lowest mean F concentration (0.027 mg/l) was found for the 'fruit juice' group. For some products, such as tea, fruit juice and carbonated beverages, there were substantial variations in F concentration between batches, manufacturers and production sites. In conclusion, ready-to-drink products (apart from tea), sold in Heilongjiang province, China, when consumed in moderation are unlikely to constitute a substantial risk factor for the development of dental or skeletal fluorosis.

  16. Microphysical characterization of long-range transported biomass burning particles from North America at three EARLINET stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Benavent-Oltra, José Antonio; Böckmann, Christine; Samaras, Stefanos; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Janicka, Łucja; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2017-05-01

    Strong events of long-range transported biomass burning aerosol were detected during July 2013 at three EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) stations, namely Granada (Spain), Leipzig (Germany) and Warsaw (Poland). Satellite observations from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) instruments, as well as modeling tools such as HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System), have been used to estimate the sources and transport paths of those North American forest fire smoke particles. A multiwavelength Raman lidar technique was applied to obtain vertically resolved particle optical properties, and further inversion of those properties with a regularization algorithm allowed for retrieving microphysical information on the studied particles. The results highlight the presence of smoke layers of 1-2 km thickness, located at about 5 km a.s.l. altitude over Granada and Leipzig and around 2.5 km a.s.l. at Warsaw. These layers were intense, as they accounted for more than 30 % of the total AOD (aerosol optical depth) in all cases, and presented optical and microphysical features typical for different aging degrees: color ratio of lidar ratios (LR532 / LR355) around 2, α-related ångström exponents of less than 1, effective radii of 0.3 µm and large values of single scattering albedos (SSA), nearly spectrally independent. The intensive microphysical properties were compared with columnar retrievals form co-located AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) stations. The intensity of the layers was also characterized in terms of particle volume concentration, and then an experimental relationship between this magnitude and the particle extinction coefficient was established.

  17. The distribution and abundance of an island population of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus in the far north of their geographic range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise C McGregor

    Full Text Available Koalas are an iconic species of charismatic megafauna, of substantial social and conservation significance. They are widely distributed, often at low densities, and individuals can be difficult to detect, making population surveys challenging and costly. Consequently, koala population estimates have been limited and the results inconsistent. The aims of this study were to estimate the distribution, relative abundance and population size of the koalas on Magnetic Island, far north Queensland. Population densities were estimated in 18 different vegetation types present on the island using a Fecal Standing Crop Method. Koala density ranged from 0.404 ha(-1, recorded in forest red gum and bloodwood woodland, to absence from eight of the vegetation types surveyed. The second highest density of 0.297 koalas ha(-1 was recorded in mixed eucalypt woodland, which covers 45% of the island. The total abundance of koalas on Magnetic Island, not including those present in urban areas, was estimated at 825±175 (SEM. The large variation in koala density across vegetation types reinforces the need for sampling stratification when calculating abundance over large areas, as uniformity of habitat quality cannot be assumed. In this context, koala populations also occur in low densities in areas generally regarded as poor quality koala habitat. These results highlight the importance of protecting vegetation communities not traditionally considered to have high conservation value to koalas, as these habitats may be essential for maintaining viable, widespread, low-density populations. The results from this study provide a baseline to assess future trends in koala distribution, density and abundance on Magnetic Island.

  18. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  19. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  20. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Anne; Adams, Rachel I; Cross, Hugh B; Bruns, Thomas D

    2009-03-01

    The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and the question of whether A. phalloides is an invasive species remains unanswered. We developed four novel loci and used these in combination with the EF1α and IGS loci to explore the phylogeography of the species. The data provide strong evidence for a European origin of North American populations. Genetic diversity is generally greater in European vs. North American populations, suggestive of a genetic bottleneck; polymorphic sites of at least two loci are only polymorphic within Europe although the number of individuals sampled from Europe was half the number sampled from North America. Endemic alleles are not a feature of North American populations, although alleles unique to different parts of Europe were common and were discovered in Scandinavian, mainland French, and Corsican individuals. Many of these endemic European haplotypes were found together at single sites in California. Early collections of A. phalloides dated prior to 1963 and annotated using sequences of the ITS locus proved to be different species of Amanita. The first Californian collections that we confirmed as A. phalloides were made from the Del Monte Hotel (now the Naval Postgraduate School) in Monterey, and on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1938 and in 1945. These historical data are used in combination with data on A. phalloides' current distribution to estimate a rate of spread for A. phalloides in California. Many species of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have been introduced across and among continents, but with this evidence, the death cap becomes the only known invasive EM fungus in

  1. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  2. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  3. Color variations on Victoria quadrangle: support for the geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Carli, C.; Giacomini, L.; Massironi, M.; Palumbo, P.; Guzzetta, L.; Mancinelli, P.; Vivaldi, V.; Ferranti, L.; Pauselli, C.; Frigeri, A.; Zusi, M.; Pozzobon, R.; Cremonese, G.; Ferrari, S.; Capaccioni, F.

    2015-10-01

    Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. Its extreme thermal environment makes it difficult to explore onsite. In 1974, Mariner 10, the first mission dedicated to Mercury, covered 45% of the surface during of the three Hermean flybys [1]. For about 30 years after Mariner 10, no other mission has flownto Mercury. Many unresolved issues need an answer, and in recent years the interest about Mercury has increased. MESSENGER mission contributed to understand Mercury's origin, its surface structure, and the nature of its magnetic field, exosphere, and magnetosphere [1]. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) provided a global coverage of Mercury surface with variable spatial resolution. MDIS is equipped with a narrow angle camera (NAC), dedicated to the study of the geology and a wide angle camera (WAC) with 12 filters useful to investigate the surface composition[2]. Mercury has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes [3]. The mapping process permits integration of different geological surface information to better understand the planet crust formation and evolution. Merging spectroscopically data is a poorly followed approach in planetary mapping, but it gives additional information about lithological composition, contributing to the construction of a more complete geological map [e.g. 4]. Recently, [5] proposed a first detailed map of all the Victoria quadrangle (H2). Victoria quadrangle is located in a longitude range between 270°E and 360°E and a latitude range of 22.5°N and 65°N,and itwas only partially mapped by Mariner 10 data[3]. Here we investigate the lithological variation by using the MDIS-WAC data to produce a set of color map products which could be asupport to the geological mapping [5]. The future ESA-JAXA mission to Mercury, BepiColombo, will soon contribute to improve the knowledge of Mercury surface composition and geology thanks to the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS)[6].

  4. DISTRIBUTION IN NON-TRAWLABLE AREAS OF LAKE VICTORIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victoria. Netherlands Journal of. Zoology 42'. 214 -232. Witte F, Goldschmidt PC and Wanink JH. 1995. Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the. Mwanza gmlf of Lake Victoria. In: Pitcher TH and Hart PJB (eds):. Impact of species change in fiican lakes. Chapman & Hall, London, pp.

  5. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  6. Gender Integration in the Management of the Lake Victoria Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The riparian governments of Lake Victoria have adopted co-management approach in fisheries management. This paper discusses gender mainstreaming in fisheries management of Lake Victoria, user rights, successes and challenges of the process. This paper has used gender-disaggregated data from several studies ...

  7. Evaluation of host range and larval feeding impact of Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa): considerations for biological control of Vincetoxicum in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Aaron S; Casagrande, Richard A

    2011-12-01

    A biological control program has been initiated against European swallow-worts Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench. and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., which are invasive in North America. A population of the leaf beetle Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa) originating from the western Alps has been under evaluation as a part of this program. The preliminary host range of C. a. asclepiadis was determined among 37 potential host plants. In addition, a prerelease impact study was conducted to determine the effect of larval feeding on the performance of V. nigrum. Under no-choice conditions beetle larvae completed development on nine plant species within the genera Artemisia and Tanacetum (Asteraceae) and Asclepias and Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae). The host range of adults is broader than larvae (13 plant species within five genera received sustained feeding). Three of the six nontarget species supporting larval development are native to North America, however in separate oviposition tests, female beetles failed to produce eggs when confined to these hosts. In multiple-choice tests, neither larvae nor adults preferred Vincetoxicum spp. to nontarget species. Larval damage by C. a. asclepiadis at densities at and above five larvae per plant substantially reduced growth, biomass, and delayed reproduction of V. nigrum. However, this population of C. a. asclepiadis is polyphagous and unsuitable for biological control of Vincetoxicum because of potential risk of attack to Asclepias tuberosa L. and native North American Asteraceae, particularly Artemisia.

  8. On the long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-07-01

    A compilation of measurements of net community production (NCP) in the upper waters of the eastern subtropical North Atlantic had suggested net heterotrophic conditions, purportedly supported by the lateral export of organic carbon from the adjacent, highly productive Canary Upwelling System (CanUS). Here, we quantify and assess this lateral export using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nutrient, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We employ a new Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the northwestern African shelf to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the CanUS with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our climatologically forced simulation reveals an intense offshore flux of organic carbon that transports about 19 Tg C yr-1 away from the nearshore 100 km over the whole CanUS, amounting to more than a third of the NCP in this region. The offshore transport extends beyond 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, adding organic carbon along the way to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8 and 34 % of the alongshore average NCP as a function of offshore distance. Although the divergence of this lateral export of organic carbon enhances local respiration, the upper 100 m layer in our model remains net autotrophic in the entire eastern subtropical North Atlantic. However, the vertical export of this organic carbon and its subsequent remineralization at depth makes the vertically integrated NCP strongly negative throughout this region, with the exception of a narrow band along the northwestern African shelf. The magnitude and efficiency of the lateral export varies substantially between the different subregions. In particular, the central coast near Cape Blanc is particularly efficient in collecting organic carbon on the shelf and subsequently transporting it offshore. In this central subregion, the offshore transport adds as much organic carbon as nearly 60 % of the local NCP to the upper 100

  9. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    KAUST Repository

    Martini, Matus

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  10. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  11. Art at Second Hand: Prints after European Pictures in Victoria before 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Inglis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the large number of European reproductive prints present in the public and private art collections of early colonial Victoria. Several factors are identified as contributing to this popularity; ranging from the suitability of the print medium for the export market to the existence of informed print connoisseurs amongst colonial collectors and artists. This article also demonstrates some of the typical features of Australian art history; in that it is concerned with the evaluation of the Australian art world through reference to European culture (the centre-periphery debate and also that it limits its discussion to the art of a particular Australian state (Victoria. The nineteenth-century division of Australia into different colonies had ramifications for Australian art history that continue to the present day – namely; the tendency to interpret colonial artistic activities from a regional perspective.

  12. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of victoria blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Khatri, Taslimahemad; Bawa, Harpreet; Kaur, Jashandeep

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction has been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method for photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue dye. The synthesized samples were subjected to XRD for microstructural characterization and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation. The typical X-ray diffraction pattern shows exhaustive evolution of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 having crystalline in the range of 34-54 nm. The synthesized samples were applied for degradation of victoria blue dye under UV illumination. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction showed higher photocatalytic activity for dye degradation compared to bare ZnO. This rise in photocatalytic activity can be attributed to enhanced charge separation derived from coupling of ZnO and Fe2O3. In this manuscript, the effect of photocatalyst dose, irradiation time and initial dye concentration on photodegradation of dye is reported in detail.

  13. Health screening of free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the German North-Sea island Pellworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posautz, Annika; Loncaric, Igor; Lundin, Marie; Hoffmann, Daniel; Lavazza, Antonio; Kelemen, Zsofia; Beiglböck, Christoph; Walzer, Christian; Kübber-Heiss, Anna

    2015-08-04

    A sudden decline of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) population in one of the best hunting districts for small game species in northern Germany, the German North-Sea island Pellworm, in the years 2007/08 following marked habitat changes led to the implementation of a thorough health assessment program of the population. 110 animals were collected during the normal hunting season in the years 2010 and 2011. A post-mortem examination and histopathological investigation was performed on all animals. Additionally, routine bacteriology of the small intestine and parasitology were carried out. Sera of hares were tested for European Brown Hare Syndrome (EBHS) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and for Treponema sp. by indirect immunofluorescent test. Additional testing was performed when deemed necessary. The most striking result was a shift in the intestinal bacterial flora towards Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with a predominance of either Escherichia coli, or Aeromonas sp., or a high-grade double-infection with these two pathogens with subsequent catarrhal enteritis. Additionally, a marked coccidiosis, and varying infestations with the nematode Trichostrongylus retortaeformis were found. The sero-prevalence for EBHS was 78.1%, and for Treponema 43.9%. The shift and decrease in diversity of the intestinal flora was the main and most consistent result found. In the authors' opinion the change of the habitat combined with other stressors increased the animals' sensitivity to ubiquitous bacterial species and parasites which usually would not have such fatal effects.

  14. Urban eutrophication and its spurring conditions in the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabenge, Martin; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of Lake Victoria in providing its ecosystem services to riparian states, both immediate and along the Nile river basin, is strongly related to its water quality. Over the past few decades, eutrophication has increased in the lake arising from increased inflow of nutrients. This study was carried out in the Murchison Bay area of Lake Victoria with the aims of assessing the progress of eutrophication nutrient enrichment into the lake between 1990 and 2014. Using Landsat satellite floating algae index (FAI) products and data from laboratory analysis of water samples, the study revealed that floating algae reoccurred periodically with coverage varying between 1 and 18 km(2). The findings also indicated that the range of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased greatly with maximum concentrations recorded at 31.2 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.084 mg l(-1) in 1990. The soluble reactive phosphorus concentration range showed a maximum of 1.45 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.043 mg l(-1) in 1990. The chlorophyll levels increased from an average of 17 μg l(-1) in 1992 by threefold in 1996 but had however declined and halved in intensity by 2011. The eutrophication that has occurred in Lake Victoria over the past decades has been due to pollution from industrial, residential, and agricultural areas within the catchment.

  15. The genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana in the south-western Mediterranean range reveals a shared history between North Africa and southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrian C; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Haddioui, Abdelmajid; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Picó, F Xavier; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-10

    Deciphering the genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana diversity across its geographic range provides the bases for elucidating the demographic history of this model plant. Despite the unique A. thaliana genomic resources currently available, its history in North Africa, the extreme southern limit in the biodiversity hotspot of the Mediterranean Basin, remains virtually unknown. To approach A. thaliana evolutionary history in North Africa, we have analysed the genetic diversity and structure of 151 individuals collected from 20 populations distributed across Morocco. Genotyping of 249 genome-wide SNPs indicated that Morocco contains substantially lower diversity than most analyzed world regions. However, IBD, STRUCTURE and PCA clustering analyses showed that genetic variation is strongly geographically structured. We also determined the genetic relationships between Morocco and the closest European region, the Iberian Peninsula, by analyses of 201 populations from both regions genotyped with the same SNPs. These analyses detected four genetic groups, but all Moroccan accessions belonged to a common Iberian/Moroccan cluster that appeared highly differentiated from the remaining groups. Thus, we identified a genetic lineage with an isolated demographic history in the south-western Mediterranean region. The existence of this lineage was further supported by the study of several flowering genes and traits, which also found Moroccan accessions similar to the same Iberian group. Nevertheless, genetic diversity for neutral SNPs and flowering genes was higher in Moroccan than in Iberian populations of this lineage. Furthermore, we analyzed the genetic relationships between Morocco and other world regions by joint analyses of a worldwide collection of 337 accessions, which detected an additional weak relationship between North Africa and Asia. The patterns of genetic diversity and structure of A. thaliana in Morocco show that North Africa is part of the species native

  16. Ten-year chemical signatures associated with long-range transport observed in the free troposphere over the central North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO, a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire significantly enhanced CO and O3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O3 and nitrogen oxides. The 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] value was used to investigate O3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O3 and 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at

  17. Statistical-dynamical long-range seasonal forecasting of streamflow with the North-American Multi Model Ensemble (NMME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise; Villarini, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    There are two main approaches to long-range (monthly to seasonal) streamflow forecasting: statistical approaches that typically relate climate precursors directly to streamflow, and dynamical physically-based approaches in which spatially distributed models are forced with downscaled meteorological forecasts. While the former approach is potentially limited by a lack of physical causality, the latter tends to be complex and time-consuming to implement. In contrast, hybrid statistical-dynamical techniques that use global climate model (GCM) ensemble forecasts as inputs to statistical models are both physically-based and rapid to run, but are a relatively new field of research. Here, we conduct the first systematic multimodel statistical-dynamical forecasting of streamflow using NMME climate forecasts from eight GCMs (CCSM3, CCSM4, CanCM3, CanCM4, GFDL2.1, FLORb01, GEOS5, and CFSv2) across a broad region. At several hundred U.S. Midwest stream gauges with long (50+ continuous years) streamflow records, we fit probabilistic statistical models for seasonal streamflow percentiles ranging from minimum to maximum flows. As predictors, we use basin-averaged values of precipitation, antecedent wetness, temperature, agricultural row crop acreage, and population density. Using the observed data, we select the best-fitting probabilistic model for every site, season, and streamflow percentile (ranging from low to high flows). The best-fitting models are then used to obtain streamflow predictions by incorporating the NMME climate forecasts and the extrapolated agricultural and population time series as predictors. The forecasting skill of our models is assessed using both deterministic and probabilistic verification measures. The influence of the different predictors is evaluated for all streamflow percentiles and across the full range of lead times. Our findings reveal that statistical-dynamical streamflow forecasting produces promising results, which may enable water managers

  18. Long-Range Atmosphere-Ocean Forecasting in Support of Undersea Warfare Operations in the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    climate. The critical features assessment brief for the FOAL EAGLE 09 exercise described SLD, COF, and depth excess (DE) in broad general statements...frequency bottom loss (HFBL) for the region of interest were presented; but, again, with minimal reference to the source or the forecast valid time ( Foal ...short range forecasts for use within 72 hours of the start of operations. For both exercises previously mentioned, USWEX 09 and FOAL EAGLE 09

  19. Accounting for Violence at the Victoria Industrial School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan Hogeveen

    2009-01-01

    Boys who were inmates at the Victoria Industrial School (VIS) from its opening in 1887 to its closure in 1934 often suffered extreme, violent, and capricious penalties and encountered calculated psychological manipulation...

  20. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  1. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Long-range forecast of monthly rainfall over India during summer monsoon season using SST in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    models by De l sole and Shukla 3 . They showed that minimum number of predi c tors are sufficient for accurate forecasts. R e cen t studies 4,5 reported lon g - range pr e diction of summer monsoon rainfall using Art i- ficial Neural Network (ANN... riod I. RMSE for the whole p eriod (excluding 2002) were of the o r de r of ?2 to ?5 cm for period I. For p e riod II, the RMSE are ?2 to ?5 cm and ?3 to ?6 c m for the training period and tes t ing periods respectively. RMSE...

  3. Range-wide genetic differentiation among North American great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) reveals a distinct lineage restricted to the Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joshua M; Keane, John J; Savage, Wesley K; Godwin, Steven A; Shafer, Jo Ann; Jepsen, Eric P; Gerhardt, Rick; Stermer, Chris; Ernest, Holly B

    2010-07-01

    Investigations of regional genetic differentiation are essential for describing phylogeographic patterns and informing management efforts for species of conservation concern. In this context, we investigated genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among great gray owl (Strix nebulosa) populations in western North America, which includes an allopatric range in the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Based on a total dataset consisting of 30 nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and 1938-base pairs of mitochondrial DNA, we found that Pacific Northwest sampling groups were recovered by frequency and Bayesian analyses of microsatellite data and each population sampled, except for western Canada, showed evidence of recent population bottlenecks and low effective sizes. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of sequence data indicated that the allopatric Sierra Nevada population is also a distinct lineage with respect to the larger species range in North America; we suggest a subspecies designation for this lineage should be considered (Strix nebulosa yosemitensis). Our study underscores the importance of phylogeographic studies for identifying lineages of conservation concern, as well as the important role of Pleistocene glaciation events in driving genetic differentiation of avian fauna. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A Tree Species Effect on Soil That Is Consistent Across the Species’ Range: The Case of Aspen and Soil Carbon in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Laganière

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Trembling aspen covers a large geographic range in North America, and previous studies reported that a better understanding of its singular influence on soil properties and processes is of high relevance for global change questions. Here we investigate the potential impact of a shift in aspen abundance on soil carbon sequestration and soil carbon stability at the continental scale by conducting a systematic literature review using 23 published studies. Our review shows that aspen’s effect on soil carbon is relatively consistent throughout the species range. Aspen stores less C in the forest floor but similar amounts in the mineral soil relative to conifers. However, a robust set of indicators of soil C stability, for example, degree of organo-mineral associations, proportion of readily-available or labile C estimated during long-term soil incubations or using hot-water extraction, pattern of soil C distribution, and temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration, reveals that the soil organic carbon (SOC stock under aspen is more stable, rendering it more protected against environmental changes and soil disturbances. Therefore, our continental-scale analysis highlights that an increase in the abundance of trembling aspen in North American forests may increase the resistance and resilience of soil C stocks against global changes.

  5. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice T. McNeill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo×domesticdoghybridsarecommoninmanyurbanareas,andposeavarietyofhumanhealth and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-easternAustraliaandcontinuouslymonitoredthemeach30minfor11–394days. Mostdingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas.

  6. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T; Leung, Luke K-P; Goullet, Mark S; Gentle, Matthew N; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-08-16

    Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo×domesticdoghybridsarecommoninmanyurbanareas,andposeavarietyofhumanhealth and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-easternAustraliaandcontinuouslymonitoredthemeach30minfor11-394days. Mostdingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas.

  7. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  8. The Early (Feminist Essays of Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the essays written by Ocampo between 1920 and 1934, prior to the time when she publicly voiced her adhesion to feminism and the rights of women in Argentine society. In these works from her Testimonios in which Ocampo struggles to find her voice as a female writer, the maleable essay serves her need to engage in discursive dialogues from the margins of the literary culture of her time. Both as a woman and a member of the oligarchy, she questions cultural assumptions and gender-based binary structures common among the male writers of her time, many of whom she knew personally. Using rhetorical strategies that show the self-reflexive and subversive nature of her writing, Ocampo reads and reinterprets these works from a parenthetical feminist perspective, contesting their intellectual and aesthetic biases. The active agency of the reader as writer in these early essays shows Ocampo's awareness of her own unorthodox subject position—alienated from the conventions of her class, her gender, her national culture and language. Her autobiographical musings and her engagement with literary modernity in the 1920s and 1930s reveal a woman who accepted the liabilities of articulating an autonomous self, both in a European and a Latin American context. The influence of family bonds and patriarchal morality decisively shaped, but did not ultimately control, the way Victoria Ocampo eventually defined herself as a feminist author.

  9. Compositional variations on Mercury: Results from the Victoria quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesca; Carli, Cristian; Galluzzi, Valentina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Mercury was recently explored by the MESSENGER mission that orbited around the planet from March 2011 until April 2015 allowing a complete coverage of its surface. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS), mapped the Hermean surface at different spatial resolutions, due to variable altitude of the spacecraft from the surface. MDIS consists of two instruments: a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) centered at 747nm, which acquired high-resolution images for the geological analysis, and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC), provided with 11 filters dedicated to the compositional analysis, operating in a range of wavelengths between 395 and 1040 nm. Mercury's surface has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes. Here, we analyze the results obtained by the color composite mosaic of the quadrangle Victoria (H02) located at longitudes 270 ° - 360 ° E, and latitudes 22.5 ° N - 65 ° N. We produced a color mosaic, by using the images relative to the filters with the best spatial coverage. To obtain the 8-color mosaic of the Victoria quadrangle, we calibrated and georefenced the WAC raw images. Afterwards, we applied the Hapke photometric correction by using the parameters derived by Domingue et al. (2015). We projected and coregistered the data, and finally, we produced the mosaic. To analyze the compositional variations of the Victoria quadrangle, we consider different techniques of analysis, such as specific RGB color combinations and band ratios, which emphasize the different compositional characteristics of the surface. Furthermore, the use of clustering and classification methods allows for recognizing various terrain units, in terms of reflectance and spectral characteristics. In the H02 quadrangle, we observed a dichotomy in the RGB mosaic (R: second principal component (PC2), G: first principal component (PC1), B: 430/1000 nm; see Denevi et al. 2009) between the northern region of the quadrangle, dominated by smooth plains, and the southern part, characterized by

  10. Complex movements, philopatry and expanded depth range of a severely threatened pelagic shark, the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus in the western North Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy A Howey-Jordan

    Full Text Available Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1-8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ~30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km(2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290-1940 km after times at liberty from 30-245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage. Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ~150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time. Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C, which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0-125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  12. Quantifying the contribution of Long-Range Transport to PM, NOx, and SO2 loadings at a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshita; Sachan, Himanshu; Garg, Saryu; Arya, Ruhani; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Sinha, Baerbel; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the climatology of air masses arriving at the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry facility (30.67°N, 76.73°E; 310 m amsl) through 3-day backtrajectories arriving at 20 m above ground level for the period August 2011-November 2012. IISER Mohali is a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin. The trajectories are computed in ensemble mode twice daily with an arrival time of 2:30 pm local time (daytime) and 4:30 am local time (nighttime) using the HYSPLIT 4 model with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's GDAS file as meterological input data. Due to the close proximity of the site to the Himalayan mountain range the trajectory output is found to be very sensitive to the models input data. IISER Air Quality station is located in the IGB at an altitude of 310 m amsl approximately 20 km south west of the Shivalik hills, but the model terrain height for the site in the ensemble run output varies between 200 m amsl and 3500 m amsl for the GDAS dataset and 200 m amsl to 5000 m amsl for the reanalysis dataset. We conclude that the GDAS dataset performs better than than reanalysis dataset for our site and selected only those trajectories from the trajectory ensemble for cluster analysis, for which the terrain height in the model output was 400 m amsl for Shimla (a site located at an altitude of 1000 m amsl in the mountains 60 km north east of Mohali). We subjected the trajectories to hierarchical, and non-hierarchical (K-means) clustering and found that the air mass transport to our station can be characterised by 10 distinct airflow patterns; 3 of which occur only during the monsoon season. For pre-monsoon season (March-June), post-monsoon season (Sept-Nov) and winter season (Dec-Feb), air mass transport to our site is predominantly from the west. Direct transport of north westerly air masses to our site is subdivided into three clusters (slow, medium and rapid) while other clusters are attributed to south westerly air currents

  13. Microfossils from cap dolomites of the Lower Vendian Churochnaya Formation in the Polyudov Range (North Urals): Paleoecological approach to interpretation of Late Proterozoic glaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Vorob'eva, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Microfossils from silicified varieties of cap dolomites crowning the section of the tillite-bearing Lower Vendian (Ediacaran) Churochnaya Formation in the Polyudov Range (North Urals) are characterized. These microfossils are the first to be found from Vendian sections of the region and from all the terminal post-glacial sediments, one of the most significant global glaciation Marinoan of the African Glacial Era, when glaciers reached the equator. They are represented by remains of hormogonian and chrococcacean cyanobacteria as well as possible green filamentous algae. This microbiotic assemblage is of relatively low diversity, being composed of taxa with wide stratigraphic ranges characteristic of Proterozoic conservative microbiotas developed in shallow-water siliceous-carbonate facies. The lack of phytoplanktonic microfossils in this biota including Pertatataka-type acanthomorphic acritarchs or Ediacaran Complex Acanthomorph Palynoflora (ECAP) is also consistent with the conclusion on shallow-water deposition of the Churochnaya Formation. Moreover, most cyanobacteria representatives occurring in the latter are characteristic of shallow-water arid environments that confirm a theory of significant temperature increase during accumulation of the cap dolomites after termination of the above-mentioned glaciation. In addition to these microfossils, the cap dolomite member of the Churochnaya Formation contains filamentous and coccoidal pseudofossils formed under influence of post-sedimentary fluids. In their morphometric parameters, they resemble structures described from Archean sections as microfossil remains, which may be a key to interpreting their nature.

  14. The effects of past, present and future climate change on range-wide genetic diversity in northern North Atlantic marine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Provan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is now accepted that changes in the Earth’s climate are having a profound effect on the distributions of a wide variety of species. One aspect of these changes that has only recently received any attention, however, is their potential effect on levels of within-species genetic diversity. Theoretical, empirical and modelling studies suggest that the impact of trailing-edge population extirpation on range-wide intraspecific diversity will be most pronounced in species that harbour the majority of their genetic variation at low latitudes as a result of changes during the Quaternary glaciations. In the present review, I describe the historical factors that have determined current patterns of genetic variation across the ranges of Northern North Atlantic species, highlight the fact that the majority of these species do indeed harbour a disproportionate level of genetic diversity in rear-edge populations, and outline how combined species distribution modelling and genetic analyses can provide insights into the potential effects of climate change on their overall genetic diversity.

  15. Complex Movements, Philopatry and Expanded Depth Range of a Severely Threatened Pelagic Shark, the Oceanic Whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the Western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey-Jordan, Lucy A.; Brooks, Edward J.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Brooks, Annabelle; Williams, Sean; Gospodarczyk, Emily; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male) near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1–8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ∼30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290–1940 km after times at liberty from 30–245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage). Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ∼150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time). Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes) dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C), which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0–125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ

  16. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  17. Total and mesoscale long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Byrne, David; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-04-01

    The ocean's biological pump is often simplified to a purely vertical process. Nevertheless, the horizontal transport of organic carbon can be substantial, especially in coastal regions such as the Canary Upwelling System (CanUS), one of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, characterized by high shelf productivity and an intense lateral exchange of mass and tracers with the adjacent oligotrophic waters. Despite its importance, the magnitude of this lateral flux has not yet been constrained. Here, we quantify the lateral export of organic carbon from the CanUS to the open North Atlantic using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a biogeochemical ecosystem module. The model is run on an Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the north-western African shelf, to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the region of study with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our results reveal that over the whole CanUS more than a third of the Net Community Production (NCP) in the nearshore 100 km is transported offshore, amounting to about 19 Tg C yr-1. The offshore transport dominates the lateral fluxes up to 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, along the way adding organic carbon to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8% and 34% of the alongshore average NCP. The remineralization at depth of this extra organic carbon leads to strongly negative vertically-integrated NCP throughout the whole offshore region of the CanUS, i.e. it makes the offshore region net heterotrophic. Substantial subregional variability shapes the spatial pattern of the fluxes in the CanUS. In particular, the central subregion surrounding Cape Blanc is the most efficient in terms of collecting and laterally exporting the organic carbon, resulting in a sharp peak of watercolumn heterotrophy. A decomposition of the organic carbon fluxes into a time-mean component and a time-variable, i.e., mesoscale component reveals a large contribution of the mesoscale

  18. Reviving the African Wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: A Mitochondrial Lineage Ranging More than 6,000 km Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  19. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gaubert

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs, C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal.

  20. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal.

  1. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  2. A study of heavy metal pollution in Lake Victoria sediments by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makundi, I N

    2001-01-01

    Sources of heavy metal pollution of Lake Victoria is of interest due to its economic and domestic implication in East Africa. Sediments from the shore of Lake Victoria and from some streams flowing into the lake have been analyzed for their heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. The samples were collected from seventeen different locations around the Municipality of Mwanza divided into three zones according to their activities. The results show that sediments from Mwanza North, which is least in anthropogenic activities, contains Cr and Co in addition to metals of terrestrial origin (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr), samples from Mwanza Central, which is the town center, contains high concentrations of V, Cu, Zn and Pb, and samples collected from Mwanza South, which is the industrial area, contains the highest concentrations of V, Cu, Zn, As and Pb. It is concluded that the industrial and sewage wastes discharged into the lake are the main sources of the heavy metal contamination of Lake Victoria. Further studies will be required to assess detriments of these pollutants to human and aquatic life before policy for the factories responsible is put in place.

  3. An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Current status, trends and impacts to fishery. ... complicated the ecosystem dynamics of Lake Victoria and pose serious uncertainties about its future stability and sustainability of the fisheries resources. Lake Victoria's future sustainability requires ...

  4. The extending of ranges of some bird species at the north-eastern border of their distribution due to intra-century climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Glushenkov

    2017-10-01

    emergence time of insects. Climate changes are not the only determining factors affecting the bird distribution. Ecological factors are also important, along with the mentioned above. The range expansion of species in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes occurs by means of complex chains of ecological relationships. Examples of Haematopus ostralegus and Sterna albifrons show the reasons for the reduction and restoration of species ranges due to the change in the effect of an anthropogenic factor. Thus, the range expansion of some bird species to the north and northeast is quite likely related to the centuries-old and intra-century climate changes. However, we do not consider climate warming as the only determining factor in the abundance increase and further range expanding for some birds at the range limits in temperate zone. In order to a better understanding of the impact of climate changes on birds, it is needed to investigate how modern climate changes in the temperate regions influence on the animals which serve as food for birds, and, as a consequence, how these processes impact the number of nesting pairs and the survival of young animals.

  5. Contravention of town planning regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated possible relationships between educational attainment, awareness of town planning regulations and contravening these regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria Island, Lagos. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Secondary data were obtained from both published and unpublished ...

  6. 3D DIGITAL CADASTRE JOURNEY IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  7. Research on School-Based Management in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a 1992-93 research project involving 66 state schools that attempted to ascertain the overall effectiveness of school-based management in Victoria, Australia. Findings of the Likert-style survey revealed substantial participant satisfaction with school councils' current composition, information provision, and overall functioning. (20…

  8. Fishing Business Arrangements and Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an attempt is made to analyse the existing production relations between the owners of the vessels and the crewmembers and the concern for sustainability. Our results found that the existing sharing system in Lake Victoria poses a big challenge in as far as sustainability is concerned. Some of the system such ...

  9. Implementing Co-management of Lake Victoria's Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are still many challenges facing the sustainable management of Lake Victoria fisheries, including; lack of compliance with regulations and rapid increase in fishing effort, environmental degradation, inadequate service provision and the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS amongst the fishing communities. Key words: Lake ...

  10. The Lake Victoria Intense Storm Early Warning System (VIEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on NWP, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that also false alarms contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  11. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae , the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of Bipolaris victoriae were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to determine the amount of intraspecific genetic variability. Seven primers were applied and DNA bands of 200-5000 bp were produced. Cluster analysis using UPGMA method gave five groups. Levels of polymorphism ...

  12. satellite lakes of lake victoria basin (tanzanian side)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake Victoria ... cyanobacteria occurrence and their unforeseen effects such as toxin production and oxygen depletion during nights that may ..... Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake.

  13. Governance and Welfare of Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have potable water or electricity. Educational standards remain low and many communities lack proper sanitation, and are therefore at risk of disease, while most basic facilities such as hospitals, schools and clinics are not within their reach. Key Words; Co-management, Beach Management Units, Lake Victoria, Health, ...

  14. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  15. Transactional sex in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study describes the nature, context and implications of a unique form of transactional sexual relationships in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 17 key informant interviews among fishermen, fishmongers and fish transporters in Kisumu.

  16. Domestication of medicinal tree species in the Victoria lakeshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Therefore, there is high potential of marketing forest products by the subsistence farmers. Growing medicinal plants is one great opportunity for raising household incomes in this area. A survey was conducted among herbalists living around the Victoria lakeshore region. Questionnaires were administered through formal ...

  17. Catalogue Use at the State Library of Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey conducted at the State Library of Victoria indicates that users in general, and not just scholars, value the standard elements of bibliographic data found in the Library's catalogues, and consider all these elements useful for finding, identifying and selecting items. Rather than making do with less, users wanted more…

  18. Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil

    2014-01-01

    The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

  19. SEDIMENTS FROM SOUTHERN LAKE VICTORIA AND ITS BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, sediment and soil samples collected from Southern Lake Victoria and its basin were analysed for 76 organochlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues. The samples were collected from sampling stations in nine districts on the Tanzanian side of the lake, namely Mwanza, Sengerema ...

  20. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H.M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-01-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we

  1. Lake Victoria's Water Budget and the Potential Effects of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the Lake Victoria water budget for the period 1950-2004 and findings of a study on potential climate change impact on the lake's Hydrology through the 21st Century. The mass balance components are computed from measured and simulated data. A2 and B2 emission scenarios of the Special Report ...

  2. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-07-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  3. Climate Change and Fishery Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fisheries of Lake Victoria have recently undergone rapid ecological and social change. Loss of diversity in terms of species richness and economic opportunity has increased the system's vulnerability to additional economic, ecological, and social stressors predicted with future climate change. This paper discusses the ...

  4. Effects of maternal prenatal smoking and birth outcomes extending into the normal range on academic performance in fourth grade in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthopolos, Rebecca; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Research has documented the adverse relationship of child cognitive development with maternal prenatal smoking and poor birth outcomes. The potential, however, for maternal prenatal smoking to modify the association between birth outcomes and cognitive development is unclear. We linked statewide North Carolina birth data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children to end-of-grade test scores in reading and mathematics at fourth grade (n = 65 677). We fit race-stratified multilevel models of test scores regressed on maternal smoking, birth outcomes (as measured by continuous and categorical gestational age and birthweight percentile for gestational age), and their interaction, controlling for maternal- and child-level socio-economic factors. Smoking was consistently associated with decrements in test scores, and better birth outcomes were associated with improvements in test scores, even in clinically normal ranges. Test scores increased quadratically with improving birth outcomes among smoking and non-smoking mothers. Among non-Hispanic white children, the magnitude of the association between gestational age and test scores was larger for children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy compared with the non-smoking group. However, among non-Hispanic black children, birth outcomes did not appear to interact with maternal smoking on test scores. Maternal prenatal smoking may interact with birth outcomes on reading and mathematics test scores, particularly among non-Hispanic white children. Improvements in birth outcomes, even within the clinically normal range, may be associated with improved academic performance. Pregnancy-related exposures and events exert a significant and long-term impact on cognitive development. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2010-05-01

    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  6. Effect of gap size on seedling establishment, growth and survival at three years in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.; Saveneh, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Establishment, growth and survival of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. seedlings was studied at two sites over three years under a range of small gaps (up to 30mx30m) and large gaps (50mx50m up to clearfells) in a gap cutting experiment in mountain ash forest at Tanjil Bren, Victoria, Australia. In both

  7. Individual and community correlates of young people's high-risk drinking in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Dietze, Paul

    2008-12-01

    To examine key individual- and community-level correlates of regular very high-risk drinking (more than 20 drinks at least 12 times a year for males and more than 11 drinks at least 12 times a year for females) among young (16-24) drinkers in Victoria. CATI survey of 10,879 young Victorian drinkers. Multi-level modelling of correlates of proportion drinking at very high-risk levels at both individual (e.g. age, gender) and community levels (e.g. alcohol outlet density, remoteness). One-fifth of the sample reported regular (at least monthly) very high-risk drinking. Significant individual-level correlates of very high-risk drinking included age, gender, cultural background, recreational spending money, life stage, living situation, family conflict and age at first drink. Significant community-level correlates included remoteness (living in a rural area) and packaged liquor outlet density. The study highlights a range of important factors relating to regular drinking of dangerous amounts of alcohol by youth. Interventions aimed at preventing early initiation or managing recreational spending should be explored. Further, regulatory management of packaged liquor outlets and or remote rural communities in Victoria with high levels of dangerous drinking should be a priority.

  8. Measles outbreak in young adults in Victoria, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S B; Morgan, M L; Riddell, M A; Andrews, R M; Kelly, H A; Leydon, J A; Catton, M C; Lynch, P A; Gercovich, D K; Lester, R A; Carnie, J A; Rouch, G J

    2000-11-06

    To describe an outbreak of measles in Victoria. Case series with cases identified through enhanced passive surveillance and outbreak-related active surveillance. State of Victoria, 1999. Number of cases; epidemiological links and patterns of transmission; patient demographic features and vaccination status; complications. 75 cases were identified (74 laboratory-confirmed; and one epidemiologically linked to a laboratory-confirmed case), with onset between 11 February and 2 May 1999. The first case was in a 21-year-old woman who had recently holidayed in Bali and worked at a large cinema complex in Melbourne. Sixteen cases occurred in people who had contact with the index case at the cinema on one evening. The outbreak spread to regional Victoria and South Australia. Median age of patients was 22 years; 64 (85%) were born between 1968 and 1981, with only one patient in the age group targeted by the primary school component of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign; this child had not been vaccinated. More than a third of patients (28) were hospitalised (total, 97 inpatient days), and five were healthcare workers. This outbreak was caused by international importation of measles virus. It highlights the change in epidemiology of measles in Australia, from a disease of childhood to one predominantly affecting young adults. A strong two-dose childhood vaccination program, vigilant surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks will continue to be the basis of measles control, but better protection for young adults should be considered.

  9. Relationships between in vitro lymphoproliferative responses and levels of contaminants in blood of free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Aurélie [Laboratory of Oceanology – MARE Center, University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Siebert, Ursula [Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Werftstrasse 6, 25761 Buesum (Germany); Covaci, Adrian; Weijs, Liesbeth [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Eppe, Gauthier [Center for Analytical Research and Technology (CART), Inorganic Analytical Chemistry, University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Debier, Cathy [Unit of Nutrition Biochemistry, Catholic University of Leuven, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire [Mammalian Cell Culture Laboratory (GIGA-R), University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Oceanology – MARE Center, University of Liège, B6c, allée de la chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Blood samples were taken from adult harbour seals in good body condition. •Trace element and POP levels, as well as haematological parameters were determined. •Peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated from the same blood samples. •The in vitro lymphocyte stimulation indices were calculated. •No clear correlation between the lymphocyte stimulation indices and pollutants could be highlighted. -- Abstract: In vitro culture of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) is currently used in toxicological studies of marine mammals. However, blood cells of wild individuals are exposed in vivo to environmental contaminants before being isolated and exposed to contaminants in vitro. The aim of this study was to highlight potential relationships between blood contaminant levels and in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea. Blood samples of 18 individuals were analyzed for trace elements (Fe, Zn, Se, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cd) and persistent organic contaminants and metabolites (ΣPCBs, ΣHO-PCBs, ΣPBDEs, 2-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE47, ΣDDXs, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, pentachlorophenol and tribromoanisole). The same samples were used to determine the haematology profiles, cell numbers and viability, as well as the in vitro ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation expressed as a stimulation index (SI). Correlation tests (Bravais-Pearson) and Principal Component Analysis with multiple regression revealed no statistically significant relationship between the lymphocyte SI and the contaminants studied. However, the number of lymphocytes per millilitre of whole blood appeared to be negatively correlated to pentachlorophenol (r = −0.63, p = 0.005). In adult harbour seals, the interindividual variations of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation did not appear to be directly linked to pollutant levels present in the blood, and it is likely that other factors such as age, life

  10. Strategies used by dentists in Victoria, Australia, to manage children with anxiety or behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F A; McMurray, N E; Giebartowski, J

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-seven Australian dentists from the State of Victoria, representing members of the Australian Society of Dentistry for Children (AusSDC) and randomly selected practitioners, responded to a survey on attitudes and practices in the management of anxious children or children with behavior problems. The most common strategies used by dentists in this study were: permitting the child to exercise some form of control over terminating the treatment, if they were experiencing difficulties; furnishing waiting areas with play materials; and using a Tell-Show-Do approach to the provision of dental care. Members of the Australian Society of Dentistry for Children differed from general dentists by more frequently teaching anxious children a technique of relaxation and also by more frequently using a mouth prop or rubber dam during the delivery of care. Younger dentists tended to use behavioral strategies more frequently than older practitioners. Women dentists more frequently than male dentists, used strategies including: spending more time with the child before entering the operatory; setting shorter appointment sessions; and permitting the child to hold a toy or a mirror during dental treatment. In contrast to North American studies, few of the Australian dentists used the Hand-Over-Mouth technique to control hysteria. Australian dentists appeared to rely more frequently than their North American colleagues on setting shorter appointment sessions as a major strategy in managing children with anxiety or other behavioral difficulties.

  11. Characteristics of potential gasifier fuels in selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey O. Mosiori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All countries in the Lake Victoria Basin depend mostly on hydroelectric power for the provision of energy. Gasification technology has a high potential for reducing biomass energy consumption whilst increasing access to modern energy services. The key aspect for the failure of gasification operations in the Lake Victoria Basin is inadequate adaptation of gasification equipment to fuel characteristics, lack of fuel specification and inappropriate material choice. We therefore investigated the thermo-chemical characterisation of six biomass fuels, namely Pinus caribaea, Calitris robusta, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus patula and sugarcane bagasse from selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ultimate analysis was done using a Flash 2000 elemental analyser. Moisture content, ash content and volatile matter were determined in oven and muffle furnaces while heating values were determined using a Gallenkamp calorimeter. The mean percentage levels obtained indicate that all six biomass fuels had a mean range for nitrogen of 0.07±0.2–0.25±0.07%, for carbon of 40.45±0.61–48.88±0.29%, for hydrogen of 4.32±0.13–5.59±0.18% and for oxygen of 43.41±1.58–51.1±0.64%. Moisture content ranged between 25.74±1.54% and 56.69±0.52%, ash content between 0.38±0.02% and 2.94±0.14%, volatile matter between 74.68±0.49% and 82.71±0.19% and fixed carbon between 14.35±0.33% and 24.74±0.27%. Heating values ranged between 16.95±0.10 MJ/kg and 19.48±0.42 MJ/kg. The results suggest that all six biomass fuels are potential biomass gasification materials.

  12. Growth form and distribution of introduced plants in their native and non-native ranges in Eastern Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Ricklefs; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Qian

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the influence of plant traits on their ability to spread in non-native regions. Many studies addressing this issue have been based on relatively small areas or restricted taxonomic groups. Here, we analyse a large data base involving 1567 plant species introduced between Eastern Asia and North America or from elsewhere to...

  13. Range-wide genetic differentiation among North American great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) reveals a distinct lineage limited to the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; W.K. Savage; S.A. Godwin; J. Shafer; E.P. Jepsen; R. Gerhardt; C. Stermer; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of regional genetic differentiation are essential for describing phylogeographic patterns and informing management efforts for species of conservation concern. In this context, we investigated genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among great gray owl (Strix nebulosa) populations in western North America, which...

  14. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  15. An examination of injection drug use trends in Victoria and Vancouver, BC after the closure of Victoria's only fixed-site needle and syringe programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivsins, Andrew; Chow, Clifton; Macdonald, Scott; Stockwell, Tim; Vallance, Kate; Marsh, David C; Michelow, Warren; Duff, Cameron

    2012-07-01

    Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) have been established as effective harm reduction initiatives to reduce injection drug use (IDU)-related risk behaviours, including sharing needles. On May 31, 2008, Victoria, BC's only fixed site NSP was shut down due to community and political pressure. This study examines and compares IDU trends in Victoria with those in Vancouver, BC, a city which has not experienced any similar disruption of IDU-related public health measures. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires conducted with injection drug users (n=579) in Victoria and Vancouver between late 2007 and late 2010. Needle sharing increased in Victoria from under 10% in early 2008 to 20% in late 2010, whilst rates remained relatively low in Vancouver. Participants in Victoria were significantly more likely to share needles than participants in Vancouver. Qualitative data collected in Victoria highlight the difficulty participants have experienced obtaining clean needles since the NSP closed. Recent injection of crack cocaine was independently associated with needle sharing. The closure of Victoria's fixed site NSP has likely resulted in increased engagement in high-risk behaviours, specifically needle sharing. Our findings highlight the contribution of NSPs as an essential public health measure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    McNeill, Alice T.; Luke K. -P. Leung; Mark S. Goullet; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human?wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, w...

  17. Compliance with regulations by "swim-with-dolphins" operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpaci, Carol; Dayanthi, Nugegoda; Corkeron, Peter J

    2003-03-01

    Managing the activities of commercial wildlife viewing tends to involve either restricting the number of industry participants and/or regulating the activities or industry participants. We report on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips was studied between September 1998 and April 2000. Four permit conditions were investigated: approach type, swim time, time in proximity of dolphins, and presence of "fetal fold" calves. Results demonstrate noncompliance by operators to all of the four permit conditions studied. Compliance with temporal conditions was poorer than with other conditions. When conducting studies on the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans, investigators should consider whether tourist operations comply with existing regulations or guidelines.

  18. Fine resolution AMS {sup 14}C chronology for Lunette-Lake sediment sequences, Lake Bolac, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre for Palynology and Palaeoecology, Department of Geography and Environmental Science

    1998-12-31

    This study aims to provide a fine-resolution chronology for lake sediment records from Lakes Bolac and Turangmoroke, located within the drier part of the Western Plains, Victoria. These lakes are expected to be sensitive to subtle climate and vegetation variability and have long been recognised as archaeologically rich, bearing stone tools, hearth and other cultural materials dated to the late Pleistocene (Horton, 1984; former Victorian Aboriginal Survey, unpublished data). Fine-resolution chronological control has rarely been attempted in this sedimentary and (semi-arid) climatic context owing to the paucity of material available for conventional {sup 14}C dating. However, pollen and microscopic charcoal in the lake sediments at Bolac and Turangmoroke are suitable for AMS age determination with the most important sedimentary section well within the range of {sup 14}C making them ideal records for such a study. Recent dating results, which have substantially increased chronostratigraphic interpretation of concurrent palaeoecological and sedimentological work in progress, are presented

  19. Upper Paleozoic glacigenic deposits of Gondwana: Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of a tillite succession in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornamusini, Gianluca; Talarico, Franco M.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Spina, Amalia; Olivetti, Valerio; Woo, Jusun

    2017-08-01

    Late Paleozoic glacial deposits are widespread in Gondwana. In Antarctica the best outcrops occur in the Central Transantarctic Mountains, Ellsworth Mountains, Pensacola Mountains, and in Southern Victoria Land, whereas they are rare and very scattered in Northern Victoria Land, which represents a linkage sector with Tasmania and eastern Australia. The aim of the present research is to define the stratigraphic setting and the environmental interpretation of a poorly studied Lower Permian glacigenic succession located near Orr Glacier in the Lanterman Range in Northern Victoria Land. It has great importance because it represents the only significant glacigenic succession for this wide area, marking and defining time and modality of a glacial-postglacial transition during the early Permian, a critical time-interval in the paleoenvironmental evolution of southern Gondwana. This succession, named here as the Lanterman Formation, lies directly on to crystalline basement, and is overlain by a thick Permian fluvial succession (Takrouna Formation). The results provided by sedimentological facies analysis and palynological analysis, integrated with a limited petrographic characterization, show a correlation framework between two isolated successions, outlining their stratigraphic architecture and subdivided into a lower glacial portion and an upper postglacial portion. The former, Asselian in age, is dominated by diamictite, sandstone, mudstone with lonestones, and carbonate deposits, suggesting repeated advance and retreat of a terrestrial glacier, with facies associations indicating environmental changes from subglacial to glaciofluvial, to glaciolacustrine. The latter is dominated by lacustrine mudstone with decreasing lonestones upward, thin bedded sandstone, conglomerate and a thick fluvial sandstone and pebbly sandstone succession at the top, signalling the transition to a fluvial system through time. The overall dataset suggests that the late Paleozoic glacigenic

  20. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  1. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  2. Seasonal photoperiods alter developmental time and mass of an invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), across its north-south range in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, D A; Juliano, S A; Vamosi, S M

    2012-07-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is perhaps the most successful invasive mosquito species in contemporary history. In the United States, Ae. albopictus has spread from its introduction point in southern Texas to as far north as New Jersey (i.e., a span of approximately 14 degrees latitude). This species experiences seasonal constraints in activity because of cold temperatures in winter in the northern United States, but is active year-round in the south. We performed a laboratory experiment to examine how life-history traits of Ae. albopictus from four populations (New Jersey [39.4 degrees N], Virginia [38.6 degrees N], North Carolina [35.8 degrees N], Florida [27.6 degrees N]) responded to photoperiod conditions that mimic approaching winter in the north (short static daylength, short diminishing daylength) or relatively benign summer conditions in the south (long daylength), at low and high larval densities. Individuals from northern locations were predicted to exhibit reduced development times and to emerge smaller as adults under short daylength, but be larger and take longer to develop under long daylength. Life-history traits of southern populations were predicted to show less plasticity in response to daylength because of low probability of seasonal mortality in those areas. Males and females responded strongly to photoperiod regardless of geographic location, being generally larger but taking longer to develop under the long daylength compared with short day lengths; adults of both sexes were smaller when reared at low larval densities. Adults also differed in mass and development time among locations, although this effect was independent of density and photoperiod in females but interacted with density in males. Differences between male and female mass and development times was greater in the long photoperiod suggesting differences between the sexes in their reaction to different photoperiods. This work suggests that Ae. albopictus

  3. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  4. Long-term (2001-2012) observation of the modeled hygroscopic growth factor of remote marine TSP aerosols over the western North Pacific: impact of long-range transport of pollutants and their mixing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Haque, Md Mozammel

    2015-11-21

    In order to assess the seasonal and annual variability of long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia and their effect on the hygroscopicity and precipitation process over the western North Pacific, we conducted long-term calculations of bulk hygroscopicity, g(90%)ZSR, based on the ZSR model using chemical composition data from 2001-2012 at Chichijima Island. We found that sea-salts (Na(+) and Cl(-)) are the major mass fraction (65%) of the total water-soluble matter followed by SO4(2-) (20%) and WSOM (6%). The seasonal variation of g(90%)ZSR was high in summer to autumn and low in winter to spring months, probably due to the influence of the long-range transport of anthropogenic SO4(2-), dust, and organics from East Asia and their interaction with sea-salts through heterogeneous reactions. On the other hand, annual variations of g(90%)ZSR showed a decrease from 2001 to 2006 and then an increase from 2007 to 2012. Interestingly, the annual variations in SO4(2-) mass fractions showed an increase from 2001 to 2006 and then a decrease from 2007 to 2012, demonstrating that SO4(2-) seriously suppresses the hygroscopic growth of sea-salt particles over the western North Pacific. This is further supported by the strong negative correlation between SO4(2-) and g(90%)ZSR. Based on the MODIS satellite data, the present study demonstrates that long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia to the North Pacific can act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei but significantly suppress the precipitation by reducing the size of cloud droplets over the western North Pacific.

  5. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Onyutha; Patrick Willems

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF) relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using grow...

  6. Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to toposequence and soil type. B Fungo, S Grunwald, MM Tenywa, B Vanlauwe, P Nkedi-Kizza. Abstract. We compared the physico-chemical characteristics of Lunnyu soils using soil type and slope position in order to explain their variability in the Lake Victoria basin ...

  7. A Snapshot: Multicultural Music Teaching in Schools in Victoria, Australia, Portrayed by School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan Nishantha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the changing demographic factors and as demanded by the governmental policies and regulations, schools in Victoria, Australia, are expected to foster multicultural educational programs that address the diverse needs of students. Research has found that school teachers in Victoria struggle to provide the aspired to multicultural education…

  8. Editorial The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an Environmental. Observatory. Since my days as a schoolboy in geography class, I have not been able to observe maps of the African continent without also “seeing” the profile of a face, with Lake Victoria representing the right eye, gazing adoringly at Madagascar.

  9. Victoria suudlus teeb maapoisist printsi, kuid mitte tulevase kuninga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Printsess Victoria tulevasest abikaasast Daniel Westlingist, printsess Madelaine'i kihluse lõpetamisest, Bernadotte'ide dünastia asutajast Jean Bernadotte'ist. Monarhia toetajate vähenemisest Rootsis. Printsess Victoria ja Daniel Westlingi pulmatseremooniast 19. juunil

  10. A survey of the occurrence of Bacillus anthracis in North American soils over two long-range transects and within post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Petrosky, Terry; Morman, Suzette A.; Luna, Vicki A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected along a north-south transect extending from Manitoba, Canada, to the US-Mexico border near El Paso, Texas in 2004 (104 samples), a group of sites within New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (19 samples), and a Gulf Coast transect extending from Sulphur, Louisiana, to DeFuniak Springs, Florida, in 2007 (38 samples). Samples were collected from the top 40 cm of soil and were screened for the presence of total Bacillus species and Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), specifically using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using an assay with a sensitivity of ~170 equivalent colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 field moist soil, the prevalence rate of Bacillus sp./B. anthracis in the north-south transect and the 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina sample set were 20/5% and 26/26%, respectively. Prevalence in the 2007 Gulf Coast sample set using an assay with a sensitivity of ~4 CFU g-1 of soil was 63/0%. Individual transect-set data indicate a positive relation between occurrences of species and soil moisture or soil constituents (i.e., Zn and Cu content). The 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina data indicated that B. anthracis is readily detectable in Gulf Coast soils following flood events. The data also indicated that occurrence, as it relates to soil chemistry, may be confounded by flood-induced dissemination of germinated cells and the mixing of soil constituents for short temporal periods following an event.

  11. Drought tolerance and growth in populations of a wide-ranging tree species indicate climate change risks for the boreal north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montwé, David; Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-02-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant planting stock in reforestation programs may help adapt forests to climate change. To inform such reforestation strategies, we test lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. var latifolia Englm.) population response to drought and infer potential benefits of a northward transfer of seeds from drier, southern environments. The objective is addressed by combining dendroecological growth analysis with long-term genetic field trials. Over 500 trees originating from 23 populations across western North America were destructively sampled in three experimental sites in southern British Columbia, representing a climate warming scenario. Growth after 32 years from provenances transferred southward or northward over long distances was significantly lower than growth of local populations. All populations were affected by a severe natural drought event in 2002. The provenances from the most southern locations showed the highest drought tolerance but low productivity. Local provenances were productive and drought tolerant. Provenances from the boreal north showed lower productivity and less drought tolerance on southern test sites than all other sources, implying that maladaptation to drought may prevent boreal populations from taking full advantage of more favorable growing conditions under projected climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An examination of the selenium nutrition of sheep in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, I W; Andrewartha, K A; Edwards, S J; Halpin, C G

    1980-04-01

    The selenium nutrition of sheep throughout Victoria was assessed by a survey of the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in 708 flocks. It was shown that the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in sheep had a seasonal variation with lowest levels in the spring. The enzyme activity was correlated with the blood selenium concentration. Areas where blood selenium was less than 0.03 micrograms/ml in spring were defined. Sheep with low selenium nutrition were grazing pastures in the high rainfall areas on acid soils, particularly those derived from granite. Selenium concentrations in pasture samples examined were greater than 0.02 mg/kg, and it was found that superphosphate application had no significant effect on the selenium content of pasture. However, management practices such as high stocking rates and rates of application of superphosphate to pasture were associated with low blood glutathione peroxidase activities in sheep. It was concluded that the selenium nutrition of most of the sheep flocks in Victoria is adequate, and that the deficient areas are localised. There seems little requirement for supplementation of adult sheep. As the delayed type of white muscle disease in spring lambs appears to be the main selenium-responsive disorder, direct supplementation of lambs in the low selenium areas would be the most effective method of ensuring adequate selenium nutrition.

  13. Comprehensive nursing education in Victoria: rhetoric or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, B

    2001-12-01

    Significant and widespread changes to the education of the psychiatric nursing workforce in Victoria, Australia are resulting in serious problems in the recruitment of new nursing staff. In reviewing the available literature, it is evident that undergraduate nursing students do not commence their educational program with a strong interest in pursuing a career in psychiatric nursing. In light of this knowledge, the role of education in providing a comprehensive view of the nursing profession becomes paramount. Research investigating the impact of education on the attitudes of students to psychiatric nursing as a career option has produced mixed and often inconclusive results. A longitudinal study was undertaken in Victoria, Australia. Students of the majority of universities in which undergraduate nursing programs were operating participated in this study. The participants were asked to rank nine areas of nursing specialty in order of preference at the commencement and immediately prior to the completion of the nursing program. Despite a significant improvement in the popularity of psychiatric nursing as a career choice, this area was ranked at number 8 at both pre- and post-program test. The analysis of open-ended questions demonstrated a marked change in the overall attitudes towards the mentally ill and psychiatric nursing.

  14. VICTORIA PARK: A DEMOCTRATIC PUBLIC OPEN SPACE FOR INDONESIA DOMESTIC HELPERS (TKW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  15. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  17. The job satisfaction of female sex workers working in licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, V.; Di Achille, G.; Ferranti, L.; Rothery, D. A.; Palumbo, P.

    The first stratigraphic and geologic study of Mercury was released by Trask & Guest (1975) followed by Spudis & Guest (1988, and references therein), whose work was based on the images taken by Mariner 10 covering 42% of the total surface of Mercury. The planet has been officially divided into fifteen quadrangles: 2 polar, 5 equatorial and 8 at midlatitudes. Quadrangle H2 (= Hermes sheet n.2), named ``Victoria'' (20oN - 65oN Lon.; 270oE - 0o Lat.), was partially mapped by McGill & King (1983), though a wide area (˜64%) remained unmapped due to the lack of imagery. Following the terrain units recognized and described by the above authors, we have produced a geologic map of the entire quadrangle using MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) images. The images taken by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) allowed us to map geologic and tectonic features in much greater detail than the previously published map (mapping scale range between 1:300k and 1:600k). We classified craters larger than 20 km using three relative age classes, which are a simplification of the past five degradation classes defined by McCauley et al. (1981). Victoria quadrangle is characterized by a localized N-S thrust array constituted by Victoria Rupes, Endeavour Rupes and Antoniadi Dorsum to the East and by a more diffuse system of NE-SW oriented fault arrays to the West: the two systems seem to be separated by a tectonic bulge. The Victoria-Endeavour-Antoniadi system has been interpreted as a fold-and-thrust belt by Byrne et al. (2014) and a previous study made on craters cross-cut by its thrusts reveals fault dips of 15-20o and a near dip slip motion (Galluzzi et al., 2015). This geologic map has the aim to build a regional model of its structural framework. Deciphering the geological setting of this quadrangle will bring important insights for understanding the tectonic evolution of the whole planet

  19. Effects of Tidal Range Variability and Local Morphology on Hydrodynamic Behavior and Salinity Structure in the Caeté River Estuary, North Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgenes H. Cavalcante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal influence and local morphology on circulation and salt transport are investigated in the Caeté river estuary, a well-mixed estuary along the north coast of Brazil. Velocity, temperature, and salinity data were collected in three different locations along the estuary’s main channel, over three single, 13 h tidal cycles. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tidal distortion and salinity by using classical methods of comparison of three cross-channel circulation characteristics, as well as computation of salt flux and vertical mixing. Findings indicate a flood-ebb asymmetry in currents, due to the distinct funneling morphology of the estuary, with shallow marginal areas being dominant towards the estuary head, while both stratification and shear dominate near the estuary mouth. The tidal currents enhanced vertical diffusion in the mid- and lower reaches, explaining the prevailing weakly stratified conditions, while the dominant well-mixed conditions in the upper estuary are a result of a combination of stronger flood currents and negligible vertical saline gradient. The predominant downstream salt transport supports the conclusion that there is little accumulation of salt in the Caeté river estuary. In addition, findings indicate that tidal correlation and Stokes drift are important components in the upper estuary, while tidal correlation played an important role in the middle estuary, with fluvial discharge most important in the lower estuary.

  20. VENUS - The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea: First Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Round, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) is a recently installed cabled ocean observatory representing the next generation of infrastructure technology. VENUS is scheduled to consist of two major segments, one in Saanich Inlet (installed in February 2006), and a second in the Strait of Georgia (planned for October 2006). The technologies associated with both the hardware and software that will deliver data from instruments to scientists is being developed in collaboration with both the NEPTUNE Canada and MARS observatories. The presentation will provide an overview of the science projects planned for stage one of the installed instruments, the engineering design of the infrastructure, the preliminary design of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), lessons learned so far, and preliminary results from the first few months of data from Saanich Inlet.

  1. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A

    1978-10-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  2. Literatura y vida. Una lectura de Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celia Vázquez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The relation of literature, writer and life, particularly, the way life is understood within this relation constitutes a key element to define the peculiar way of reading literature that Victoria Ocampo had. This can be seen in her essay on Emily Brontë; though she gives priority to biography over aesthetics, Ocampo does not adopt a biographical approach nor identifies the meaning of life with that of the writer's biography since she searches the key for interpretation in natural forces such as "character" and "fate" (instead of the positivistic interaction of social and historical environment. Thus, she identifies the vital experience of nature (the moors as the key for the writer's personality as well as her novel's, Wuthering Heights.

  3. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  4. Developmental effects of environmental light on male nuptial coloration in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shane Wright

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Efficient communication requires that signals are well transmitted and perceived in a given environment. Natural selection therefore drives the evolution of different signals in different environments. In addition, environmental heterogeneity at small spatial or temporal scales may favour phenotypic plasticity in signaling traits, as plasticity may allow rapid adjustment of signal expression to optimize transmission. In this study, we explore signal plasticity in the nuptial coloration of Lake Victoria cichlids, Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei. These two species differ in male coloration, which mediates species-assortative mating. They occur in adjacent depth ranges with different light environments. Given the close proximity of their habitats, overlapping at some locations, plasticity in male coloration could contribute to male reproductive success but interfere with reproductive isolation. Methods We reared P. pundamilia, P. nyererei, and their hybrids under light conditions mimicking the two depth ranges in Lake Victoria. From photographs, we quantified the nuptial coloration of males, spanning the entire visible spectrum. In experiment 1, we examined developmental colour plasticity by comparing sibling males reared in each light condition. In experiment 2, we assessed colour plasticity in adulthood, by switching adult males between conditions and tracking coloration for 100 days. Results We found that nuptial colour in Pundamilia did respond plastically to our light manipulations, but only in a limited hue range. Fish that were reared in light conditions mimicking the deeper habitat were significantly greener than those in conditions mimicking shallow waters. The species-specific nuptial colours (blue and red did not change. When moved to the opposing light condition as adults, males did not change colour. Discussion Our results show that species-specific nuptial colours, which are subject to strong divergent

  5. Rapid range expansion in the Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad (Gastrophryne olivacea) and a revised taxonomy for North American microhylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Cox, Christian L; Campbell, Jonathan A; Smith, Eric N; de Sá, Rafael O

    2012-09-01

    We investigated genetic variation within the Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad, Gastrophryne olivacea, across its geographic range in the United States and Mexico. An analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 105 frogs revealed remarkably low levels of genetic diversity in individuals inhabiting the central United States and northern Mexico. We found that this widespread matrilineal lineage is divergent (ca. 2% in mtDNA) from haplotypes that originate from the western United States and western coast of Mexico. Using a dataset that included all five species of Gastrophryne and both species of the closely related genus Hypopachus, we investigated the phylogenetic placement of G. olivacea. This analysis recovered strong support that G. olivacea, the tropically distributed G. elegans, and the temperately distributed G. carolinensis constitute a monophyletic assemblage. However, the placement of G. pictiventris and G. usta render Gastrophryne paraphyletic with respect to Hypopachus. To complement our mitochondrial analysis, we examined a small fragment of nuclear DNA and recovered consistent patterns. In light of our findings we recommend (1) the resurrection of the nomen G. mazatlanensisTaylor (1943) for the disjunct western clade of G. olivacea and (2) the tentative placement of G. pictiventris and G. usta in Hypopachus. To explore possible scenarios leading to low levels of genetic diversity in G. olivacea, we used mismatch distributions and Bayesian Skyline plots to examine historic population expansion and demography. Collectively these analyses suggest that G. olivacea rapidly expanded in effective population size and geographic range during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. This hypothesis is consistent with fossil data from northern localities and contemporary observations that suggest ongoing northern expansion. Given our findings, we suspect that the rapid range expansion of G. olivacea may have been facilitated by ecological associations with open

  6. Rock Glaciers in the Upper Basin of Bermejo River, Santa Victoria, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. L.; Íbáñez Palacios, G. P.; Toledo, M. A.; Páez, S. V.

    2013-05-01

    The Bermejo River is an international basin in the Tropical Andes, Santa Victoria range. The Santa Victoria range extend in N-S sense (22°08' and 23°00' South latitude between 65° and 65°30' West longitude). It maxim height is about 5.055 m s.n.m. and it average height is 3000 m s.n.m. There have been localize intact rock glaciers (active and inactive) and relict. The rock glaciers are frozen water reservoir and regulate the water regime in the high mountain over the world. The global warming effects have been express in this region with average annual air temperatures in increase: The series of temperatures of La Quiaca weather station, years 1911-2010, shows an increase about 1° C (from 9,14° C to 10,08° C) since 70' decade to actuality. This study aims to contribute to the survey of intact rock glaciers and the suite of accompanying landforms. The geographic identification and location of rock glaciers have made through the interpretation of aerial photographs and LandSat 7 and Aster Images in comparison with Google Earth using GIS and visual interpretation technics. This information has controlled with fieldwork in several campaigns. The rock glaciers are classified (in base of it activity) in actives, inactives and relict. The first and the second class were grouped in a category called intact rock glaciers for simplify it identification. The unified categories are water-storing. In the fieldwork have determinated the following aspects: 1- Active processes determination (needle ice, lenticular ice formation, etc.) and its sedimentary products: sucrose structure, inverted gradation, extrusion, open work gravels. 2- Location and geomorphologic measurement of rock glaciers and periglacial forms. There are identified 318 intact rock glaciers in high basin of Bermejo river, Sub-basins Condado river, Los Toldos-Lipeo river and Iruya river, Santa Victoria range. The actives rock glaciers, indicators of discontinuous permafrost, are installed from 4300 m s

  7. End‐of‐life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end‐of‐life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Design and participants Cross‐sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. Results 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Conclusions Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised. PMID:18055904

  8. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However, eutrophication

  9. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Adams

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems.

  10. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  11. Verification of an alternative sludge treatment process for pathogen reduction at two wastewater treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R; Surapaneni, A; Smith, D; Schmidt, J; Rigby, H; Smith, S R

    2017-08-01

    At South East Water wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in Victoria, Australia, biosolids are stockpiled for three years in compliance with the State guidelines to achieve the highest pathogen reduction grade (T1), suitable for unrestricted use in agriculture and landscaping. However, extended stockpiling is costly, may increase odour nuisance and greenhouse gas emissions, and reduces the fertiliser value of the biosolids. A verification programme of sampling and analysis for enteric pathogens was conducted at two WwTPs where sludge is treated by aerobic and anaerobic digestion, air drying (in drying pans or solar drying sheds) and stockpiling, to enumerate and, if present, monitor the decay of a range of enteric pathogens and parasites. The sludge treatment processes at both WwTPs achieved T1 grade biosolids with respect to prescribed pathogenic bacterial numbers (3 log 10 enteric virus reduction after a storage period of one year. No Ascaris eggs were detected in the influent to the WwTPs, confirming previous studies that the presence of helminth infections in Victoria is extremely low and that Ascaris is not applicable as a control criterion for the microbiological quality of biosolids in the region.

  12. Analysis of an Organisation: A University of the Third Age (U3A), Mornington, Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two fold: to look at Mornington U3A in organisational terms and then look at U3AM as a loosely coupled system. One outcome of the study would be to undertake further analyses of U3As in Victoria to determine the levels of bureaucracy under which each operates. Questions to be asked: are U3As in Victoria operating as…

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the GNSS derived Victoria plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, João; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel

    2014-05-01

    Fernandes et al. (2013) estimated the angular velocity of the Victoria tectonic block from geodetic data (GNSS derived velocities) only.. GNSS observations are sparse in this region and it is therefore of the utmost importance to use the available data (5 sites) in the most optimal way. Unfortunately, the existing time-series were/are affected by missing data and offsets. In addition, some time-series were close to the considered minimal threshold value to compute one reliable velocity solution: 2.5-3.0 years. In this research, we focus on the sensitivity of the derived angular velocity to changes in the data (longer data-span for some stations) by extending the used data-span: Fernandes et al. (2013) used data until September 2011. We also investigate the effect of adding other stations to the solution, which is now possible since more stations became available in the region. In addition, we study if the conventional power-law plus white noise model is indeed the best stochastic model. In this respect, we apply different noise models using HECTOR (Bos et al. (2013), which can use different noise models and estimate offsets and seasonal signals simultaneously. The seasonal signal estimation is also other important parameter, since the time-series are rather short or have large data spans at some stations, which implies that the seasonal signals still can have some effect on the estimated trends as shown by Blewitt and Lavellee (2002) and Bos et al. (2010). We also quantify the magnitude of such differences in the estimation of the secular velocity and their effect in the derived angular velocity. Concerning the offsets, we investigate how they can, detected and undetected, influence the estimated plate motion. The time of offsets has been determined by visual inspection of the time-series. The influence of undetected offsets has been done by adding small synthetic random walk signals that are too small to be detected visually but might have an effect on the

  14. Assessment of spatial rainfall variability in Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizza, M.; Westerberg, I.; Rodhe, A.; Ntale, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    A gridded monthly rainfall dataset having a spatial resolution of 2 km and covering the period 1960-2004 was derived for the Lake Victoria basin. Such a dataset is useful for hydrological modelling aimed at resource utilisation and for estimation of catchment inflow to Lake Victoria. The lake and its basin support more than 30 million people and also contribute substantially to the River Nile flow. The major challenge in analysing the lake water balance is the estimation of the rainfall over the lake which is complicated by the varying quality and spatial coverage of rain-gauge data in the basin. In this study we addressed these problems by using satellite-derived precipitation data from two products and rain-gauge data for 362 stations around the basin to derive a monthly precipitation dataset for the entire basin, including the lake. First, the rain-gauge data were quality controlled; resulting in a rejection of 13% of the stations while 12% needed corrective actions. These results emphasise the importance of a systematic quality control of rain-guage data in this region. Thereafter we filled short gaps in the daily data series which resulted in 9,429 additional months of data. Two interpolation methods were then assessed for spatial interpolation and the universal kriging method performed slightly better than the inverse distance weighting method. The rainfall patterns in the interpolated dataset were shown to be consistent with the spatial and temporal patterns expected at the large scale as a result of the climate variability in the basin. The key problem of how to account for the enhancement of rainfall over the lake surface because of the lake-land thermal contrasts was addressed by estimating a relationship between rain-gauge and satellite data. Two satellite rainfall products, TRMM 3B43 and PERSIANN were compared to the interpolated monthly rain-gauge data for the land part of the basin. The bias in the TRMM 3B43 rainfall estimates was higher than the bias

  15. Modelling density-dependent flow and solute transport at the Lake Tutchewop saline disposal complex, Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Craig T.; Narayan, Kumar A.

    1998-05-01

    Intercepted saline groundwaters and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in both natural and artificial saline disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their continued use as wastewater evaporation sites requires an understanding of existing groundwater dynamics. The useful of individual basins, their sustainability and possible environmental impacts remain largely unknown. In this work, the movement of salt to the underlying groundwater system from Lake Tutchewop, a saline disposal complex in north-central Victoria, was modelled in cross-section. Due to the salinity contrast between the hypersaline basin waters and the regional groundwater, it was necessary to simulate density-dependent flow behaviour. Under certain conditions, these density-stratified systems may become unstable leading to the onset of convective behaviour, which greatly increases the movement of salt from the basin to the groundwater system. Modelled concentration profiles in the aquifer system and calculated seepage rates from the basin show that Lake Tutchewop is stable under its present operating regime. The downward movement of salt is mainly controlled by diffusion and dispersion. The calibrated model was used to assess the impact of several management scenarios using time-dependent boundary conditions for lake salinity and water levels. The influence of heterogeneous basin linings on ensuing salt flux rates is examined, and results show that increased solute transport will occur under such conditions. A sensitivity analysis performed on governing variables showed that salt fluxes were most sensitive to lake salinity levels. A solute Rayleigh number defined in terms of basin salinity and hydrogeologic parameters is seen to be an effective tool for predicting the long term behaviour of such saline disposal basins. The models and concepts developed in this work may find application in the design and management of saline disposal complexes.

  16. Stratigraphic relations of australites in the Port Campbell embayment, Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Uhlherr, H. Ralph

    1999-05-01

    In the Port Campbell Embayment of Victoria, australites have been found in situ in channel deposits of the Hanson Plain Sand of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The large majority of the australites, however, occur as a lag deposit at the basal contact of the Sturgess Sand of late Pleistocene and Holocene age and are spatially correlated with ferruginous sandstone clasts that are derived from the Hanson Plain Sand. Some of the tektites are imbedded in or bonded to the ferruginous sandstone clasts, but most are found as individual tektite fragments. A few percent of the tektites have nearly perfectly preserved, complete aerodynamically shaped forms. The sandstone clasts and associated tektites have been reworked from the much older underlying Hanson Plain and have been locally concentrated in the lag deposit. Some tektites also occur at higher levels in the Sturgess Sand, almost invariably in association with stone flakes, exotic stones transported by the aborigines, and, locally, with middens of mollusc shells. Circumstantial evidence indicates that the aborigines transported the tektites found in the upper part of the Sturgess, particularly at Stanhope Bay. As Port Campbell australites unequivocally occur in strata much older than the late Pleistocene and Holocene Sturgess, there is no longer any conflict between the apparent stratigraphic age of the tektites and the middle Pleistocene ages obtained by various chronometric methods.

  17. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  18. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  20. Psychiatric/Mental health nursing education in Victoria, Australia: barriers to specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2006-04-01

    The introduction of undergraduate comprehensive nursing education in Victoria, Australia, during the 1990s has resulted in significant changes in undergraduate preparation for psychiatric/mental health nursing. Comprehensive programs became charged with the responsibility of preparing graduates to provide care for people experiencing a mental illness across a broad range of health-care settings, as well as providing a pathway for graduates with an interest in specialist practice in this field. The aim of this article is to clearly articulate the issues associated with psychiatric/mental health nursing education at the undergraduate level, including prevalence of mental illness, the inadequacy of psychiatric/mental health nursing theory and practice at undergraduate level, the negative attitudes of students toward this field of practice, and the subsequent failure of nursing education and practice initiatives to provide a clear mechanism for specialization in this important area of nursing practice. Throughout the article, the distinction between generalist and specialist preparation is argued and accompanied by a call for nursing education to recognize and address the issues associated with both domains.

  1. Content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a comparison between New Zealand and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Williams, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    To undertake a detailed analysis of the content of anti-bullying policies in schools in New Zealand (NZ) and Victoria, Australia. The content of anti-bullying policies from 253 NZ schools and 93 Victorian schools were analysed in terms of definitions of bullying behaviour; reporting, recording and responding to bullying incidents; communicating and evaluating the policy; and outlining strategies for preventing bullying. There was a wide range in 'policy scores' between schools, and Victorian schools scored higher on nearly every area compared with NZ schools. In both regions, definitions rarely included bullying on the grounds of homophobia, religion or disability; or bullying between adults and students. Policies also lacked detail about the responsibilities of non-teaching staff in dealing with bullying, and rarely described follow-up after a bullying incident. Few policies explained how the policy would be evaluated, and many failed to mention preventive strategies. This study highlights some important areas that are deficient in NZ and Victorian school anti-bullying policies, and emphasises the need for guidance on how schools can develop an effective anti-bullying policy. Having more comprehensive anti-bullying policies will give schools a much better chance of reducing bullying.

  2. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  4. High degree of clonal reproduction and lack of large-scale geographic patterning mark the introduced range of the invasive vine, kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata), in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Kerin E; Mauricio, Rodney

    2016-08-01

    Pueraria montana var. lobata, or kudzu, is an invasive species whose invasion in North America is not genetically well characterized. The clonality of kudzu introduces challenges to population genetic analyses that can bias the assessment of spatial patterns of genotypes. Assessing patterns of genetic diversity while considering clonality is necessary to understand the invasion and spread of kudzu in its invasive range. We screened 1747 individuals from 87 populations across the invasive range with 15 microsatellite markers and a 789 bp chloroplast region. We performed detailed clonal analyses and tested levels of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogeographic relationships. Kudzu exhibited a clonal rate of 80%, and was more heterozygous than other long-lived perennials. We detected only 353 distinct clonal lineages, with over 60% sharing a maternal haplotype. Populations were established with few genotypes, many consisting of only a single clone. We found no isolation by distance. Despite high genetic diversity, we found little geographic patterning. Kudzu is highly clonal with few genetically distinct lineages and haplotypes existing in the introduced range. Our data are consistent with a large single introduction, or a few at most. Introduced lineages are geographically randomly distributed but isolated, suggesting that genotypes rarely expand into already established populations. No route of expansion was detectable from an original introduction. The invasion of kudzu does not seem to have been dominated by a single genotype, thus standing genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity are more likely mechanisms explaining kudzu's invasion success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Flow structures and fluid transport for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2009-08-01

    The flow structures produced by the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria are examined using direct numerical simulation and Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). Body motion of each hydromedusa is digitized and input to a CFD program. Sarsia tubulosa uses a jetting type of propulsion, emitting a single, strong, fast-moving vortex ring during each swimming cycle while a secondary vortex of opposite rotation remains trapped within the subumbrellar region. The ejected vortex is highly energetic and moves away from the hydromedusa very rapidly. Conversely, A. victoria, a paddling type hydromedusa, is found to draw fluid from the upper bell surface and eject this fluid in pairs of counter-rotating, slow-moving vortices near the bell margins. Unlike S. tubulosa, both vortices are ejected during the swimming cycle of A. victoria and linger in the tentacle region. In fact, we find that A. victoria and S. tubulosa swim with Strouhal numbers of 1.1 and 0.1, respectively. This means that vortices produced by A. victoria remain in the tentacle region roughly 10 times as long as those produced by S. tubulosa, which presents an excellent feeding opportunity during swimming for A. victoria. Finally, we examine the pressure on the interior bell surface of both hydromedusae and the velocity profile in the wake. We find that S. tubulosa produces very uniform pressure on the interior of the bell as well as a very uniform jet velocity across the velar opening. This type of swimming can be well approximated by a slug model, but A. victoria creates more complicated pressure and velocity profiles. We are also able to estimate the power output of S. tubulosa and find good agreement with other hydromedusan power outputs. All results are based on numerical simulations of the swimming jellyfish.

  6. Range Reference Atmosphere Wake Island, North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    the best availabie upper-atmosphere data bases rawinsonde, rocketsonde, and any other high -altitude data source) to create and publ ish (in standard...V components of wind, density, and dew point for the 0-30 km portion and density only from 30 to 60 km (in RRAs that go that high ). The lower (or...Prcssgtrk at at siLimsfikcant radiosonde data level 11h IL 1 wIalayintegrated mecan monthly or annual pressure An .\\ talumlateid PR A quantity R’ I ’nwr

  7. North American Bat Ranges - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays our current understanding of the distributions of United States and Canadian bat species during the past 100-150 years. The specimen and...

  8. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  10. Marine research in the Latitudinal Gradient Project along Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual framework of the Latitudinal Gradient Project that is being implemented by the New Zealand, Italian and United States Antarctic programmes along Victoria Land, Antarctica, from 72°S to 86°S. The purpose of this interdisciplinary research project is to assess the dynamics and coupling of marine and terrestrial ecosystems in relation to global climate variability. Preliminary data about the research cruises from the R/V “Italica” and R/V “Tangaroa” along the Victoria Land Coast in 2004 are presented. As a global climate barometer, this research along Victoria Land provides a unique framework for assessing latitudinal shifts in ‘sentinel’ environmental transition zones, where climate changes have an amplified impact on the phases of water.

  11. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    .... No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  12. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    ... other. No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  13. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Webb, Colleen T; Collyer, Michael L; Holycross, Andrew T; Painter, Charles W; Kamees, Larry K; Douglas, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  14. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Davis

    Full Text Available Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO, an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas is numerically constricted (N = 151, with few breeding adults (Nb = 24 and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years. Mean home range (0.07 km2 is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  15. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E

    2016-11-01

    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor 17 O anomaly was observed in N2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the 17 O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of 15 N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of 15 N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N2 and N2 O exhibited substantial 15 N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of 15 N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl2 and ZnCl2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ15 N of N2 O with time. As HgCl2 and ZnCl2 are effective biocides, we interpret N2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of 15 N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl2 and determined rates of N2 O and N2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L-1  day-1 , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of N2 O

  16. Stroke Incidence in Victoria, Australia—Emerging Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Clissold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases. In Victoria, all public emergency department visits and public and private hospital admissions are reported to the Department of Health and Human Services and include demographic, diagnostic, and procedural/treatment information.MethodsWe obtained data from financial years 1997/1998 to 2007/2008 inclusive, for all cases with a primary stroke diagnosis (ICD-10-AM categories with associated data fields. Incident cases were established by using a 5-year clearance period.ResultsFrom 2003/2004 to 2007/2008 inclusive, there were 53,425 patients with a primary stroke or TIA diagnosis. The crude incident stroke rate for first ever stroke was 211 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 205–217 [females—205 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 196–214 and males—217 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 210–224]. The overall stroke rates were seen to significantly decline over the period [males (per 100,000 per year 227 in 2003/2004 to 202 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0157 and females (per 100,000 per year 214 in 2003/2004 to 188 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0482]. Ischemic stroke rates also appeared to decline; however, this change was not significant.ConclusionThese results demonstrate a significant decline in stroke incidence during the study period and may suggest evidence for effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention strategies in cerebrovascular risk factor management.

  17. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  18. Archiving the Web: A Case Study from the University of Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Davis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The University of Victoria Libraries started archiving websites in 2013, and it quickly became apparent that many scholarly websites being produced by faculty, especially in the digital humanities, were going to prove very challenging to effectively capture and play back. This article will provide an overview of web archiving and explore the considerable legal and technical challenges of implementing a web archiving initiative at a research library, using the University of Victoria's implementation of Archive-it, a web archiving service from the Internet Archive, as a case study, with a special focus on capturing complex, interactive websites that scholars are creating to disseminate their research in new ways.

  19. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cyril

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD

  20. Developmental effects of visual environment on species-assortative mating preferences in Lake Victoria cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D S; Demandt, N; Alkema, J T; Seehausen, O; Groothuis, T G G; Maan, M E

    2017-02-01

    Local adaptation can be a potent force in speciation, with environmental heterogeneity leading to niche specialization and population divergence. However, local adaption often requires nonrandom mating to generate reproductive isolation. Population divergence in sensory properties can be particularly consequential in speciation, affecting both ecological adaptation and sexual communication. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two closely related African cichlid species that differ in male coloration, blue vs. red. They co-occur at rocky islands in southern Lake Victoria, but inhabit different depth ranges with different light environments. The species differ in colour vision properties, and females exert species-specific preferences for blue vs. red males. Here, we investigated the mechanistic link between colour vision and preference, which could provide a rapid route to reproductive isolation. We tested the behavioural components of this link by experimentally manipulating colour perception - we raised both species and their hybrids under light conditions mimicking shallow and deep habitats - and tested female preference for blue and red males under both conditions. We found that rearing light significantly affected female preference: shallow-reared females responded more strongly to P. pundamilia males and deep-reared females favoured P. nyererei males - implying that visual development causally affects mate choice. These results are consistent with sensory drive predictions, suggesting that the visual environment is key to behavioural isolation of these species. However, the observed plasticity could also make the species barrier vulnerable to environmental change: species-assortative preferences were weaker in females that were reared in the other species' light condition. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Medical review licensing outcomes in drivers with visual field loss in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Carlyn; Charlton, Judith L; Odell, Morris; Keeffe, Jill; Wood, Joanne; Bohensky, Megan; Fildes, Brian; Oxley, Jennifer; Bentley, Sharon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Good vision is essential for safe driving and studies have associated visual impairment with an increased crash risk. Currently, there is little information about the medical review of drivers with visual field loss. This study examines the prevalence of visual field loss among drivers referred for medical review in one Australian jurisdiction and investigates factors associated with licence outcome in this group. Methods A random sample of 10,000 (31.25 per cent) medical review cases was extracted for analysis from the Victorian licensing authority. Files were screened for the presence of six visual field-related medical conditions. Data were captured on a range of variables, including referral source, age, gender, health status, crash history and licence outcome. Prevalence analyses were univariate and descriptive. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with licence outcomes in the visual field loss group. Results Approximately 1.9 per cent of the 10,000 medical review cases screened had a visual field loss condition identified (n=194). Among the visual field loss group, 57.2 per cent were permitted to continue driving (conditional/unconditional licence). Primary referral sources were the police, self-referrals and general medical practitioners. Key factors associated with licence test outcomes were visual field condition, age group, crash involvement and referral to the Driver Licensing Authority’s Medical Advisors. Those who were younger had a crash involvement triggering referral and those who were referred to the Medical Advisors were more likely to have a positive licensing outcome. Conclusion The evidence base for making licensing decisions is complicated by the variable causes, patterns, progressions and measuring technologies for visual field loss. This study highlighted that the involvement of an expert medical advisory service in Victoria resulted in an increased likelihood that drivers with visual field loss will be

  2. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, Andrea S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Balirwa, John S.; Beuving, Joost; Bwathondi, P. O. J.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Cornelissen, Ilse J. M.; Cowx, Iain G.; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; Hecky, Robert E.; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kaufman, Les; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A.; Kolding, Jeppe; Ligtvoet, Willem; Mbabazi, Dismas; Medard, Modesta; Mkumbo, Oliva C.; Mlaponi, Enock; Munyaho, Antony T.; Nagelkerke, Leopold A. J.; Ogutu-Ohwayo, Richard; Ojwang, William O.; Peter, Happy K.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seehausen, Ole; Sharpe, Diana; Silsbe, Greg M.; Sitoki, Lewis; Tumwebaze, Rhoda; Tweddle, Denis; van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.; van Dijk, Han; van Donk, Ellen; van Rijssel, Jacco C.; van Zwieten, Paul A. M.; Wanink, Jan; Witte, F.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2014-01-01

    East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly

  4. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out ... Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria chaonomphala were the only two gastropods represented and widely distributed in the two lakes. Bivalvia constituting of ...

  5. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  6. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, fish industry wastes are an important contaminant having an impact on the environment. The recovery of value added products from these residues constitutes an important waste reduction strategy for the industry. In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria ...

  7. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  8. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  9. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically

  10. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  11. From Aspiration to Destination: Understanding the Decisions of University Applicants in Regional Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew; Burnheim, Catherine; Joschko, Lucie; Luckman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the choices and destinations of prospective university students from three regional areas in Victoria. The study is based on information collected for tertiary applicants in the Gippsland, Bendigo and Mildura areas, all of which host a local university campus. Using application and enrollment data, we examine the choices that…

  12. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Vivienne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  13. Do invasive bullfrogs in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, show evidence of parasite release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, O K; Forbes, M R

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have examined vertebrate models of invasive species to explore parasite release as a proposed mechanism through which host species might become invasive. In this study, we examined evidence for parasite release in invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana/Lithobates catesbeianus) from five sites in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. We examined helminth species richness, as well as the prevalence, intensity and abundance of lung and kidney fluke infections. These flukes are expected to impose costs on host survival, growth and reproductive output. We compared measures of these parasite taxa with bullfrogs from Ontario and New Brunswick where they are endemic. Helminth species richness in bullfrogs from the Victoria sites was lower than in Ontario bullfrogs, but comparable to reported indices for other endemic populations. The prevalence of lung flukes (Haematoloechus spp.) in bullfrogs from Victoria was twice as high as was observed in the Ontario bullfrogs, and higher than has been reported from other endemic locations. In four of the five study sites in Victoria, numbers of Echinostoma spp. kidney cysts were lower than observed in endemic populations; however, the fifth site had uncharacteristically high numbers of cysts. In this study, there did not appear to be clear evidence to support parasite release using either parasite species numbers, or infection by specific parasite taxa. Instead, the invasive bullfrogs demonstrated high parasite species richness and high levels of infection for parasites known to be harmful to their hosts.

  14. Parasite-mediated sexual selection and species divergence in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Van Rooijen, Anne M. C.; Van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    We investigate the role of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the divergence of two species of Lake Victoria cichlids. Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei represent a common pattern of male nuptial colour divergence between haplochromine sister species: metallic grey-blue in P.

  15. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of LalVictoria wetlands for the Nile tilap'a was studied. Five wetland types were defined: papyrus, reed, bulrush, hippo grass, water hyacinth. Hydrology, vegetation and distance towards open water explained the variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Over 30 fish species were

  16. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Nile perch Lates niloticus is assumed to be sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, it was found in deep water in Lake Victoria, where oxygen depletion is common during the rainy season. Since factors determining Nile perch distribution are not well understood its spatial distribution in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake ...

  17. affect rice in integrated rice-fish culture in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    To ensure increased adoption of rice-fish farming, we have to be certain that practices and adoption of these technologies fit within the available resources, the socio-cultural and economic conditions of the Lake. Victoria Basin (LVB). Practices and technologies from. Asia may be inappropriate due to differences in agro cli-.

  18. Monitoring exposure to heavy metals among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya: Environmental and fish matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoth, E.O.; Admiraal, W.; Osano, O.; Ngure, V.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Omutange, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study used hair and nails to biomonitor heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) from geological source and exposure through regular fish consumption among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Concentration of Pb and Cu in water reflected anthropogenic pathways, while Cd and Cr reflected accumulation from

  19. Metal concentrations in sediment and fish of Lake Victoria near and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of metals in sediment and fish as well as organic matter contents of sediment from Lake Victoria were investigated. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment and fish from areas of the lake that are within and outside catchments with gold mining activities. The results showed that ...

  20. Testing the Marine Hypothesis for The Opportunity Landing Site at Victoria Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Hypothesis Summary: 1. Meridiani Planum is a marine sulfate platform deposit, analogous to terrestrial carbonate platforms but with sulfate mineralogy, laid down during one or multiple marine transgressions over the landing site region. 2. Outcrop laminations, ripples, and larger, dune-scale bedforms are subaqueous in origin, produced by tidal currents. Aqueous deposits may be interbedded with crossbedded aeolian deposits of same composition derived from subjacent water-lain deposits during lowstands. At the scale of observations made by Opportunity, the marine hypothesis differs from the consensus, sabkha model, in two relatively minor ways (but with important differences in the inferred paleoenvironments). 3. Blueberry and cobble "lag" on top of outcrop is a lag, but indicates erosion of perhaps many meters, even tens of meters or more of outcrop material from the region by water. Wind erosion has been very limited over geologic time (perhaps less than a meter locally). 4. Remarkably-flat, horizontal geomorphic surface of outcrop was produced by shallow standing water locally, controlling both deposition and erosion of the sulfate outcrop material to within a few meters of sea level. 5. Craters in the landing site exhibit a continuum of degradation states, with Endurance and Victoria typifying the best preserved craters visited (or to be visited) by Opportunity, and Erebus and Terra Nova representing the most degraded craters visited that are larger than 100 meters across. Terra Nova is similar to numerous kilometer-scale "rock ring" craters in the Meridiani Planum landing site. 6. "Serrated" rim at Victoria is similar to, but fresher in expression, rim morphology at Erebus Crater, and may indicate water pouring over crater rim during tidal or storm surges in water level across the region. Predictions to be tested at Victoria Crater: 1. The crater's ejecta and raised rim have been destroyed by tidal currents in shallow standing water. There is no Endurance

  1. Soil surface lowering due to soil erosion in villages near Lake Victoria, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, A.; Deckers, J.; Poesen, J.; Isabirye, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the effort to pinpoint the sources of sediment pollution in Lake Victoria, the contribution of sedi-ment from compounds, landing sites, main roads and footpaths is determined in the catchment of Na-bera Bay and Kafunda Bay at the northern shore of Lake Victoria in southern Uganda. The amount of soil loss in compounds and landing sites is determined by the reconstruction of the original and current soil surface according to botanical and man-made datable objects. The soil erosion rate is then deter-mined by dividing the eroded soil volume (corrected for compaction) by the age of the oldest datable object. In the study area, the average soil erosion rate in compounds amounts to 107 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit compound) and in landing sites to 207 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit landing site). Although com-pounds and landing sites occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), they are a major source of sediment to Lake Victoria (63 %). The soil loss on footpaths and main roads is calculated by multip-lying the total length of footpaths and main roads with the average width and depth (measured towards a reference surface). After the correction for compaction is carried out, the soil erosion rate on foot-paths amounts to 34 Mg ha-1 year-1 and on main roads to 35 Mg ha-1 year-1. Also footpaths and main roads occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), but contribute disproportionately to the total soil loss in the catchment (22 %). In this research, the information about the village/compound given by the villager/owner is indispensable. In accordance to an adaptation of the model of McHugh et al. (2002), 32 % of the sediment that is generated in the catchment, is deposited in Lake Victoria (i.e. 2 209 Mg year-1 or 0.7 Mg ha-1 year-1). The main buffer in the study area is papyrus at the shore of Lake Victoria. Also sugarcane can be a major buffer. However, the sugarcane-area is intersected by com-pounds, landing sites, footpaths and main roads that generate large amounts of

  2. 2006 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) Lidar: Victoria County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using a LH Systems ALS50 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system, 94 flight lines of standard density (1.4 meter ground sample distance) data were collected over...

  3. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  4. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J Russell; Nalugwa, Allen; Webster, Bonnie L; Lange, Charles N; Jørgensen, Aslak; Rollinson, David; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2013-11-01

    Bulinus globosus, a key intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis, is a hermaphroditic freshwater Planorbid snail species that inhabits patchy and transient water bodies prone to large seasonal variations in water availability. Although capable of self-fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22. Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygotes. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between populations and Bayesian inferences identified 15 genetic clusters. The excess homozygosity, significant inbreeding and population genetic differentiation observed in B. globosus populations are likely to be due to the habitat patchiness, mating system and the proneness to cyclic extinction and recolonization in transient habitats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda: implications for vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyseni Chaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya, under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC. We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from continental and offshore populations to provide empirical data to support this initiative. Methods We collected tsetse samples from 11 sites across the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda. We performed genetic analyses on 409 of the collected tsetse flies and added data collected for 278 individuals in a previous study. The flies were screened across 15 microsatellite loci and the resulting data were used to assess the temporal stability of populations, to analyze patterns of genetic exchange and structuring, to estimate dispersal rates and evaluate the sex bias in dispersal, as well as to estimate demographic parameters (NE and NC. Results We found that tsetse populations in this region were stable over 4-16 generations and belong to 4 genetic clusters. Two genetic clusters (1 and 2 corresponded approximately to PATTEC blocks 1 and 2, while the other two (3 and 4 fell within PATTEC block 3. Island populations grouped into the same genetic clusters as neighboring mainland sites, suggesting presence of gene flow between these sites. There was no evidence of the stretch of water separating islands from the mainland forming a significant barrier to dispersal. Dispersal rates ranged from 2.5 km per generation in cluster 1 to 14 km per generation in clusters 3 and 4. We found evidence of male-biased dispersal. Few breeders are successfully dispersing over large distances. Effective population size estimates were low (33–310 individuals, while census size estimates

  6. INDIAN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SAFETY IN MELBOURNE AND THE VICTORIA POLICE – THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CRISIS AND THE PERCEPTIONS THAT PROPELLED IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fleming

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The international education sector is a major export earning industry for the Australian economy according to the Australian Government. It is also central to the nation’s international relations ambitions. However, Australia’s reputation as a safe and welcoming environment has been questioned following a series of highly publicised assaults against international students, particularly Indian nationals studying in Melbourne. This study analyses the effects of the Victoria Police public communications response in 2009 and 2010 to the assaults. In particular, did the Victoria Police Commissioner’s communication response to the assaults positively influence attitudes and perceptions within the Indian international student community and the media? The tools applied in this study originate within a range of traditions in risk communication theory including heuristic and systematic information processing methods, public relations including best practice and dialogic theory, critical discourse analysis, and media content analysis. This study demonstrates that police communications failed to positively influence perceptions and can be seen to have amplified negative perceptions due to a combination of messages and messaging methods that discount theories of risk perception and information processing.

  7. Determination of selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River, South China using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Weihai [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510250 (China); Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Post-graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]. E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.cn; Zou Shichun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510250 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu Yuchun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510250 (China)

    2007-02-15

    Nine selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour of Hong Kong and the Pearl River at Guangzhou, South China, were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of antibiotics were mainly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the marine water of Victoria Harbour. However, except for amoxicillin, all of the antibiotics were detected in the Pearl River during high and low water seasons with the median concentrations ranging from 11 to 67 ng/L, and from 66 to 460 ng/L, respectively; and the concentrations in early spring were about 2-15 times higher than that in summer with clearer diurnal variations. It was suggested that the concentrations of antibiotics in the high water season were more affected by wastewater production cycles due to quick refreshing rate, while those in the low water season may be more sensitive to the water column dynamics controlled by tidal processes in the river. - Antibiotics were found at high concentrations in an urban reach of Pearl River in southern China with contrast diurnal variations between the high and low water seasons.

  8. Preliminary assessment of the cocial, economic and environmental impacts of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria basin and status of control

    OpenAIRE

    Mailu, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists in the region. Lake Victoria, the world’s second largest freshwater body, su...

  9. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  10. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.

    2017-11-01

    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  11. Strain and displacement measurements for the June 9, 1980 Victoria, Mexico Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, D.; Nyland, E.; Suarez, F.; Chavez, D.; Gonzalez, J.

    A microgeodetic network 22 km south east of Est. Guadalupe Victoria, Baja California Norte, installed in late May 1980, has been resurveyed in an experiment that started 12 hours after the June 9, 1980 Victoria earthquake, which had an epicenter at 10 km depth about 12 km from the network. The resurvey was complete by June 13. Both the initial observations and the resurvey were done with HP3800 distance meter equipment. Some angular control was provided with a Wild T3 theodolite. The network underwent a compressive strain of 7 ± 3 micro strain essentially parallel the Cerro Prieto fault about the time of the earthquake. Strains of this size are associated with simple dislocation models of earthquakes of this magnitude. Its direction appears to be anomalous however. This may indicate compression related to soil liquefaction processes or strain near the end of the slip plane.

  12. Timing of Pleistocene glacial oscillations recorded in the Cantabrian Mountains (North Iberia): correlation of glacial and periglacial sequences from both sides of the range using a multiple-dating method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimón; Bourlès, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal mountain range up to 2648 m altitude located at 43oN latitude and directly influenced by the North Atlantic climate oscillations. Although nowadays it is fully deglaciatied, glacial sediments and landforms are clearly preserved elsewhere above 1600 m. Particularly, glacial evidence in the central Cantabrian Mountains suggests the formation of an icefield in the headwaters of the Porma and Esla catchments drained by glaciers up to 1-6 km in length in the northern slope and 19 km-long in the southern slope, with their fronts at minimum altitudes of 900 and 1150 m asl respectively (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2014). Numerical ages obtained from the base of the Brañagallones ice-dammed deposit and one of the lateral moraines that are damming this deposit suggest that the local glacial maximum was prior to ca 33.5 cal ka BP in the Monasterio Valley (see data compiled in Rodriguez-Rodríguez et al., in press). Currently, our research is focused on developing a full chronology of glacial oscillations in both sides of the range and investigating their paleoclimate significance and relationship with glacial asymmetry through the combined use of surface exposure, OSL and radiocarbon dating methods. In this work, we present 47 10Be surface exposure ages obtained from boulders in moraines, glacial erratic boulders and rock glaciers in the Monasterio and Porma valleys. The glacial record of these valleys was chosen because of: (i) its good preservation state; (ii) the occurrence of a quartz-rich sandstone formation; and (iii) the availability of previous 14C and OSL numerical ages. Sampling sites were selected considering the relative age of glacial stages to cover as complete as possible the history of Pleistocene glaciations in the studied area, from the glacial maximum stage to the prevalence of periglacial conditions. Preliminary results suggest the occurrence of several glacial advances of similar extent at ca 150 - 50 ka followed

  13. Impacts of changing water price and availability on irrigated dairy farms in northern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Christie K.M.; Armstrong, Dan P.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Farming systems throughout the Murray-Darling Basin are under increasing scrutiny from the perspective of ecological sustainability of farm and catchment systems. In northern Victoria, the dairy industry is a major user of water, and contributes to the environmental issues. Changes in irrigation water price, availability and policy will invariably impact on the viability of dairy farming in this region, but the diversity of dairy farm systems suggests that the impact will vary between farms. ...

  14. Imperialist women in Edwardian Britain : the Victoria League, 1899-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Riedi, Elizabeth L.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis, based on private papers, society records, autobiographies and memoirs, newspapers and periodicals, examines one mainly female imperialist organisation - the Victoria League - and the women who ran it. It considers two related questions - what made Edwardian women imperialist, and how, within the limits of Edwardian society, could they express their imperialism? The thesis shows that several of the League's founders and executive had visited South Africa during or s...

  15. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent ma...

  16. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...... for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly....

  17. A Bottom-Up Understanding of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Luomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing is a major concern in fisheries management around the world. Several measures have been taken to address the problem. In Lake Victoria, the alleviation of IUU fishing is implemented through the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA-IUU, which restricts use of certain fishing gear, as well as prohibits fishing in closed areas and during closed seasons. Despite the long-term efforts to monitor and control what goes on in the fisheries, IUU fishing has persisted in Lake Victoria. Inspired by interactive governance theory, this paper argues that the persistence of IUU fishing could be due to different images that stakeholders have about the situation, rather than the lack of management competency. Through structured interviews with 150 fisheries stakeholders on Ijinga Island in the southeastern part of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, using paired comparison questionnaires, the study elicits stakeholders’ perspective about the severity of different locally-pertinent fishing-related activities. The results show that while fisheries stakeholder groups agree on their judgments about certain fishing gears, some differences are also apparent. For instance, fisheries managers and scientists do not always agree with fishing people about what activities cause the most damage to fisheries resources and ecosystem. Further, they tend to consider some IUU fishing-related activities less damaging than some non-IUU fishing. Such disparity creates governability challenges, pointing to the need to revisit relevant regulatory measures and to make them consistent with the knowledge and judgments of all stakeholders. Based on these findings, we discuss governing interventions that may contribute to addressing IUU fishing in Lake Victoria and elsewhere.

  18. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

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    Hans Staaland

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  19. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

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    Kohta Yoshida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  20. Salinity in Water Markets : An ExperimentalInvestigation of the Sunraysia Salinity Levy, Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    C. Duke; L. Gangadharan

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation can have a significant negative impact on the environment. Irrigation impacts contribute a significant portion to the estimated forty six million dollar cost per annum of salinity in the Murray River, Australia. Policies available to regulators include externality taxes and levies. In 2002 the Victorian Government introduced a system of salinity levies in the irrigation regions of Sunraysia, northern Victoria. These levies differ from typical taxes because they also introduce trade...

  1. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  2. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-08-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb) revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  3. Leuconidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Sarah

    2016-01-21

    The collections of the Museum Victoria have yielded six new leuconid species in five genera from Australian waters: Austroleucon adiazetos n. sp., A. dolosolevis n. sp., Eudorellopsis mykteros n. sp., Kontiloleucon australiensis n. gen., n. sp., Leucon (Alytoleucon) dolichorhinos n. sp., Ommatoleucon megalopos n. sp. as well as the new genus Kontiloleucon. Leucon (Leucon) echinolophotos n. sp. is a new species from off Enderby Land, Antarctica. Keys to the Australian leuconid genera and species are included.

  4. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  5. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

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    Miyuki Takeda

    Full Text Available The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  6. Women's experience of domiciliary postnatal care in Victoria and South Australia: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; Yelland, Jane S; Sutherland, Georgina A; Brown, Stephanie J

    2012-11-01

    Despite the expansion of postnatal domiciliary services, we know little about the women receiving visits and how they regard their care. The aim of this study is to examine the provision of postnatal domiciliary care from a consumer perspective. All women who gave birth in September-October 2007 in South Australia and Victoria were mailed questionnaires 6 months after the birth. Women were asked if they had received a midwifery home visit, and to rate the care they received. More women in South Australia reported receiving a domiciliary visit than in Victoria (88.0% v. 76.0%) and they were more likely to rate their care as 'very good' (69.1% v. 63.4%). Younger women, women on a lower income, who were holding a healthcare concession card or who had not completed secondary education were less likely to receive a visit. Although the majority of women in public maternity care in Victoria and South Australia receive domiciliary care and rate it positively, there are significant state-based differences. Those more likely to benefit from domiciliary care are less likely to receive a visit. There is a need to further explore the purpose, aims and content of domiciliary care at individual and state-wide levels.

  7. Sediment Production from Settlements and Farmlands within Lake Victoria Shoreline Zone in Uganda and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabirye, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the general acceptance that the current land use changes are unlikely to yield a sustainable environment, the source of sediment that causes eutrophication in Lake Victoria is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that roads, footpaths, and compounds (settlement are a major source of sediments. This study was conducted on the northern Lake Victoria shoreline to determine the rate of sediment generated by agricultural and settlement land use types. Results show that settlements generate significantly higher sediment yields i.e. between 17- 87 ton.ha-1. yr -1 whereas agricultural land use types produced between 0-27 ton ha-1.yr-1. The high sediment yield from settlements is attributed to high runoff coefficients and the occurrence of gully erosion. The high sediment yield from settlements justifies the need to conduct further investigations on the contribution of settlements to sediment production in catchments with different soil - landscape and climatic setting in the Lake Victoria catchment.

  8. A "pre-seasonal" hospital outbreak of influenza pneumonia caused by the drift variant A/Victoria/361/2011-like H3N2 viruses, Hong Kong, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C W; Lee, Nelson; Ngai, Karry L K; Wong, Bonnie C K; Lee, May K P; Choi, K W; Lai, Raymond W M; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-03-01

    Beginning from late 2011 and early 2012, increasing circulation of antigenically drifted influenza A/Victoria/361/2011-like H3N2 viruses within genotype 3 of the A/Victoria/208/2009 clade have been reported in multiple European countries and elsewhere. Whether these emerging viruses are associated with increased disease severity is unclear. To report the clinical and virological findings of a moderately severe hospital outbreak of A/Victoria/361/2011-like viruses that occurred in November 2011 in Hong Kong. Clinical and virological hospital outbreak investigation. The outbreak occurred in an adult psychiatric ward in November 2011, a time well before the usual local seasonal influenza winter peak. Altogether, 7 patients and 1 healthcare-worker were affected (mean age, 47 [range, 34-61] years). The attack rates among patients and healthcare-workers were 33% (7/21) and 7% (1/15), respectively. Pneumonia developed in 38% (3/8) of cases; none had underlying immunocompromised conditions. High nasopharyngeal viral loads were detected. All cases responded to antiviral treatment. Multiple amino acid mutations with reference to earlier A(H3N2) vaccine strains were mapped to key antigenic sites on hemagglutinin; however, no critical mutations on receptor binding sites were detected. Viral sequence variations jeopardized the performance of molecular diagnostic assays. Severe disease and pneumonia occurred in a substantial proportion of non-immunocompromised adults in a hospital outbreak attributed to the emerging antigenically drifted A/Victoria/361/2011-like H3N2 viruses. Close monitoring of the transmission of this drift variant is required. Further studies are also necessary to determine virus virulence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  10. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onyutha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using growth factor curves. Monte Carlo simulations were used to construct confidence intervals CI on both the estimated Ts for given flows and the estimated FDF quantiles for given T. The average bias of the modeled T of high and low flows are for all catchments and Ts up to 25 years lower than 8%. Despite this relatively small average bias in the modeled T, the limits of the CI on the modeled 25-year flows go up to more than 100% for high flows and more than 150% for low flows. The assessed FDF relationships and accompanied uncertainties are useful for various types of risk based water engineering and water management applications related to floods and droughts.

  11. Aquatic and fisheries survey of the upper Victoria Nile: a report prepared for AES Nile Power Bujagali hydropower project, final report

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The aquatic ecosystem of the Upper Victoria Nile is part of a wider complex of water bodies (lakes and rivers) in Uganda that is of immense socioeconomic importance, especially the fisheries. A source of food, income, energy, irrigation and drinking water, the protection, sustainable use and management of the Upper Victoria Nile water resources are vital to Uganda's economy. The Upper Victoria Nile,due to its abundance of socio-economic benefits,provides a significant contribution to Ugand...

  12. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia...

  13. A geochemical study of lithospheric mantle beneath Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): main evidences from volatile content in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Pelorosso, Beatrice; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Coltorti, Massimo; Italiano, Francesco; Bonadiman, Costanza

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical study of ultramafic xenoliths from Northern Victoria Land (Green Point, GP and Handler Ridge, HR), is carried out in order to investigate the features of the lithosphere mantle beneath the Western Antarctic Ridge System (WARS). The majority of samples is spinel anhydrous lherzolite with rare presence of secondary phases (secondary cpx and glass). Geothermobarometric calculations, based on the Fe/Mg distribution among the peridotite minerals reveal that Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath Handler Ridge records temperatures and redox conditions higher then Greene Point (P fixed at 15 Kbar). Moreover, geochemical models evidence that, GP mantle domain represents a residuum after ˜7 to 21 % of partial melting in the spinel stability field, which was variably affected by interaction with infiltrating melts, acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic (Pelorosso et al., 2016). Fluid inclusions (FI) entrapped in olivine and pyroxene crystals were investigated for elemental and isotopic contents of both, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) and CO2. He, Ar and Ne concentrations range from 1.52×10-14 to 1.07×10-12, from 4.09×10-13 to 3.47×10-11and from 2.84×10-16 to 7.57×10-14 mol/g, respectively, while the CO2amounts are between 7.08×10-10 and 8.12×10-7 mol/g. The 3He/4He varies between 5.95 and 20.18 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air), being the lowest and the highest values measured in the He-poorer samples. Post-eruptive input of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic 4He seems to influence mainly the samples associated to a lower He concentrations, increasing and decreasing respectively their primordial 3He/4He values, that for all the other samples range between 6.76 and 7.45 Ra. This range reasonably reflects the isotope signature of mantle beneath the investigated areas. The 4He/40Ar* ratio corrected for atmospheric-derived contamination ranges between 0.004 and 0.39. The lowest 4He/40Ar* values (4He/40Ar*<0.1) are

  14. A sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering method for chondroitin sulfate with Victoria blue 4R molecular probes in nanogold sol substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanghe; Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Qingye; Liang, Aihui; He, Xingcun; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2017-08-11

    Using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as the nanocatalyst, l-cysteine rapidly reduced HAuCl4 to make a stable gold nanoparticle sol (Ag/AuNP) that had a high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity in the presence of Victoria blue 4R (VB4r) molecular probes. Under the selected conditions, chondroitin sulfate (Chs) reacted with the VB4r probes to form associated complexes that caused the SERS effect to decrease to 1618 cm(-1) . The decreased SERS intensity was linear to the Chs concentration in the range 3.1-500 ng/ml, with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/ml Chs. Accordingly, we established a simple and sensitive SERS quantitative analysis method to determine Chs in real samples, with a relative standard deviation of 1.47-3.16% and a recovery rate of 97.6-104.2%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in water and sediments of car wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwach, B O; Lalah, J O

    2009-11-01

    Mean concentrations of selected USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water samples from Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria in Kenya have been determined using GC-FID and GC-MS. Sampling was done during the rainy season in April 2006. The PAH concentrations in sediment and water ranged from 0.04 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively, depending upon the sampling location. The total concentration levels of PAHs in both the sediment and water phase in this study were found to be much higher compared with those reported from other regions worldwide, revealing significant PAH pollution of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Kisumu city bay as a consequent of anthropogenic activities as described in the text. The GC-detected PAHs were confirmed by GC-MS.

  16. Spartial and seasonal variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of Kisumu City bay of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwach, Bowa O; Lalah, Joseph O; Shem, Wandiga O

    2009-11-01

    Seasonal and offshore concentration variations for selected sixteen priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, have been investigated. PAHs concentrations in sediments and water range from 0.4 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the PAHs concentrations showed that the most contaminated samples are found during rainy season (April, 2006), 5 m offshore for sediments and 10 m offshore for water. Dry season (October, 2005) generally recorded lower concentrations. The variations showed significant difference (p < or = 0.05) with season and distance of sampling from the shore.

  17. Monitoring geodynamic activity in the Victoria Land, East Antarctica: Evidence from GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.; Mancini, F.; Sterzai, P.; Dubbini, M.; Galeandro, A.; Capra, A.

    2017-10-01

    GNSS networks in Antarctica are a fundamental tool to define actual crustal displacements due to geological and geophysical processes and to constrain the glacial isostatic models (GIA). A large network devoted to the detection and monitoring of crustal deformations in the Northern Victoria Land (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control - VLNDEF), was monumented during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field campaigns, as part of Italian National Program for Antarctic Research and surveyed periodically during the Southern summer seasons. In this paper, GPS observations of VLNDEF collected over a more than 15-year span, together with various selected POLENET sites and more than 70 IGS stations, were processed with Bernese Software, using a classical double difference approach. A solution was obtained combining NEQs by means of ADDNEQ2/FODITS tools embedded in Bernese Software. All the Antarctic sites were kept free and a subset of 50 IGS stations were used to frame VLNDEF into ITRF2008. New evidence provided by analysis of GPS time series for the VLNDEF network is presented; also displacements along the vertical component are compared with the recently published GIA models. The absolute velocities indicate an overall displacement of the northern Victoria Land region along the south-east direction (Ve = 10.6 mm/yr, Vn = -11.5 mm/yr) and an average uplift rate of Vu = 0.5 mm/yr. Two GIA models have been analyzed: ICE-6G_C-VM5a proposed by Argus et al. (2014), Peltier et al. (2015) and W12A_v1 by Whitehouse et al. (2012a,b). Up rates, predicted over the VLNDEF sites by the mentioned GIA models, have been extracted and compared with those observed. A preliminary comparison with GPS-derived vertical rates shows that the Victoria Land ICE-6G_C-VM5 and W12A_v1 GIA models predict overestimated uplift rates of 0.7 and 0.9 mm/yr weighted mean residuals respectively. The mean horizontal relative motions within the Victoria Land (VL) area are in most cases negligible, while only

  18. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A

    2015-05-01

    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, 2014 to 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Marshall, John A

    2017-03-31

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. This study examined the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare and non-healthcare settings in Victoria, Australia, over 2 years (2014-2015). Norovirus was detected in 65.7% and 60.4% of gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated for the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. There was a significant decline in the number of norovirus outbreaks in the period 2014 to 2015 although in both years norovirus outbreaks peaked in the latter part of the year. Norovirus Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 (capsid) genotypes identified included GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GI.9, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 was the most common genotype detected. In addition, the following ORF 1/ORF 2 recombinant forms were confirmed: GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.Pb (GII.21)/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.2 and GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012. A significant decline was noted in the chief norovirus strain GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012 between 2014 and 2015 but there was a re-emergence of a GII.P4_ NewOrleans _2009 norovirus strain. Outbreaks involving the GII.P17/GII.17 genotype were also detected for the first time in Victoria. GI genotypes circulating in Victoria for the 2 years 2014 and 2015 underwent a dramatic change between the 2 years of the survey. Many genotypes could occur in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings although GI.3, GII.6, and GII.4 were significantly more common in healthcare settings. The study emphasises the complex way in which norovirus circulates throughout the community.

  20. Sex and sport: sexual risk behaviour in young people in rural and regional Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Link, Chris Kyle; Chen, Marcus Y; Hellard, Margaret E

    2010-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and understand sexual risk behaviour in 16-29 year olds in rural Victoria through a chlamydia testing program undertaken at local sporting clubs. Young people were recruited from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample and completed a brief questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female) in the study; 77% were sexually active. Overall chlamydia prevalence in sexually active participants was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-7.3); 7.4% in females (95% CI: 3.5-13.6) and 4.5% in males (95% CI: 2.7-6.9). Approximately 60% of males and 20% of females consumed alcohol at high 'Risky Single Occasion Drinking' levels at least weekly and 60% had used an illicit drug in their lifetime. Nearly 45% reported having sex in the past year when they usually would not have because they were too drunk or high. Sexually transmissible infection (STI) knowledge was generally poor and only 25% used a condom the last time they had sex. Chlamydia prevalence was high in our study population. Many participants had poor knowledge about STIs and low condom use. These findings combined with high levels of risky alcohol use and having sex while intoxicated highlights the need for programs in rural and regional Victoria that combine both STI testing and prevention and education programs.

  1. The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushemereirwe, Richard; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Cooper, Mary Ann; D'ujanga, Florence Mutonyi

    2017-02-22

    Introduction : It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives :  In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, previous SWEW service trials ceased with the end of the funding grants. This study therefore assessed the possibility of sustaining the SWEW service by assessing willingness to pay.   Methods : An assessment was conducted between March and May 2015 to determine the SWEW service improvements desired by the population. A convenience sample of respondents was gathered and interviewed during impromptu visits to landing sites on Lake Victoria. The respondents were also among community members that had earlier participated in a pilot assessing the feasibility of mobile phones is delivering SWEW alerts.  Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to fishermen and fisher folks at the landing site to gather suggestions/strategies for (i) better design and implementation of SWEW service, (ii) use of smart phones, and (iii) their ability and willingness to pay for a SWEW service. Results were presented as frequencies. Results : Two hundred fifteen respondents from fourteen landing sites (communities) were interviewed. Over 50% of the respondents (113/215) were aware about at least one community member who had been injured due to lightening on the lake in the past year. Ninety two percent (198/215) of the respondents reported using mobile phones as their main tool of communication but only 4% had smart phones that could receive early warning weather alerts through internet connectivity. Seventy five percent of respondents said they would welcome a system that could deliver commercial weather alerts and 65% were willing to pay for such a service.   Conclusions : A SWEW service is feasible

  2. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  3. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    défense Canada – Toronto; May 2006. Pour faciliter l’élaboration de futurs plans de gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord des nouveaux sous-marins de...visant à améliorer la gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord de sous-marins de classe Victoria. Ces recommandations comprennent : l’examen de tous les... ambient air from the WSC (centre of the torpedo racks, used as bunk space); Senior Rates Mess Accommodation Space (aft compartment); Junior Rates

  4. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... and other wastes so as to reduce local eutrophication, thereby reducing risks associated with transmission of potential snail-borne diseases. © 2013...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some...

  5. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J

    2017-01-01

    Rastrineobola argentea (silver cyprinid/sardines) is an important commercial fish species found in Lake Victoria. It is an important protein source for consumers in several African countries including Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted using standard methods to assess the bacteriolog...... sites contained 30% (n = 20) and those from the markets contained 15% (n = 20) Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were not detected in sardines dried on racks. To conclude, sun drying of sardines on racks is an effective drying method providing a safe product for human consumption....

  6. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  7. Elevated temperature and acclimation time affect metabolic performance in the heavily exploited Nile perch of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyboer, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Lauren J

    2017-10-15

    Increasing water temperatures owing to anthropogenic climate change are predicted to negatively impact the aerobic metabolic performance of aquatic ectotherms. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that thermal increases result in reductions in aerobic scope (AS), which lead to decreases in energy available for essential fitness and performance functions. Consequences of warming are anticipated to be especially severe for warm-adapted tropical species as they are thought to have narrow thermal windows and limited plasticity for coping with elevated temperatures. In this study we test how predicted warming may affect the aerobic performance of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), a commercially harvested fish species in the Lake Victoria basin of East Africa. We measured critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and key metabolic variables such as AS and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) across a range of temperatures, and compared responses between acute (3-day) exposures and 3-week acclimations. CTmax increased with acclimation temperature; however, 3-week-acclimated fish had higher overall CTmax than acutely exposed individuals. Nile perch also showed the capacity to increase or maintain high AS even at temperatures well beyond their current range; however, acclimated Nile perch had lower AS compared with acutely exposed fish. These changes were accompanied by lower EPOC, suggesting that drops in AS may reflect improved energy utilization after acclimation, a finding that is supported by improvements in growth at high temperatures over the acclimation period. Overall, the results challenge predictions that tropical species have limited thermal plasticity, and that high temperatures will be detrimental because of limitations in AS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  9. Discovery of meteorites on a blue-ice field near the Frontier Mountains, North Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, G.; Hoefle, H. C.; Thierbach, R.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    A high concentration of meteorites were discovered on a blue ice field northeast of the Frontier Mountains. As a result of a systematic search, a total of 42 meteorites were recovered. The current glacial situation has evolved through various stages, which are discussed in relationship to the concentration of meteorites. Ice flow patterns are summarized. The chemical composition and terrestrial ages of the meteorites are discussed.

  10. La construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (1988-1991 Frente para la Victoria's construction of legitimacy (1988-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (FV en el escenario político de Santa Cruz desde su nacimiento en 1988 hasta llegar a la gobernación en 1991. Se identifican tres fuentes de legitimidad construidas de manera alternativa al debilitamiento de la credibilidad de los partidos políticos tradicionales: la UCR, el PJ, el PI y el MID, entre otros. En este contexto, el Frente para la Victoria desplegó sus estrategias de legitimación apelando a la unidad de lo diverso y sumando referentes individuales de todo el arco político. Por otro lado, apeló a través de sus discursos y la conformación de los elencos y organizaciones a representar la fragmentación social propia de una sociedad compuesta por capas migratorias y, por último, construyó una novedosa oferta política a-partidaria acorde a las representaciones de la crisis estatal a mediados del '80 a partir de la reivindicación de los valores de la gestión, la eficiencia, el orden, el trabajo y la gobernabilidad. Sus estrategias de legitimación muestran cómo la primera etapa de construcción de poder político del FV fue efecto de su trayectoria en la frontera de los débiles grupos sociales y políticos.O trabalho aborda a construção de legitimidade do Frente para la Victoria (FV no cenário político de Santa Cruz desde seu nascimento em 1988 até chegar ao governo em 1991. Identificam-se três fontes de legitimidade construídas de maneira alternativa ao enfraquecimento da credibilidade dos partidos políticos tradicionais: a UCR, o PJ, o PI e o MID, entre outros. Neste contexto, o Frente para la Victoria desdobrou suas estratégias de legitimação apelando à unidade do que for diverso e somando referências individuais de todo o arco político. Por outro lado, apelou, através de seus discursos e a conformação dos elencos e organizações, a representar a fragmentação social própria de uma sociedade composta por camadas migrat

  11. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  12. Round the bend: a brief history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia 1848 to 1950's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Natisha Marina

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia from 1848 to the 1950's, or the asylum years to the era of the mental hospital. The research for this historical overview was conducted as part of a literature review for a mental health nursing doctoral thesis, which included an account of the evolution of the profession from asylum attendant to the present time. The literature reviewed for this project revealed a distinct lack of a coherent, chronological account of the historical development of mental health nursing in Victoria, and this paper seeks to address that knowledge gap.

  13. Aprendiendo a entender. Victoria Ocampo y su descubrimiento de los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotkin, Mariano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolving relationship that Argentine intellectual and cultural entrepreneur Victoria Ocampo established with the United States. Through her trajectory the article analyzes broader topics such as the evolution of the Argentine social and intellectual élite’s project of modernization. Ocampo was at the same time a typical and a unique representative of the Argentine social élite. She was typical in the way she was educated in a cosmopolitan environment. She was unique because she occupied a central figure in the Argentine field of cultural production since the 1920 until her death in the late 1970s.

    El artículo analiza la evolución de la compleja relación que la intelectual y empresaria cultural argentina Victoria Ocampo estableció con los Estados Unidos. A través de esta trayectoria, el artículo analiza también temas mas amplios como la evolución de los proyectos modernizadores de la élite social e intelectual argentina. Ocampo era a la vez una representante típica y única de su clase social. Era típica por la manera en que fue educada en un ambiente cosmopolita. Era única por el lugar central que ocupó en el campo intelectual argentino desde la década de 1920 hasta su muerte a finales de los años 70.

  14. Reasons women give for contemplating or undergoing abortion: a qualitative investigation in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Rowe, Heather; Hardiman, Annarella

    2010-11-01

    To increase understanding of women's perspectives on considering or undergoing elective abortion. Qualitative study. A large public women's hospital in the state of Victoria, Australia. Sixty women who had contacted a public pregnancy advisory service in Victoria, Australia, seeking information, advice, or appointments in relation to an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy. Qualitative telephone interviews. The iterative qualitative analysis employed the five stages of a thematic framework approach. Themes in women's accounts of considering or undergoing elective abortion. Women's accounts emphasized their reasons for considering or seeking abortion. Decisions were made in the context of their lives as a whole; influences were usually contingent and multiple. Reasons related to the woman herself, the potential child, existing children, her partner and other significant relationships, and financial matters. This research used qualitative methods to produce the only recent study of its kind in Australia. Women's accounts reveal the complex personal and social contexts within which reproductive events must be comprehended and the thoughtfulness with which they make decisions. Results of this research will assist health-care professionals to increase their insights into women's reproductive experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A longitudinal study of the cost of food in Victoria influenced by geography and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Claire; McCartan, Julia; Kleve, Sue; Sinha, Kompal; Shiell, Alan

    2016-06-01

    To monitor the cost and affordability of a nutritious diet and to assess the influence of distance from the capital city and socioeconomic status on the cost of nutritious food in Victoria. Twenty-six of Victoria's 79 local government areas (33%) were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A random sample of stores was selected for inclusion from each local government area. The cost of the 44 'healthy' and 10 'discretionary' food and drinks in the healthy food basket for a family of four for a fortnight was collected during the winter and summer of 2012, 2013 and 2014. The mean cost of the basket increased from $424.06 ± 38.22 in winter 2012 to $451.19 ± 33.83 in summer 2014 (pcost. These findings show that a healthy diet may be unaffordable for some Victorians. The cost of food is a key factor influencing intake. Public health strategies may need to consider strategies to make healthy food more affordable for some. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Prescription opioid dispensing and prescription opioid poisoning: Population data from Victoria, Australia 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Clapperton, Angela; McClure, Roderick

    2017-02-01

    To describe recent trends in opioid prescribing and prescription opioid poisoning resulting in hospitalisation or death in Victoria, Australia. This is a population-based ecological study of residents of Victoria, 2006 - 14. Australian Bureau of Statistics residential population data were combined with Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) opioid prescription data, Victorian Admitted Episodes Data (VAED) and cause of death data. Annual opioid dispensings increased by 78% in 2006 - 13, from 0.33 to 0.58 per population. Opioid use increased with age: in 2013, 14% of Victorian residents aged ≥65 years filled at least one oxycodone prescription. In 2006 - 14, prescription opioid related hospital admissions increased by 6.8% per year, from 107 to 187 /1,000,000 person-years; 56% were due to intentional self-poisoning. Annual deaths increased from 21 to 28 /1,000,000 persons, in 2007 - 11. Admissions and deaths peaked at 25-44 years. Although both opioid prescribing and poisoning have increased, there is discrepancy between the exposed group (dispensings increased with age) and those with adverse consequences (rates peaked at ages 25-44 years). A better understanding is needed of drivers of prescribing and adverse consequences. Together with monitoring of prescribing and poisoning, this will facilitate early detection and prevention of a public health problem. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. VIRGINIA WOOLF EN LOS TESTIMONIOS DE VICTORIA OCAMPO: TENSIONES ENTRE FEMINISMO Y COLONIALISMO

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    Alicia Salomone

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan una serie de textos ensayísticos de la escritora argentina Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979, en los que ella aborda la relación que la ligó a Virginia Woolf, su principal referente en términos literarios y feministas. Desde perspectivas teóricas postcoloniales y feministas, se hace una interpretación de los textos de Ocampo, observando los límites que la cosmovisión colonialista impone no solo a sus diálogos con Woolf, sino al despliegue de su propia escrituraThis article reviews a series of essays by the Argentine writer Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979 in which she deals with the relationship that bound her to Virginia Woolf, her main referent in literary and feminist terms. From postcolonial theoretical perspectives, an interpretation of Ocampo's texts is made, while noticing the limits that the colonialist cosmic vision imposed not only on her dialogues with Woolf but on the development of her own writing

  18. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2016-12-01

    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  19. Acute stress ulceration prophylaxis: point prevalence surveys in intensive care units in Victoria, 1997 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan S; Wilson, Stuart J; Cade, John F

    2008-03-01

    To assess current practice in acute stress ulceration (ASU) prophylaxis in adult intensive care units in Victoria, Australia, in 1997 and 2005. Point prevalence surveys using a structured telephone questionnaire of ASU prophylaxis practices were performed in adult ICUs in Victoria on 11 November 1997 and 13 April 2005. All Victorian ICUs identified on each study day participated, comprising 30 ICUs in 1997 and 35 ICUs in 2005. Presence of a clinical protocol or guideline for ASU prophylaxis increased significantly from 23% in 1997 to 54% in 2005 (P = 0.01). Overall provision of ASU prophylaxis to ICU patients also increased significantly from 67% in 1997 to 86% in 2005 (P 1997 to 45% in 2005 (P 1997 and 2005. Use of ASU prophylaxis for patients admitted to Victorian ICUs increased significantly from 1997 to 2005, with an associated increase in the presence of protocols or guidelines for ASU prophylaxis. Although agents currently used for ASU prophylaxis in Victorian ICUs are consistent with available evidence, we are concerned that ASU prophylaxis is given to all patients admitted to the ICU rather than targeted to patients in high-risk categories.

  20. Re-visitando a Federica Montseny. Una lectura de La Victoria y sus lecturas

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    Lozano de la Pola, Ana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to be a close reading of La Victoria, Federica Montseny’s novel published in 1925, in order to achieve two objectives: on the one hand, to break down the clichés that normally appear in Montseny’s work –her “revolutionary melodrama”- as a perfect example of the eternal “ethic-aesthetic” paradox and, on the other hand, to point out the capability of this kind of study to dynamize the so-called “women’s literature” in the context of the XX Century Spanish literature.Este artículo pretende hacer una lectura atenta de La Victoria, novela de Federica Montseny publicada en 1925, con dos objetivos: en primer lugar, deshacer los clichés que suelen tratar la obra de esta autora como representante de la eterna “paradoja ético-estética” que suponen sus “folletines revolucionarios” y, en segundo, señalar la capacidad que tiene el estudio de este tipo de obras para dinamizar la categoría de “literatura de mujeres” con el fin de evitar su estancamiento en el ámbito de la literatura española del s. XX.

  1. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  2. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R

    2016-06-01

    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.

  3. Algal biomass and pigments along a latitudinal gradient in Victoria Land lakes, East Antarctica

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    Francesca Borghini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that Antarctic terrestrial diversity decreases as latitude increases, but latitudinal patterns of several organisms are not always as clear as expected. The Victoria Land region is rich in lakes and ponds and spans 8 degrees of latitude that encompasses gradients in factors such as solar radiation, temperature, ice cover and day length. An understanding of the links between latitudinally driven environmental and biodiversity changes is essential to the understanding of the ecology and evolution of Antarctic biota and the formulation of hypotheses about likely future changes in biodiversity. As several studies have demonstrated that photosynthetic pigments are an excellent, although underused, tool for the study of lacustrine algal communities, the aim of the present study was to investigate variations in algal biomass and biodiversity across the latitudinal gradient of Victoria Land using sedimentary pigments. We test the hypothesis that the biodiversity of freshwater environments decreases as latitude increases. On the basis of our results, we propose using the number of sedimentary pigments as a proxy for algal diversity and the sum of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a with their degradation derivatives as an index of biomass. Overall, our data show that biomass and diversity decrease as latitude increases but local environmental conditions, in particular, natural levels of eutrophy, can affect both productivity and diversity.

  4. Performance of 119 Brazilian children on Stroop paradigm: Victoria version Desempenho de 119 crianças brasileiras no paradigma Stroop: versão Victoria

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    Helenice Charchat-Fichman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes. Performance in the Stroop changes along the development. Despite its usefulness in research and clinical settings, there are few studies with Brazilian samples. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the performance and age effect on Stroop paradigm of Brazilian children. METHOD: A sample of 119 children, aged from 7 to 10 years, was submitted to the Victoria version of Stroop. RESULTS: The pattern of results observed was similar to that observed in foreign studies with adults and children. Younger children were overall slower than older ones (positive correlation between age and naming time. Also, younger children showed more susceptible to interference than older ones (negative correlation between age and number of errors for the maximal interference condition. CONCLUSION: There was an age effect explained in terms of developmental changes in information processing velocity and attention selectivity.INTRODUÇÃO: O paradigma Stroop avalia a susceptibilidade à interferência e é sensível a disfunção nos lobos frontais. O desempenho no Stroop muda durante o desenvolvimento. Apesar de sua utilidade na pesquisa e na clínica, existem poucos estudos brasileiros. OBJETIVO: Investigar o desempenho e efeito de idade de crianças brasileiras no Stroop. MÉTODO: A versão Victoria do Stroop foi aplicada em 119 crianças (7 a 10 anos. RESULTADOS: O padrão de resultados observado é comparável a estudos estrangeiros com adultos e crianças. Crianças mais jovens foram mais lentas do que as mais velhas (correlação positiva entre idade e tempo de nomeação. Os mais jovens apresentaram maior susceptibilidade à interferência, comparados aos mais velhos (correlação negativa entre idade e número de erros para a condição de interferência máxima. CONCLUSÃO: O efeito de idade foi observado e discutido em termos de mudanças na

  5. The adoption of children from out-of-home care: The understandings of key decision makers in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlinski, Anna; Rowe, Heather; Goddard, Christopher; Freezer, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Adoption is one of a range of options that can provide children in out-of-home care with permanency when they are unable to be reunified with their birth parents. This paper reports on how the adoption of children from out-of-home care is understood by professionals involved in making decisions about the permanent placement of children in out-of-home care in Victoria, Australia, where adoption is rarely used. Data were collected through a single, face-to-face semi-structured interview with 21 professionals; eight child welfare specialists, eight adoption and permanent care specialists and five judicial officers. The adoption of children from out-of-home care was primarily understood as a child-centered practice that can afford children stability and a sense of belonging. Adoption was largely viewed as a voluntary process dependent upon the consent of a child's birth parents. Adoption and permanent care specialists were the only group to refer to the dispensation of parental consent as a means of obtaining an adoption order. Most decision makers understood that contact between children and their birth parents is possible following adoption, but this was not understood by all judicial officers or all child welfare specialists. Children's connection to their cultural heritage was viewed as important to the consideration of adoption for children in out-of-home care. This research provides insight into the foundations upon which decision makers may appraise adoption, within a hierarchy of options, as a potential outcome for children in need of permanency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  7. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  8. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal (https://assays.cancer.gov).

  9. Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917.

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    Kimberly St. Julian-Varnon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917. Academic Studies Press, 2016. Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe and Their Legacy, series editor, Maxim D. Shrayer. xx, 474 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Maps. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. $89.00, cloth.

  10. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  11. Chequered fortunes in global exports: The sociogenesis of African entrepreneurship in the Nile Perch Business at Lake Victoria, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuving, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at African entrepreneurship in the Nile perch export business at Lake Victoria, Uganda. Often heralded as an economic success story, this business has perhaps another tale to tell. The fishermen, traders and other small-scale entrepreneurs at the lower end of the export chain face

  12. Inter-guild differences and possible causes of the recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kishe-Machumu, Mary Alphonce

    2012-01-01

    Until the 1970s, the fish fauna of Lake Victoria was dominated by 500+ endemic haplochromine cichlid species in which detritivores was the dominant group followed by zooplanktivores. With the upsurge of Nile perch in the 1980s, a strong decline of haplochromines occurred. During the1990s, a

  13. Poética de la autotraducción: María Victoria Atencia

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    López Martínez, María Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-translation is an ancient but poorly researched practice. This article analyses an exceptional case: the reflection on self-translation as exposed in poetry. A case in point is the poem «Voz traducida», from the poetry collection De la llama en que arde (1988. Indeed, the poem selected for examination was written by M.ª Victoria Atencia (Málaga, 1931, an expert both in writing poetry and in translating literature. Her book of poems also contains an original text, «Rosas», in Galician, and its corresponding Spanish translation. Both translation and reflection are complementary in her compositions. These poetic creations attest to the fact that artfulness works as a depiction of the next creation. Furthermore, this study will deeply explore the poet’s most important literary thoughts.La autotraducción es una práctica antigua, pero poco estudiada. El presente artículo analiza un caso excepcional: la reflexión sobre la autotraducción expuesta en la lírica. Para ello, se analiza el poema de M.ª Victoria Atencia «Voz traducida», perteneciente al libro titulado De la llama en que arde (1988. Es un ejemplo de que la tarea de traducir funciona como un motivo que origina una nueva creación. Además, permite que el lector conozca facetas importantes del pensamiento literario de la escritora. M.ª Victoria Atencia, además de poeta, es una experta traductora. El libro contiene también dos versiones del poema «Rosas», en gallego y en español, pruebas de la dimensión práctica de los planteamientos teóricos de la autora y de su coherencia estética. Ambas facetas, la traducción y la reflexión, son complementarias en la obra de la autora.

  14. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  15. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  16. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

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    Roberts, Phillip

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  17. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

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    Leydon Jennie A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006. Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination.

  18. LAKE VICTORIA AND THE COMMON PROPERTY DEBATE: IS THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS A THREAT TO ITS FUTURE?

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    Erick Ochieng OGELLO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria is the largest among the African Great Lakes in East African region that are believed to have both dynamic and fragile aquatic ecosystems. Within two decades, the lake has experienced extensive resource exploitation leading to constrained productivity and drastic decline of native biodiversity. Intensive non-selective fishing, catchment vegetation degradation, industrial and agricultural pollution, the introduction of exotic species and uneven patchwork of governmental laws are some of the reasons for the current ecological woes facing Lake Victoria. This paper intends to stimulate recognition of Lake Victoria and its catchment as a lived Com­mons, to be shared, protected, managed and enjoyed by all who live around it. The paper compares the original biodiversity status of the lake with the current status and discusses the role of unlimited access as a function of the loss of the Lake’s biological wealth. The Lake’s water resource base, fishery, wetlands and other aquatic resources have been exhaustively discussed. In this review, we uphold the Hardin’s school of thought that freedom of the commoners causes resource overuse leading to poverty. Therefore, limiting freedom could be essential. However, there is need for provision of alternative means of survival since people with no choices would continue over-exploiting ecosystems even under limited access. The Lake Victoria basin commons should be protected by strict legal and clear political frame­work based on public trust doctrine, reinforced in law that the Lake is vital for the survival of people, plants and animals living on or near it and therefore must be protected for the common good. The political jurisdictions should consider governing the Lake basin as one integrated watershed. It is our fervent hope that bordering communities will secure grass root movements to protect and nurture Lake Victoria and its environs for the benefit of the present and future

  19. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  20. Journalist to the interview: professionals routines. The case of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

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    Carlos David SANTAMARÍA OCHOA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newspaper interview is sort of use in printed newspapers in Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journalists argue lack of time-space and is to develop this type of work. An analysis of the publications of the largest newspapers in this city dad throws the result that no literary interviews are published, the em-ployee's resource for structuring news and sporadically of reports. This paper develops conducting depth interviews with journalists pe-active, which reaffirm the limited use given the corresponding gender, as well as an analysis of the works published in newspapers printed cases in the capital of Tamaulipas, only on local information section. Lack of time for preparation, few spaces and I shift to electronic means are the most common causes.

  1. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental factors associated with the foliage cover of invasive fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Kate; Florentine, Singarayer K

    2018-01-01

    Fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) is an Australian native grass that has recently become a major concern for rural communities. Its dried inflorescences are blown by the wind and build up against fences and buildings, becoming a severe fire hazard. Understanding the ecology of fairy grass and its impacts on rural communities is relevant to its management. Four dry lake beds in Western Victoria were selected to determine if environmental factors, such as lake, location, direction, altitude and road type and the covariates of pH, soil salinity, soil moisture and distance to nearest road, are related to the presence of fairy grass. The 'lake' factor was the only environmental parameter that was significantly associated with the presence of this weed.

  3. PREDICTION OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF HOUSEHOLDS FOOD SECURITY IN THE LAKE VICTORIA REGION OF KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the modeling and prediction of  households food security status using a sample of households in the  Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security  factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model  derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head,  increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations  of   predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants,  are given.

  4. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  5. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (des)autorizada

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85)En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  6. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (desautorizada

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    Irma Vélez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  7. Documentation of hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved-solids concentrations for the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina supplement to Professional paper 1404-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold; Knobel, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved- solids concentrations used to construct hydrochemical-facies maps and sections for U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1404-L have not been previously published. In this report, the data are contained on a 3-1/2 high-density diskette in a file presented in American International Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII) format. The file requires about 0.2 megabyte of disk space on an IBM-compatible microcomputer using the MS-DOS operating system.

  8. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

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    Andrea S. Downing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly understood and currently unpredictable. Furthermore, fishery dynamics are intricately connected to other supporting services of the lake as well as to lakeshore societies and economies. Much research has been carried out piecemeal on different aspects of Lake Victoria's system; e.g., societies, biodiversity, fisheries, and eutrophication. However, to disentangle drivers and dynamics of change in this complex system, we need to put these pieces together and analyze the system as a whole. We did so by first building a qualitative model of the lake's social-ecological system. We then investigated the model system through a qualitative loop analysis, and finally examined effects of changes on the system state and structure. The model and its contextual analysis allowed us to investigate system-wide chain reactions resulting from disturbances. Importantly, we built a tool that can be used to analyze the cascading effects of management options and establish the requirements for their success. We found that high connectedness of the system at the exploitation level, through fisheries having multiple target stocks, can increase the stocks' vulnerability to exploitation but reduce society's vulnerability to variability in individual stocks. We describe how there are multiple pathways to any change in the system, which makes it difficult to identify the root cause of changes but also broadens the management toolkit. Also, we illustrate how nutrient enrichment is not a self-regulating process, and that explicit management is necessary to halt or reverse eutrophication. This model is simple and usable to assess system-wide effects of management policies, and can

  9. Maternal and Child Health Nurses work with refugee families: Perspectives from regional Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne M; Cant, Robyn P; Williams, Allison; McIntyre, Meredith

    2018-01-21

    This study aimed to explore service provision for Victorian regional refugee families from the perspective of Maternal and Child Health nurses. Increasingly, more families from a refugee background are resettling in regional Victoria. The refugee journey has significant effect on families. Refugee families with infants and young children can be provided with support by Maternal and Child Health services; however, many families experience barriers to ongoing engagement with this service. This descriptive study used focus group and questionnaire. A purposive sample of 26 Maternal and Child Health Nurses was drawn from six municipalities throughout regional Victoria, where higher numbers of people from a refugee background resettle. Six focus groups were held in 2014. Audio-recorded narratives were transcribed, prior to inductive thematic analysis. Participating nurses were experienced nurses, averaging 12 years in the service. Four major themes emerged: 'How to identify women from a refugee background'; 'The Maternal and Child Health nurse role when working with families from a refugee background'; 'Interpreting issues', and 'Access to other referral agencies'. Nurses worked to develop a relationship with families, attending to a complex mix of issues which were complicated by language barriers. Nurses found their role in supporting refugee families required additional time and more home visits. To provide best practice, Maternal and Child Health nurses need (i) ongoing professional development; (ii) time, flexibility, and creativity to build relationships with refugee families and (iii) better access to services that enhance communication, such as interpreting services and translated resources. Nurses require ongoing professional development to help them address the multifaceted needs of families of refugee background. With limited resources available in regional areas, accessing further education can be challenging. Distance education models and organisational

  10. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm

    2017-11-02

    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in Napoleon Gulf, Lake Victoria: effects of cage aquaculture in eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egessa, Robert; Pabire, Gandhi Willy; Ocaya, Henry

    2018-02-02

    An investigation was conducted on the macro-benthic fauna of the Napoleon Gulf in the northern part of Lake Victoria from March 2011 to December 2016 at the cage fish farm. The aim was to examine the likely impact of cage aquaculture on macro-benthic invertebrates. Cage aquaculture is now a common practice on Lake Victoria yet little is known about its long-term effect on macro-benthic faunal assemblages. Temporal variation indicated a general decline in annual faunal density at the farm area with corresponding stability at upstream (control) and downstream sites. Arthropods remained numerically dominant at the control and downstream sites. The percentage abundance of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) and Malacostraca was highest at the upstream and lowest at the farm area. The farm area which initially was dominated by molluscs became dominated by arthropods after 3 years. The decrease in density of molluscs at the farm area was attributed to the general decrease in density of two species: Bellamya unicolor (Gastropoda) and Corbicula africana (Bivalvia). These two species were initially abundant but showed decline within the farm area with corresponding stability at the upstream and downstream areas. Oligochaete annelids were more abundant within the farm area than at the upstream and downstream sites. These findings suggested that molluscs offered better prediction of the impact of cages on the environment than arthropods. Besides that, in a community dominated by pollution-tolerant organisms, the impact of aquaculture may not be immediate especially when organic loading from aquaculture is moderate.

  12. Sex workers can be screened too often: a cost-effectiveness analysis in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David P; Heymer, Kelly-Jean; Anderson, Jonathan; O'Connor, Jody; Harcourt, Christine; Donovan, Basil

    2010-04-01

    Commercial sex is licensed in Victoria, Australia such that sex workers are required to have regular tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the incidence and prevalence of STIs in sex workers are very low, especially since there is almost universal condom use at work. We aimed to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the financial cost of the testing policy versus the health benefits of averting the transmission of HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea to clients. We developed a simple mathematical transmission model, informed by conservative parameter estimates from all available data, linked to a cost-effectiveness analysis. We estimated that under current testing rates, it costs over $A90,000 in screening costs for every chlamydia infection averted (and $A600,000 in screening costs for each quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved) and over $A4,000,000 for every HIV infection averted ($A10,000,000 in screening costs for each QALY saved). At an assumed willingness to pay of $A50,000 per QALY gained, HIV testing should not be conducted less than approximately every 40 weeks and chlamydia testing approximately once per year; in comparison, current requirements are testing every 12 weeks for HIV and every 4 weeks for chlamydia. Mandatory screening of female sex workers at current testing frequencies is not cost-effective for the prevention of disease in their male clients. The current testing rate required of sex workers in Victoria is excessive. Screening intervals for sex workers should be based on local STI epidemiology and not locked by legislation.

  13. El periodista ante la entrevista: rutinas profesionales. El caso de Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

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    Santamaría Ochoa, Carlos David

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En español: La entrevista periodística es un género en desuso en los diarios impresos de Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, México. Los periodistas argumentan falta de tiempo y espacio para desarrollar este tipo de trabajos.Un análisis de las publicaciones de los diarios de mayor circulación en esta ciudad arroja como resultado el que no se publican entrevistas literarias; el recurso es empleado para la estructuración de noticias y, esporádicamente, de reportajes.El presente trabajo se desarrolla realizando entrevistas a profundidad con periodistas en activo, los que reafirman el poco uso que se da al género correspondiente, así como un análisis de los trabajos publicados en los diarios impresos de la capital de Tamaulipas, únicamente en la sección de información local.Falta de tiempo para la preparación, pocos espacios y el cambio hacia los me-dios electrónicos son las causas más recurrentes. In english: The newspaper interview is sort of use in printed newspapers in Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journalists argue lack of time-space and is to develop this type of work.An analysis of the publications of the largest newspapers in this city dad throws the result that no literary interviews are published, the em-ployee's resource for structuring news and sporadically of reports.This paper develops conducting depth interviews with journalists pe-active, which reaffirm the limited use given the corresponding gender, as well as an analysis of the works published in newspapers printed cases in the capital of Tamaulipas, only on local information section. Lack of time for preparation, few spaces and I shift to electronic means are the most common causes.

  14. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

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    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  15. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

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    Mugenyi Albert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  16. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes) distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  17. The effect of an area-based intervention on breastfeeding rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Feldman, Peter; Nolan, Andrea; Raban, Bridie

    2009-04-01

    Best Start is an area-based early childhood intervention where projects are developed and implemented through a community partnership. A core tenet of the initiative is that implementing projects through a partnership generates greater value than would be expected if projects were undertaken independently by partner members. In this study we examine whether: (1) Best Start is effective in increasing the proportion of infants being fully breastfed at 3 months and 6 months. (2) The quality of community partnerships is a potential mechanism for change. Best Start was implemented in Victoria, Australia. The study examined breastfeeding rates before and after Best Start in sites with Best Start breastfeeding projects compared to the rest of state. The relationship between partnership quality scores and breastfeeding percentages was also examined. Both analyses controlled for socioeconomic and demographic differences and clustering by area. Best Start targeted some of the most socially disadvantaged communities in Victoria. In the 3 years of its operation, the rates of fully breastfeeding at 3 months (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.47) and 6 months (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.1-1.61) increased in Best Start sites compared to the rest of the state. Quality of partnership scores was positively associated with increased percentages of fully breastfeeding (3 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06; 6 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.08). These results suggest that area-based interventions are effective in increasing percentages of fully breastfeeding. The study also supported the idea that developing quality community partnerships had a positive influence on their success.

  18. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. A tephra chronostratigraphic framework for the Frontier Mountain blue-ice field (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, Pietro; Folco, Luigi; Ada Laurenzi, Marinella; Mellini, Marcello; Zeoli, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Englacial tephra provide chronostratigraphic markers in the Antarctic ice sheets. Structural, mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological data on selected samples allowed the reconstruction of a chronostratigraphic framework for the Frontier Mountain blue-ice field—an important meteorite trap on the southeastern flank of Talos Dome in northern Victoria Land. The stratigraphic thickness of the blue-ice succession is ˜1150 m. The 40Ar- 39Ar age of one layer close to the stratigraphic bottom of the ice succession is 100±5 ka and constrains the maximum age of the bulk of Frontier Mountain blue ice. The 49±11 ka age of a second layer at a depth of ˜950 m in the stratigraphic succession indicates that >90% of the ice is younger than this value. These ages agree well with the terrestrial ages of meteorites found on the blue ice (up to 140±30 ka), suggesting a mechanism of exhumation of meteorites by ablation after englacial transport. Particle size (up to several tens of microns) and the alkaline compositional character of 22 layers allow correlation with source volcanoes within the Cenozoic magmatism associated with the West Antarctic Rift System. The proximal Mount Melbourne, Mount Rittman and The Pleiades (within a radius of ˜250 km) are the best candidate source volcanoes. The reconstructed chronostratigraphic framework thus lays the foundations for a detailed investigation of ˜100 ka of explosive volcanism in northern Victoria Land. Furthermore, in light of the ongoing ice core drilling project at Talos Dome, the Frontier Mountain ice succession may become important for establishing regional correlations, for sampling and dating key tephra layers, and for selecting ice successions for high-resolution studies of past atmospheric chemistry and fallout.

  20. Biological Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Recovery of Cichlid Species in Lake Victoria

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    Alex O. Awiti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental feature of the Anthropocene is the inexorable erosion of the self-repairing capacity or adaptive renewal of natural systems because of natural perturbation, exploitation, or management failure. The concept of resilience offers a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics and variables that govern response dynamics of ecosystems. Resilience of haplochromine cichlids is assessed using limnological and biodiversity changes in Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake, over the last five decades. The review explores the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids using Holling's adaptive renewal cycle and attempts to illustrate how resilience-based management approaches might learn from an inadvertent management experiment. The introduction in the 1980s of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus, a fecund and voracious predator of the endemic phytoplankton feeding haplochromine cichlids, anthropogenic eutrophication, and deep water hypoxia have combined in a synergistic way to increase the vulnerability of the lake ecosystem to perturbations that were hitherto absorbed. However, the upsurge in commercial Nile perch fishing appears to be enabling the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids. The resurgence of haplochromine cichlids is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, ecological and life history traits and demonstrates the critical role of response diversity in the maintenance of systems resilience. Resilience of the haplochromine cichlids resides in the requisite functional response diversity and habitat diversity that provide the resources for renewal and regeneration. This paper concludes that management of Nile perch fisheries and control of nutrient loading into Lake Victoria could halt or reverse eutrophication, hence offer the best promise for a diverse, productive, and resilient social-ecological system.

  1. Tradução para o Português de Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals de Christopher Hibbert

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Caroline Feital

    2014-01-01

    A presente dissertação de mestrado tem como um dos objetivos produzir a tradução para o português de quatro seções da obra Queen Victoria in her letters and journals/ A Rainha Victoria em suas cartas e diários de Christopher Hibbert, publicada pela editora Sutton Publishing Limited na Inglaterra em 2000. Nas seções Queen regnant, Family life, Monarchs and ministers e ‘Frequent difficulties’, as anotações e as cartas da Rainha Victoria (1819-1901) da Inglaterra apresentam um pouco de história ...

  2. Paleoclimatic and paleoecological reconstruction of early Miocene terrestrial equatorial deposits, Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L. A.; Peppe, D. J.; McNulty, K. P.; Driese, S. G.; Lutz, J.; Nightingale, S.; Maxbauer, D. P.; Horner, W. H.; DiPietro, L. M.; Lehmann, T.; Dunsworth, H. M.; Harcourt-Smith, W. E.; Ogondo, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological responses to climatic shifts are often studied to inform us on future anthropogenic-driven climate change. However, few of these climatic shifts occur over time scales appropriate to modern change and few occur with biota similar to modern. The Miocene Climatic Optimum is an ideal interval to study because of its rapid duration and because it occurred during the rise and proliferation of apes. The sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya were deposited between 18 and 20 Ma and record a changing equatorial climate just prior to the Miocene Climate Optimum. This location also offers an opportunity to use multiple proxies to constrain climate and landscape, including paleosol geochemistry, paleobotany and paleontology. Additionally, due to the rich fossil preservation on the islands, climatic shifts are framed within the context of early caterrhine evolution. Here, we report a climate shift recorded through three time slices spanning two formations over ~2 myr. The oldest unit, the Wayando Formation, records an arid, probably open ecosystem with pedogenic calcite rhizoliths, a high groundwater table, poorly-formed paleosols and permineralized sedges. The middle time slice, the Grit Member-Fossil Bed Member contact of the Hiwegi Formation, shows evidence of a local saline lake, with desiccation features, satin-spar after gypsum deposits and salt hoppers. Paleobotanical and sedimentological data from roughly contemporaneous strata indicate a warm, highly seasonal environment that supported a mixture of woodland and forested elements across the landscape. The youngest unit, which is within the Kibanga Member of the Hiwegi Formation, displays demonstrable evidence for a closed-canopy multistoried forest with the presence of tree-stump casts and permineralized root systems within a red-brown paleosol. Within the same paleosol horizon, the dental remains of the catarrhines Proconsul and Dendropithecus have been discovered in situ. This

  3. Cryogenic brines as diagenetic fluids: Reconstructing the diagenetic history of the Victoria Land Basin using clumped isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigel, Philip T.; Murray, Sean; Dunham, Daniel P.; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.; Swart, Peter K.

    2018-03-01

    The isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ18O, and Δ47) of carbonate phases recovered from a core in McMurdo Sound by ANtarctic geologic DRILLing (ANDRILL-2A) indicate that the majority of secondary carbonate mineral formation occurred at cooler temperatures than the modern burial temperature, and in the presence of fluids with δ18Owater values ranging between -11 and -6‰ VSMOW. These fluids are interpreted as being derived from a cryogenic brine formed during the freezing of seawater. The Δ47 values were converted to temperature using an in-house calibration presented in this paper. Measurements of the Δ47 values in the cements indicate increasingly warmer crystallization temperatures with depth and, while roughly parallel to the observed geothermal gradient, consistently translate to temperatures that are cooler than the current burial temperature. The difference in temperature suggests that cements formed when they were ∼260 ± 100 m shallower than at the present day. This depth range corresponds to a period of minimal sediment accumulation from 3 to 11 Myr; it is therefore interpreted that the majority of cements formed during this time. This behavior is also predicted by time-integrated modeling of cementation at this site. If this cementation had occurred in the presence of these fluids, then the cryogenic brines have been a longstanding feature in the Victoria Land Basin. Brines such as those found at this site have been described in numerous modern high-latitude settings, and analogous fluids could have played a role in the diagenetic history of other ice-proximal sediments and basins during glacial intervals throughout geologic history. The agreement between the calculated δ18Owater value and the measured values in the pore fluids shows how the Δ47 proxy can be used to identify the origin of negative δ18O values in carbonate rocks and that extremely negative values do not necessarily need to be a result of the influence of meteoric fluids or reaction at

  4. Comparing women pharmacy consumers’ experiences with weight loss treatment in Victoria and Nottingham: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent increase in weight management services available in pharmacies across Australia and England. The aim of this study was to determine the following between women in Victoria and Nottingham: similarities and differences of what weight management options are preferred by women pharmacy consumers; how they feel about pharmacists providing advice in this area; and what they desire in a weight management program. Method Women pharmacy consumers were randomly approached by a researcher in community pharmacies in Victoria and Nottingham and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their own weight management experiences. The questionnaire was self-completed or researcher-administered and was comprised of four main sections that focused on the participant’s general health, previous weight loss experiences, their ideal weight management program and their demographics. Data was entered in SPSS 19 and logistic regression was used to identify any differences in weight loss experiences between women. Results The participant rates were high: 86% (n = 395/460) in Victoria and 98% in Nottingham (n = 215/220). Overall, women in Victoria and Nottingham were similar with comparable demographics. Approximately 50% (250/507) of women were in the overweight or obese body mass index category, with over 70% (n = 436/610) of women having attempted to lose weight in the past. The majority of women (n = 334/436) felt comfortable receiving advice from pharmacists. In the logistic regression analysis women in Nottingham were found to be significantly less likely to have utilised a pharmacy weight management program in the last five years (OR: 0.23 CI: 0.08, 0.63) and were significantly less likely to want an ideal weight management program located in a pharmacy (OR: 0.49 CI: 0.30, 0.82) compared to women in Victoria. No significant associations between location and feeling comfortable with a pharmacist advising on weight loss or wanting a pharmacist in an

  5. Community genetics reveal elevated levels of sympatric gene flow among morphologically similar but not among morphologically dissimilar species of Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D.A.; Mrosso, H.D.J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O.

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical proximity.

  6. How does the connectivity between populations mediate range limits of marine invertebrates? A case study of larval dispersal between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel (North-East Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée; Lazure, Pascal; Thiébaut, Éric

    2010-10-01

    For many marine species, larval dispersal plays a crucial role in population persistence, re-colonization of disturbed areas, and distribution of species range limits through the control of population connectivity. Along the French Atlantic coast (NE Atlantic), a biogeographical transition zone has been reported between temperate and cold-temperate marine faunal assemblages. Hydrodynamics in this area are highly complex and variable including numerous mesoscale features (e.g. river plumes, fronts, upwellings, low salinity lenses), which could constrain larval transport and connectivity. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess how hydrodynamic conditions and biological traits influence larval transport and contribute to population connectivity along the biogeographical transition zone between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. A coupled bio-physical individual-based model was used at a regional scale to track larval trajectories under realistic hydroclimatic conditions (tides, river run-offs, and meteorological conditions) and for some common life-history traits. Larval particles were released monthly from February to August for the years 2001 to 2005, from 16 spawning populations corresponding to the main bays and estuaries of the study area. Two planktonic larval durations (2 vs. 4 weeks) and three vertical distributions (no swimming behaviour, diel vertical migration, and ontogenic vertical migration) were considered. Dispersal kernels were described by 17 parameters and analysed in a multivariate approach to calculate connectivity matrices and indices. The main factors responsible for the variability of the dispersal kernels were the spawning month in relation to the seasonal variations in river run-offs and wind conditions, the planktonic larval duration, the spawning population location, and the larval behaviour. No significant inter-annual variability was observed. Self-retention rates were high and larval exchanges occurred mainly within

  7. A Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characterization of dust source areas in Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakowski, Molly A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Delmonte, Barbara; Baroni, Carlo; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Sims, Kenneth W. W.

    2016-06-01

    Determining the geographical provenance of dust provides crucial insight into the global dust cycle. For the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), the importance of Southern hemisphere potential dust sources has been thoroughly investigated using radiogenic isotopes, whereas proximal dust source areas located on the periphery of the ice sheet remain poorly documented from a geochemical standpoint. In this work, we expand the existing isotopic (Srsbnd Nd) catalogue of dust and sand-sized sediments from Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector, and incorporate Hf isotopic data to place additional constraints on dust source identification. The isotopic field for materials considered in this study is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.703 to 0.783, εNd between -12.01 and 6.36, and εHf from -16.77 to 6.89. As reported in previous works, the data reveal close relationships between Antarctic sediments and distinct parent lithologies; in addition, our findings emphasize the background presence of very fine dusts originating from dominant global sources and regional volcanic activity as barriers to direct source-to-sink comparison of isotopic signatures. Thus, geochemical characterizations of dust sources to the Antarctic ice sheet involving multiple size fractions, including coarser-grained particles more susceptible to short-range transport, can help us to rule out global sources of dust when examining local sediment cores and ice cores.

  8. [North] Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality.

  9. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the latest early Pleistocene of Cueva Victoria (Murcia, southeastern Spain, SW Mediterranean): Paleobiogeographic and paleoclimatic implications

    OpenAIRE

    BLAIN, H.A.; BAILON, S.; AGUSTÍ BALLESTER, J.

    2009-01-01

    The karstic filling of Cueva Victoria in southeastern Spain, dated from the latest early Pleistocene (ca. 1.1 Ma), is famous for providing primate fossil remains (Theropithecus) of typical African origin, in the general controversy on the antiquity of the first hominid settlements in Western Europe and their possible entrance into Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar. Cueva Victoria has also furnished the following fauna of anurans and squamate reptiles: cf. Pelodytes sp. (Pelodytidae), ...

  10. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.

    2010-12-01

    Cities in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa, at the same time that their water resource is threatened by domestic waste and industrial pollution. Urban centers use local springs, wetlands and Lake Victoria as source waters. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three pilot towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Their current populations are 100,000, 70,000 and 200,000 respectively. Demand coverage is ~70% in Masaka and Bukoba, and less than 50% in Kisii. IWRM models for each town were calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios upto 2050. In Masaka, flow and climate data were available to calibrate a runoff model to simulate streamflow at water intake. In Masaka, without considering climate change, the system is infrastructure-limited and not water availability (hydrology) limited until 2035, under projected population growth of 2.17%. Under a wet climate scenario as projected by GCM’s for the LV region, the current wetland source could supply all expected demands until 2050. Even under a drought scenario, the wetland could supply all demand until 2032, if the supply infrastructure is updated at an estimated cost of USD 10.8 million. However, demand targets can only be met at the expense of almost no water returning to the wetland downstream of the intake by 2035, unless substantial investments

  11. Religión y religiosidad en la poesía de María Victoria Atencia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Yebra, Antonio Agustín

    2015-01-01

    La poesía de María Victoria Atencia está hecha de fervores y de claridades, dijo Manuel Alcántara cuando la presentó como pregonera de la Semana Santa de Málaga en 1985. El contacto con Dios, oral (y sentimental), es una de las señales de la piedad de María Victoria, que cree en el Dios de la religión católica, tan fuertemente marcada por la herencia hebrea del Antiguo Testamento, pero que ella ha heredado fundamentalmente a través del Nuevo. De los primeros libros de la Biblia hay a...

  12. Approach to medical missions: Dr. Neil Macvicar and the Victoria Hospital, Lovedale, South Africa, circa 1900-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Martin Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the thought, work, and impact of the Scottish medical missionary, Dr Neil Macvicar, as well other personnel connected to the Victoria Hospital at the Lovedale mission in the Eastern Cape. Of special concern for study in medical history, missiology, and relief development studies, this work centres on Macvicar’s modern Western conceptions of Christianity, biomedicine, civilisation, African cosmological understandings, and traditional methods of healing, within the last ye...

  13. An overview of Australia?s Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstan, William A.; Howard, Kay; StJ. Hardy, Giles E.; Burgess, Treena I.

    2016-01-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora specie...

  14. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Janet E.; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. Methods and Results We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystand...

  15. Las guerras de las mujeres en la guerra :[homenaje a la teórica deminista Victoria Sau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez González

    2011-12-01

    This paper pays tribute to the work of the feminist theorist Victoria Sau. The article relies on the three mythological or literary figures used by the author to exemplify the different stages of feminism -Cassandra, Antigone and Lysistrata- in order to review the roles played in different moments and places by women in war, understood as a defence mechanism intended to preserve the patriarchal system. As long as this mechanism is not dismantled, these roles will not disappear.

  16. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienow, J. A.; Meyer, M. A.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  17. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  18. Climatic, socio-economic, and health factors affecting human vulnerability to cholera in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olago, Daniel; Marshall, Michael; Wandiga, Shem O; Opondo, Maggie; Yanda, Pius Z; Kanalawe, Richard; Githeko, Andrew K; Downs, Tim; Opere, Alfred; Kavumvuli, Robert; Kirumira, Edward; Ogallo, Laban; Mugambi, Paul; Apindi, Eugene; Githui, Faith; Kathuri, James; Olaka, Lydia; Sigalla, Rehema; Nanyunja, Robinah; Baguma, Timothy; Achola, Pius

    2007-06-01

    Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in the eastern Africa region dating to 1836. Cholera is now endemic in the Lake Victoria basin, a region with one of the poorest and fastest growing populations in the world. Analyses of precipitation, temperatures, and hydrological characteristics of selected stations in the Lake Victoria basin show that cholera epidemics are closely associated with El Niño years. Similarly, sustained temperatures high above normal (T(max)) in two consecutive seasons, followed by a slight cooling in the second season, trigger an outbreak of a cholera epidemic. The health and socioeconomic systems that the lake basin communities rely upon are not robust enough to cope with cholera outbreaks, thus rendering them vulnerable to the impact of climate variability and change. Collectively, this report argues that communities living around the Lake Victoria basin are vulnerable to climate-induced cholera that is aggravated by the low socioeconomic status and lack of an adequate health care system. In assessing the communities' adaptive capacity, the report concludes that persistent levels of poverty have made these communities vulnerable to cholera epidemics.

  19. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Precipitation over Lake Victoria, East Africa, in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Akurut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation over Lake Victoria in East Africa greatly influences its water balance. Over 30 million people rely on Lake Victoria for food, potable water, hydropower and transport. Projecting precipitation changes over the lake is vital in dealing with climate change impacts. The past and future precipitation over the lake were assessed using 42 model runs obtained from 26 General Circulation Models (GCMs of the newest generation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. Two CMIP5 scenarios defined by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP, namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were used to explore climate change impacts. The daily precipitation over Lake Victoria for the period 1962–2002 was compared with future projections for the 2040s and 2075s. The ability of GCMs to project daily, monthly and annual precipitation over the lake was evaluated based on the mean error, root mean square error and the frequency of occurrence of extreme precipitation. Higher resolution models (grid size <1.5° simulated monthly variations better than low resolution models (grid size >2.5°. The total annual precipitation is expected to increase by less than 10% for the RCP4.5 scenario and less than 20% for the RCP8.5 scenario over the 21st century, despite the higher (up to 40% increase in extreme daily intensities.

  20. Control of swimming in the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria: subumbrellar organization and local inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    The subumbrella of the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria (previously classified as Aequorea aequorea) is divided by numerous radial canals and attached gonads, so the subumbrellar musculature is partitioned into subumbrellar segments. The ectoderm of each segment includes two types of muscle: smooth muscle with a radial orientation, used for local (feeding and righting) and widespread (protective) radial responses, and striated muscle with a circular orientation which produces swim contractions. Two subumbrellar nerve nets were found, one of which stained with a commercial antibody produced against the bioactive peptide FMRFamide. Circular muscle cells produce a single, long-duration action potential with each swim, triggered by a single junctional potential. In addition, the circular cells are electrically coupled so full contractions require both electrotonic depolarization from adjacent cells and synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net. The radial cells, which form a layer superficial to the circular cells, are also activated by a subumbrellar nerve net, and produce short-duration action potentials. The radial muscle cells are electrically coupled to one another. No coupling exists between the two muscle layers. Spread of excitation between adjacent segments is decremental, and nerve net-activated junctional potentials disappear during local inhibition of swimming (such as with a radial response). Variable swim contractions are controlled by a combination of synaptic input from the motor network of the inner nerve ring, synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net, and electrotonic depolarization from adjacent, active muscle cells.

  1. A new marine ecosystem model for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Keller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Earth System Climate Models (ESCMs are valuable tools that can be used to gain a better understanding of the climate system, global biogeochemical cycles and how anthropogenically-driven changes may affect them. Here we describe improvements made to the marine biogeochemical ecosystem component of the University of Victoria's ESCM (version 2.9. Major changes include corrections to the code and equations describing phytoplankton light limitation and zooplankton grazing, the implementation of a more realistic zooplankton growth and grazing model, and the implementation of an iron limitation scheme to constrain phytoplankton growth. The new model is evaluated after a 10 000-yr spin-up and compared to both the previous version and observations. For the majority of biogeochemical tracers and ecosystem processes the new model shows significant improvements when compared to the previous version and evaluated against observations. Many of the improvements are due to better simulation of seasonal changes in higher latitude ecosystems and the effect that this has on ocean biogeochemistry. This improved model is intended to provide a basic new ESCM model component, which can be used as is or expanded upon (i.e., the addition of new tracers, for climate change and biogeochemical cycling research.

  2. The impact of extensive loss of telecommunications on general practice: A case study in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nancy H; Pedler, Daryl

    2017-04-01

    To describe the impact of major loss of telecommunications on general practice in a rural region of Australia. A multi-stage qualitative study. Purposively selected participants were invited to contribute to initial data collection using an online survey, followed by interviews with selected participants. Thematic analysis of the data was performed by both research team members. South-western Victoria, Australia. Individuals from organisations involved in Telstra recovery efforts, disaster management, health care and general practice staff. The survey collected freeform responses from participants. Semi-structured interviews further explored a variety of experiences from purposively selected participants. Organisations and practices in the region were prepared for major disasters, but not for the unusual and 'limited' disaster of losing telecommunications, including lack of Internet access and loss of telephone services. Although alternative measures were found for telecommunications, there was still a significant impact on many health-care-related activities and general practice functionality during the outage period. In particular, there was an increase in duties for administrative staff to compensate for loss of telecommunications. Patient traffic for many services decreased due to uncertainty about availability and continuation of business. The Warrnambool outage could be used as a case study illustrating the dramatic impact of communication loss. Major impacts include changes in patient traffic, increased administrative duties and slowing of patient care. When developing or assessing disaster management plans, general practices should consider the impact of telecommunication loss on functionality and prepare appropriate alternative, accessible and reliable measures. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. An overview of Australia's Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, William A; Howard, Kay; StJ Hardy, Giles E; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-06-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora species were isolated from 249 rhizosphere samples and 25 bait bags deployed in 21 stream, river, or wetland locations. Of the 186 Phytophthora isolates recovered, 130 were identified to species based on ITS sequence data. Ninety-five isolates corresponded to 13 described Phytophthora species while additionally 35 isolates were identified as Clade 6 hybrids. Phytophthora cinnamomi was the most common species isolated (31 %), followed by P. elongata (6 %), both species were only recovered from soil. Samples from sites with the highest soil moisture at the time of sampling had the highest yield of isolates. Consistent with other studies throughout the world, Clade 6 species and their hybrids dominated water samples, although many of these species were also recovered less frequently from soil samples. Many of the species recovered in this study have not previously been reported from eastern Australia, reinforcing that Phytophthora species are widespread, abundant and diverse in natural ecosystems. We have probably been underestimating Phytophthora diversity in Australia.

  4. Reforming Defences to Homicide in Victoria: Another Attempt to Address the Gender Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Naylor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 in the Australian state of Victoria, significant changes were made to the defences to homicide. These reforms were in response to long standing concerns about the gendered operation of provocation and self-defence by feminist researchers and advocates, Law Reform Commissions, the media and political pressures. This paper critically examines the reforms and the extent to which they have addressed these varied concerns and interests. The paper argues that these important law reforms have challenged some of the powerful narratives being used in the courts that minimise the existence and significance of family violence in intimate relationships. We see this particularly in judicial sentencing remarks. However, law reform must be accompanied by a shift in legal culture to be effective in practice. To this end, we argue that legal professionals need to have information about how to utilise the new family violence provisions as well as ongoing training and professional development to promote consistent understandings of family violence across the criminal justice system.

  5. Development and reliability testing of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, G Michael; Kuziemsky, Craig; Lesperance, Mary; Lau, Francis; Syme, Ann

    2007-11-01

    With changes in bowel function being a common and often distressful issue for palliative care patients, the ability to easily monitor and record changes in bowel status would be helpful in addressing quality of care. Most bowel tools record either constipation or diarrhea, but not both. A new tool, the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS), was designed as an ordinal nine-point scale from -4 (severe constipation) to +4 (severe diarrhea) and includes three parameters: visual stool characteristics, bowel pattern, and ability to control defecation. This study tested the reliability of BPS using case scenarios in a test-retest format. Sixty-seven raters in Time Period 1 and 54 raters in Time Period 2 ranked the 18 cases. The intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement were 0.822 and 0.853 for Time Periods 1 and 2, respectively. Results showed that the raters were consistent in their scoring over time, with an average Cohen's kappa of 0.70 over all of the raters. The average Pearson correlation coefficient between Time Periods 1 and 2 scores was 0.92. Further prospective testing in day-to-day clinical care is needed to further confirm the reliability and clinical utility of the BPS. A BPS management guideline has been developed to assist with decision making for each BPS score, which also requires validation.

  6. Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide in Victoria, Australia 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Chris; Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide (MVEGS) is the second most frequent method of suicide in Victoria, Australia. It is a highly lethal method of suicide with 1.5 deaths for every hospital admission. Australian regulations require all vehicles manufactured since 1998 to have a maximum carbon monoxide exhaust emission level of 2.1 g/km, reduced from the previous level of 9.6 g/km. Information surrounding all Victorian MVEGS between 1998-2002 was analyzed to determine whether suicides occurred in vehicles with the lower emission levels. Between 1998-2002, 607 suicides by this means were recorded while just 393 hospital admissions were recorded for the same period. Mean carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly lower in fatalities using vehicles manufactured from 1998, however suicide still occurred in these vehicles (n = 25). The extent to which the new regulations contributed to the relatively low rate of suicide in vehicles less than 5 years old compared to their frequency in the fleet remains unknown. Based on international experience and the age of the Victorian vehicle fleet, it may take well over a decade until substantial decreases in MVEGS are observed in the absence of active preventive measures.

  7. Observed Marine Debris in the Pacific Ocean 00e2?? Victoria to Maui 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Location and descriptions of marine debris observed by the Sailing Vessel (S/V) Family Affair yacht during the Victoria, British Columbia to Maui, Hawaii Yacht Race in July 2012. These observations are organized according to the following map layers: Family Affairs Observations, Fleet Debris Levels, Return Vessels Special Reports, Roll Call Debris Data-Race, Special Report Debris-Race, Vessel Specific Observations, and Return Vessel Specific Levels Observations.The March, 2011 tsunami that affected northern Japan washed enormous amounts of debris out to sea. While most of this debris sank quickly out at sea, much remains on the surface and by ocean current and wind is working its way across the Pacific Ocean. In early days, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) could track the debris slick by satellite, but by early 2012, the debris had become too dispersed to track. News stories have reported containers with motorcycles on Haida Gwaii, whole fishing boats in Alaska, and sections of concrete dock in Oregon. Recent reports are about the struggles of local governments to deal with cleaning up and disposing of flotsam washing up on local beaches.

  8. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN. Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.

  9. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  10. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  11. Liturgy and Music in Hereford Cathedral in the Time of Queen Victoria and Beyond

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    Tessa Murdoch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Victorian Gothic Revival and its focus on liturgical neo-medievalism inspired the 1860s restoration of the medieval Hereford Cathedral. In this restoration, the new screen played a central part. Designed by George Gilbert Scott and manufactured by the firm of Francis Skidmore in Coventry, the screen was commissioned in order to re-unite the choir with the nave. The symbolism and colours decorating the screen harmonized with the medieval and later features of the cathedral, including the high altar reredos, organ pipes, and floor tiles. Hereford Cathedral Library preserves historical accounts of the interior and original music manuscripts by Edward Elgar and Frederick Ouseley that illustrate, with the musical inserts provided, the rich tradition of choral music and liturgy which continues to this day with key liturgies and the annual Three Choirs Festival linking Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester. Memorials and stained-glass windows dedicated to successive precentors embellish the musical vocabulary of the interior. In focusing on the musical culture connected with Hereford Cathedral, this essay seeks to enrich the interpretation of the restored Hereford Screen in its secular setting at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

  12. Is Gippsland environmentally iodine deficient? Water iodine concentrations in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ashequr; Deacon, Nicholas; Panther, Barbara; Chesters, Janice; Savige, Gayle

    2010-12-01

      This paper provides evidence of environmental iodine deficiency in the Gippsland region.   Quantitative study; water samples were collected from 18 water treatment plants and four rain water tanks across Gippsland and water iodine concentrations were measured.   Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.   This paper reports on the iodine concentration of drinking water from sources across Gippsland and examines the contribution of iodine from water to the Gippsland diet. This study also briefly examines the relationship between the concentration of iodine in water and distance from the sea. The cut-off value for water iodine concentrations considered to be indicative of environmental iodine deficiency is water from 18 Gippsland water treatment plants was 0.38 µg L(-1) and would therefore make negligible difference to the dietary intake of iodine. This finding also falls well below the suggested dietary intake of iodine from water estimated by the 22nd Australian Total Diet Study. Our study found no linear relationship between the water iodine concentration and distance from the sea.   As Gippsland has environmental iodine deficiency there is a greater probability that people living in this region are at higher risk of dietary iodine deficiency than those living in environmentally iodine sufficient regions. Populations living in areas known to have environmental iodine deficiency should be monitored regularly to ensure that problems of iodine deficiency, especially amongst the most vulnerable, are addressed promptly. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. A study of autotrophic communities in two Victoria Land lakes (Continental Antarctica using photosynthetic pigments

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    Roberto BARGAGLI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of algal pigments and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was determined in microbial mats from two lakes in Victoria Land (Continental Antarctica with different lithology and environmental features. The aim was to expand knowledge of benthic autotrophic communities in Antarctic lacustrine ecosystems, providing reference data for future assessment of possible changes in environmental conditions and freshwater communities. The results of chemical analyses were supported by microscopy observations. Pigment profiles showed that filamentous cyanobacteria are dominant in both lakes. Samples from the water body at Edmonson Point had greater biodiversity, fewer pigments and lower EPS ratios than those from the lake at Kar Plateau. Differences in mat composition and in pigment and EPS profile between the two lakes are discussed in terms of local environmental conditions such as lithology, ice-cover and UV radiation. The present study suggests that a chemical approach could be useful in the study of benthic communities in Antarctic lakes and their variations in space and time.

  14. Forensic odontology, part 3. The Australian bushfires - Victoria state, February 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-09

    This paper aims to demonstrate the stages in the disaster victim identification of those who lost their lives in the Australian bushfires that raged across the state of Victoria in February 2009. Communities were damaged or destroyed leaving families distressed and homeless, and as the number of deaths increased the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams were activated, with plans evolving to deal with this emergency. The identification process was challenging due to many factors, such as the dangers and difficulties involved in body recovery and the charring and commingling of remains. It would take several months of careful work to identify the dead using a multidisciplinary approach. The impact of this incident will have long-lasting consequences for the families and communities involved. At the time of writing all but one of the 173 victims had been identified, mostly by dental methods: quite remarkable when only small fragments of the dental structures remained in many cases. This article is based on the author's personal experience working to assist the organised and experienced Australian Dental DVI Team.

  15. Longitudinal effects of school drug policies on student marijuana use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W

    2015-05-01

    We examined the longitudinal effect of schools' drug policies on student marijuana use. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions.

  16. Finding Space for Participation: Fisherfolk Mobility and Co-Management of Lake Victoria Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Fiona; Luomba, Joseph; Lwenya, Caroline; Yongo, Ernest; Odongkara, Konstantine; Ntambi, Baker

    2012-08-01

    The literature on fisheries co-management is almost silent on the issue of the movement of fisherfolk within fisheries, although such movement must have implications for the effectiveness of co-management. The introduction of co-management often involves the formation of new structures that should enable the participation of key stakeholder groups in decision-making and management, but such participation is challenging for migrating fishers. The article reports on a study on Lake Victoria, East Africa, which investigated the extent of movement around the lake and the implications of movement for how fishers participate and are represented in co-management, and the implications of the extent and nature of movement for co-management structures and processes. The analysis draws on the concept of space from the literature on participation in development and on a framework of representation in fisheries co-management in addressing these questions. The created space is on an `invited' rather than open basis, reflecting the top-down nature of implementation and the desire to secure participation of different occupational groups, as well as women in a male-dominated sector. The more powerful boat owners dominate positions of power within the co-management system, particularly as the levels of co-management, from sub-district to national, are traversed. The limited power and resources of boat crew are exacerbated by the degree and nature of movement around the lake, making effective participation in co-management decision-making a challenge.

  17. A positive association between cryptosporidiosis notifications and ambient temperature, Victoria, Australia, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian; McPherson, Michelle; Higgins, Nasra

    2015-12-01

    Increased temperatures provide optimal conditions for pathogen survival, virulence and replication as well as increased opportunities for human-pathogen interaction. This paper examined the relationship between notifications of cryptosporidiosis and temperature in metropolitan and rural areas of Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2009. A negative binomial regression model was used to analyse monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and the monthly count of cryptosporidiosis notifications. In the metropolitan area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature of the current month was associated with a 22% increase in cryptosporidiosis notifications (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.31). In the rural area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature, lagged by 3 months, was associated with a 9% decrease in cryptosporidiosis notifications (IRR 0.91; 95% CI 0.86-0.97). Rainfall was not associated with notifications in either area. These relationships should be considered when planning public health response to ecological risks as well as when developing policies involving climate change. Rising ambient temperature may be an early warning signal for intensifying prevention efforts, including appropriate education for pool users about cryptosporidiosis infection and management, which might become more important as temperatures are projected to increase as a result of climate change.

  18. Selection of electrogenic bacteria for microbial fuel cell in removing Victoria blue R from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Wu, Pei-Ssu; Tsao, Shuo-En; Huang, Yu-Shan; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2018-01-28

    This study was conducted to select electrogenic bacteria from wastewater sludge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) during the decomposition process of organic pollutants. Five culturable bacteria strains - namely, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, and Stenotrophomonas sp. - have a double potential in dye removal and electricity generation. We inoculated the mixed electrogenic bacteria at a specific ratio and treated them with a triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR), to evaluate their electricity generation ability for the artificial and real wastewater. The results of the VBR shock-loading experiment indicated that the inoculated MFC could adapt to shock loading in 1-2 days and exhibited high removal efficiency (95-100%) for 100-800 mg L-1 VBR with a power density of 8.62 ± 0.10 to 34.81 ± 0.25 mW m-2. The selected electrogenic bacteria in the MFC could use VBR as only electron donor for power generation. The matrix effects of the real wastewater on VBR removal and electricity generation of MFC were insignificant. VBR degradation by the electrogenic bacteria involves a stepwise demethylation process to yield partially dealkylated VBR species. In addition, these results demonstrate the feasibility of inoculating culturable bacteria strains to develop an efficient MFC for purifying wastewater.

  19. The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO on peripheral blood mononuclear and leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, M. [Hugo Kollatay Univ. of Agriculture, Krakow (Poland); Pituch-Noworolska, A.; Zembala, M. [Polish-American Children`s Hospital, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Clinical Immunology

    1997-05-01

    The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO (VB-BO) and photoirradiation on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied. The cells were preincubated with VB-BO followed by photoirradiation and overnight culture. The highest percentage of dead cells (propidium iodide assay in flow cyctometry) was seen in the monocyte population. The lymphocytes showed a lower sensitivity to VB-BO photodynamic action than the monocytes (12% vs 80% of PI-positive cells). The effect of VB-BO and phototreatment on lymphocyte function was studied using a mitogen-induced proliferation assay. A decrease of mitogen response was observed. The VB-BO and photoirradiation were also used on leukemic cells. The leukemic cells from acute myeloid leukemia and B precursors leukemia were sensitive to VB-BO photodynamic action. The high VB-BO sensitivity of monocytes and leukemic cells (myeloid and lymphoid B derived) suggests possible application of VB-BO for selective depletion of monocytes or sensitive leukemic cells. (author).

  20. Sensitive voltammetric detection of yeast RNA based on its interaction with Victoria Blue B

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    WEI SUN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric studies of the interaction of yeast RNA (y-RNA with Victoria Blue B (VBB are described in this paper. Furthermore, a linear sweep voltammetric method for the detection of y-RNA was established. The reaction conditions, such as acidity and amount of buffer solution, the concentration of VBB, the reaction time and temperature, etc., were carefully investigated by second order derivative linear sweep voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current of VBB at –0.75 V decreased greatly after the addition of y-RNA to the solution without any shift of the reduction peak potential. Based on the decrease of the peak current, a new quantitative method for the determination of y-RNA was developed. The effects of co-existing substances on the determination were carefully investigated and three synthetic samples were determined with satisfactory results. The stoichiometry of the VBB–y-RNA complex was calculated by linear sweep voltammetry and the interaction mechanism is discussed.

  1. Relationships between body fatness, small-screen sedentary activity and regionality among schoolchildren in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucote, Helen M; Cooper, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    To examine the difference in body fatness and engagement in small-screen activities across children living in different degrees of regionality, and to examine the relationship between child body fatness and small-screen activities. Cross-sectional study design. Grade 5-6 schoolchildren (n = 393) from central and metropolitan Victoria, and a parent/guardian of each child (n = 393). Parents completed a questionnaire on their child's engagement in television (TV) viewing and video game playing (VGP). Children's weight and height were measured by a researcher. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) was calculated and adjusted for age and sex. Regionality (metropolitan, population > 100 000; regional, 100 000 > population < 20 000; and rural, population < 10 000) and socioeconomic status (socioeconomic indexes for areas: index of disadvantage) were assigned according to school attended. BMI did not differ across regionality or sex. Boys engaged in more VGP than girls, and metropolitan children engaged in more VGP than rural and regional children. TV viewing did not differ across sex or regionality. VGP did not predict BMI, and TV viewing did not predict girls' BMI. Three to four per cent of the variance in boys' BMI was predicted by TV viewing. Boys and metropolitan children engage in more VGP. Boys', but not girls', BMI is related to TV viewing. Interventions designed to decrease engagement in TV viewing should be targeting boys.

  2. The shortened dental arch concept: awareness and opinion of dentists in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, M A; Humplik, A J; Shahim, N

    2015-09-01

    The occlusion of a complete dental arch is generally desirable but not necessary nor always achievable in many individuals. It is, however, relevant for dentists to consider what minimum number of teeth is required by individuals for oral function. This study investigated dentists' awareness and opinion of the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept in an Australian context. A self-administered voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 434 dentists, randomly selected from both rural and metropolitan locations in Victoria, Australia. The information collected included awareness of the SDA concept and its application as a treatment option. More than half of the respondents (61%) were aware of the SDA concept. All respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' with the seven criteria of SDA proposed in this study based on Käyser (1989). The majority (78.4%) believed that the SDA concept is useful in clinical practice. Dentists with dentists who responded to this survey agreed that the SDA is a practical and useful treatment modality for older adults with limitations to complex restorative care. However, application of the SDA varied considerably among dentists. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours among women aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhuong T; Subasinghe, Asvini K; Wark, John D; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors related to risky sexual behaviour may contribute to preventive and interventional approaches to reduce negative mental health outcomes among young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours in females aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI), a study in which participants were recruited via advertisements on Facebook. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler 10 (K10) Psychological Distress Scale, and risky sexual behaviours. Data were available from 200 sexually active participants and 40 non-sexually active participants. We found that the K10 score was independently associated with sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.7; P = 0.006). Although data were collected from a small sample of young women, we found that those with underlying psychological distress may adopt risky sexual behaviours, especially if concomitantly drinking alcohol or taking drugs.

  4. Socio-demographic profile of child and adolescent users of oral health services in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rodrigo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of the eligible population of users of public oral health care services in the Australian state of Victoria, aged 17 years or younger. The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected from July 2008 to June 2009 for 45,728 young clients of public oral health care. The sample mean age was 8.9 (SD: 3.5 years. The majority (82.7% was between 6 and 17 years of age, and 50.3% were males. The majority (76.6% was Australian-born and spoke English at home (89.1%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.0 (SD: 2.1 teeth, with a mean dmft of 3.16 (SD: 5.79 teeth. Data indicate that, among six year olds in the Significant Caries Index (SiC category, the mean dmft was 6.82 teeth. Findings corroborate social inequalities in oral health outcome and provide suggestions for oral health services to develop strategies and priorities to reduce inequalities in health and well-being, and better coordinate and target services to local needs.

  5. Continuous bioelectricity generation through treatment of Victoria blue R: A novel microbial fuel cell operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2017-07-29

    A novel two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) operation with a continuous anaerobic-aerobic decolorization system was developed to improve the degradation of the triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR). In addition, bioelectricity was generated during the VBR degradation process, and the operation parameters were optimized. The results indicated that the VBR removal efficiency and electricity generation were affected by the VBR concentration, liquid retention time (LRT), external resistance, gas retention time (GRT), and shock loading. The optimal operation parameters were as follows: VBR concentration, 600 mg L-1; LRT, 24 h; external resistance, 3300 Ω; and GRT, 60 s. Under these operating conditions, the VBR removal efficiency, COD removal efficiency, and power density were 98.2% ± 0.3%, 97.6% ± 0.5%, and 30.6 ± 0.4 mW m-2, respectively. According to our review of the relevant literature, this is the first paper to analyze the electrical characteristics of a continuous two-chamber MFC operation and demonstrate the feasibility of the simultaneous electricity generation and decolorization of VBR.

  6. THE HUMAN OCCUPATIONS OF EL MIRÓN CAVE (RAMALES DE LA VICTORIA, CANTABRIA, SPAIN DURING THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM/SOLUTREAN PERIOD

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    Lawrence Guy Straus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Mirón Cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, Spain has evidence of brief visits (by hunting parties to the montane zone of the upper Asón valley in easternmost Cantabria during the Last Glacial Maximum with 14C dates ranging between 19.2-18.4 kya uncal BP. Landscapes were largely treeless (scattered pines, with varying degrees of humidity and some amelioration at the end of the sequence of seven levels. Armed with a variety of Solutrean foliate, concave base and shouldered stone points and antler sagaies, decorated with beads of shell, tooth, bone and stone, the visitors camped repeatedly at the rear of the cave vestibule, made informal hearths, hunted red deer and ibex and caught fish, and did some stone knapping of both local and high-quality non-local raw materials. This is one of relatively few montane Solutrean sites known in the Cantabrian region, where, in fact, all major Solutrean base camps are in the coastal zone.La cueva del Mirón (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, España conserva el testimonio de breves visitas de grupos de cazadores al alto valle del Asón, en la zona más oriental de Cantabria, durante el Último Máximo Glacial, con fechas de radiocarbono que oscilan entre los 19200 y 18400 uncal BP. Durante este tiempo, el paisaje carecía casi por completo de árboles (acaso pinos dispersos, con diversos grados de humedad y una leve mejora climática al final de la secuencia de los siete niveles solutrenses. Armados con una variedad de puntas foliáceas, puntas de base cóncava y de muesca, azagayas de asta, y adornados con cuentas de concha, diente, hueso e incluso piedra, los visitantes acamparon repetidas veces al fondo del vestíbulo de la cueva, hicieron varias hogueras ocasionales, cazaron ciervos y cabras, pescaron salmones y realizaron actividades de talla con materias primas locales y con otras no locales de alta calidad. Este yacimiento es uno de los pocos yacimientos solutrenses de la región cant

  7. The North Korean Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  8. A snapshot of the prevalence of physical activity amongst older, community dwelling people in Victoria, Australia: patterns across the 'young-old' and 'old-old'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Sandra

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has a range of health benefits for older people. The aim of this study was to determine physical activity prevalence and attitudes amongst respondents to a trial screening survey. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Subjects were community dwelling older people aged ≥ 65 years, recruited via general practices in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a mailed screening tool containing the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Active Australia survey and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. Results Of 330 participants, 20% were ≥ 80 years. Activity levels were similar to those reported in population studies. The proportion of participants reporting physical activity was greatest for the walking category, but decreased across categories of physical activity intensity. The oldest-old were represented at all physical activity intensity levels. Over half reported exercising at levels that, according to national criteria are, 'sufficient to attain health benefit'. A greater proportion of participants aged 85 years and older were unaware of key physical activity messages, compared to participants aged less than 85 years. Conclusion Most population surveys do not provide details of older people across age categories. This survey provided information on the physical activity of people up to 91 years old. Physical activity promotion strategies should be tailored according to the individual's needs. A better understanding of the determinants of physical activity behaviour amongst older sub-groups is needed to tailor and target physical activity promotion strategies and programs to maximise physical activity related health outcomes for older people.

  9. Pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection in Victoria, Australia: no evidence for harm or benefit following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath A; Grant, Kristina A; Fielding, James E; Carville, Kylie S; Looker, Clare O; Tran, Thomas; Jacoby, Peter

    2011-08-26

    Conflicting findings regarding the level of protection offered by seasonal influenza vaccination against pandemic influenza H1N1 have been reported. We performed a test-negative case control study using sentinel patients from general practices in Victoria to estimate seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against laboratory proven infection with pandemic influenza. Cases were defined as patients with an influenza-like illness who tested positive for influenza while controls had an influenza-like illness but tested negative. We found no evidence of significant protection from seasonal vaccine against pandemic influenza virus infection in any age group. Age-stratified point estimates, adjusted for pandemic phase, ranged from 44% in persons aged less than 5 years to -103% (odds ratio=2.03) in persons aged 50-64 years. Vaccine effectiveness, adjusted for age group and pandemic phase, was 3% (95% CI -48 to 37) for all patients. Our study confirms the results from our previous interim report, and other studies, that failed to demonstrate benefit or harm from receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine in patients with confirmed infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  11. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  12. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  13. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19) and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11). Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth) was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and frequency of visitors. These

  14. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19 and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and

  15. Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR): Observational case studies of emergency personnel in Victoria, Australia.

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    Porter, Joanne E; Miller, Nareeda; Giannis, Anita; Coombs, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR), although not a new concept, remains inconsistently implemented by emergency personnel. Many larger metropolitan emergency departments (ED) have instigated a care coordinator role, however these personnel are often from a non-nursing background and have therefore limited knowledge about the clinical aspects of the resuscitation. In rural emergency departments there are simply not enough staff to allocate an independent role. A separate care coordinator role, who is assigned to care for the family and not take part in the resuscitation has been well documented as essential to the successful implementation of FPDR. One rural and one metropolitan emergency department in the state of Victoria, Australia were observed and data was collected on FPDR events. The participants consisted of resuscitation team members, including; emergency trained nurses, senior medical officers, general nurses and doctors. The participants were not told that the data would be recorded around interactions with family members or team discussions regarding family involvement in the resuscitation, following ethical approval involving limited disclosure of the aims of the study. Seventeen adult presentations (Metro n=9, Rural n=8) were included in this study and will be presented as resuscitation case studies. The key themes identified included ambiguity around resuscitation status, keeping the family informed, family isolation and inter-professional communication. During 17 adult resuscitation cases, staff were witnessed communicating with family, which was often limited and isolation resulted. Family were often uninformed or separated from their family member, however when a family liaison person was available it was found to be beneficial. This research indicated that staff could benefit from a designated family liaison role, formal policy and further education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prehospital management of supraventricular tachycardia in Victoria, Australia: epidemiology and effectiveness of therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gavin; McD Taylor, David; Morgans, Amee; Cameron, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined patient demographics, characteristics and the effectiveness of current prehospital supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) management by ambulance paramedics in Victoria, Australia. We conducted a retrospective study of all Victorian patients attended by paramedics between 14 February 2012 and 13 February 2013, where SVT was the initial or final diagnosis. Patients were excluded if SVT was not captured on ECG, incomplete data were recorded, or SVT began after initial assessment. Data were extracted from the VACIS(®) clinical data warehouse. Accuracy of paramedic SVT diagnosis was examined. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, including 882 (94.5%) adults and 564 (60.5%) women. Mean adult and paediatric (SVT in 119/123 (96.7%, 95% CI: 91.5, 99.0) of adult ECG strips examined. There were 273/882 (31.0%) patients who spontaneously reverted while in paramedic care. Valsalva manoeuvre was undertaken by 212/882 (24.0%) patients and reverted the SVT in 99/358 (27.7%) attempts. Verapamil was administered to 38/882 (4.3%) patients and reverted 33 (86.8%). Aramine was administered to 43/882 (4.9%) patients and 35 reverted following administration (81.4%). Synchronised cardioversion (70 J) reverted four patients at first attempt. Ultimately, 438 (49.7%) patients remained in SVT on arrival at hospital. Patient characteristics associated with SVT are more likely to be middle-aged women with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Therapies were underutilised leading to reduced clinical guideline effectiveness. Where therapies were instigated, reversion rates are greater than previously reported. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  17. Influence of voluntary standards and design modifications on trampoline injury in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Karen; Eager, David; D'Elia, Angelo; Day, Lesley

    2015-10-01

    To examine the influence of the voluntary Australian trampoline standard (AS 4989-2006) and market-driven design modifications on relevant trampoline injuries. Trend and intervention analysis on frequencies and proportions of hospital-treated trampoline-related injury in Victoria, Australia, extracted from the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2013. The injuries relevant to the AS were contact with spring and frame, and multiple-user injury. Falls from trampolines were relevant for netted trampolines, a market-driven modification. Frequency of all trampoline injuries increased by 11.4% (95% CI 10.0% to 11.7%) on average each year. Spring and frame, and fall injuries increased to a lesser extent (8.7%, 95% CI 6.9% to 9.8% and 7.3%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.3%, respectively). Multiple-user injuries increased by 21.0% (95% CI 16.3% to 21.9%). As a proportion of all trampoline injuries, spring and frame injury and falls injury decreased, while multiple-user injuries increased. The intervention analysis showed no significant change in spring and frame injuries associated with the AS (p=0.17). A significant increase was found for multiple-user injuries (p=0.01), in particular for the 0-year to 4-year age group (ptrampolines appear to be associated with a decrease in falls from trampolines but an increase in injuries to multiple users. A mandated trampoline safety standard and a safety campaign including warnings about multiple users is recommended. Continued monitoring of injury data will be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Subglacial Calcites from Northern Victoria Land: archive of Antarctic volcanism in the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisia, Silvia; Weirich, Laura; Hellstrom, John; Borsato, Andrea; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Bajo, Petra; Drysdale, Russell N.; Augustinus, Paul C.; Barbante, Carlo; Cooper, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Subglacial carbonates bear similarities to stalagmites in their fabrics and the potential to obtain precise chronologies using U-series methods. Their chemical properties also reflect those of their parent waters, which, in contrast to stalagmites, are those of subglacial meltwaters. In analogy to speleothems, stable Carbon isotope ratios and trace elements such as Uranium, Iron and Manganese provide the opportunity to investigate ancient extreme environments without the need to drill through thousands of metres of ice. Sedimentological, geochemical and microbial evidence preserved in LGM subglacial calcites from Northern Victoria Land, close to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet margin, allow us to infer that subglacial volcanism was active in the Trans Antarctic Mountain region and induced basal ice melting. We hypothesize that a meltwater reservoir was drained and injected into interconnected basal pore systems where microbial processes enhanced bedrock weathering and, thus, released micronutrients. Volcanic influence is supported by the presence of fluorine (F) and sulphur in sediment-laden calcite layers containing termophilic species. Notably, calcite δ13C points to dissolved inorganic carbon evolved from subglacial metabolic processes. Once transported to the sea, soluble iron likely contributed to fertilizing the Southern Ocean and CO2 drawdown. This is the first well-dated evidence for LGM volcanism in Antarctica, which complements the record of volcanic eruptions retrieved from Talos Dome ice core, and supports the hypothesis of large-scale volcanism as an important driver of climate change. We conclude that subglacial carbonates are equivalent to speleothems in their palaeoclimate potential and may become a most useful source of information of ecosystems and processes at peak glacials in high altitude/high latitude settings.

  20. Individual and community factors for railway suicide: a matched case-control study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; McClure, Roderick; Milner, Allison

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to simultaneously examine individual- and community-level factors associated with railway suicide. We performed a case-control study in Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2012. Data on cases of railway suicide were obtained from the National Coronial Information System (a database of coronial investigations). Controls were living individuals randomly selected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia study, matching to cases on age groups, sex and year of exposures. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the individual-level and community-level influences on individual odds of railway suicide, controlling for socioeconomic status. Individual-level diagnosed mental illness increased railway suicide odds by six times [95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 9.2]. Community-level factors such as living in an area with a presence of railway tracks [odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 2.8], within a city (OR 3.2, 95 % CI 1.9, 5.4), and with a higher overall suicide rate (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) were independently associated with greater individual odds of railway suicide compared to living in an area without a presence of railway tracks, outside a city, and with a relatively lower overall suicide rate. The effects of mental illness and high incidence of overall suicides are prominent, but not specific on railway suicide. The effects of presence of railway tracks and city residence suggest the importance of accessibility to the railways for individual risk of railway suicide. Prevention efforts should focus on vulnerable people live in areas with easy access to the railways.

  1. Travel Destinations and Sexual Behavior as Indicators of Antibiotic Resistant Shigella Strains--Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Courtney R; Sutton, Brett; Valcanis, Mary; Kirk, Martyn; Walker, Cathryn; Lalor, Karin; Stephens, Nicola

    2016-03-15

    Knowledge of relationships between antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates and travel destination or other risk factors can assist clinicians in determining appropriate antibiotic therapy prior to susceptibility testing. We describe relationships between resistance patterns and risk factors for acquisition in Shigella isolates using routinely collected data for notified cases of shigellosis between 2008 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. We included all shigellosis patients notified during the study period, where Shigella isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Cases were interviewed to collect data on risk factors, including recent travel. Data were analyzed using Stata 13.1 to examine associations between risk factors and resistant strains. Of the 500 cases of shigellosis, 249 were associated with overseas travel and 210 were locally acquired. Forty-six of 51 isolates of Indian origin displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates of Indonesian origin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-six travel-related isolates were resistant to all tested oral antimicrobials. Male-to-male sexual contact was the primary risk factor for 80% (120/150) of locally acquired infections among adult males, characterized by distinct periodic Shigella sonnei outbreaks. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dual diagnosis discourse in Victoria Australia: the responsiveness of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bridget M; Maybery, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, psychiatric services have been challenged to be more responsive to patients' coexisting problems, in particular those concerning substance use. In Australia this has been referred to as a "No Wrong Door" approach. This paper explores the meanings of this move for the acute mental health sector, including attitudes toward a No Wrong Door approach to people with a dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance use disorder.   This qualitative study involved a review of the research literatures, analysis of policy documents, and interviews with 19 key informants in a case study of the State of Victoria, Australia.   The analysis resulted in two broad themes surrounding the implications of dual diagnosis discourse for the mental health sector. The first involves progress regarding the concept of No Wrong Door with subthemes including interprofessional cultural conflicts, intersectoral professional status issues, terminology, problem definition, perspectives on serious mental illness, the role of the client, and pharmacological treatment. The second overarching theme focuses upon informants' thoughts on future directions for the sector and highlights divided opinion on the implications of dual diagnosis discourse for the mental health service and social care systems.   While the perspectives on system change and multiple issues such as resource concerns and cultural clashes are presented here, the informants in this study also gave clear guidance for the future of dual diagnosis work in the mental health sector (e.g., focusing on orienting services toward consumer strengths and recovery), along with recommendations for future research. This paper contributes to the small body of qualitative research on the history and course of efforts to develop appropriate practice in mental health services with regard to patients who have substance use problems and other mental health disorders.

  3. Population surveys of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Murchison Falls National Park, Victoria Nile, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behangana Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. A 12-month-long survey (April 2013 to March 2014 for Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus was conducted along a section of the Victoria Nile/Ramsar site of Murchison Falls National Park, in order to update the historic information on crocodile populations in the area, locating nesting areas, determining seasonality patterns and habitat use, and assess the current abundance and the population size trends since the 1960s. The methods employed included visual encounter surveys, transect counts and opportunistic methods, by using boats. 2. In general, there were diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in the number of crocodile sightings. The crocodile sightings peaked between the months of June and August, with the highest mean number of sightings encountered on any single day being 67 (in July 2013, and the second peak was between January and March with the highest mean of 118 recorded in January 2014. The second peak also coincided with the crocodile breeding season. This clearly shows that the distribution of the sub-population sampled followed a climatic regime. 3. Crocodiles were observed most frequently in water (37%. Grassy banks, islands, river mouths and sandy banks constituted about 47% of the habitats utilised by the crocodile population. Although basking was the most frequent type of activity performed by crocodiles (50% over the entire survey period, their key activities varied significantly from month to month. Nesting was very visible during the last quarter of the year and the first quarter of the New Year. 4. There was a clear decline of the abundance of crocodiles in this population between 1960s and nowadays. This declining trend was obvious also taking into account the various survey methodologies employed over the decades.

  4. Governance of quality of care: a qualitative study of health service boards in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismark, Marie M; Studdert, David M

    2014-06-01

    To describe the engagement of health service boards with quality-of-care issues and to identify factors that influence boards' activities in this area. We conducted semistructured interviews with 35 board members and executives from 13 public health services in Victoria, Australia. Interviews focused on the role currently played by boards in overseeing quality of care. We also elicited interviewees' perceptions of factors that have influenced their current approach to governance in this area. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes from interview transcripts. Virtually all interviewees believed boards had substantial opportunities to influence the quality of care delivered within the service, chiefly through setting priorities, monitoring progress, holding staff to account and shaping culture. Perceived barriers to leveraging this influence included insufficient resources, gaps in skills and experience among board members, inadequate information on performance and regulatory requirements that miss the mark. Interviewees converged on four enablers of more effective quality governance: stronger regional collaborations; more tailored board training on quality issues; smarter use of reporting and accreditation requirements; and better access to data that was reliable, longitudinal and allowed for benchmarking against peer organisations. Although health service boards are eager to establish quality of care as a governance priority, several obstacles are blocking progress. The result is a gap between the rhetoric of quality governance and the reality of month-to-month activities at the board level. The imperative for effective board-level engagement in this area cannot be met until these barriers are addressed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The effluents from wastewater treatment plants have been recognized as a significant environmental reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) is increasingly used as a practical solution for combating water scarcity in arid and semiarid regions, however, impacts of RWI on the patterns of ARGs and the soil bacterial community remain unclear. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques to compare the diversity, abundance and composition of a broad-spectrum of ARGs and total bacteria in 12 urban parks with and without RWI in Victoria, Australia. A total of 40 unique ARGs were detected across all park soils, with genes conferring resistance to β-lactam being the most prevalent ARG type. The total numbers and the fold changes of the detected ARGs were significantly increased by RWI, and marked shifts in ARG patterns were also observed in urban parks with RWI compared to those without RWI. The changes in ARG patterns were paralleled by a significant effect of RWI on the bacterial community structure and a co-occurrence pattern of the detected ARG types. There were significant and positive correlations between the fold changes of the integrase intI1 gene and two β-lactam resistance genes (KPC and IMP-2 groups), but no significant impacts of RWI on the abundances of intI1 and the transposase tnpA gene were found, indicating that RWI did not improve the potential for horizontal gene transfer of soil ARGs. Taken together, our findings suggested that irrigation of urban parks with reclaimed water could influence the abundance, diversity, and compositions of a wide variety of soil ARGs of clinical relevance. Irrigation of urban parks with treated wastewater significantly increased the abundance and diversity of various antibiotic resistance genes, but did not significantly enhance their potential for horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  6. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with sickness certification of injured workers by General Practitioners in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Ruseckaite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related injuries resulting in long-term sickness certification can have serious consequences for injured workers, their families, society, compensation schemes, employers and healthcare service providers. The aim of this study was to establish what factors potentially are associated with the type of sickness certification that General Practitioners (GPs provide to injured workers following work-related injury in Victoria, Australia. Methods This was a retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted for compensation claims lodged by adults from 2003 to 2010. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of various factors on the likelihood that an injured worker would receive an alternate/modified duties (ALT, n = 28,174 vs. Unfit for work (UFW, n = 91,726 certificate from their GP. Results A total of 119,900 claims were analysed. The majority of the injured workers were males, mostly age of 45-54 years. Nearly half of the workers (49.9 % with UFW and 36.9 % with ALT certificates had musculoskeletal injuries. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that for most occupations older men (55-64 years were less likely to receive an ALT certificate, (OR = 0.86, (95%CI, 0.81 – 0.91. Workers suffering musculoskeletal injuries or occupational diseases were nearly twice or three times at higher odds of receiving an ALT certificate when compared to fractures. Being seen by a GP experienced with workers’ compensation increased the odds of receiving ALT certificate (OR = 1.16, (95%CI, 1.11 – 1.20. Occupation and industry types were also important factors determining the type of certificate issued to the injured worker. Conclusions This study suggests that specific groups of injured workers (i.e. older age, workers with mental health issues, in rural areas are less likely to receive ALT certificates.

  8. Sleep-Related Infant Deaths in Victoria: A Retrospective Case Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Dwyer, Jeremy; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Young, Jeanine; Stephan, Karen Lesley; McClure, Roderick John

    2016-05-01

    There is general agreement that in some circumstances, sharing a sleep surface of any kind with an infant increases the risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy. There is a paucity of research conducted in Australia examining this issue. This study examines the frequency and distribution of sleep-related infant deaths in a defined population, and reports the proportion that occurred in the context of bed-sharing. A retrospective population-based case series study was conducted of infants (≤365 days) who died in a sleeping context during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Information about the infant, caregiver, sleeping environment and bed-sharing was collected from a review of the coroner's death investigation record. During the 3-year study period, 72 infant deaths occurred in a sleeping context. Of these, 33 (45.8 %) occurred in the context of bed-sharing: n = 7 in 2008; n = 11 in 2009; and n = 15 in 2010. Further analysis of the 33 deaths occurring in the context of bed-sharing showed that in this group, bed-sharing was largely intentional, habitual and most often involved the mother as one of the parties. Given the case series nature of the study design, a causal relationship between bed-sharing and infant death could not be inferred. However the fact that nearly half of all sleep-related deaths occurred in the context of bed-sharing, provides strong support for the need to undertake definitive analytic studies in Australia so that evidence-based advice can be provided to families regarding the safety of bed-sharing practices.

  9. Strategic Actions for Increasing the Submission of Digital Cadastral Data by the Surveying Industry Based on Lessons Learned from Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Olfat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ePlan, as a digital cadastral data initiative, is a collaborative program between the land authorities and the surveying industry which aims to replace paper and PDF cadastral plans and surveys with digital data. ePlan is currently operational in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. ePlan was introduced in the State of Victoria in 2011 and has been operational in this jurisdiction for 2D plans since 2013. On average, one ePlan application is currently submitted to a digital plan lodgment portal every two weeks. The low uptake of ePlan is caused by several technical and non-technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of cadastral information transitioning from paper to digital in Victoria. The research methodology to identify the challenges in Victoria for the adoption of ePlan is then described. This is followed by a discussion on the identified challenges. The paper then proposes a generic framework of strategic actions to increase the uptake of digital cadastral data based on the lessons learned from Victoria. The initiatives suggested by this framework to address the ePlan challenges in Victoria and increase its uptake are also introduced. The paper concludes with a direction for future research.

  10. A comparison of Australian rural and metropolitan cardiovascular risk and mortality: the Greater Green Triangle and North West Adelaide population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, Philip; Taylor, Anne W; Janus, Edward; Philpot, Ben; Clark, Robyn; Peach, Elizabeth; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Tirimacco, Rosy; Montgomerie, Alicia; Grant, Janet; Versace, Vincent; Dunbar, James A

    2013-08-23

    Cardiovascular (CVD) mortality disparities between rural/regional and urban-dwelling residents of Australia are persistent. Unavailability of biomedical CVD risk factor data has, until now, limited efforts to understand the causes of the disparity. This study aimed to further investigate such disparities. Comparison of (1) CVD risk measures between a regional (Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study (GGT RFS, cross-sectional study, 2004-2006) and an urban population (North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS, longitudinal cohort study, 2004-2006); (2) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) CVD mortality rates between these and other Australian regions; and (3) ABS CVD mortality rates by an area-level indicator of socioeconomic status, the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD). Greater Green Triangle (GGT, Limestone Coast, Wimmera and Corangamite Shires) of South-Western Victoria and North-West Adelaide (NWA). 1563 GGT RFS and 3036 NWAHS stage 2 participants (aged 25-74) provided some information (self-administered questionnaire +/- anthropometric and biomedical measurements). Age-group specific measures of absolute CVD risk, ABS CVD mortality rates by study group and Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Few significant differences in CVD risk between the study regions, with mean absolute CVD risk ranging from approximately 1% in the age group 35-39 years to 14% in the age group 70-74 years. [corrected]. Similar mean 2003-2007 (crude) mortality rates in GGT (98, 95% CI 87 to 111), NWA (103, 95% CI 96 to 110) and regional Australia (92, 95% CI 91 to 94). NWA mortality rates exceeded that of other city areas (70, 95% CI 69 to 71). Lower measures of socioeconomic status were associated with worse CVD outcomes regardless of geographic location. Metropolitan areas do not always have better CVD risk factor profiles and outcomes than rural/regional areas. Needs assessments are required for different settings to elucidate relative

  11. Geomicrobiology of a Supraglacial Stream on the Cotton Glacier, Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, C. M.; Morris, C. E.; Cory, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The Cotton Glacier lies in the Transantarctic Mountains north of Cape Roberts and has a limited catchment area in the Clare and St. Johns ranges, but receives a large amount of sedimentary deposits from surrounding areas. The bedrock geology of the area is dominated by basement granite and Ferrar dolerite sills, with minor amounts of amphibolite and schist sandwiched between granite bodies. A unique fluvial system forms on the Cotton Glacier as a result of its location in the Transantarctic Mountains. The prevailing winds converge and deposit debris on the Cotton Glacier, warming up the surface and increasing meltwater production. During the austral summer of 2004-2005 we sampled a braided stream that flowed from mid glacier into a series of crevasses downstream. While low in dissolved organic carbon (44-47 μM C) and nutrients the supraglacial stream on the Cotton Glacier is capable of sustaining life, with bacterial cell abundances from 2.7 - 8.2 x 104 cells ml-1, and bacterial production ranging from 58.84 - 293.18 ng C d-1. Isolates recovered from the Cotton Glacier produced a rainbow of pigment colors and were similar to those recovered from other icy systems (Cytophaga- Flavobateria-Bacteroides and β-Proteobacteria lineages), suggesting that the occurrence of these related phylotoyes from diverse environs is due to similar survival strategies allowing them to remain active at sub- zero temperatures and survive multiple freeze-thaw events. Two isolates from the Cotton Glacier have been shown to possess ice nucleating activity. These bacteria can catalyze ice formation at -3.5°C and colder temperatures and likely possess Type I ice nuclei proteins. The fluorescence and absorbance spectra of the filtered Cotton Glacier water were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic matter (DOM). The absorbance spectra of the Cotton Glacier sample exhibited a peak around 270 nm, which disappeared over time in the dark at 4°C. Analysis of excitation-emission matrices

  12. Lope and the Creation of Contemporary Heroes: «La nueva victoria de don Gonzalo de Córdoba» y «La nueva victoria del marqués de Santa Cruz»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ferrer Valls

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lope defended the usefulness of history presented on stage, that is, theatre’s function of preserving and creating a collective memory. In the case of La nueva victoria de don Gonzalo and La nueva victoria del marqués de Santa Cruz, this playwright dramatized military events that took place immediately before the composition of these plays. In this article i will analyze the fundamental traits of those texts in relation to Lope’s desire to please his patrons and, at the same time, to participate in the making of a Spanish national identity, which intensified during the first years of king Philip IV’s reign through different media, among them painting and theatre. This paper ends reflecting on the risk assumed by the playwright when dealing with recent political events. This is exemplified by the existing news about the prohibition of a play by Lope, nowadays lost, related to the death of the king of Sweden, in which the protagonists of the two aforementioned plays are also referenced.

  13. ‘A token of their love’: Queen Victoria Memorials in New Zealand

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    Mark Stocker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the four metropolitan sculptural memorials to Queen Victoria in late-colonial New Zealand, which all immediately precede the colony’s Dominion status (1907. In chronological order, they were erected in Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Dunedin. While the Auckland memorial was unveiled within the Queen’s lifetime, her death in 1901 catalysed the commission of more ambitious counterparts in Wellington and Dunedin, and a degree of intercity rivalry was consciously articulated in advocacy for them. The memorials reflect a Pākeha (European New Zealand sense of identity as a loyal, pro-monarchical, and imperial colony, but also as a ‘Better Britain’, with a proud sense of prosperity and achievement. Local content features prominently in two of them, notably the signing with Māori of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840 in one of the reliefs for the capital city memorial (Wellington, and an ambitious celebration of fifty years of provincial achievement in the pedestal sculpture for the Christchurch counterpart. Due to a dearth of home-grown talent, together with the belief in the artistic superiority of Britain (often known at the time as ‘Home’, British sculptors were invariably commissioned for these memorials. Cost-effectiveness, prestige, and the ability to render a realistic likeness were all criteria behind the choice of artists, with Francis John Williamson commissioned for two of them (Auckland and Christchurch. In researching this article, extensive use has been made of primary newspaper sources to document the political context of the memorials. In all of them, particularly that of Christchurch, New Zealand’s loyalty to Britain in the South African War (1899–1902 was a leading issue. Artistic and aesthetic issues and analysis were less prominent, although there was a widespread belief that the Queen should be honoured for purely symbolic and not utilitarian causes. While emphasis is given

  14. Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanvubya, Annet; Ssempiira, Julius; Mpendo, Juliet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nalutaaya, Annet; Wambuzi, Mathias; Kitandwe, Paul; Bagaya, Bernard S; Welsh, Sabrina; Asiimwe, Stephen; Nielsen, Leslie; Makumbi, Fredrick; Kiwanuka, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Fishing communities (FCs) in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP). Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda. Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18-49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use. The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8%) being females while more than half (58.6%) had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688); significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61)], among older respondents (25-29 years) [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99)] compared to younger ones (18-24 years) and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74)] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688) reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76)]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%), fear of side effects (12.2%) and partner refusal (5.2%). Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods.

  15. The Role of Thermogenesis in the Pollination Biology of the Amazon Waterlily Victoria amazonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEYMOUR, ROGER S.; MATTHEWS, PHILIP G. D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Several families of tropical plants have thermogenic flowers that show a 2-d protogynous sequence. Most are pollinated by large beetles that remain for the entire period in the flowers, where they compete for mates and feed. Active beetles require high body temperatures that they can achieve endogenously at great energy expense or attain passively and cheaply in a warm environment. Floral heating is therefore hypothesized to be a direct energy reward to endothermic beetles, in addition to its accepted role in enhancing scent production. • Methods This study measures the pattern of floral heat production (as temperature in 20 flowers and respiration rates in five flowers) in Victoria amazonica at field sites in Guyana and correlates floral temperatures with body temperatures necessary for activity in visiting Cyclocephala hardyi beetles. • Key Results Thermogenesis occurred in a bimodal pattern, with peaks associated with the arrival and departure of beetles near sunset. Peak CO2 production rates averaged 2·9 µmol s−1, equivalent to a heat production of 1·4 W. Heat was generated mainly in the floral chamber on the first evening and by the stamen complex on the second. Mean chamber temperature remained between 29·3 and 34·7 °C during the first night, when ambient temperature was 23·5–25·2 °C. Beetles actively competed for mates and consumed stylar processes in the floral chamber, where their mean thoracic temperature was 33·2 °C. At the lower ambient temperatures outside of the flower, beetles capable of sustained flight had a similar mean temperature of 32·0 °C. • Conclusions Floral heating is not only associated with attraction, but continues throughout the night when beetles are active inside the flower and increases again when they leave. Floral chamber temperatures similar to activity temperatures of actively endothermic beetles imply that thermogenesis is an energy reward. PMID:17018568

  16. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P

  17. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Karen; Bishop, James F; Cross, Hannah L; Chondros, Patty; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, Jon D

    2016-07-18

    To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 2012 - 30 April 2013. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had had three or more GP consultations about cancer-related health problems before being referred to hospital. The secondary outcome was the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. 34% of the patients included in the final analyses (426 of 1248) had visited a GP at least three times before referral to a hospital doctor. The odds ratios (reference: rectal cancer; adjusted for age, sex, language spoken at home, and socio-economic disadvantage index score) varied according to cancer type, being highest for pancreatic cancer (3.2; 95% CI, 1.02-9.9), thyroid cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6), vulval cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.7-8.7) and multiple myeloma (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and lowest for patients with breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), cervical cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-2.1), endometrial cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4) or melanoma (0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). Cancer type also affected the duration of the interval from symptom onset to seeing a hospital doctor; it took at least 3 months for more than one-third of patients with prostate or colon cancer to see a hospital doctor. Certain cancer types were more frequently associated with multiple GP visits, suggesting they are more challenging to recognise early. In Victoria, longer intervals from the first symptoms to seeing a hospital doctor for colon or prostate cancer may reflect poorer community symptom awareness, later GP referral, or limited access to

  18. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  19. Trends in incidence and survival for upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) in the state of Victoria--Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Richard; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Aw, Hau Choong; Sengupta, Shomik; Persad, Raj

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the incidence and mortality trends of upper tract urothelial cancers (UTUC) in Victoria over the last decade. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for UTUC. These were identified using data from the Victorian Cancer Registry from 2001 until 2011 based on histological diagnoses. Age at diagnosis, sex and demographical location were compared. The age-standardised incidence of UTUC remained stable from 2001 to 2011. There were 278 deaths from UTUC over this period with an overall 5-year survival rate of 32%. There was no significant difference in survival between 2001-06 and 2007-11 (30% vs 36%, respectively). Lower age at diagnosis was associated with a significant improvement in survival (P = 0.01). Sex and geographical location appeared to have no effect on survival. The 5-year survival rates for UTUC in Victoria are poor, particularly in comparison to worldwide data. In contrast to worldwide trends, the incidence of UTUC appears to be stable. No significant improvement in 5-year survival rates over the short study period was identified. These findings highlight the difficulties in managing this rare yet deadly malignancy. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  1. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  2. Desired Chinese medicine practitioner capabilities and professional development needs: a survey of registered practitioners in Victoria, Australia

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    Radloff Alex

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The State of Victoria in Australia introduced Chinese medicine practitioner registration in 2000 and issued its education guidelines in late 2002 for introduction in 2005. This study obtained practitioners' views on desired capabilities for competent Chinese medicine practice and to identify professional development needs. Methods A questionnaire, consisting of 28 predefined capabilities in four categories with a rating scale of importance from one to five, was developed and sent to all registered Chinese medicine practitioners in the State of Victoria, Australia in October, 2005. Results Two hundreds and twenty eight completed questionnaires were returned which represented a response rate of 32.5%. Of the four categories of capabilities, technical capabilities were considered to be the most important for clinical practice. Specifically, the ability to perform acupuncture treatment and/or dispense an herbal prescription was ranked the highest. In contrast, research and information management capabilities were considered the least important. The educational background of practitioners appeared to be an important factor influencing their rating of capabilities. Significantly, nearly double the number of practitioners with Australian qualifications than practitioners trained overseas valued communication as an important capability. For continuing professional education, clinical skills courses were considered as a priority while research degree studies were not. Conclusion Registered Chinese medicine practitioners viewed skills training as important but did not support the need for research and information management training. This represents a significant hurdle to developing Chinese medicine as a form of evidence-based healthcare.

  3. Scoping of models to support population-based regional health planning and management: comparison with the regional operating model in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jean-Frederic; O'Dowd, John J M; Ní Shé, Éidín M; Weenink, Jan-Willem; Gunn, Jane

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to try to understand the breadth and comprehensiveness of a regional operating model (ROM) developed within the Victorian Department of Health's North West Metropolitan Region office in Melbourne, Australia. Methods A published literature search was conducted, with additional website scanning, snowballing technique and expert consultation, to identify existing operating models. An analytical grid was developed covering 16 components to evaluate the models and assess the exhaustiveness of the ROM. Results From the 34 documents scoped, 10 models were identified to act as a direct comparator to the ROM. These concerned models from Australia (n=5) and other comparable countries (Canada, UK). The ROM was among the most exhaustive models, covering 13 of 16 components. It was one of the few models that included intersectoral actions and levers of influence. However, some models identified more precisely the planning tools, prioritisation criteria and steps, and the allocation mechanisms. Conclusions The review finds that the ROM appears to provide a wide coverage of aspects of planning and integrates into a single model some of the distinctive elements of the other models scoped. What is known about the topic? Various jurisdictions are moving towards a population-based approach to manage public services with regard to the provision of individual medical and social care. Various models have been proposed to guide the planning of services from a population health perspective. What does this paper add? This paper assesses the coverage of attributes of operating models supporting a population health planning approach to the management of services at the regional or local level. It provides a scoping of current models proposed to organise activities to ensure an integrated approach to the provision of services and compares the scoped models to a model recently implemented in Victoria, Australia. What are the implications for

  4. A very high infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria Fishing Community is required for association with highly prevalent organ related morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edridah M Tukahebwa

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria in Mayuge district, highly endemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection.A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of 217 females and 229 males, with a mean age of 26 years (SD ± 16, range 7-76 years. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.6-91.5. The geometric mean intensity (GMI of S. mansoni was 236.2 (95% CI: 198.5-460.9 eggs per gram (epg faeces. Males had significantly higher GMI (370.2 epg than females (132.6 epg and age was also significantly associated with intensity of infection. Levels of water contact activities significantly influenced intensity of infection and the highest intensity of infection was found among people involved in fishing. However, organomegaly was not significantly associated with S. mansoni except for very heavy infection (>2000 epg. Liver image patterns C and D indicative of fibrosis were found in only 2.2% and 0.2%, respectively. S. mansoni intensity of infection was associated with portal vein dilation and abnormal spleen length. Anaemia was observed in 36.4% of the participants but it was not associated with S. mansoni infection intensity. Considering growth in children as one of the morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis, intensity of S. mansoni was significantly associated with stunting.Although organ-related morbidity, with the exception of periportal fibrosis, and S. mansoni infections were highly prevalent, the two were only associated for individuals with very high infection intensities. These results contrast starkly with reports from Ugandan Lake Albert fishing communities in which periportal fibrosis is more prevalent.

  5. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  6. Tools used in mineral exploration for measuring the conductivity and the resistivity in drillholes and on drill core: observations on their range of sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Devon; Smith, Richard S.; Mahmoodi, Omid

    2016-07-01

    A study has been undertaken to acquire conductivity data using the EM39 low-induction-number conductivity tool. Measurements were taken in three holes in the Sudbury, Ontario, area: at Victoria in the south-west part of the Sudbury structure; at Levack, in the north range; and at the Lady Violet deposit near Copper Cliff. These data were compared with pre-existing data acquired using four other tools and measurements taken on core extracted from the holes. The four tools are the DGI galvanic downhole resistivity tool, the IFG downhole conductivity tool, and the handheld KT-10 and GDD meters. The comparison shows that each tool has a finite range of sensitivity. The resistivity tool used by DGI Geoscience is sensitive to conductivities primarily in the range 0.01 to 100 mS/m; the EM39 tool is sensitive to conductivities in the range of ~30 mS/m to 3000 mS/m and the IFG tool to conductivities greater than 30 mS/m. In the sub-ranges where the ranges of two instruments overlap, one might expect a good correlation between the measurements derived from the two tools. However, this is not always the case, as the instruments can have a different volume of sensitivity: the EM39 has a coil separation of 50 cm and will see material greater than 20 cm away from the hole; whereas the IFG conductivity tool seems to have a smaller spatial scale of sensitivity due to its 10 cm coil size. The handheld instruments used to log the conductivity of the core are sensitive to more conductive material (greater than ~1 S/m). The scale of the sensors of these handheld instruments is a few cm, so they are focussing on a very local estimate. The spatial characteristics of the handheld instruments are similar to the IFG tool, so there is a reasonable linear correlation between the conductivities derived from these three different instruments. However, the slopes are not unity; for example, the GDD instrument gives values three times greater than the KT-10. When selecting tools for measuring

  7. Readiness of communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities

  8. A very high infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria fishing community is required for association with highly prevalent organ related morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria...

  9. Balancing the people, profit and planet dimensions in international marketing channels : a study on coordinating mechanisms in the Nile perch channel from Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambewa, E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: people, profit, planet, marketing channels, contracts, sustainability, quality,LakeVictoria, conjointanalysis

  10. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  11. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  12. Triumphs Show: What Makes Art History? Year 7 Exploit the Resources of the Victoria and Albert Museum's Medieval Gallery to Create and Curate Their Own Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copsey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    What do 14 Year 7 students, an art teacher, a history teacher and the Victoria and Albert Museum have in common? They are all part of the "Stronger Together" Museum Champion project run by The Langley Academy and the River & Rowing Museum and supported by Arts Council England, designed to engage students, teachers and museum staff…

  13. Comparison of photodegradative efficiencies and mechanisms of Victoria Blue R assisted by Nafion-coated and fluorinated TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.T. [Department of General Education, Ming Hsing University of Science and Technology, 304, Taiwan (China); Lu, C.S. [Department of General Education, National Taichung Nursing College, Taichung 403, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.H. [Department of General Education, Ming Hsing University of Science and Technology, 304, Taiwan (China); Lai, Y.Y. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.H. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Hsing University of Science and Technology, 304, Taiwan (China); Wu, C.W. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.C., E-mail: ccchen@ms3.ntcu.edu.tw [Department of Science Application and Dissemination, National Taichung University, Taichung 403, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-15

    The purposes of this research were to study the effects of two modified photocatalysts, Nafion-coated TiO{sub 2} and fluorinated TiO{sub 2}, and photocatalytic degradation of Victoria Blue R in aqueous solution. Photocatalytic degradation of Victoria Blue R was accelerated by the modified photocatalysts. Bulk and surface characterizations of the resulting powders were carried out. Attachment of the anions to the TiO{sub 2} surface using the Nafion-coated-TiO{sub 2} possibly results in increased adsorption of the cationic dye, and the degradation rate is larger for the cationic dye. It was found that Victoria Blue R on the two illuminated TiO{sub 2} surfaces underwent very different changes. To obtain a better understanding on the mechanistic details of this modified-TiO{sub 2}-assisted photodegradation of the Victoria Blue R dye with UV irradiation, a large number of intermediates of the process were separated, identified, and characterized by a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Several probable photodegradation pathways were proposed and discussed.

  14. High seroprevalance of Neospora caninum in dogs in Victoria, Australia, compared to 20 years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sloan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canids are definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, the leading cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. For horizontal transmission from canids to occur, oocysts of N. caninum must be shed by the definitive host into the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts such as cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of N. caninum in canids in Victoria, Australia’s leading dairy producing state. Results Neospora-like oocysts were observed in 8% (18/234 of faecal samples from wild dogs, domestic dogs and red foxes from Victoria, Australia. However, none tested positive for N. caninum DNA using a quantitative PCR. In a separate sample population, blood sera from 483 domestic dogs were tested for anti-N. caninum antibodies using competitive ELISA. A subset of cELISA samples were re-tested using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. A seroprevalence of 29.8% (144/483; 95% CI: 11.7–47.8% was calculated when using cELISA; whereas it was 32.9% (27/80; 95% CI: 15.8–51.8% using IFAT. Potential risk factors were evaluated using univariable analyses and then assessed in separate multivariable models. Using ‘aged’ dogs as a reference, the seroprevalence of ‘adolescent’ and ‘adult’ dogs was 88% (P = 0.05 and 91% (P = 0.08, respectively, indicating seroprevalence increases with age. There was a 19% higher likelihood of infection in rural locations (P = 0.10 relative to urban areas. Jack Russell Terriers had a 22% higher risk of a cELISA-positive result (P = 0.05 regardless of geographical location, age or sex. Conclusion These results demonstrate that exposure to N. caninum in domestic dogs is widespread in Victoria, although faecal oocyst shedding is infrequent. Our results indicate increased N. caninum seroprevalance status in dogs over the past two decades. The results imply that dogs get either exposed to the infected meat more frequently or that vertical dam to

  15. Exploring the 'follow-through experience': a statewide survey of midwifery students and academics conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Helen L; Newton, Michelle; Nightingale, Helen; Morrow, Jane; Kruger, Gina

    2013-09-01

    Follow-through experiences (which enable midwifery students to experience continuity of care with individual women through pregnancy, labour and birth and the postnatal period) are a component of midwifery education programmes in Australia and the United Kingdom. Current accreditation standards in Australia require midwifery students to have a total of 20 continuity of care experiences with an average of 20 hours per woman over the duration of their course. There has been limited research regarding students' and academics' experiences of follow-through experiences; and there has been debate regarding the appropriate number of follow-through experiences in midwifery curricula. This study aimed to explore the follow-through experience from the perspective of midwifery students and academics in Victoria, Australia. cross-sectional design using a web-based survey. Victoria, Australia. Students (n=401) and academics (n=35) from all seven universities in Victoria that offer accredited midwifery programmes including the Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery double degree, Postgraduate Diploma of Midwifery and Masters of Midwifery (entry to practice). Students and academics were in agreement that continuity of care is important to women. They considered the follow-through experience to be a unique and valuable learning opportunity and agreed that follow-through experiences should be included in midwifery education programmes. However, students and academics raised major concerns about the impact of follow-through experiences on students' capacity to meet university course requirements (such as missing lectures/tutorials and clinical placements), and spending extensive periods of time on-call both within and outside the university semester. Students and academics also reported concerns about the impact of follow-through experiences on students' personal lives, including paid employment and family responsibilities (such as childcare or caring for

  16. Chronology for the Cueva Victoria fossil site (SE Spain): Evidence for Early Pleistocene Afro-Iberian dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Luis; Scott, Gary R; Scholz, Denis; Budsky, Alexander; Ferràndez, Carles; Ribot, Francesc; Martin, Robert A; Lería, María

    2016-01-01

    Cueva Victoria has provided remains of more than 90 species of fossil vertebrates, including a hominin phalanx, and the only specimens of the African cercopithecid Theropithecus oswaldi in Europe. To constrain the age of the vertebrate remains we used paleomagnetism, vertebrate biostratigraphy and (230)Th/U dating. Normal polarity was identified in the non-fossiliferous lowest and highest stratigraphic units (red clay and capping flowstones) while reverse polarity was found in the intermediate stratigraphic unit (fossiliferous breccia). A lower polarity change occurred during the deposition of the decalcification clay, when the cave was closed and karstification was active. A second polarity change occurred during the capping flowstone formation, when the upper galleries were filled with breccia. The mammal association indicates a post-Jaramillo age, which allows us to correlate this upper reversal with the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma). Consequently, the lower reversal (N-R) is interpreted as the end of the Jaramillo magnetochron (0.99 Ma). These ages bracket the age of the fossiliferous breccia between 0.99 and 0.78 Ma, suggesting that the capping flowstone was formed during the wet Marine Isotopic Stage 19, which includes the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Fossil remains of Theropithecus have been only found in situ ∼1 m below the B/M boundary, which allows us to place the arrival of Theropithecus to Cueva Victoria at ∼0.9-0.85 Ma. The fauna of Cueva Victoria lived during a period of important climatic change, known as the Early-Middle Pleistocene Climatic Transition. The occurrence of the oldest European Acheulean tools at the contemporaneous nearby site of Cueva Negra suggest an African dispersal into SE Iberia through the Strait of Gibraltar during MIS 22, when sea-level was ∼100 m below its present position, allowing the passage into Europe of, at least, Theropithecus and Homo bearing Acheulean technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  18. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  19. Morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula de Victoria amazonica (Poepp.) J.C. Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa-Osman,Sônia Maciel da; Rodrigues,Robson; Mendonça,Maria Sílvia de; Souza,Luiz Antonio de; Piedade,Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Victoria amazonica (Poepp.) J.C. Sowerby é uma hidrófita que ocorre nas várzeas de águas brancas e igapós da Bacia Amazônica e na Bacia do rio Paraguai. A morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula/"tirodendro" é objeto do presente trabalho. O material botânico foi coletado em Parintins e Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A análise morfológica foi feita em material fresco e fixado em FAA 50. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi realizado no escuro em frascos com água com teor reduzido de oxigênio....

  20. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and toxicity assessment of plant extracts used in traditional malaria therapy in the Lake Victoria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Akeng'a Ayuko

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of our program screening the flora of the Lake Victoria Region, a total of 54 organic extracts from seven plant families (8 species were individually tested for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive [Sierra Leone (D-6] and chloroquine-resistant [Vietnam (W-2] strains. Only 22% of these extracts exhibited very high in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Six methanol (MeOH extracts and one chloroform extract showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the D-6 Plasmodium falciparum strain, while only three MeOH extracts were active against the W-2 strain. All of the ethyl acetate extracts proved to be inactive against both strains of P. falciparum. A brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to predict the potential toxicity of the extracts. The cytotoxicity to antiplasmodial ratios for the MeOH extracts were found to be greater than 100, which could indicate that the extracts are of low toxicity.

  1. Peer Group Patterns of Alcohol-Using Behaviors Among Early Adolescents in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine and cross-nationally compare the peer group patterns of alcohol-drinking behaviors among cohorts of early adolescents (ages 11-14 years) in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States. Latent transition analysis revealed that after 1 year, transitions congruent with peer influence (whereby non-drinking adolescents initiated alcohol use in the presence of drinking peers) and reverse peer influence were observed in both states; however, transitions congruent with peer selection (whereby drinking adolescents self-selected into drinking peer groups) were only observed among Victorian early adolescents. Findings were interpreted to suggest that Australian family and cultural norms that more commonly allow early adolescent alcohol use lead to a higher rate of peer selection. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. The consequences of land use change on nutrient exports: a regional scale assessment in south-west Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Leblanc, Marc; Stagnitti, Frank; Duff, Gordon; Salzman, Scott; Versace, Vincent

    2005-03-01

    Estimation of nutrient load production based on multi-temporal remotely sensed land use data for the Glenelg-Hopkins region in south-west Victoria, Australia, is discussed. Changes in land use were mapped using archived Landsat data and computerised classification techniques. Land use change has been rapid in recent history with 16% of the region transformed in the last 22 years. Total nitrogen and phosphorus loads were estimated using an export coefficient model. The analysis demonstrates an increase in modelled nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from 1980 to 2002. Whilst such increases were suspected from past anecdotal and ad-hoc evidence, our modelling estimated the magnitude of such increases and thus demonstrated the enormous potential of using remote sensing and GIS for monitoring regional scale environmental processes.

  3. Late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic activity in northern Victoria Land recorded in Ross Sea (Antarctica) marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Di Roberto, A.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Bertagnini, A.; Landi, P.; Pompilio, M.; Colizza, E.; Giordano, G.

    2015-05-01

    Eight pyroclastic fall deposits have been identified in cores of Late Pleistocene-Holocene marine sediments from the Ross Sea (Antarctica), and their components, granulometry and clast morphologies were analysed. Sedimentological, petrographic and geochemical analysis of clasts, with 40Ar-39Ar dating of alkali feldspar grains, indicate that during this period at least five explosive eruptions of mid to high intensity (plinian to subplinian) occurred, and that three of these eruptions took place from Mount Melbourne volcanic complex, between 137.1 ± 3.4 and 12 ka. Geochemical comparison of the studied tephra with micro- and crypto-tephra recovered from deep Antarctic ice cores and from nearby englacial tephra at Frontier Mountain indicates that eruptive activity in the Melbourne Volcanic Province of northern Victoria Land was intense during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene, but only a general area of provenance for the majority of the identified tephra can be identified.

  4. Las redes sociales y migratorias, un acercamiento al fenómeno migratorio de Perote, Veracruz y Guadalupe Victoria, Puebla.

    OpenAIRE

    López Toxqui, María Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    La migración de mexicanos hacia los Estados Unidos se incrementó en los años 2000 a 2006 en 37.29%, favoreciendo las remesas que para el 2008 fueron de 23,978.99 millones de dólares, el estado con mayor monto fue Michoacán con 2,263.55 millones de dólares y Veracruz recibió 1,473.9. El objetivo fue caracterizar la migración de los municipios de Perote Veracruz y Guadalupe Victoria, Puebla. El enfoque metodológico fueron las redes sociales. Los resultados muestran que los migrantes tenían una...

  5. Maternal region of birth and stillbirth in Victoria, Australia 2000-2011: A retrospective cohort study of Victorian perinatal data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L Davies-Tuck

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence from high-income countries that maternal country of birth is a risk factor for stillbirth. We aimed to examine the association between maternal region of birth and stillbirth between 2000 and 2011 inclusive in Victoria, Australia.Retrospective population based cohort study of all singleton births at 24 or more weeks gestational age from 2000-2011 in Victoria, Australia. Stillbirths due to termination of pregnancy, babies with congenital anomalies and Indigenous mothers were excluded. Main Outcome Measure: Stillbirth.Over the 12-year period there were 685,869 singleton births and 2299 stillbirths, giving an overall stillbirth rate of 3·4 per 1000 births. After adjustment for risk factors, compared to women born in Australia/New Zealand, women born in South Asia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.53, p = 0.01, were more likely to have a stillbirth whereas women born in South East and East Asia were (aOR 0.60, (95% CI 0.49-0.72, p<0.001 less likely to have a stillbirth. Additionally, the increasing rate of stillbirth as gestation length progressed began to rise earlier and more steeply in the South Asian compared to Australian/New Zealand born women. The following risk factors were also significantly associated with an increased odds of stillbirth in multivariate analyses: maternal age <20 and 35 years and more, nulliparity, low socio-economic status, previous stillbirth, no ultrasound reported in 1st trimester, pre-existing hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and failure to detect growth restriction antenatally.Maternal region of birth is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. Improvements in the rate of stillbirth, particularly late pregnancy stillbirth, are likely to be gained in high-income settings where clinical care is informed by maternal region of birth.

  6. Linking land use changes to surface water quality variability in Lake Victoria: some insights from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Limaye, A. S.; Nyaga, J. W.; Farah, H.; Wahome, A.; Flores, A.

    2016-12-01

    The water quality of inland lakes is largely influenced by land use and land cover changes within the lake's catchment. In Africa, some of the major land use changes are driven by a number of factors, which include urbanization, intensification of agricultural practices, unsustainable farm management practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation. Often, the impacts of these factors are observable on changes in the land cover, and eventually in the hydrological systems. When the natural vegetation cover is reduced or changed, the surface water flow patterns, water and nutrient retention capacities are also changed. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, leading to eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess the relationship between land use and land cover changes in part of the Lake Victoria Basin, a series of land cover maps were derived from Landsat imagery. Changes in land cover were identified through change maps and statistics. Further, the surface water chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were derived from MODIS-Aqua data for Lake Victoria. Chlrophyll-a and turbidity are good proxy indicators of nutrient inputs and siltation respectively. The trends in chlorophyll-a and turbidity concentrations were analyzed and compared to the land cover changes over time. Certain land cover changes related to agriculture and urban development were clearly identifiable. While these changes might not be solely responsible for variability in chlrophyll-a and turbidity concentrations in the lake, they are potentially contributing factors to this problem. This work illustrates the importance of addressing watershed degradation while seeking to solve water quality related problems.

  7. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Iris L Y; Machalek, Dorothy A; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18-25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women's study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants' demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (pAttitudes towards general health, vaccinations in general, as well as HPV vaccines are important in HPV vaccine uptake. Long-term monitoring of the knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards HPV vaccination in the community is critical to ensure a continued high uptake of the vaccine and success of the program.

  8. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-06-05

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystander CPR region using data on adult, bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (n=7175) from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. We then surveyed adult Victorians (n=404) and compared CPR training data of the respondents from low and high bystander CPR regions. Of the 404 adults surveyed, 223 (55%) resided in regions with low bystander CPR. Compared with respondents from high bystander CPR regions, respondents residing in regions with low bystander CPR had lower rates of CPR training (62% versus 75%, P=0.009) and lower self-ratings for their overall knowledge of CPR (76% versus 84%, P=0.04). There were no differences between the regions in their reasons for not having undergone CPR training or in their willingness to perform CPR. Rates of survival for bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly lower in low bystander CPR regions (15.7% versus 17.0%, PCPR training and lower survival in regions with lower rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. Targeting these regions with CPR training programs may improve bystander CPR rates and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Composition and Genetic Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Islands and Mainland Shores of Kenya's Lakes Victoria and Baringo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Villinger, Jandouwe; Omondi, David; Salifu, Daisy; Onchuru, Thomas Ogao; Njoroge, Laban; Muigai, Anne W T; Masiga, Daniel K

    2016-11-01

    The Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria regions of Kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. However, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. To estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the corresponding sequence variation at cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) gene regions. A total of 63 species (including five subspecies) were collected from both study areas, 47 of which have previously been implicated as disease vectors. Fourteen species were found only on island sites, which are rarely included in mosquito diversity surveys. We collected more mosquitoes, yet with lower species composition, at Lake Baringo (40,229 mosquitoes, 32 species) than at Lake Victoria (22,393 mosquitoes, 54 species). Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene sequences revealed Culex perexiguus and Cx tenagius that could not be distinguished morphologically. Most Culex species clustered into a heterogeneous clade with closely related sequences, while Culex pipiens clustered into two distinct COI and ITS2 clades. These data suggest limitations in current morphological identification keys. This is the first DNA barcode report of Kenyan mosquitoes. To improve mosquito species identification, morphological identifications should be supported by their molecular data, while diversity surveys should target both adults and immatures. The diversity of native mosquito disease vectors identified in this study impacts disease transmission risks to humans and livestock. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Exploring midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen

    2015-02-01

    in Australia, models of maternity care that offer women continuity of care with a known midwife have been promoted. Little is known about the intentions of the future midwifery workforce to work in such models. This study aimed to explore midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery and their work intentions in relation to the caseload model following graduation. cross-sectional survey. Victoria, Australia. 129 midwifery students representing all midwifery course pathways (Post Graduate Diploma, Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery) in Victoria. midwifery students from all course pathways considered that continuity of care is important to women and indicated that exposure to continuity models during their course was very positive. Two-thirds of the students (67%) considered that the continuity experiences made them want to work in a caseload model; only 5% reported that their experiences had discouraged them from continuity of care work in the future. Most wanted a period of consolidation to gain experience as a midwife prior to commencing in the caseload model. Perceived barriers to caseload work were being on-call, and challenges in regard to work/life balance and family commitments. midwifery students in this study were very positive about caseload midwifery and most would consider working in caseload after a period of consolidation. Continuity of care experiences during students' midwifery education programmes appeared to provide students with insight and understanding of continuity of care for both women and midwives. Further research should explore what factors influence students' future midwifery work, whether or not their plans are fulfilled, and whether or not the caseload midwifery workforce can be sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  12. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.

    1979-01-01

    Displacement of the land surface by faulting is widespread in the Houston-Galveston region, an area which has undergone moderate to severe land subsidence associated with fluid withdrawal (principally water, and to a lesser extent, oil and gas). A causative link between subsidence and fluid extraction has been convincingly reported in the published literature. However, the degree to which fluid withdrawal affects fault movement in the Texas Gulf Coast, and the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are as yet unclear. Faults that offset the ground surface are not confined to the large (>6000-km2) subsidence “bowl” centered on Houston, but rather are common and characteristic features of Gulf Coast geology. Current observations and conclusions concerning surface faults mapped in a 35,000-km2 area between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas (which area includes the Houston subsidence bowl) may be summarized as follows: (1) Hundreds of faults cutting the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments exposed in the coastal plain have been mapped. Many faults lie well outside the Houston-Galveston region; of these, more than 10% are active, as shown by such features as displaced, fractured, and patched road surfaces, structural failure of buildings astride faults, and deformed railroad tracks. (2) Complex patterns of surface faults are common above salt domes. Both radial patterns (for example, in High Island, Blue Ridge, Clam Lake, and Clinton domes) and crestal grabens (for example, in the South Houston and Friendswood-Webster domes) have been recognized. Elongate grabens connecting several known and suspected salt domes, such as the fault zone connecting Mykawa, Friendswood-Webster, and Clear Lake domes, suggest fault development above rising salt ridges. (3) Surface faults associated with salt domes tend to be short (10 km), occur singly or in simple grabens, have gently sinuous traces, and tend to lie roughly parallel to the ENE-NE “coastwise” trend common to regional growth

  13. Rice brown spot and susceptibility of some cultivars in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari-Motlagh, M R; Hedjaroude, Gh A; Zad, S J; Okhovvat, S M

    2002-01-01

    Rice brown spot is one of the important diseases in the world including Iran. 91 samples of the infected plants such as leaves and panicles were collected from different locations of Guilan province, North of Iran and the fungi isolated and studied for pathogenicity. Three species of Bipolaris (B. oryzae, Bipolaris sp. and B. cf. victoriae) were isolated more than other species with serious effects on the plants respectively. Reactions of 8 cultivars of rice, Neda, Nemat, Sepeed-rood, Bejar, Khazar, Domsephid, Hassan-saraee and Binam were studied in greenhouse to Bipolaris sp. and B. cf. victoriae in two stages of growth, on leaves and panicles, respectively. The results showed that in seedling stage on leaf there was no significant difference between these cultivars in case of infection rates. In heading stage, although there was no significant difference according to variance analysis, but according to Duncan test (5%) they could be divided into 3 groups. Neda, Sepeed-rood, Khazar and Binam, with the lowest infection rate, were in the first group Bejar, Domsephid and Hassan-saraee were classified into the second group and Nemat was in the third one. Curvularia sp., Nigrospora sp., Pyricularia grisea and Alternaria sp. were with minor prevalence in infection of the plants.

  14. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  15. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  16. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  17. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and practices on intestinal schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the Lake Victoria basin, Rorya District, north-western Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Munisi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally school-age children, adolescents and young adults bear the highest burden of schistosomiasis. When developing a specific intervention to improve community’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs, existing KAPs must be taken into account. Therefore, this study was designed to determine schoolchildren’s KAPs on schistosomiasis in the study area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages involving 513 schoolchildren. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and to assess KAP on schistosomiasis among primary schoolchildren in the study area. Results Of the 488 interviewed children, 391 (80.12% reported to have heard of schistosomiasis, with the majority 289 (73.91% citing school as the source of this knowledge. Swimming in the lake, worms, witchcraft, and mosquitoes were mentioned to be the cause for intestinal schistosomiasis. Fishing in the lake, drinking unboiled lake water, walking bare footed, and shaking hands were reported to be practices that may lead to contracting schistosomiasis. Only 156 (39.90% of the study respondents reported to know the signs of intestinal schistosomiasis. Avoiding swimming in the lake, drinking unboiled water and eating unwashed fruits were mentioned as preventive measures. Nearly 85% (412 reported understanding that there was a disease known as schistosomiasis; additionally, 419 (85.86% considered schistosomiasis as a dangerous disease and 418 (85.66% believed that schistosomiasis was treatable. Fishermen and schoolchildren were reported to be groups most at risk of schistosomiasis infection. Visiting the lake (for swimming and other gatherings was a common practice among study participants 471 (96.52%.Nearly 93% (451 of participants mentioned using lake water for domestic chores, and, although 407 (84.61% reported to own a toilet at home, only 229 (55.31% reported to always use a toilet for sanitation purposes. Conclusion and recommendation Despite a high rate of awareness among schoolchildren regarding schistosomiasis, there was a persistent gap amongst the children regarding the causes, modes of transmission, symptoms, and preventive measures for the disease. Therefore, an appropriate health education intervention is needed in order to inculcate better knowledge, attitudes, and practices amongst schoolchildren regarding its transmission, control, and prevention as part of a successful schistosomiasis campaign.

  19. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  20. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  1. The North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Westley, K.; Erkens, G.; Hijma, M.P.; Weerts, H.J.T.

    Chapter 7 in the 'SPLASHCOS Taphonomy book', on the landscape-archaeological inventory of the North Sea as a regional sea (covering British, Dutch, Belgian, German and Danish sectors of the southern and central North Sea). Abstract: This chapter gives a general overview of knowledge regarding the

  2. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  3. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  4. Oceanographic profile plankton, Temperature Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from VICTORIA 1 FISHING BOAT), ALEJERO HUMBOLDT and other platforms in the South Pacific, Coastal S Pacific and other locations from 1980 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0002083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the VICTORIA 1(FISHING BOAT), ALEJERO HUMBOLDT and other platforms in the South...

  5. La Victoria de Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas para una renovación urbana sin gentrificación para Santiago./ La Victoria of Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas for an urban renewal without gentrification in Santiago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de renovación urbana en altura de Santiago, en expansión hacia áreas populares del pericentro, es una forma de acumulación de renta de suelo, con efectos de desplazamiento social, es decir, gentrificación. Sin embargo, el pericentro de Santiago es un espacio donde coexisten amplias necesidades y capacidades de densificación urbana sin desplazamiento. Tomando como caso de estudio el desarrollo urbano histórico y actual de la población La Victoria, en Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, se plantea una investigación enfocada en dos perspectivas: histórica, definiendo este espacio desde la dialéctica entre movimientos sociales urbanos y producción espacial específica; y normativa, como una propuesta espacial que combina aspectos claves de mejoramiento barrial y densificación inclusiva y autosustentable. Se evidencia de esta forma la alta complejidad espacial del pericentro de Santiago de Chile, así como la existencia de alternativas de renovación residencial pericentral que sean social y políticamente inclusivas y de bajo impacto en términos de expulsión./ The model of high-rise urban renewal sprawls towards Santiago de Chile’s inner city. This model can be understood as a form of gentrification based on considerable accumulation of the rent gap, while its externalities generate social displacement and physical dilapidation. Notwithstanding, Santiago’s inner city is also a lived space where both needs and capacities of urban regeneration (without displacement coexist. Focusing on the case of La Victoria población, located in the southern municipality of Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, this article seeks to address the following two topics: historically, the inner city responds to a dialectic of urban social movements and specific spatial production; normatively, as an ongoing research project shows, it is feasible to combine neighbourhood regeneration, urban density increase, and citizen participation. The article substantiates the

  6. Morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula de Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae Morphology of flower, fruit and seedling of Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maciel da Rosa-Osman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby é uma hidrófita que ocorre nas várzeas de águas brancas e igapós da Bacia Amazônica e na Bacia do rio Paraguai. A morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula/"tirodendro" é objeto do presente trabalho. O material botânico foi coletado em Parintins e Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A análise morfológica foi feita em material fresco e fixado em FAA 50. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi realizado no escuro em frascos com água com teor reduzido de oxigênio. As flores possuem pedicelo longo e são hemicíclicas, diclamídeas, monoclinas e com antese vespertina. Os frutos são carnosos, indeiscentes, com pseudossincarpia. As sementes apresentam arilo que atua na dispersão pela água. As plântulas se desenvolvem em condições de hipoxia e apresentam um cotilédone exposto acicular. O "tirodendro" apresenta eofilos com heterofilia. As flores apresentam caracteres morfológicos básicos da família, a definição do tipo de fruto exige estudo ontogenético e a heterofilia é um caráter típico de plântulas/"tirodendros"de Nymphaeaceae.Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby is a hydrophyte that occurs in the white water leas and igapos of the Amazonian and Paraguay Basin. The flower, fruit and seedling/"tirodendro" morphology is the object of the present work. The botanical material was collected at Parintins and Manaus, Amazonian state, Brazil. The morphological analysis was made in both fresh and fixed material. The seedling development was accomplished in flasks with water containing little oxygen and maintained in the darkness. Flowers present long pedicel and they are hemicyclic, dichlamydeous, bisexual with vespertine anthesis. Fruits are fleshy, indehiscent with pseudo-syncarpy. Seeds present aril that acts in the water dispersion. Seedlings grow in hypoxy conditions and they present an acicular and exposed cotyledon. The "tirodendro" stage presents eophylls with heterophylly. Flowers

  7. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  8. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  9. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  10. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  11. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  12. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  13. Quantifying deformation in North Borneo with GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafar, Mohamad Asrul; Simons, Wim J. F.; Tongkul, Felix; Satirapod, Chalermchon; Omar, Kamaludin Mohd; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The existence of intra-plate deformation of the Sundaland platelet along its eastern edge in North Borneo, South-East Asia, makes it an interesting area that still is relatively understudied. In addition, the motion of the coastal area of North-West Borneo is directed toward a frontal fold-and-thrust belt and has been fueling a long debate on the possible geophysical sources behind it. At present this fold-and-thrust belt is not generating significant seismic activity and may also not be entirely active due to a decreasing shelfal extension from south to north. Two sets of Global Positioning System (GPS) data have been used in this study; the first covering a time period from 1999 until 2004 (ending just before the Giant Sumatra-Andaman earthquake) to determine the continuous Sundaland tectonic plate motion, and the second from 2009 until 2011 to investigate the current deformations of North Borneo. Both absolute and relative positioning methods were carried out to investigate horizontal and vertical displacements. Analysis of the GPS results indicates a clear trend of extension along coastal regions of Sarawak and Brunei in North Borneo. On the contrary strain rate tensors in Sabah reveal that only insignificant and inconsistent extension and compression occurs throughout North-West Borneo. Moreover, station velocities and rotation rate tensors on the northern part of North Borneo suggest a clockwise (micro-block) rotation. The first analysis of vertical displacements recorded by GPS in North-West Borneo points to low subsidence rates along the western coastal regions of Sabah and inconsistent trends between the Crocker and Trusmadi mountain ranges. These results have not been able to either confirm or reject the hypothesis that gravity sliding is the main driving force behind the local motions in North Borneo. The ongoing Sundaland-Philippine Sea plate convergence may also still play an active role in the present-day deformation (crustal shortening) in North

  14. DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, C J; Stothard, J R

    2012-10-01

    While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters.

  15. Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J.; Tinkitina, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    -sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin......In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non...... locations, were highly susceptible to the S. mansoni isolates. Thus if B. choanomphala, which is an efficient intermediate host in Lake Victoria, is given an opportunity to occupy Lake Albert, it will most likely be compatible with the Albertine S. mansoni parasites. Equally, if B. stanleyi, currently...

  16. Record of North American geology for 1887 to 1889, inclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Nelson Horatio

    1891-01-01

    The literary scope of this record includes geologic publications printed in North America and publications on North American geology wherever printed. Chronologically it includes publications issued during the years 1887,1888, and 1889. The List of Publications Examined, page 9, indicates the range of the sources of information.

  17. Landscape aridity, fire severity and rainfall intensity as controls on debris flow frequency after the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires in Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Sherwin, Christopher; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This study uses aerial imagery and field surveys to develop a statistical model for determining debris flow susceptibility in a landscape with variable terrain, soil and vegetation properties. A measure of landscape scale debris flow response was obtained by recording all debris flow affected drainage lines in the first year after fire in a ~258 000 ha forested area that was burned by the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfire in Victoria. A total of 12 500 points along the drainage network were sampled from catchments ranging in size from 0.0001 km2to 75 km2. Local slope and the attributes of the drainage areas (including the spatially averaged peak intensity) were extracted for each sample point. A logistic regression was used to model how debris flow susceptibility varies with the normalised burn ratio (dNBR, from Landsat imagery), rainfall intensity (from rainfall radar), slope (from DEM) and aridity (from long-term radiation, temperature and rainfall data).The model of debris flow susceptibility produced a good fit with the observed debris flow response of drainage networks within the burned area and was reliable in distinguishing between drainage lines which produced debris flows and those which didn't. The performance of the models was tested through multiple iterations of fitting and testing using unseen data. The local channel slope captured the effect of scale on debris flow susceptibility with debris flow probability approaching zero as the channel slope decreased with increasing drainage area. Aridity emerged as an important predictor of debris flow susceptibility, with increased likelihood of debris flows in drier parts of the landscape, thus reinforcing previous research in the region showing that post-fire surface runoff from wet Eucalypt forests is insufficient for initiating debris flows. Fire severity, measured as dNBR, was also a very important predictor. The inclusion of local channel slope as a predictor of debris flow susceptibility proved to be an

  18. High prevalence of fasciolosis and evaluation of drug efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in the Maffra and Bairnsdale districts of Gippsland, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T P; Kelley, J M; Rawlin, G; Spithill, T W

    2015-04-15

    Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite amongst grazing livestock in the south-eastern region of Australia and is responsible for significant production losses in the beef and dairy industries. Gippsland in Victoria is a major region for dairy production but no fluke prevalence data in livestock has been obtained in this region since the late 1970s prior to the introduction of Triclabendazole (TCBZ). TCBZ resistance is also now widespread in cattle in south east Australia. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and intensity of liver fluke infections in dairy cattle in Gippsland and assessed the efficacy of TCBZ and other drenches against F. hepatica on one farm. We obtained 30 individual faecal samples from each of 15 different farms and, using the liver fluke coproantigen ELISA, tested bulk faecal samples pooled from each farm. Any farm that returned a positive bulk sample had all of the samples tested individually to assess the intra-herd prevalence. One farm in the Maffra district also had a coproantigen reduction test and faecal egg count reduction test to assess the efficacy of TCBZ, Clorsulon (CLOR) and Oxyclozanide (OXY). The coproantigen ELISA proved to be a highly sensitive test for liver fluke with a high correlation (R(2)=0.8849) observed between ELISA data from bulk samples and individual samples, suggesting that future larger scale screening on farms for fasciolosis could use the bulk analysis technique. The ELISA data revealed that animals on six of the 15 farms were infected with F. hepatica and the herd prevalence of the infected herds ranged from 47 to 100% (mean 81%) which exceeds the prevalence value for production losses of 25%. The intensity of fluke infection in cattle varied considerably both within and between herds with a proportion of animals exhibiting a positive control value in the coproantigen ELISA of 50-88%. We also confirmed that TCBZ resistance was present on one farm but that CLOR or OXY can be used to remove the

  19. The outcomes of health-promoting communities: being active eating well initiative-a community-based obesity prevention intervention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, K A; Kremer, P; Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Swinburn, B; de Silva, A

    2017-07-01

    schools (P<0.05). All effect sizes were in the small-to-moderate range. This was a complex and ambitious initiative, which attempted to expand a previously successful community-based intervention in Victoria into five new contexts and communities. Overall, project success was quite inconsistent, and some significant differences were in the unanticipated direction. However, there are many important learnings that should inform future health-promotion activities. The heterogeneity of outcomes of HPC:BAEW communities reflects the reality of life whereby effectiveness of intervention strategies is dependent on individual and community factors. Future health promotion should consider a systems approach whereby existing systems are modified rather than relying heavily on the addition of new activities, with longer time frames for implementation.

  20. Un paso de América: Alfonso Reyes, Victoria Ocampo y el cosmopolitismo en la década de 1930 / Un paso de América: Alfonso Reyes, Victoria Ocampo and the Cosmopolitanism in the 1930’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorica Majstorovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata de las construcciones americanistas del cosmopolitismo (entendido en relación a la geopolítica imperial en los textos de Victoria Ocampo y Alfonso Reyes de los años treinta. Al analizar su relación con los movimientos de inmigración y la subsiguiente revalorización de la nación, el artículo postula que en Alfonso Reyes la mediación cosmopolita es «des-jerarquizada», ubicada casi siempre en una «periferia», a diferencia de Victoria Ocampo cuyas visiones cosmopolitas son mediadas desde un «centro» —ya sea París o Buenos Aires— y relacionadas con una jerarquía de valores estéticos y políticos.The article deals with Americanist constructions of cosmopolitanism (understood in relation to the imperial geopolitics in the texts of Victoria Ocampo and Alfonso Reyes in the 1930’s. Upon analyzing its relationship with immigration movements and the subsequent revaluation of the nation, the article suggests that in Alfonso Reyes cosmopolitan mediation is «dis-hierarchized», almost always located in a periphery, unlike Victoria Ocampo whose cosmopolitan visions are mediated from a «center» —either Paris or Buenos Aires— and related to a hierarchy of aesthetic and political values.

  1. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  2. Stable isotope analyses and demographic responses counter prospects of planktivory by Caridina (Decapoda: Atyidae) in Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rob C; Campbell, Linda M; Hecky, R E

    2003-07-01

    Caridina nilotica, a freshwater atyid prawn, is a vital component of the Lake Victoria ecosystem. Despite its important role in the food web leading to Nile perch, the diet of Caridina is not well understood. Caridina freshly collected from the inshore littoral and offshore plankton of Lake Victoria were cultured individually under laboratory conditions on (A) decomposing hydrophytes, (B) living hydrophytes, (C) planktonic algae, (D) zooplankton and (E) 35- microm filtered lake water (a 'starvation' control). Inter-moult intervals (IMI, days), size-standardized moult intervals (MI, days mm(-1)), per moult growth increments (PMI, mm) and survivorship (%) were monitored daily for up to 5 weeks. Significant effects of both food type and shrimp source on MI were revealed by ANOVA. MI increased progressively from treatment A to D, and was shorter in offshore than littoral shrimps. Food influence on IMI was confirmed by ANCOVA. PMI values were close to the limits of detection, but were generally in line with MI responses. PMI values were marginal in treatments A and B, and negligible or negative in treatments D and especially E. Survivorship values, although confounded by non-dietary factors, were generally consistent with dietary influences on MI, although values obtained for treatment E were inconsistently high for true starvation. Disparate responses between inshore and offshore shrimps hint at possible ecotypic differentiation, or perhaps the existence of cryptic species. Stable isotope analyses (SIA, delta13C and delta15N signatures) of cultured shrimps were further consistent with their utilization of food type A but not D. SIA signatures of feral shrimps maintained in situ in enclosure bags with three separate potential fresh hydrophyte food sources (Vossia cuspidata, Cyperus papyrus, and Eichhornia crassipes) reflected Caridina's probable dietary reliance on decomposed organic matter with accompanying bacterial exudates. Collections of feral shrimps from various

  3. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  4. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pag...

  5. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Titus Franciscus Scheelings; Sarah Elizabeth Frith

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox ...

  6. Changes in feeding biology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), after invasion of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.

    1999-01-01

    Oreochrimis niloticus (L.) was introduced to Lake victoria in the 1950s. It remained relatively uncommon in catches until 1965, when the numbers began to increase dramatically. It is now the third most important commercial fish species after the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin). Oreochromis niloticus is considered a herbivore, feeding mostly on algae and plant material. The diet now appears to be more diversified , with insects, fish, algae and plant mat...

  7. Análisis sobre los imaginarios del trabajo en los trabajadores informales en la plazoleta la victoria de la ciudad de Quito.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Iza, Myriam Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the results of the study on the imaginary work of informal workers in the Square "LA VICTORIA" in the Metropolitan District of Quito, which places look Communication and analysis from the City, in order to identify the conceptions with subjects around work, status, employment relationship, the interaction, the conception of time, space, salary, health. The aspects mentioned to identify each individual develops imaginary that often are not perceived but are p...

  8. Contrasting effects of fire severity on regeneration of the dominant woody species in two coastal plant communities at Wilsons Promontory, Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, John W.; Nield, Catharine M.

    2013-01-01

    Following wildfire in 2005 at Wilsons Promontory, Victoria, we asked how fire severity affected the postfire regeneration of dominant woody species in two coastal plant communities. We documented the effects of fire severity (unburned, low, high) on stand mortality and seedling regeneration in shrublands dominated by the obligate seeder Leptospermum laevigatum (Myrtaceae) and woodlands dominated by the resprouting Banksia integrifolia var. integrifolia (Proteaceae). Leptospermum laevigatum is...

  9. INDIAN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SAFETY IN MELBOURNE AND THE VICTORIA POLICE – THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CRISIS AND THE PERCEPTIONS THAT PROPELLED IT

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fleming

    2012-01-01

    The international education sector is a major export earning industry for the Australian economy according to the Australian Government. It is also central to the nation’s international relations ambitions. However, Australia’s reputation as a safe and welcoming environment has been questioned following a series of highly publicised assaults against international students, particularly Indian nationals studying in Melbourne. This study analyses the effects of the Victoria Police public commun...

  10. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    that the long-range distribution of fish diseases in the southern North Sea might reflect the long-range transport of persistent pollutants.

  11. The Victoria West: earliest prepared core technology in the Acheulean at Canteen Kopje and implications for the cognitive evolution of early hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Kuman, Kathleen; Lotter, Matt G; Leader, George M; Gibbon, Ryan J

    2017-06-01

    Prepared core technology illustrates in-depth planning and the presence of a mental template during the core reduction process. This technology is, therefore, a significant indicator in studying the evolution of abstract thought and the cognitive abilities of hominids. Here, we report on Victoria West cores excavated from the Canteen Kopje site in central South Africa, with a preliminary age estimate of approximately 1 Ma (million years ago) for these cores. Technological analysis shows that the Victoria West cores bear similarities to the 'Volumetric Concept' as defined for the Levallois, a popular and widely distributed prepared core technology from at least 200 ka (thousand years ago). Although these similarities are present, several notable differences also occur that make the Victoria West a unique and distinctive prepared core technology; these are: elongated and convergent core shapes, consistent blow directions for flake removal, a predominance of large side-struck flakes, and the use of these flakes to make Acheulean large cutting tools. This innovative core reduction strategy at Canteen Kopje extends the roots of prepared core technology to the latter part of the Early Acheulean and clearly demonstrates an increase in the cognitive abilities and complexities of hominids in this time period.

  12. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia. From the 1930s until the 1950s, Britain and the British Empire served a pivotal role in history textbooks and curricula in both territories. Textbooks generally held that British and imperial history were crucial to the Canadian and Australian national identity. Following the Second World War, textbooks in both Ontario and Victoria began to recognize Britain’s loss of power, and how this changed Australian and Canadian participation in the British Empire/Commonwealth. But rather than advocate for a complete withdrawal from engagement with Britain, authors emphasized the continuing importance of the example of the British Empire and Commonwealth to world affairs. In fact, participation in the Commonwealth was often described as of even more importance as the Dominions could take a more prominent place in imperial affairs. By the 1960s, however, textbook authors in Ontario and Victoria began to change their narratives, de-emphasizing the importance of the British Empire to the Canadian and Australian identity. Crucially, by the late 1960s the new narratives Ontarians and Victorians constructed claimed that the British Empire and national identity were no longer significantly linked. An investigation into these narratives of history will provide a unique window into officially acceptable views on imperialism before and during the era of decolonization.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION IN NORTH-EAST NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations from Maiduguri and Yola areas of North-Eastern Nigeria were measured. Also determined were the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the SPM. Mean SPM levels were 28.3 µg/m3 (range, 1.3-144 µg/m3) and 13.6 µg/m3 (range, 1.1-52 µg/m3) for Maiduguri ...

  14. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  15. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  16. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  17. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  18. Characterisation of ectomycorrhizal formation by the exotic fungus Amanita muscaria with Nothofagus cunninghamii in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, Christopher William; Lebel, Teresa; Keane, Philip J

    2012-02-01

    The occurrence of the exotic ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mixed Nothofagus-Eucalyptus native forest was investigated to determine if A. muscaria has switched hosts to form a successful association with a native tree species in a natural environment. A mycorrhizal morphotype consistently found beneath A. muscaria sporocarps was examined, and a range of morphological and anatomical characteristics in common with those described for ectomycorrhizae formed by A. muscaria on a broad range of hosts were observed. A full description is provided. The likely plant associate was determined to be Nothofagus cunninghamii based upon anatomy of the roots. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the identities of both fungal and plant associates. These findings represent conclusive evidence of the invasion of a non-indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungus into native forest and highlight the ecological implications of this discovery.

  19. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban-regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2016-12-01

    Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster), this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban-regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional), and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage), nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools), and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage). Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban-regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed.

  20. The Development of a Customization Framework for the WRF Model over the Lake Victoria Basin, Eastern Africa on Seasonal Timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Argent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria, Africa, supports millions of people. To produce reliable climate projections, it is desirable to successfully model the rainfall over the lake accurately. An initial step is taken here with customization of the Weather, Research, and Forecast (WRF model. Of particular interest is an asymmetrical rainfall pattern across the lake basin, due to a diurnal land-lake breeze. The main aim is to present a customization framework for use over the lake. This framework is developed by conducting several series of model runs to investigate aspects of the customization. The runs are analyzed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall data and Climatic Research Unit temperature data. The study shows that the choice of parameters and lake surface temperature initialization can significantly alter the results. Also, the optimal physics combinations for the climatology may not necessarily be suitable for all circumstances, such as extreme years. The study concludes that WRF is unable to reproduce the pattern across the lake. The temperature of the lake is too cold and this prevents the diurnal land-lake breeze reversal. Overall, this study highlights the importance of customizing a model to the region of research and presents a framework through which this may be achieved.