WorldWideScience

Sample records for range movement 1973-1978

  1. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  2. The normal range of condylar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Han Up; Park, Tae Won

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of condylar movement of normal adults. The author gas observed roentgenographic images of four serial positions of condylar head taken by modified transcranial lateral oblique projection. The serial positions are centric occlusion, rest position, 1 inch open position and maximal open position. The results were obtained as follow; 1. Inter-incisal distance was 46.85 mm in maximal open position. 2. The length between the deepest point of glenoid fossa and summit of condylar head in rest position was wider than that in centric occlusion by 0.8 mm. 3. In 1 inch open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 12.64 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 1.84 mm of vertical direction. 4. In maximal open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 19.06 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 0.4 mm of vertical direction. 5. In centric occlusion, the width between glenoid fossa and margin of condylar head was greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior portion by 0.4 mm. 6. Except for estimated figures of 1 inch open position, all of the estimated figures was greater in male than in female.

  3. Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronhofer, E A; Gut, S; Altermatt, F

    2017-12-01

    Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. Although it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of increased movement at low densities at range margins using highly replicated and controlled range expansion experiments across multiple genotypes of the protist model system Tetrahymena thermophila. Although rare, we found evolutionary changes during range expansions even in the absence of initial standing genetic variation. Range expansions led to the evolution of negatively density-dependent movement at range margins. In addition, we report the evolution of increased intrastrain competitive ability and concurrently decreased population growth rates in range cores. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding movement and dispersal as evolving reaction norms and plastic life-history traits of central relevance for range expansions, biological invasions and the dynamics of spatially structured systems in general. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Movement is the glue connecting home ranges and habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer M; Basille, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Animal space use has been studied by focusing either on geographic (e.g. home ranges, species' distribution) or on environmental (e.g. habitat use and selection) space. However, all patterns of space use emerge from individual movements, which are the primary means by which animals change their environment. Individuals increase their use of a given area by adjusting two key movement components: the duration of their visit and/or the frequency of revisits. Thus, in spatially heterogeneous environments, animals exploit known, high-quality resource areas by increasing their residence time (RT) in and/or decreasing their time to return (TtoR) to these areas. We expected that spatial variation in these two movement properties should lead to observed patterns of space use in both geographic and environmental spaces. We derived a set of nine predictions linking spatial distribution of movement properties to emerging space-use patterns. We predicted that, at a given scale, high variation in RT and TtoR among habitats leads to strong habitat selection and that long RT and short TtoR result in a small home range size. We tested these predictions using moose (Alces alces) GPS tracking data. We first modelled the relationship between landscape characteristics and movement properties. Then, we investigated how the spatial distribution of predicted movement properties (i.e. spatial autocorrelation, mean, and variance of RT and TtoR) influences home range size and hierarchical habitat selection. In landscapes with high spatial autocorrelation of RT and TtoR, a high variation in both RT and TtoR occurred in home ranges. As expected, home range location was highly selective in such landscapes (i.e. second-order habitat selection); RT was higher and TtoR lower within the selected home range than outside, and moose home ranges were small. Within home ranges, a higher variation in both RT and TtoR was associated with higher selectivity among habitat types (i.e. third-order habitat

  5. Range and Precision of Formant Movement in Pediatric Dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kristen M; Annear, Lucas; Policicchio, Marisa; Hustad, Katherine C

    2017-07-12

    This study aimed to improve understanding of speech characteristics associated with dysarthria in children with cerebral palsy by analyzing segmental and global formant measures in single-word and sentence contexts. Ten 5-year-old children with cerebral palsy and dysarthria and 10 age-matched, typically developing children participated in this study. Vowel space area and second formant interquartile range were measured from children's elicited productions of single words and sentences. Results showed that the children with dysarthria had significantly smaller vowel space areas than typically developing children in both word and sentence contexts; however, overall ranges of second formant movement did not differ between groups in word or sentence contexts. Additional analysis of single words revealed that, compared to typical children, children with dysarthria had smaller second formant interquartile ranges in single words with phonetic contexts requiring large changes in vocal tract configuration, but not in single words with monophthongs. Results of this study suggest that children with dysarthria may not have globally reduced ranges of articulatory movement compared to typically developing peers; however, they do exhibit reduced precision in producing phonetic targets.

  6. Radiographic normal range of condylar movement of mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Myung Jin

    1981-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to determine various normal anatomic measurements of temporomandibular joint and normal range of condylar movement using relatively simple X-ray equipment and radiographic technique in consideration of popular clinical application. Author's cases consisted of 100 clinically normal adult males and temporomandibular joint radiographs of 3 serial positions of condylar head were taken by transcranial oblique lateral projection in each case. The serial positions are centric occlusion, 1 inch opening and maximal opening position. The results were as follows; 1. In centric occlusion, the length between the condylar head and glenoid fossa was 2.23 ± 0.58 mm in anterior part, 3.55 ± 0.80 mm in upper part and 2.76 ± 0.72 mm in posterior part. 2. In centric occlusion, the angle (α) between the horizontal standard line (AB) and anterior slope (BC) was 37.22 ± 3.87 .deg. . 3. In 1 inch opening position, the distance between the summit of condylar head from the standard point of articular eminence (B) was -0.64 ± 3.53 mm in horizontal direction and -1.07 ± 1.00 mm in vertical direction. 4. In maximal opening position, the distance between the summit of condylar head from the standard point of articular eminence (B) was 5.83 ± 3.05 mm in horizontal direction and +0.29 ± 1.58 mm in vertical direction. 5. In positional relationship between the condylar head and the standard point of articular eminence (B), the condyles were found to be at the eminences or anterior to them in 51% with 1 inch opening and 95% with maximal opening

  7. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  8. Transient killer whale range - Satellite tagging of West Coast transient killer whales to determine range and movement patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transient killers whales inhabit the West Coast of the United States. Their range and movement patterns are difficult to ascertain, but are vital to understanding...

  9. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  10. Linking seasonal home range size with habitat selection and movement in a mountain ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Granados, José Enrique; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús M; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Burón, Daniel; Fandos, Guillermo; Aguado, María Ángeles Párraga; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2018-01-01

    Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica . We used GPS collars to track ibex across the year in two different geographical areas of Sierra Nevada, Spain, and measured habitat variables related to forage and roost availability. By using integrated step selection analysis (iSSA), we show that habitat selection was important to explain space use by ibex. As a consequence, movement was constrained by habitat selection, as observed displacement rate was shorter than expected under null selection. Selection-independent movement, selection strength and resource availability were important drivers of seasonal home range size. Both displacement rate and directional persistence had a positive relationship with home range size while accounting for habitat selection, suggesting that individual characteristics and state may also affect home range size. Ibex living at higher altitudes, where resource availability shows stronger altitudinal gradients across the year, had larger home ranges. Home range size was larger in spring and autumn, when ibex ascend and descend back, and smaller in summer and winter, when resources are more stable. Therefore, home range size decreased with resource availability. Finally, males had larger home ranges than females, which might be explained by differences in body size and reproductive behaviour. Movement, selection strength, resource availability and intrinsic factors related to sex determined home range size of Iberian ibex. Our results highlight the need to integrate

  11. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  12. Home range utilisation and long-range movement of estuarine crocodiles during the breeding and nesting season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92 ± 0.013 metres total length (TL, mean ± S.E., n = 4 occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49 ± 0.9 km d(-1; n = 8 during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17 ± 0.14 m TL exhibited a 'site-fidelic' strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81 ± 0.08 m TL exhibited 'nomadic' behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the 'site-fidelic' males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the 'nomadic' males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions.

  13. A state-space model for estimating detailed movements and home range from acoustic receiver data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Weng, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    We present a state-space model for acoustic receiver data to estimate detailed movement and home range of individual fish while accounting for spatial bias. An integral part of the approach is the detection function, which models the probability of logging tag transmissions as a function of dista......We present a state-space model for acoustic receiver data to estimate detailed movement and home range of individual fish while accounting for spatial bias. An integral part of the approach is the detection function, which models the probability of logging tag transmissions as a function...... that the location error scales log-linearly with detection range and movement speed. This result can be used as guideline for designing network layout when species movement capacity and acoustic environment are known or can be estimated prior to network deployment. Finally, as an example, the state-space model...... is used to estimate home range and movement of a reef fish in the Pacific Ocean....

  14. Movement and Home Range of Nile Crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Calverley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of movement patterns and home range is fundamental in understanding the spatial requirements of animals and is important in generating information for the conservation and management of threatened species. Ndumo Game Reserve, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, bordering Mozambique, has the third largest Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in South Africa. Movement patterns of 50 Nile crocodiles with a total length of between 202 cm and 472 cm were followed over a period of 18 months, using mark-resight, radio and satellite telemetry. The duration of radio transmitter attachment (131 ± 11.4 days was significantly and negatively related to total length and reproductive status. Satellite transmitters failed after an average of 15 ± 12.5 days. Home range was calculated for individuals with 10 or more radio locations, spanning a period of at least 6 months. There was a significant relationship between home range size and total length, with sub-adults (1.5 m – 2.5 m occupying smaller, more localised home ranges than adults (> 2.5 m. The largest home ranges were for adults (> 2.5 m. Home ranges overlapped extensively, suggesting that territoriality, if present, does not result in spatially discrete home ranges of Nile crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve during the dry season. Larger crocodiles moved farther and more frequently than smaller crocodiles. The reserve acts as a winter refuge and spring breeding site for an estimated 846 crocodiles, which also inhabit the Rio Maputo during the summer months. Nile crocodile movement out of the reserve and into the Rio Maputo starts in November and crocodiles return to the reserve as water levels in the floodplain recede in May. Conservation implications: Movement patterns of Nile crocodiles show the important role the reserve plays in the conservation of Nile crocodile populations within the greater Ndumo Game Reserve–Rio Maputo area.

  15. Scaphoid and lunate movement in different ranges of carpal radioulnar deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin Bo; Xu, Jing; Xie, Ren Guo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate scaphoid and lunate movement in radial deviation and in slight and moderate ulnar deviation ranges in vivo. We obtained computed tomography scans of the right wrists from 20° radial deviation to 40° ulnar deviation in 20° increments in 6 volunteers. The 3-dimensional bony structures of the wrist, including the distal radius and ulna, were reconstructed with customized software. The changes in position of the scaphoid and lunate along flexion-extension motion (FEM), radioulnar deviation (RUD), and supination-pronation axes in 3 parts--radial deviation and slight and moderate ulnar deviation--of the carpal RUD were calculated and analyzed. During carpal RUD, scaphoid and lunate motion along 3 axes--FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation--were the greatest in the middle third of the measured RUD (from neutral position to 20° ulnar deviation) and the smallest in radial deviation. Scaphoid motion along the FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation axes in the middle third was about half that in the entire motion range. In the middle motion range, lunate movement along the FEM and RUD axes was also the greatest. During carpal RUD, the greatest scaphoid and lunate movement occurs in the middle of the arc--slight ulnar deviation--which the wrist frequently adopts to accomplish major hand actions. At radial deviation, scaphoid and lunate motion is the smallest. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rigorous home range estimation with movement data: a new autocorrelated kernel density estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C H; Fagan, W F; Mueller, T; Olson, K A; Leimgruber, P; Calabrese, J M

    2015-05-01

    Quantifying animals' home ranges is a key problem in ecology and has important conservation and wildlife management applications. Kernel density estimation (KDE) is a workhorse technique for range delineation problems that is both statistically efficient and nonparametric. KDE assumes that the data are independent and identically distributed (IID). However, animal tracking data, which are routinely used as inputs to KDEs, are inherently autocorrelated and violate this key assumption. As we demonstrate, using realistically autocorrelated data in conventional KDEs results in grossly underestimated home ranges. We further show that the performance of conventional KDEs actually degrades as data quality improves, because autocorrelation strength increases as movement paths become more finely resolved. To remedy these flaws with the traditional KDE method, we derive an autocorrelated KDE (AKDE) from first principles to use autocorrelated data, making it perfectly suited for movement data sets. We illustrate the vastly improved performance of AKDE using analytical arguments, relocation data from Mongolian gazelles, and simulations based upon the gazelle's observed movement process. By yielding better minimum area estimates for threatened wildlife populations, we believe that future widespread use of AKDE will have significant impact on ecology and conservation biology.

  17. Encounter success of free-ranging marine predator movements across a dynamic prey landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David W; Witt, Matthew J; Richardson, Anthony J; Southall, Emily J; Metcalfe, Julian D

    2006-05-22

    Movements of wide-ranging top predators can now be studied effectively using satellite and archival telemetry. However, the motivations underlying movements remain difficult to determine because trajectories are seldom related to key biological gradients, such as changing prey distributions. Here, we use a dynamic prey landscape of zooplankton biomass in the north-east Atlantic Ocean to examine active habitat selection in the plankton-feeding basking shark Cetorhinus maximus. The relative success of shark searches across this landscape was examined by comparing prey biomass encountered by sharks with encounters by random-walk simulations of 'model' sharks. Movements of transmitter-tagged sharks monitored for 964 days (16754 km estimated minimum distance) were concentrated on the European continental shelf in areas characterized by high seasonal productivity and complex prey distributions. We show movements by adult and sub-adult sharks yielded consistently higher prey encounter rates than 90% of random-walk simulations. Behavioural patterns were consistent with basking sharks using search tactics structured across multiple scales to exploit the richest prey areas available in preferred habitats. Simple behavioural rules based on learned responses to previously encountered prey distributions may explain the high performances. This study highlights how dynamic prey landscapes enable active habitat selection in large predators to be investigated from a trophic perspective, an approach that may inform conservation by identifying critical habitat of vulnerable species.

  18. Free boundary models for mosquito range movement driven by climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wendi; Du, Yihong; Lin, Zhigui; Zhu, Huaiping

    2018-03-01

    As vectors, mosquitoes transmit numerous mosquito-borne diseases. Among the many factors affecting the distribution and density of mosquitoes, climate change and warming have been increasingly recognized as major ones. In this paper, we make use of three diffusive logistic models with free boundary in one space dimension to explore the impact of climate warming on the movement of mosquito range. First, a general model incorporating temperature change with location and time is introduced. In order to gain insights of the model, a simplified version of the model with the change of temperature depending only on location is analyzed theoretically, for which the dynamical behavior is completely determined and presented. The general model can be modified into a more realistic one of seasonal succession type, to take into account of the seasonal changes of mosquito movements during each year, where the general model applies only for the time period of the warm seasons of the year, and during the cold season, the mosquito range is fixed and the population is assumed to be in a hibernating status. For both the general model and the seasonal succession model, our numerical simulations indicate that the long-time dynamical behavior is qualitatively similar to the simplified model, and the effect of climate warming on the movement of mosquitoes can be easily captured. Moreover, our analysis reveals that hibernating enhances the chances of survival and successful spreading of the mosquitoes, but it slows down the spreading speed.

  19. Functional range of movement of the hand: declination angles to reachable space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hai Trieu; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Caelli, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the range of hand joint movement is an essential part of clinical practice and rehabilitation. Current methods use three finger joint declination angles of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. In this paper we propose an alternate form of measurement for the finger movement. Using the notion of reachable space instead of declination angles has significant advantages. Firstly, it provides a visual and quantifiable method that therapists, insurance companies and patients can easily use to understand the functional capabilities of the hand. Secondly, it eliminates the redundant declination angle constraints. Finally, reachable space, defined by a set of reachable fingertip positions, can be measured and constructed by using a modern camera such as Creative Senz3D or built-in hand gesture sensors such as the Leap Motion Controller. Use of cameras or optical-type sensors for this purpose have considerable benefits such as eliminating and minimal involvement of therapist errors, non-contact measurement in addition to valuable time saving for the clinician. A comparison between using declination angles and reachable space were made based on Hume's experiment on functional range of movement to prove the efficiency of this new approach.

  20. Quantitative analysis of velopharyngeal movement using a stereoendoscope: accuracy and reliability of range images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Asuka; Mishima, Katsuaki; Shiraishi, Ruriko; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel method of producing accurate range images of the velopharynx using a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope to obtain detailed measurements of velopharyngeal movements. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between the distance from the endoscope to an object, elucidate the measurement accuracy along the temporal axes, and determine the degree of blurring when using a jig to fix the endoscope. An endoscopic measuring system was developed in which a pattern projection system was incorporated into a commercially available 3D endoscope. After correcting the distortion of the camera images, range images were produced using pattern projection to achieve stereo matching. Graph paper was used to measure the appropriate distance from the camera to an object, the mesial buccal cusp of the right maxillary first molar was measured to clarify the range image stability, and an electric actuator was used to evaluate the measurement accuracy along the temporal axes. The measurement error was substantial when the distance from the camera to the subject was >6.5 cm. The standard error of the 3D coordinate value produced from 30 frames was within 0.1 mm (range, 0.01-0.08 mm). The measurement error of the temporal axes was 9.16% in the horizontal direction and 9.27% in the vertical direction. The optimal distance from the camera to an object is movements.

  1. Home range and movements of Feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Brinck, K.W.; Banko, P.C.; Danner, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Feral cats Felis catus in dry subalpine woodland of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, live in low density and exhibit some of the largest reported home ranges in the literature. While 95% fixed kemel home range estimates for three females averaged 772 ha, four males averaged 1 418 ha, and one male maintained a home range of 2 050 ha. Mean daily movement rates between sexes overlapped widely and did not differ significantly (P = 0.083). Log-transformed 95% kernel home ranges for males were significantly larger than those of females (P = 0.024), but 25% kernel home ranges for females were larger than those of males (P = 0.017). Moreover, log-transformed home ranges of males were also significantly larger than those of females in this and seven other studies from the Pacific region (P = 0.044). Feral cats present a major threat to endangered Hawaiian birds, but knowledge of their ecology can be used for management by optimizing trap spacing and creating buffer zones around conservation areas.

  2. Using demography and movement behavior to predict range expansion of the southern sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to forecasting population growth, basic demographic data combined with movement data provide a means for predicting rates of range expansion. Quantitative models of range expansion have rarely been applied to large vertebrates, although such tools could be useful for restoration and management of many threatened but recovering populations. Using the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) as a case study, we utilized integro-difference equations in combination with a stage-structured projection matrix that incorporated spatial variation in dispersal and demography to make forecasts of population recovery and range recolonization. In addition to these basic predictions, we emphasize how to make these modeling predictions useful in a management context through the inclusion of parameter uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Our models resulted in hind-cast (1989–2003) predictions of net population growth and range expansion that closely matched observed patterns. We next made projections of future range expansion and population growth, incorporating uncertainty in all model parameters, and explored the sensitivity of model predictions to variation in spatially explicit survival and dispersal rates. The predicted rate of southward range expansion (median = 5.2 km/yr) was sensitive to both dispersal and survival rates; elasticity analysis indicated that changes in adult survival would have the greatest potential effect on the rate of range expansion, while perturbation analysis showed that variation in subadult dispersal contributed most to variance in model predictions. Variation in survival and dispersal of females at the south end of the range contributed most of the variance in predicted southward range expansion. Our approach provides guidance for the acquisition of further data and a means of forecasting the consequence of specific management actions. Similar methods could aid in the management of other recovering populations.

  3. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Creighton M. Litton; Steven C. Hess; James R. Kellner; Susan Cordell; Lalit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the...

  4. Overland movement in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis: empirical dispersal data from within their native range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. André De Villiers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersal forms are an important component of the ecology of many animals, and reach particular importance for predicting ranges of invasive species. African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis move overland between water bodies, but all empirical studies are from invasive populations with none from their native southern Africa. Here we report on incidents of overland movement found through a capture-recapture study carried out over a three year period in Overstrand, South Africa. The maximum distance moved was 2.4 km with most of the 91 animals, representing 5% of the population, moving ∼150 m. We found no differences in distances moved by males and females, despite the former being smaller. Fewer males moved overland, but this was no different from the sex bias found in the population. In laboratory performance trials, we found that males outperformed females, in both distance moved and time to exhaustion, when corrected for size. Overland movement occurred throughout the year, but reached peaks in spring and early summer when temporary water bodies were drying. Despite permanent impoundments being located within the study area, we found no evidence for migrations of animals between temporary and permanent water bodies. Our study provides the first dispersal kernel for X. laevis and suggests that it is similar to many non-pipid anurans with respect to dispersal.

  5. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Litton, Creighton M; Hess, Steven C; Kellner, James R; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  6. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Litton, Creighton M.; Hess, Steve; Kellner, James; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world’s most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  7. Home range and local movement of small mammals on the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    In April 1978, a study of local movement of small mammals on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was undertaken in conjunction with a study of rodent dispersal. Live trapping in May and June revealed a strong potential for the detection of local movement of at least four species of rodents. Information on this movement is important as each species, during burrowing, may transport radioactive waste from the point of interment to the surface. The area over which contamination may be spread, as fecal deposits or as metabolically incorporated elements, is a function of the daily movement of each animal. At least eight factors may effect size and shape of home range. These factors are discussed, techniques employed in the calculation of home range are outlined, and problems associated with live trapping and studying local movement of small mammals are considered

  8. Roads influence movement and home ranges of a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore, the bobcat, in an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon A; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Alonso, Robert S.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Roads in urbanized areas can impact carnivore populations by constraining their movements and increasing mortality. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are felids capable of living in urban environments, but are sensitive to habitat fragmentation and, thus, useful indicators of landscape connectivity; in particular, bobcat habitat selection, movement, and mortality may be affected by roads. We analyzed movement patterns of 52 bobcats in southern California in three study sites and investigated: (1) how bobcats responded to two types of roads within their home ranges; (2) how they placed their home ranges with respect to roads within the study area; and (3) whether male and female bobcats differed in their behavioral responses to roads. Within home ranges, primary and secondary roads did not influence movements, but bobcats more frequently crossed secondary roads when road densities were higher within their home ranges, thus increasing mortality risk. However, road densities within each study site were several times higher than road densities within home ranges, suggesting bobcats selected against roaded areas in home-range placement. Male home ranges bordering roads were smaller than home ranges for other males, but male home ranges containing roads were larger than those without roads. Male bobcats also were more likely to cross roads than females, potentially reflecting larger male home range sizes. Our results suggest roads have important impacts on urban bobcats, with stronger effects on males than females, and continued efforts to mitigate the effects of roads on carnivores and other fragmentation-sensitive species would help promote connectivity conservation in urban systems.

  9. Foraging range movements of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.

  10. Mandibular Range of Movement and Pain Intensity in Patients with Anterior Disc Displacement without Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Gikić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are the most common source of orofacial pain of a non-dental origin. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic effect of the conventional occlusal splint therapy and the physical therapy. The hypothesis tested was that the simultaneous use of occlusal splint and physical therapy is an effective method for treatment of anterior disc displacement without reduction. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients (mean age =30.5 y with anterior disc displacement without reduction (according to RDC/TMD and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging were randomly allocated into 2 groups: 6 received stabilization splint (SS and 6 received both physical therapy and stabilization splint (SS&PT. Treatment outcomes included pain-free opening (MCO, maximum assisted opening (MAO, path of mouth opening and pain as reported on visual analogue scale (VAS. Results: At baseline of treatment there were no significant differences among the groups for VAS scores, as well as for the range of mandibular movement. VAS scores improved significantly over time for the SS&PT group (F=28.964, p=0.0001, effect size =0.853 and SS group (F=8.794, p=0.001, effect size =0.638. The range of mouth opening improved significantly only in the SS&PT group (MCO: F=20.971, p=0.006; MAO: F=24.014, p=0.004 (Figure 2. Changes in path of mouth opening differ significantly between the groups (p=0.040. Only 1 patient in SS&PT group still presented deviations in mouth opening after completed therapy while in the SS group deviations were present in 5 patients after completed therapy. Conclusion: This limited study gave evidence that during the treatment period lasting for 6 months, the simultaneous use of stabilization splint and physical therapy was more efficient in reducing deviations and improving range of mouth opening than the stabilization splint used alone. Both treatment options were efficient in reducing pain in patients with anterior disc

  11. The relationship between general measures of fitness, passive range of motion and whole-body movement quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David; Andersen, Jordan; Lam, Thomas; Finlay, Tim; Darby, Kevin; McGill, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish relationships between fitness (torso endurance, grip strength and pull-ups), hip range of motion (ROM) (extension, flexion, internal and external rotation) and movement quality in an occupational group with physical work demands. Fifty-three men from the emergency task force of a major city police force were investigated. The movement screen comprised standing and seated posture, gait, segmental spine motion and 14 tasks designed to challenge whole-body coordination. Relationships were established between each whole-body movement task, the measures of strength, endurance and ROM. In general, fitness and ROM were not strongly related to the movement quality of any task. This has implications for worker training, in that strategies developed to improve ROM or strength about a joint may not enhance movement quality. Worker-centered injury prevention can be described as fitting workers to tasks by improving fitness and modifying movement patterns; however, the current results show weak correlations between strength, endurance and ROM, and the way individuals move. Therefore, the development of occupation-specific injury prevention strategies may require both fitness and movement-oriented objectives.

  12. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  13. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Tuqa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we were interested in understanding if droughts influence the home range of predators such as lions, and if it does, in what ways the droughts influenced lions to adjust their home range, in response to prey availability. We monitored movements of ten lions fitted with GPS-GSM collars in order to analyze their home range and movement patterns over a six year period (2007–2012. We assessed the impact of a severe drought on the lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem. There was a strong positive correlation between the home range size and distance moved in 24 h before and during the drought (2007–2009, while after the drought there was a significant negative correlation. A weak positive correlation was evident between the lion home range and rainfall amounts (2010–2012. The male and female home ranges varied over the study period. The home range size and movement patterns coincided with permanent swamps and areas of high prey density inside the protected area. Over the course of the dry season and following the drought, the ranges initially shrank and then expanded in response to decreasing prey densities. The lions spent considerable time outside the park boundaries, particularly after severe the drought. We conclude that under conditions of fragmented habitats, severe climate conditions create new challenges for lion conservation due to effects on prey availability and subsequent influences on carnivore species ranging patterns. Stochastic weather patterns can force wide-ranging species beyond current reserve boundaries, into areas where there will be greater conflicts with humans. Keywords: Climate change, African lion, Panthera leo

  14. Mass movements of lowland areas in long range TLS and ALS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The development of geodynamic processes in lowland areas remains an interesting issue for geomorphology and geology as well as civil engineering. Landslides, slumps, slope washes, rills and gully erosion are considered both geomorphological processes and natural hazards. In order to know precisely their origin and development, it is crucial to determine the rate and direction of their change. Previously such studies used geodesy and photogrammetry but the recent progress in the LiDAR technology allows collecting the data in a wider range and comparable or higher precision than most of geodetic methods. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is also a good tool, but high costs and low frequency of the surveys make it difficult to trace the dynamics of the studied phenomena and processes. Nevertheless, this method enables gathering information from large areas, which is useful for the preliminary identification of the research issues and nomination of the areas for subsequent case studies. It is, however, more common to use Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for the detailed studies of morphology and its change. This method provides mobility and high accuracy, and enables frequent measurements. The problem in the analysis of many geoprocesses lies in the limited range of this method. This study concerns the Lower Vistula Valley located in northern Poland. It presents the results of measurements of landslides located in the escarpment zone of a big river valley. The object of the studies is mass movements developing within the quaternary deposits on the valley slopes. These processes were monitored in previous years with the traditional survey methods, mainly based on the geodesy field observations (benchmark) as well as the analyses of historical maps and archives. The ALS method used during the study enabled gathering the data on the valley with the density of 8 points per sq m, which provided the background for the consecutive monitoring study. In the surveys a terrestrial

  15. Bibliography of articles on radioactive waste from 1973-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfman, L.M.

    1979-10-01

    This bibliography of approximately 900 citations is a supplement to a study on the content of public information on radioactive waste. The bibliography distinguishes between diferent information sources: national press; general scientific press; nuclear scientific press; nuclear industry/utility; environmental press; and local press. In this bibliography articles which appeared in local newspapers in Michigan and Louisiana were included for the years 1976 and 1977, a time of considerable controversy within these states over the OWI's actions.

  16. Bibliography of articles on radioactive waste from 1973-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, L.M.

    1979-10-01

    This bibliography of approximately 900 citations is a supplement to a study on the content of public information on radioactive waste. The bibliography distinguishes between diferent information sources: national press; general scientific press; nuclear scientific press; nuclear industry/utility; environmental press; and local press. In this bibliography articles which appeared in local newspapers in Michigan and Louisiana were included for the years 1976 and 1977, a time of considerable controversy within these states over the OWI's actions

  17. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  18. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Abu Baker

    Full Text Available Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀ and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀. Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g. Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE for males and 42 ha (±11SE for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE for males and 150 ha (±29 SE for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats, whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle

  19. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A; Reeve, Nigel; Conkey, April A T; Macdonald, David W; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀) and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀). Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g) in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g). Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE) for males and 42 ha (±11SE) for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE) for males and 150 ha (±29 SE) for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters) influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats), whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle East where

  20. How interactions between animal movement and landscape processes modify range dynamics and extinction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range dynamics models now incorporate many of the mechanisms and interactions that drive species distributions. However, connectivity continues to be studied using overly simple distance-based dispersal models with little consideration of how the individual behavior of dispersin...

  1. Low breeding propensity and wide-ranging movements by marbled murrelets in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Martin G. Raphael; Thomas D. Bloxton; Patrick G. Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a threatened seabird that forages in nearshore marine waters but nests inland, commonly in older coniferous forests. Information on ranging behavior and breeding propensity can be useful for informing management, especially when comparisons can be made between declining or threatened populations...

  2. Long-range movement of humpback whales and their overlap with anthropogenic activity in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard C; Maxwell, Sara M; Kershaw, Francine; Mate, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are managed by the International Whaling Commission as 7 primary populations that breed in the tropics and migrate to 6 feeding areas around the Antarctic. There is little information on individual movements within breeding areas or migratory connections to feeding grounds. We sought to better understand humpback whale habitat use and movements at breeding areas off West Africa, and during the annual migration to Antarctic feeding areas. We also assessed potential overlap between whale habitat and anthropogenic activities. We used Argos satellite-monitored radio tags to collect data on 13 animals off Gabon, a primary humpback whale breeding area. We quantified habitat use for 3 cohorts of whales and used a state-space model to determine transitions in the movement behavior of individuals. We developed a spatial metric of overlap between whale habitat and models of cumulative human activities, including oil platforms, toxicants, and shipping. We detected strong heterogeneity in movement behavior over time that is consistent with previous genetic evidence of multiple populations in the region. Breeding areas for humpback whales in the eastern Atlantic were extensive and extended north of Gabon late in the breeding season. We also observed, for the first time, direct migration between West Africa and sub-Antarctic feeding areas. Potential overlap of whale habitat with human activities was the highest in exclusive economic zones close to shore, particularly in areas used by both individual whales and the hydrocarbon industry. Whales potentially overlapped with different activities during each stage of their migration, which makes it difficult to implement mitigation measures over their entire range. Our results and existing population-level data may inform delimitation of populations and actions to mitigate potential threats to whales as part of local, regional, and international management of highly migratory marine species.

  3. Experimental integrative muscular movement technique enhances cervical range of motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Benjamin G; Carter, Ronald; Thompson, William R; Duncan, Randall L; Cooper, Carlton R

    2015-04-01

    Neck pain presents a tremendous physical and financial burden. This study compared the efficacy of the complementary and alternative medical treatments of integrative muscular movement technique (IMMT) and Swedish massage on neck pain in women of occupation age, the largest demographic group with neck pain. A total of 38 women were assigned to IMMT (n=28) or Swedish massage (n=10) in a blinded manner. Both groups received eight 30-minute treatments over 4 weeks. Cervical range of motion (ROM) in flexion, extension, sidebending, and rotation was measured before and after treatment. Each patient's pain was assessed by using an analogue pain scale of 0-10. Compared with the Swedish massage group, patients receiving IMMT experienced a significant increase in ROM in cervical flexion (ppain for IMMT was -1.75 units compared with -0.3 units for Swedish massage (pcervical ROM in every movement measured compared with Swedish massage. Inclusion of the IMMT in a treatment regimen for chronic neck pain may lead to decreased pain and increased cervical ROM. These positive effects of the IMMT intervention may have a role in enhancing functional outcomes in patients with neck pain.

  4. Space Use and Movement Patterns in a Semi-Free-Ranging Herd of European Bison (Bison bonasus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ramos

    Full Text Available The successful reintroduction and restocking of the European Bison demands a reliable knowledge of the biology of this species. Yet little is known to date about the European bison, and empirical data remains insufficient to set up a reliable plan ensuring the reintroduction, maintenance and survival of populations in habitats that have been largely modified by human activity. Studies of the ecology, social behaviour and management of bison are therefore crucial to the conservation of this species and its cohabitation with humans. To meet these challenges, we focused on movement patterns and space use in a semi-free-ranging herd of European bison living in the Réserve Biologique des Monts-d'Azur (France. Bison spend over 80% of their time foraging and resting; foraging mainly occurs around the artificial feeding sites (i.e., hay racks or in meadows. The time of day and the presence of snow have no influence on the time budget allocated to each activity. Animals, however, spend more time at the food racks in winter. Bison also spend most of their time in small groups of individuals, confirming the occurrence of both fission-fusion dynamics and sexual segregation in this species. Bison seem to follow a Lévy walk pattern of movement, which is probably related to the geographical distribution and size of food patches in the reserve. The conclusions of this study provide a better understanding of the sociality, life habits and habitat use of bison, and also describe how the provision of hay affects all these behaviours. These results could be useful in the development of tools to select the most suitable habitats for the reintroduction, management and conservation of bison populations.

  5. How consistent are lordosis, range of movement and lumbo-pelvic rhythm in people with and without back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Robert A; Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    with and without chronic LBP (>12 week's duration). METHODS: Wireless, wearable, inertial measurement units measured lumbar lordosis angle, range of movement (ROM) and lumbo-pelvic rhythm in adults (n = 63). Measurements were taken on three separate occasions: two tests on the same day with different raters...... participants with and without LBP for lordosis angle. There were significant differences for pelvic flexion ROM (LBP 60.8°, NoLBP 54.8°, F(1,63) = 4.31, p = 0.04), lumbar right lateral flexion ROM (LBP 22.2°, NoLBP 24.6° F(1,63) = 4.48, p = .04), trunk right lateral flexion ROM (LBP 28.4°, NoLBP 31.7°, F(1......,63) = 5.9, p = .02) and lumbar contribution to lumbo-pelvic rhythm in the LBP group (LBP 45.8 %, F(1,63) = 4.20, NoLBP 51.3 % p = .044). MDC90 estimates for intra and inter-rater comparisons were 10°-15° for lumbar lordosis, and 5°-15° for most ROM. For lumbo-pelvic rhythm, we found 8-15 % variation...

  6. EEG patterns in theta and gamma frequency range and their probable relation to human voluntary movement organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A; Krekule, I

    1999-05-21

    In experiments with EEG accompanying continuous slow goal-directed voluntary movements we found abrupt short-term transients (STs) of the coefficients of EEG time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) model. The onset of STs indicated (i) a positive EEG wave related to an increase of 3-7 Hz oscillations in time period before the movement start, (ii) synchronization of 35-40 Hz prior to movement start and during the movement when the target is nearly reached. Both these phenomena are expressed predominantly over supplementary motor area, premotor and parietal cortices. These patterns were detected after averaging of EEG segments synchronized to the abrupt changes of the TVAR coefficients computed in the time course of EEG single records. The results are discussed regarding the cognitive aspect of organization of goal-directed movements.

  7. Home-range use patterns and movements of the Siberian flying squirrel in urban forests: Effects of habitat composition and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkeläinen, Sanna; de Knegt, Henrik J; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilpo K

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes modification, fragmentation and loss of native habitats. Such landscape changes threaten many arboreal and gliding mammals by limiting their movements through treeless parts of a landscape and by making the landscape surrounding suitable habitat patches more inhospitable. Here, we investigate the effects of landscape structure and habitat availability on the home-range use and movement patterns of the Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) at different spatial and temporal scales. We followed radio-tagged individuals in a partly urbanized study area in Eastern Finland, and analysed how landscape composition and connectivity affected the length and speed of movement bursts, distances moved during one night, and habitat and nest-site use. The presence of urban habitat on movement paths increased both movement lengths and speed whereas nightly distances travelled by males decreased with increasing amount of urban habitat within the home range. The probability of switching from the present nest site to another nest site decreased with increasing distance among the nest sites, but whether the nest sites were connected or unconnected by forests did not have a clear effect on nest switching. Flying squirrels preferred to use mature forests for their movements at night. Our results suggest that the proximity to urban habitats modifies animal movements, possibly because animals try to avoid such habitats by moving faster through them. Urbanization at the scale of an entire home range can restrict their movements. Thus, maintaining a large enough amount of mature forests around inhabited landscape fragments will help protect forest specialists in urban landscapes. The effect of forested connections remains unclear, highlighting the difficulty of measuring and preserving connectivity in a species-specific way.

  8. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, pmovements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management and conservation strategies for this endangered granivore.

  9. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  10. Intra-population variation in activity ranges, diel patterns, movement rates, and habitat use of American alligators in a subtropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael; Jeffery, Brian M.

    2013-12-01

    Movement and habitat use patterns are fundamental components of the behaviors of mobile animals and help determine the scale and types of interactions they have with their environments. These behaviors are especially important to quantify for top predators because they can have strong effects on lower trophic levels as well as the wider ecosystem. Many studies of top predator movement and habitat use focus on general population level trends, which may overlook important intra-population variation in behaviors that now appear to be common. In an effort to better understand the prevalence of intra-population variation in top predator movement behaviors and the potential effects of such variation on ecosystem dynamics, we examined the movement and habitat use patterns of a population of adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in a subtropical estuary for nearly four years. We found that alligators exhibited divergent behaviors with respect to activity ranges, movement rates, and habitat use, and that individualized behaviors were stable over multiple years. We also found that the variations across the three behavioral metrics were correlated such that consistent behavioral types emerged, specifically more exploratory individuals and more sedentary individuals. Our study demonstrates that top predator populations can be characterized by high degrees of intra-population variation in terms of movement and habitat use behaviors that could lead to individuals filling different ecological roles in the same ecosystem. By extension, one-size-fits-all ecosystem and species-specific conservation and management strategies that do not account for potential intra-population variation in top predator behaviors may not produce the desired outcomes in all cases.

  11. Movement-related changes in local and long-range synchronization in Parkinson’s disease revealed by simultaneous magnetoencephalography and intracranial recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, Vladimir; Eusebio, Alexandre; Jha, Ashwani; Oostenveld, Robert; Barnes, Gareth; Foltynie, Tom; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan I.; Friston, Karl; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has afforded the opportunity to assess interactions between populations of neurons in the human cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Interactions occur over a wide range of frequencies, and the functional significance of those above 30 Hz is particularly unclear. Do they improve movement and, if so, in what way? We acquired simultaneously magnetoencephalography (MEG) and direct recordings from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 17 PD patients. We examined the effect of synchronous and sequential finger movements and of the dopamine prodrug levodopa on induced power in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and STN and on the coherence between the two structures. We observed discrete peaks in M1 and STN power over 60-90 Hz and 300-400 Hz. All these power peaks increased with movement and levodopa treatment. Only STN activity over 60-90 Hz was coherent with activity in M1. Directionality analysis showed that STN gamma activity at 60-90 Hz tended to drive gamma activity in M1. The effects of levodopa on both local and distant synchronisation over 60-90 Hz correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia-rigidity, as did local STN activity at 300-400 Hz. Despite this, there were no effects of movement type, nor interactions between movement type and levodopa in the STN, nor in the coherence between STN and M1. We conclude that synchronisation over 60-90 Hz in the basal ganglia cortical network is prokinetic, but likely through a modulatory effect rather than any involvement in explicit motor processing. PMID:22855804

  12. Fine-scale movement responses of free-ranging harbour porpoises to capture, tagging and short-term noise pulses from a single airgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, Floris; Teilmann, Jonas; Hermannsen, Line

    2018-01-01

    , with natural behaviour resumed in less than or equal to 24 h. When we exposed porpoises to airgun pulses at ranges of 420–690 m with noise level estimates of 135–147 dB re 1 µPa2s (sound exposure level), one individual displayed rapid and directed movements away from the exposure site and two individuals used...... them to a single 10 inch3 underwater airgun producing high-intensity noise pulses (2–3 s intervals) for 1 min. All five porpoises responded to capture and tagging with longer, faster and more directed movements as well as with shorter, shallower, less wiggly dives immediately after release...... to the noise exposure. Changes in natural behaviour following anthropogenic disturbances may reduce feeding opportunities, and evaluating potential population-level consequences should be a priority research area....

  13. Monitoring of crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone by a satellite-borne ranging system. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.

    1976-01-01

    The Close Grid Geodynamic Measurement System is conceived as an orbiting ranging device with a ground base grid of reflectors or transponders (spacing 1.0 to 30 km), which are projected to be of low cost (maintenance free and unattended), and which will permit the saturation of a local area to obtain data useful to monitor crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone. The system includes a station network of 75 stations covering an area between 36 deg N and 38 deg N latitudes, and 237 deg E and 239 deg E longitudes, with roughly half of the stations on either side of the faults. In addition, the simulation of crustal movements through the introduction of changes in the relative positions between grid stations, weather effect for intervisibility between satellite and station and loss of observations thereof, and comparative evaluation of various observational scheme-patterns have been critically studied.

  14. Static and Dynamic Accuracy of an Innovative Miniaturized Wearable Platform for Short Range Distance Measurements for Human Movement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bertuletti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-inertial measurement units (MIMU are a suitable solution to assess human motor performance both indoors and outdoors. However, relevant quantities such as step width and base of support, which play an important role in gait stability, cannot be directly measured using MIMU alone. To overcome this limitation, we developed a wearable platform specifically designed for human movement analysis applications, which integrates a MIMU and an Infrared Time-of-Flight proximity sensor (IR-ToF, allowing for the estimate of inter-object distance. We proposed a thorough testing protocol for evaluating the IR-ToF sensor performances under experimental conditions resembling those encountered during gait. In particular, we tested the sensor performance for different (i target colors; (ii sensor-target distances (up to 200 mm and (iii sensor-target angles of incidence (AoI (up to 60 ∘ . Both static and dynamic conditions were analyzed. A pendulum, simulating the oscillation of a human leg, was used to generate highly repeatable oscillations with a maximum angular velocity of 6 rad/s. Results showed that the IR-ToF proximity sensor was not sensitive to variations of both distance and target color (except for black. Conversely, a relationship between error magnitude and AoI values was found. For AoI equal to 0 ∘ , the IR-ToF sensor performed equally well both in static and dynamic acquisitions with a distance mean absolute error <1.5 mm. Errors increased up to 3.6 mm (static and 11.9 mm (dynamic for AoI equal to ± 30 ∘ , and up to 7.8 mm (static and 25.6 mm (dynamic for AoI equal to ± 60 ∘ . In addition, the wearable platform was used during a preliminary experiment for the estimation of the inter-foot distance on a single healthy subject while walking. In conclusion, the combination of magneto-inertial unit and IR-ToF technology represents a valuable alternative solution in terms of accuracy, sampling frequency, dimension and power consumption

  15. Can shoulder range of movement be measured accurately using the Microsoft Kinect sensor plus Medical Interactive Recovery Assistant (MIRA) software?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James D; Khan-Perez, Jennifer; Marley, Dominic; Buttress, Susan; Walton, Michael; Li, Baihua; Roy, Bibhas

    2017-12-01

    This study compared the accuracy of measuring shoulder range of movement (ROM) with a simple laptop-sensor combination vs. trained observers (shoulder physiotherapists and shoulder surgeons) using motion capture (MoCap) laboratory equipment as the gold standard. The Microsoft Kinect sensor (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA) tracks 3-dimensional human motion. Ordinarily used with an Xbox (Microsoft Corp.) video game console, Medical Interactive Recovery Assistant (MIRA) software (MIRA Rehab Ltd., London, UK) allows this small sensor to measure shoulder movement with a standard computer. Shoulder movements of 49 healthy volunteers were simultaneously measured by trained observers, MoCap, and the MIRA device. Internal rotation was assessed with the shoulder abducted 90° and external rotation with the shoulder adducted. Visual estimation and MIRA measurements were compared with gold standard MoCap measurements for agreement using Bland-Altman methods. There were 1670 measurements analyzed. The MIRA evaluations of all 4 cardinal shoulder movements were significantly more precise, with narrower limits of agreement, than the measurements of trained observers. MIRA achieved ±11° (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7°-12.6°) for forward flexion vs. ±16° (95% CI, 14.6°-17.6°) by trained observers. For abduction, MIRA showed ±11° (95% CI, 8.7°-12.8°) against ±15° (95% CI, 13.4°-16.2°) for trained observers. MIRA attained ±10° (95% CI, 8.1°-11.9°) during external rotation measurement, whereas trained observers only reached ±21° (95% CI, 18.7°-22.6°). For internal rotation, MIRA achieved ±9° (95% CI, 7.2°-10.4°), which was again better than TOs at ±18° (95% CI, 16.0°-19.3°). A laptop combined with a Microsoft Kinect sensor and the MIRA software can measure shoulder movements with acceptable levels of accuracy. This technology, which can be easily set up, may also allow precise shoulder ROM measurement outside the clinic setting. Copyright © 2017

  16. Asymmetrical trunk movement during walking improved to normal range at 3 months after corrective posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Chung, Daniel A C F; Schimmel, Janneke J P; de Kleuver, Marinus; Keijsers, Noël L W

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of posterior spinal fusion (PSF) and curve type on upper body movements in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients during gait. Twenty-four girls (12-18 years) with AIS underwent PSF. 3D-Gait-analyses were performed preoperatively, at 3 months and 1 year postoperatively. Mean position (0° represents symmetry) and range of motion (ROM) of the trunk (thorax-relative-to-pelvis) in all planes were assessed. Lower body kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters were also evaluated. Mean trunk position improved from 7.0° to 2.9° in transversal plane and from 5.0° to - 0.8° in frontal plane at 3 months postoperative (p maintenance of normal gait can explain the rapid recovery and well functioning in daily life of AIS patients, despite undergoing a fusion of large parts of their spine.

  17. Treadmill training with an incline reduces ankle joint stiffness and improves active range of movement during gait in adults with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Kirk, Henrik; Fernandez-Lago, Helena

    2017-01-01

    of gait were obtained before and after the intervention/control period. Intervention subjects trained 31.4 SD 10.1 days for 29.0 SD 2.3 min (total) 15.2 h. RESULTS: Passive ankle joint stiffness was reduced (F = 5.1; p = 0.031), maximal gait speed increased (F = 42.8, p ...PURPOSE: We investigated if 30 min of daily treadmill training with an incline for 6 weeks would reduce ankle joint stiffness and improve active range of movement in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized controlled clinical trial including 32 adults...... prior to heel strike increased (F = 5.3, p reduces ankle joint stiffness and increases active ROM during...

  18. The association of visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing with ankle dorsiflexion range-of-motion and hip abductor muscle strength among healthy female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Einstein, Ofira; Kozol, Zvi

    2018-05-01

    To explore the association between ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), and hip abductor muscle strength, to visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing. Cross-sectional. Gymnasium of participating teams. 37 female volleyball players. Quality of movement in the frontal-plane, sagittal-plane, and overall (both planes) was visually rated as "good/moderate" or "poor". Weight-bearing Ankle DF ROM and hip abductor muscle strength were compared between participants with differing quality of movement. Weight-bearing DF ROM on both sides was decreased among participants with "poor" sagittal-plane quality of movement (dominant side: 50.8° versus 43.6°, P = .02; non-dominant side: 54.6° versus 45.9°, P = .01), as well as among participants with an overall "poor" quality of movement (dominant side: 51.8° versus 44.0°, P movement (53.9° versus 46.0°, P = .02). No differences in hip abductor muscle strength were noted between participants with differing quality of movement. Visual assessment of jump-landing can detect differences in quality of movement that are associated with ankle DF ROM. Clinicians observing a poor quality of movement may wish to assess ankle DF ROM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A radio tracking study of home range and movements of the marsupial Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Mammalia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available From August 2001 to July 2002 the home range and movements of seven Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (three males and four females were investigated using radio tracking in the União Biological Reserve, state of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. A total of 436 locations was obtained and home range estimated with fixed Kernel (95% of data points, and minimum convex polygon (MCP methods, with 100 and 95% of data points. Male home ranges estimated by MCP (100% ranged from 5.4-24.2 ha and females from 0.3-10.7 ha. Corresponding figures calculated with Kernel (95% were 4-10.9 ha for males and 1.3-5.9 ha for females. Animals travelled on average 423 m/night, with males travelling significantly further (582.8 m/night than females (335.1 m/night (t test, t = 3.609, p = 0.001. We concluded that radio tracking produced much larger home ranges than those estimated with traditional live-trapping techniques, suggesting that the latter might underestimate ranging when the area covered with traps is relatively small (ca. 1 ha or less. Radio tracking also indicated that M. demerarae, although predominantly arboreal and weighting only ca. 130 g., has movements similar in magnitude to larger-sized terrestrial didelphimorph marsupials, such as Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758, Philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Metachirus (Desmarest, 1817.No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 a área de uso e o movimento de sete Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (três machos e quatro fêmeas foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foi obtido um total de 436 localizações e estimou-se a área de uso através dos métodos Kernel fixo (95% das localizações e polígono mínimo convexo (PMC, com 100 e 95% das localizações. A área de uso dos machos estimada pelo PMC (100% variou de 5,4-24,2 ha e fêmeas de 0,3-10,7 ha. Áreas calculadas com Kernel (95% foram 4-10,9 ha para machos e 1,3-5,9 ha para f

  20. Validity of eyeball estimation for range of motion during the cervical flexion rotation test compared to an ultrasound-based movement analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Axel; Lüdtke, Kerstin; Breuel, Franziska; Gerloff, Nikolas; Knust, Maren; Kollitsch, Christian; Laukart, Alex; Matej, Laura; Müller, Antje; Schöttker-Königer, Thomas; Hall, Toby

    2018-08-01

    Headache is a common and costly health problem. Although pathogenesis of headache is heterogeneous, one reported contributing factor is dysfunction of the upper cervical spine. The flexion rotation test (FRT) is a commonly used diagnostic test to detect upper cervical movement impairment. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate concurrent validity of detecting high cervical ROM impairment during the FRT by comparing measurements established by an ultrasound-based system (gold standard) with eyeball estimation. Secondary aim was to investigate intra-rater reliability of FRT ROM eyeball estimation. The examiner (6 years experience) was blinded to the data from the ultrasound-based device and to the symptoms of the patients. FRT test result (positive or negative) was based on visual estimation of range of rotation less than 34° to either side. Concurrently, range of rotation was evaluated using the ultrasound-based device. A total of 43 subjects with headache (79% female), mean age of 35.05 years (SD 13.26) were included. According to the International Headache Society Classification 23 subjects had migraine, 4 tension type headache, and 16 multiple headache forms. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 and 0.89 for combined rotation, indicating good concurrent reliability. The area under the ROC curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.98) for rotation to both sides. Intra-rater reliability for eyeball estimation was excellent with Fleiss Kappa 0.79 for right rotation and left rotation. The results of this study indicate that the FRT is a valid and reliable test to detect impairment of upper cervical ROM in patients with headache.

  1. Decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers (BDE-209) in Chinese and Global Air: Levels, Gas/Particle Partitioning, and Long-Range Transport: Is Long-Range Transport of BDE-209 Really Governed by the Movement of Particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Li-Na; Ren, Nan-Qi; Sverko, Ed; Mackay, Donald; Macdonald, Robie W

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we report air concentrations of BDE-209 in both gas- and particle-phases across China. The annual mean concentrations of BDE-209 were from below detection limit (BDL) to 77.0 pg·m -3 in the gas-phase and 1.06-728 pg·m -3 in the particle-phase. Among the nine PBDEs measured, BDE-209 is the dominant congener in Chinese atmosphere in both gas and particle phases. We predicted the partitioning behavior of BDE-209 in air using our newly developed steady state equation, and the results matched the monitoring data worldwide very well. It was found that the logarithm of the partition quotient of BDE-209 is a constant, and equal to -1.53 under the global ambient temperature range (from -50 to +50 °C). The gaseous fractions of BDE-209 in air depends on the concentration of total suspended particle (TSP). The most important conclusion derived from this study is that, BDE-209, like other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), cannot be sorbed entirely to atmospheric particles; and there is a significant amount of gaseous BDE-209 in global atmosphere, which is subject to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Therefore, it is not surprising that BDE-209 can enter the Arctic through LRAT mainly by air transport rather than by particle movement. This is a significant advancement in understanding the global transport process and the pathways entering the Arctic for chemicals with low volatility and high octanol-air partition coefficients, such as BDE-209.

  2. Home-range use patterns and movements of the Siberian flying squirrel in urban forests: Effects of habitat composition and connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkeläinen, Sanna; Knegt, de H.J.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilpo K.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes modification, fragmentation and loss of native habitats. Such landscape changes threaten many arboreal and gliding mammals by limiting their movements through treeless parts of a landscape and by making the landscape surrounding suitable habitat patches more inhospitable. Here,

  3. Complex movements, philopatry and expanded depth range of a severely threatened pelagic shark, the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the western North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey-Jordan, Lucy A; Brooks, Edward J; Abercrombie, Debra L; Jordan, Lance K B; Brooks, Annabelle; Williams, Sean; Gospodarczyk, Emily; Chapman, Demian D

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male) near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1-8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ~30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km(2) of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290-1940 km after times at liberty from 30-245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage). Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ~150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time). Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes) dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C), which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0-125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ.

  4. Complex movements, philopatry and expanded depth range of a severely threatened pelagic shark, the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus in the western North Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy A Howey-Jordan

    Full Text Available Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1-8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ~30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km(2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290-1940 km after times at liberty from 30-245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage. Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ~150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time. Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C, which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0-125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ.

  5. Crustal movement and plate motion as observed by GPS baseline ranging - trial to make teaching materials for middle- and high-school earth science education by teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2009-12-01

    Japanese government established the system for renewing educational personnel certificates in 2007 and mandated the adoption of it in April 2009 (cf. “2007 White Paper on Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology”, available at http://www.mext.go.jp/english/). The new system shows that the valid period for each regular certificate after the renewal system adoption (April 1, 2009) is until the end of the fiscal year after ten years from satisfying the qualifications required for the certificate. Only persons who have attended over 30 hours and passed the examination in the certificate renewal courses before the expiration of the valid period can renew their certificate which is valid for next ten years. The purpose of this system is for teachers to acquire the latest knowledge and skills. Certificate renewal courses authorized by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan are offered by universities. Attendees will choose based on their specialty and awareness of issues from the various courses with education curriculums and. To renew their certificates, they should include (1) items regarding the latest trends and issues in education (12 hours) and (2) items regarding their speciality and other educational enhancement (three 6-hours course: total 18 hours). In 2008, before the adoption, provisional certificate renewal courses were offered for trial by more than 100 universities. The author offered a 6-hour course titled by “Development of teaching materials for school pupils to make understand the dynamic motion of the earth - utilising the results of the GPS ranging”. This course was targeted mainly for science teachers of middle- and high-schools. The goal of this course was for the attendees to understand the role of GPS ranging for the direct observation of the crustal movement and plate motion, and to produce the teaching materials possibly used in the classrooms. The offering of this course is aiming finally at

  6. The effects of mobilization with movement on dorsiflexion range of motion, dynamic balance, and self-reported function in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreath, Julie P; Gaven, Stacey L; Van Lunen, L; Hoch, Matthew C

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy intervention known as Mobilization with Movement (MWM) to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). While a single talocrural MWM treatment has increased dorsiflexion ROM in these individuals, examining the effects of multiple treatments on dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, and self-reported function would enhance the clinical application of this intervention. This study sought to determine if three treatment sessions of talocrural MWM would improve dorsiflexion ROM, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, and self-reported function using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in individuals with CAI. Eleven participants with CAI (5 Males, 6 Females, age: 21.5 ± 2.2 years, weight: 83.9 ± 15.6 kg, height: 177.7 ± 10.9 cm, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool: 17.5 ± 4.2) volunteered in this repeated-measures study. Subjects received three MWM treatments over one week. Weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM (cm), normalized SEBT reach distances (%), and self-reported function (%) were assessed one week before the intervention (baseline), prior to the first MWM treatment (pre-intervention), and 24–48 h following the final treatment (post-intervention). No significant changes were identified in dorsiflexion ROM, SEBT reach distances, or the FAAM-Activities of Daily Living scale (p > 0.05). Significant changes were identified on the FAAM-Sport (p = 0.01). FAAM-Sport scores were significantly greater post-intervention (86.82 ± 9.18%) compared to baseline (77.27 ± 11.09%; p = 0.01) and pre-intervention (79.82 ± 13.45%; p = 0.04). These results indicate the MWM intervention did not improve dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic balance, or patient-centered measures of activities of daily living. However, MWM did improve patient-centered measures of sport-related activities in individuals with CAI.

  7. Comparison of Path Length and Ranges of Movement of the Center of Pressure and Reaction Time and Between Paired-Play and Solo-Play of a Virtual Reality Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Hersch, Ayelet; Sofer, Tal; Tresser, Sarit

    2017-06-01

    To test whether paired-play will induce longer path length and ranges of movement of the center of pressure (COP), which reflects on balance performance and stability, compared to solo-play and to test the difference in the path length and ranges of movement of the COP while playing the virtual reality (VR) game with the dominant hand compared to playing it with the nondominant hand. In this cross-sectional study 20 children (age 6.1 ± 0.7 years old) played an arm movement controlled VR game alone and with a peer while each of them stood on a pressure measuring pad to track the path length and ranges of movement of the COP. The total COP path was significantly higher during the paired-play (median 295.8 cm) compared to the COP path during the solo-play (median 189.2 cm). No significant differences were found in the reaction time and the mediolateral and anterior-posterior COP ranges between solo-play and paired-play. No significant differences were found between the parameters extracted during paired-play with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our findings imply that the paired-play is advantageous compared to solo-play since it induces a greater movement for the child, during which, higher COP velocities are reached that may contribute to improving the balance control of the child. Apart from the positive social benefits of paired-play, this positive effect on the COP path length is a noteworthy added value in the clinical setting when treating children with balance disorder.

  8. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  9. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  10. Movement - uncoordinated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  11. Validity of using tri-axial accelerometers to measure human movement - Part II: Step counts at a wide range of gait velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Emma; Lugade, Vipul; Morrow, Melissa; Kaufman, Kenton

    2014-06-01

    A subject-specific step counting method with a high accuracy level at all walking speeds is needed to assess the functional level of impaired patients. The study aim was to validate step counts and cadence calculations from acceleration data by comparison to video data during dynamic activity. Custom-built activity monitors, each containing one tri-axial accelerometer, were placed on the ankles, thigh, and waist of 11 healthy adults. ICC values were greater than 0.98 for video inter-rater reliability of all step counts. The activity monitoring system (AMS) algorithm demonstrated a median (interquartile range; IQR) agreement of 92% (8%) with visual observations during walking/jogging trials at gait velocities ranging from 0.1 to 4.8m/s, while FitBits (ankle and waist), and a Nike Fuelband (wrist) demonstrated agreements of 92% (36%), 93% (22%), and 33% (35%), respectively. The algorithm results demonstrated high median (IQR) step detection sensitivity (95% (2%)), positive predictive value (PPV) (99% (1%)), and agreement (97% (3%)) during a laboratory-based simulated free-living protocol. The algorithm also showed high median (IQR) sensitivity, PPV, and agreement identifying walking steps (91% (5%), 98% (4%), and 96% (5%)), jogging steps (97% (6%), 100% (1%), and 95% (6%)), and less than 3% mean error in cadence calculations. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    2009-01-01

    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  13. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  14. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  15. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  16. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  17. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  18. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  19. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  20. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  1. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  2. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  3. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  4. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-01-01

    This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...

  6. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  7. Introduction: The Future of Social Movement Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Klandermans, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In The Future of Social Movement Research, some of the most influential scholars in the field provide a wide-ranging understanding of how social movements arise and persist, engendering unanswered questions pointing to new theoretical strands and fields of research. The resulting work is

  8. The tactile movement aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  9. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  10. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  11. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  12. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  13. A Somatic Movement Approach to Fostering Emotional Resiliency through Laban Movement Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle P. Tsachor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although movement has long been recognized as expressing emotion and as an agent of change for emotional state, there was a dearth of scientific evidence specifying which aspects of movement influence specific emotions. The recent identification of clusters of Laban movement components which elicit and enhance the basic emotions of anger, fear, sadness and happiness indicates which types of movements can affect these emotions (Shafir et al., 2016, but not how best to apply this knowledge. This perspective paper lays out a conceptual groundwork for how to effectively use these new findings to support emotional resiliency through voluntary choice of one's posture and movements. We suggest that three theoretical principles from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA can guide the gradual change in movement components in one's daily movements to somatically support shift in affective state: (A Introduce new movement components in developmental order; (B Use LMA affinities-among-components to guide the expansion of expressive movement range and (C Sequence change among components based on Laban's Space Harmony theory to support the gradual integration of that new range. The methods postulated in this article have potential to foster resiliency and provide resources for self-efficacy by expanding our capacity to adapt emotionally to challenges through modulating our movement responses.

  14. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  15. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  16. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  17. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  18. Incidência e risco acumulado de câncer de boca no município de São Paulo: 1969, 1973, 1978 e 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luiz Lorenzi

    2003-01-01

    Introdução. O câncer de boca em 1998 foi a décima-primeira localização mais comum das neoplasias malignas, exceto pele, no sexo masculino, em São Paulo, com 1,6% dos casos. Dados do Registro de Câncer de São Paulo mostram que a incidência não diminuiu em anos recentes. A região é de alta incidência para esse tipo de câncer, em comparação às demais regiões brasileiras e mesmo em termos mundiais. Julgou-se de interesse de Saúde Pública verificar a incidência do câncer de boca no Município de Sã...

  19. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  20. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  1. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  2. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  3. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  4. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  6. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  7. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  8. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  9. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  10. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  11. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  12. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  13. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  14. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    inequity, organize transnationally, and maintain a critical stance toward significant aspects of the state system. For this reason, many supporters favor other terms such as alterglobalization movement, global justice movement , or simply the movement of movements . Critics accuse the movements...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  17. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  18. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  19. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  20. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  1. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  2. Communicating Protest Movements: The Case of Occupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kavada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available How do you communicate a protest movement? And how do communication practices shape its character and power relations?  Based on a view of communication as constitutive of protest movements, this talk considers these questions as two sides of the same coin. The focus lies on the Occupy movement and particularly on its use of digital media. Characterised by a belief in direct participation and a rejection of central leadership, Occupy emerged through a bottom-up process of organizing that spanned different platforms and physical places, from Facebook pages to public squares. The process of constructing the collective involved the creation of communication sites and foundational texts, and their interlinking. This process was influenced by the rules, affordances and proprietary character of media platforms and physical spaces, as well as the diverse cultures and strategies of the activists using them. A closer look at this process sheds light on the power relations within the movement and particularly on five sources of communication power. These range from the power to create communication sites and texts to the power to access or link them together. The picture that emerges is complex, revealing a movement with both centralizing and decentralizing dynamics. Ultimately, it was the balance between these opposing dynamics that determined both the emergence of the movement and its decline. Acknowledgement: This contribution is the podcast of a talk Anastasia Kavada gave in the Communication and Media Research Institute (CAMRI's Research Seminar Series on February 25, 2015, at the University of Westminster.

  3. Monitoring current rates of salt dome movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tectonic stability of salt domes is a major concern for long-term domal storage of noxious wastes. A necessary phase of the many faceted dome storage study includes obtaining a measure of current vertical movement of any potential storage dome. This information then can be combined with data obtained from studies involving geologic time scales so as to provide a history of dome movement that includes present time. A system of instrumentation for monitoring current rates of dome movement is described. Complimentary finite element modelling of plausible dome movement also is presented. The proposed instrumentation system includes tiltmeters, precise levelling, laser ranging, and monitoring of microseisms. Thus, components of rotation and vertical and horizontal movements at the ground surface over a dome can be monitored. In addition, a measure of dome movement also may be obtained acoustically. The finite element modelling furnishes an aid for: (1) locating instrument sites over a dome so as to maximize instrument sensitivity, and (2) interpreting data obtained from the instrumentation system. An example of tiltmeter installation and operation over a dome in northwest Louisiana is included. Typical tiltmeter output is presented and discussed

  4. Advances in surgery for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Nathan C; Sammartino, Francesco; Lozano, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Movement disorder surgery has evolved throughout history as our knowledge of motor circuits and ways in which to manipulate them have expanded. Today, the positive impact on patient quality of life for a growing number of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is now well accepted and confirmed through several decades of randomized, controlled trials. Nevertheless, residual motor symptoms after movement disorder surgery such as deep brain stimulation and lack of a definitive cure for these conditions demand that advances continue to push the boundaries of the field and maximize its therapeutic potential. Similarly, advances in related fields - wireless technology, artificial intelligence, stem cell and gene therapy, neuroimaging, nanoscience, and minimally invasive surgery - mean that movement disorder surgery stands at a crossroads to benefit from unique combinations of all these developments. In this minireview, we outline some of these developments as well as evidence supporting topics of recent discussion and controversy in our field. Moving forward, expectations remain high that these improvements will come to encompass an even broader range of patients who might benefit from this therapy and decrease the burden of disease associated with these conditions. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  6. Modeling animal movements using stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

    2004-01-01

    We describe the use of bivariate stochastic differential equations (SDE) for modeling movements of 216 radiocollared female Rocky Mountain elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeastern Oregon. Spatially and temporally explicit vector fields were estimated using approximating difference equations and nonparametric regression techniques. Estimated...

  7. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Wilson, Rory P; Rees, W Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Vosper, Simon B

    2013-09-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of "energy landscapes," which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well documented in some fields (notably, the selection of tailwinds by aerial migrants) and scales (typically large), the principles of the energy landscape extend across habitat types and spatial scales. We provide a brief synthesis of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven changes in the cost of transport can modulate the behavioral ecology of animal movement in different media, develop example cost functions for movement in heterogeneous environments, present methods for visualizing these energy landscapes, and derive specific predictions of expected outcomes from individual- to population- and species-level processes. Animals modulate a suite of movement parameters (e.g., route, speed, timing of movement, and tortuosity) in relation to the energy landscape, with the nature of their response being related to the energy savings available. Overall, variation in movement costs influences the quality of habitat patches and causes nonrandom movement of individuals between them. This can provide spatial and/or temporal structure to a range of population- and species-level processes, ultimately including gene flow. Advances in animal-attached technology and geographic information systems are opening up new avenues for measuring and mapping energy landscapes that are likely to provide new insight into their influence in animal ecology.

  8. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  9. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  10. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.

    2003-01-01

    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...

  11. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  12. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  13. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  14. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  15. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  16. Morocco's February 20 Movement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... revolted several times, namely in big cities like Casablanca, Marrakech or .... region in order to take advantage of their experience and acquire a regional ..... Undoubtedly, with social networking, the dynamics of protest movements.

  17. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  18. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Magnetic movement of biological fluid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Antonio A.; Egatz-Gomez, Ana; Lindsay, Solitaire A.; Dominguez-Garcia, P.; Melle, Sonia; Marquez, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A.; Picraux, S.T.; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P.; Hayes, Mark A.; Gust, Devens; Loyprasert, Suchera; Vazquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to control the movement of aqueous drops on non-patterned, silicon nanowire superhydrophobic surfaces. Drops of aqueous and biological fluids are controlled by introducing magnetizable carbonyl iron microparticles into the liquid. Key elements of operations such as movement, coalescence, and splitting of water and biological fluid drops, as well as electrochemical measurement of an analyte are demonstrated. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth systems followed by coating with a perfluorinated hydrocarbon molecule. Drops were made from aqueous and biological fluid suspensions with magnetizable microparticle concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 wt%

  1. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. White Paper: Movement System Diagnoses in Neurologic Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Lois D; Quinn, Lori; Gill-Body, Kathleen; Brown, David A; Quiben, Myla; Riley, Nora; Scheets, Patricia L

    2018-04-01

    The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems. We propose that, going forward, diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated. The Academy of Neurologic Physical Therapy's Movement System Task Force was convened to address these issues with respect to management of movement system problems in patients with neurologic conditions. The purpose of this article is to report on the work and recommendations of the Task Force. The Task Force identified 4 essential elements necessary to develop and implement movement system diagnoses for patients with primarily neurologic involvement from existing movement system classifications. The Task Force considered the potential impact of using movement system diagnoses on clinical practice, education and, research. Recommendations were developed and provided recommendations for potential next steps to broaden this discussion and foster the development of movement system diagnostic classifications. The Task Force proposes that diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated with the long-range goal to reach consensus on and adoption of a movement system diagnostic framework for clients with neurologic injury or disease states.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A198).

  3. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  4. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...... range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... collection on growth and seedling emergence rates. Migrant plants might thus encounter increasingly favourable soil conditions while tracking the isotherms towards currently ‘colder’ soils. These effects persisted under experimental warming. Rising temperatures and light availability generally enhanced plant...

  5. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  6. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  7. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  8. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  9. [Studies on the standardization of parameters for jaw movement analysis--6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hisahiro; Bando, Eiichi; Abe, Susumu

    2008-07-01

    To establish standardized evaluating methods for jaw movements analysis. In this paper, we investigated evaluating parameters for 6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements data. Recorded data of jaw border movements from 20 male adults were employed as basic samples. The main parameters were as follows: 1. The displacement of an intercondylar midpoint: the length of a straight line between 2 positions of this point, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 2. The angle of intercondylar axes: the angle between 2 position of the intercondylar axis, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 3. The angle of incisal-condylar planes: the angle between 2 position of the plane, the intercuspal position and other jaw position (this plane was defined with the incisal point and condylar points of both sides 4. The mandibular motion range index: quantitative values calculated with 2 of 3 parameters described above. The mandibular motion range index showed a close correlation with respective projected areas of the incisal paths, with the projected area of sagittal border movements on the sagittal plane r = 0.82 (p movements on the frontal plane: left lateral border movements r = 0.92 (p movements r = 0.84 (p movements data and relative relationship between the intercuspal position and other jaw position. They were independent of reference coordinate systems and could measure jaw movement quantitatively.

  10. Conceptualizing movement by expert Bobath instructors in neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Graham, Julie; Patterson, Kara; Zabjek, Karl; Cott, Cheryl A

    2017-12-01

    Movement, a core aspect of physiotherapy practice, and integral to the clinical reasoning process has undergone limited theoretical development. Instead, research has focused on intervention effectiveness embedded within the positivist paradigm. The purpose of this study was to explore how expert neurorehabilitation therapists conceptualize movement as part of their clinical reasoning. A qualitative interpretive descriptive approach consisting of stimulated recall using video-recorded treatment sessions and in-depth interviews was used. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit members of the International Bobath Instructors Training Association (IBITA) who are recognized experts in neurorehabilitation. Interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was progressive, iterative, and inductive. Twenty-two IBITA instructors from 7 different countries volunteered to participate. They ranged in clinical experience from 12 to 40 years and instructor experience from 1 to 35 years. The conceptualization of movement by the IBITA instructors involves the following elements: (1) movement comprises the whole person and the whole body, not just individual body segments; (2) active alignment of body segments is integral to movement performance; and (3) efficient movement requires the relative integration of postural control/stability and selective movement/mobility. The IBITA instructors conceptualize movement from a person-centred perspective. The integration of postural control and selective movement, with alignment and variability as key components, forms the foundation of their understanding of movement. Further investigation into the role of postural control in movement recovery post central nervous system lesion is required. Likewise, the dimensions of movement critical to the conceptualization of movement are not well understood from the perspective of the physiotherapist or persons with neurological impairments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  14. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  15. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...

  16. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study 1 examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2 determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3 diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limbs while in the second one only by the upper limbs. The pressure differentials exerted by the water on the back and on the palm of the right and left hand were measured. Then, the asymmetry coefficient of the hand movement was determined. No changes in the level of the asymmetry index in participants performing correct (symmetrical lower limb movement were observed. Incorrect (asymmetrical leg motion resulted in an increase of hand asymmetry. It could be concluded that lower limb faults neutralize upper limb performance when swimming on a rectilinear path. However, most asymmetrical arm performance should be identified with the conversion of propulsion into recovery. Nevertheless, its proneness to influence improper leg performance might be expected at the beginning of arm propulsion.

  18. Movement patterns of limb coordination in infant rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2016-12-01

    Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...

  20. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  1. Market place movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphical and tabular form. Data include uranium spot price range, spot conversion price range, and seperative work units price range. Additional spot market information provided is natural uranium by buyers and sellers. Medium- and long-term data includes average natural uranium prices, and natural uranium market by buyers and sellers. Information on US contracted supply and demand and uranium production in Australia, Canada, and the US is given

  2. A comparison of ventilatory prostate movement in four treatment positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Brock, Kristy K.; Sanda, Martin; Sullivan, Molly; Sandler, Howard M.; Balter, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure target coverage during radiotherapy, all sources of geometric uncertainty in target position must be considered. Movement of the prostate due to breathing has not traditionally been considered in prostate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to report the influence of patient orientation and immobilization on prostate movement due to breathing. Methods and Materials: Four patients had radiopaque markers implanted in the prostate. Fluoroscopy was performed in four different positions: prone in alpha cradle, prone with an aquaplast mold, supine on a flat table, and supine with a false table under the buttocks. Fluoroscopic movies were videotaped and digitized. Frames were analyzed using 2D-alignment software to determine the extent of movement of the prostate markers and the skeleton for each position during normal and deep breathing. Results: During normal breathing, maximal movement of the prostate markers was seen in the prone position (cranial-caudal [CC] range: 0.9-5.1 mm; anterior-posterior [AP] range: up to 3.5 mm). In the supine position, prostate movement during normal breathing was less than 1 mm in all directions. Deep breathing resulted in CC movements of 3.8-10.5 mm in the prone position (with and without an aquaplast mold). This range was reduced to 2.0-7.3 mm in the supine position and 0.5-2.1 mm with the use of the false table top. Deep breathing resulted in AP skeletal movements of 2.7-13.1 mm in the prone position, whereas AP skeletal movements in the supine position were negligible. Conclusion: Ventilatory movement of the prostate is substantial in the prone position and is reduced in the supine position. The potential for breathing to influence prostate movement, and thus the dose delivered to the prostate and normal tissues, should be considered when positioning and planning patients for conformal irradiation

  3. Chemical Resistance of Disposable Nitrile Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng Kee

    2012-01-01

    Large discrepancies between laboratory permeation testing and field exposures have been reported, with indications that hand movement could account for a portion of these differences. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on chemical permeation of 30 different disposable nitrile glove products. Products were investigated out-of-box and with exposure to simulated whole-glove movement. Permeation testing was conducted using ethanol as a surrogate test chemical. A previously designed pneumatic system was used to simulate hand movement. No movement and movement tests were matched-paired to control for environmental conditions, as were statistical analyses. Permeation data were collected for a 30-min exposure period or until a breakthrough time (BT) and steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) could be determined. A third parameter, area under the curve at 30 min (AUC-30), was used to estimate potential worker exposure. With movement, a significant decrease in BT (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 6–33%, was observed for 28 products. The average decrease in BT was 18% (p ≤ 0.001). With movement, a significant increase in SSPR (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 1–78%, was observed with 25 products. The average increase in SSPR was 18% (p ≤ 0.001). Significant increases in AUC-30 (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 23–277%, were also observed for all products where it could be calculated. On average, there was a 58% increase (p ≤ 0.001). The overall effect of movement on permeation through disposable nitrile gloves was significant. Simulated movement significantly shortened the BT, increased the SSPR, and increased the cumulative 30-min exposure up to three times. Product variability also accounted for large differences, up to 40 times, in permeation and cumulative exposure. Glove selection must take these factors into account. It cannot be assumed that all products will perform in a similar manner. PMID:23009187

  4. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  5. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article considers the display of posters as a distinctive activity and defining aspect of British modernism between the two wars, looking to a cardinal event, the Exhibition of British and Foreign Posters at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1931. This manifestation was the first...... in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...

  6. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  7. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  8. Clinical features of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  9. The Propagation of Movement Variability in Time: A Methodological Approach for Discrete Movements with Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Melanie; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability. Whereas, for cyclical movements (e.g., locomotion), mathematical approaches exist to investigate the propagation of movement variability in time (e.g., time series analysis), similar approaches are missing for discrete, goal-directed movements, such as reaching. Here, we propose canonical correlation analysis as a suitable method to analyze the propagation of within-subject variability across different time points during the execution of discrete movements. While similar analyses have already been applied for discrete movements with only one degree of freedom (DoF; e.g., Pearson's product-moment correlation), canonical correlation analysis allows to evaluate the coupling of inter-trial variability across different time points along the movement trajectory for multiple DoF-effector systems, such as the arm. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by empirical data from a study on reaching movements under normal and disturbed proprioception. The results show increased movement duration, decreased movement amplitude, as well as altered movement coordination under ischemia, which results in a reduced complexity of movement control. Movement endpoint variability is not increased under ischemia. This suggests that healthy adults are able to immediately and efficiently adjust the control of complex reaching movements to compensate for the loss of proprioceptive information. Further, it is

  10. Biomimetics of human movement: functional or aesthetic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    How should robotic or prosthetic arms be programmed to move? Copying human smooth movements is popular in synthetic systems, but what does this really achieve? We cannot address these biomimetic issues without a deep understanding of why natural movements are so stereotyped. In this article, we distinguish between 'functional' and 'aesthetic' biomimetics. Functional biomimetics requires insight into the problem that nature has solved and recognition that a similar problem exists in the synthetic system. In aesthetic biomimetics, nature is copied for its own sake and no insight is needed. We examine the popular minimum jerk (MJ) model that has often been used to generate smooth human-like point-to-point movements in synthetic arms. The MJ model was originally justified as maximizing 'smoothness'; however, it is also the limiting optimal trajectory for a wide range of cost functions for brief movements, including the minimum variance (MV) model, where smoothness is a by-product of optimizing the speed-accuracy trade-off imposed by proportional noise (PN: signal-dependent noise with the standard deviation proportional to mean). PN is unlikely to be dominant in synthetic systems, and the control objectives of natural movements (speed and accuracy) would not be optimized in synthetic systems by human-like movements. Thus, employing MJ or MV controllers in robotic arms is just aesthetic biomimetics. For prosthetic arms, the goal is aesthetic by definition, but it is still crucial to recognize that MV trajectories and PN are deeply embedded in the human motor system. Thus, PN arises at the neural level, as a recruitment strategy of motor units and probably optimizes motor neuron noise. Human reaching is under continuous adaptive control. For prosthetic devices that do not have this natural architecture, natural plasticity would drive the system towards unnatural movements. We propose that a truly neuromorphic system with parallel force generators (muscle fibres) and noisy

  11. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  12. Analyzing animal movements using Brownian bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jon S; Garton, Edward O; Krone, Stephen M; Lewis, Jesse S

    2007-09-01

    By studying animal movements, researchers can gain insight into many of the ecological characteristics and processes important for understanding population-level dynamics. We developed a Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM) for estimating the expected movement path of an animal, using discrete location data obtained at relatively short time intervals. The BBMM is based on the properties of a conditional random walk between successive pairs of locations, dependent on the time between locations, the distance between locations, and the Brownian motion variance that is related to the animal's mobility. We describe two critical developments that enable widespread use of the BBMM, including a derivation of the model when location data are measured with error and a maximum likelihood approach for estimating the Brownian motion variance. After the BBMM is fitted to location data, an estimate of the animal's probability of occurrence can be generated for an area during the time of observation. To illustrate potential applications, we provide three examples: estimating animal home ranges, estimating animal migration routes, and evaluating the influence of fine-scale resource selection on animal movement patterns.

  13. Reasons for Implementing Movement in Kinetic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudzik, Jan; Nyka, Lucyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives insights into different forms of movement in contemporary architecture and examines them based on the reasons for their implementation. The main objective of the paper is to determine: the degree to which the complexity of kinematic architecture results from functional and spatial needs and what other motivations there are. The method adopted to investigate these questions involves theoretical studies and comparative analyses of architectural objects with different forms of movement imbedded in their structure. Using both methods allowed delving into reasons that lie behind the implementation of movement in contemporary kinetic architecture. As research shows, there is a constantly growing range of applications with kinematic solutions inserted in buildings’ structures. The reasons for their implementation are manifold and encompass pursuits of functional qualities, environmental performance, spatial effects, social interactions and new aesthetics. In those early projects based on simple mechanisms, the main motives were focused on functional values and in later experiments - on improving buildings’ environmental performance. Additionally, in recent proposals, a significant quest could be detected toward kinematic solutions that are focused on factors related to alternative aesthetics and innovative spatial effects. Research reveals that the more complicated form of movement, the more often the reason for its implementation goes beyond the traditionally understood “function”. However, research also shows that the effects resulting from investigations on spatial qualities of architecture and new aesthetics often appear to provide creative insights into new functionalities in architecture.

  14. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  15. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Fagan, William F.; Fryxell, John; Van Moorter, Bram; Alberts, Susan C; Ali, Abdullahi H.; Allen, Andrew M.; Attias, Nina; Avgar, Tal; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie; Bayarbaatar, Buuveibaatar; Belant, Jerrold L.; Bertassoni, Alessandra; Beyer, Dean; Bidner, Laura; M. van Beest, Floris; Blake, Stephen; Blaum, Niels; Bracis, Chloe; Brown, Danielle; Nico de Bruyn, P. J.; Cagnacci, Francesca; Calabrese, J.M.; Camilo-Alves, Constança; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Chiaradia, Andre; Davidson, Sarah C.; Dennis, Todd; DeStefano, Stephen; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Fennessy, Julian; Fichtel, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fischer, Christina; Fischhoff, Ilya; Fleming, Christen H.; Ford, Adam T.; Fritz, Susanne A.; Gehr, Benedikt; Goheen, Jacob R.; Gurarie, Eliezer; Hebblewhite, Mark; Heurich, Marco; Mark Hewison, A.J.; Hof, Christian; Hurme, Edward; Isbell, Lynne A.; Janssen, René; Jeltsch, Florian; Kaczensky, Petra; Kane, Adam; Kappeler, Peter M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Kays, Roland; Kimuyu, Duncan; Koch, Flavia; Kranstauber, Bart; LaPoint, Scott; Leimgruber, Peter; Linnell, John D. C.; López-López, Pascual; Markham, A. Catherine; Mattisson, Jenny; Medici, Emilia Patricia; Mellone, Ugo; Merrill, E.; de Miranda Mourão, Guilherme; Morato, Ronaldo G.; Morellet, Nicolas; Morrison, Thomas A.; Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L.; Mysterud, Atle; Nandintsetseg, Dejid; Nathan, Ran; Niamir, Aidin; Odden, John; O'Hara, Robert B.; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Olson, Kirk A.; Patterson, Bruce D.; Cunha de Paula, Rogerio; Pedrotti, Luca; Reineking, Björn; Rimmler, Martin; Rogers, T.L.; Rolandsen, Christer Moe; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Safi, Kamran; Saïd, Sonia; Sapir, Nir; Sawyer, Hall; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Selva, Nuria; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Silva, João Paulo; Singh, N.; Solberg, Erling J.; Spiegel, Orr; Strand, Olav; Sundaresan, S.R.; Ullmann, Wiebke; Voigt, Ulrich; Wall, J.; Wattles, David W.; Wikelski, Martin; Wilmers, Christopher C.; Wilson, Jon W.; Wittemyer, George; Zięba, Filip; Zwijacz-Kozica, Tomasz; Mueller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral changes of individual animals and to the exclusion of species with long-range movements from areas with higher human impact. Global loss of vagility alters a key ecological trait of animals that affects not only population persistence but also ecosystem processes such as predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling, and disease transmission.

  16. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  18. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  19. Large-scale movements in European badgers: has the tail of the movement kernel been underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Andrew W; Quinn, John L; O'Keeffe, James J; Green, Stuart; Sleeman, D Paddy; Martin, S Wayne; Davenport, John

    2014-07-01

    Characterizing patterns of animal movement is a major aim in population ecology, and yet doing so at an appropriate spatial scale remains a major challenge. Estimating the frequency and distances of movements is of particular importance when species are implicated in the transmission of zoonotic diseases. European badgers (Meles meles) are classically viewed as exhibiting limited dispersal, and yet their movements bring them into conflict with farmers due to their potential to spread bovine tuberculosis in parts of their range. Considerable uncertainty surrounds the movement potential of badgers, and this may be related to the spatial scale of previous empirical studies. We conducted a large-scale mark-recapture study (755 km(2); 2008-2012; 1935 capture events; 963 badgers) to investigate movement patterns in badgers, and undertook a comparative meta-analysis using published data from 15 European populations. The dispersal movement (>1 km) kernel followed an inverse power-law function, with a substantial 'tail' indicating the occurrence of rare long-distance dispersal attempts during the study period. The mean recorded distance from this distribution was 2.6 km, the 95 percentile was 7.3 km and the longest recorded was 22.1 km. Dispersal frequency distributions were significantly different between genders; males dispersed more frequently than females, but females made proportionally more long-distance dispersal attempts than males. We used a subsampling approach to demonstrate that the appropriate minimum spatial scale to characterize badger movements in our study population was 80 km(2), substantially larger than many previous badger studies. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated a significant association between maximum movement distance and study area size, while controlling for population density. Maximum long-distance movements were often only recorded by chance beyond the boundaries of study areas. These findings suggest that the tail of the badger

  20. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  2. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  3. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  4. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  5. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis, Modeling, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Serra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients’ disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO, among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease. Quantitative measurement and modeling of eye movement disorders, such as INO, may lead to a better understanding of common symptoms encountered in MS, such as Uhthoff’s phenomenon and fatigue. In turn, the pathophysiology of a range of eye movement abnormalities, such as APN, has been clarified based on correlation of experimental model with lesion localization by neuroimaging in MS. Eye movement disorders have the potential of being utilized as structural and functional biomarkers of early cognitive deficit, and possibly help in assessing disease status and progression, and to serve as platform and functional outcome to test novel therapeutic agents for MS. Knowledge of neuropharmacology applied to eye movement dysfunction has guided testing and use of a number of pharmacological agents to treat some eye movement disorders found in MS, such as APN and other forms of central nystagmus.

  6. Kinematic and neuromuscular relationships between lower extremity clinical movement assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Cram, Tyler R; Frank, Barnett S; Begalle, Rebecca L; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2018-06-01

    Lower extremity injuries have immediate and long-term consequences. Lower extremity movement assessments can assist with identifying individuals at greater injury risk and guide injury prevention interventions. Movement assessments identify similar movement characteristics and evidence suggests large magnitude kinematic relationships exist between movement patterns observed across assessments; however, the magnitude of the relationships for electromyographic (EMG) measures across movement assessments remains largely unknown. This study examined relationships between lower extremity kinematic and EMG measures during jump landings and single leg squats. Lower extremity three-dimensional kinematic and EMG data were sampled from healthy adults (males = 20, females = 20) during the movement assessments. Pearson correlations examined the relationships of the kinematic and EMG measures and paired samples t-tests compared mean kinematic and EMG measures between the assessments. Overall, significant moderate correlations were observed for lower extremity kinematic (r avg  = 0.41, r range  = 0.10-0.61) and EMG (r avg  = 0.47, r range  = 0.32-0.80) measures across assessments. Kinematic and EMG measures were greater during the jump landings. Jump landings and single leg squats place different demands on the body and necessitate different kinematic and EMG patterns, such that these measures are not highly correlated between assessments. Clinicians should, therefore, use multiple assessments to identify aberrant movement and neuromuscular control patterns so that comprehensive interventions can be implemented.

  7. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  8. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  9. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  10. Coordination of head movements and speech in first encounter dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the temporal alignment be- tween head movements and associated speech segments in the NOMCO corpus of first encounter dialogues [1]. Our results show that head movements tend to start slightly before the onset of the corresponding speech sequence and to end...... slightly after, but also that there are delays in both directions in the range of -/+ 1s. Various factors that may influence delay duration are investigated. Correlations are found between delay length and the duration of the speech sequences associated with the head movements. Effects due to the different...

  11. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The justification of discriminating environmental control instruments. An investigation of the range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective using the German energy promoting laws EEG and KWKModG as an example; Die Rechtfertigung von diskriminierenden umweltpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumenten. Eine Untersuchung der Reichweite der Warenverkehrsfreiheit und ihrer Begrenzung durch den Umweltschutz als Vertragsziel am Beispiel der deutschen Energiefoerdergesetze EEG und KWKModG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Lydia

    2012-07-01

    The range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (AEUV) are the objective of this study. The investigation is performed in light of the German energy promoting laws EEG (Renewable Energy Law) and KWKModG (Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) whose incentive effect is combined with a discriminating interference of the free merchandise traffic. Based on the PreussenElektra legislation of the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg, Luxembourg) and the succession jurisdiction, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on whether the European Court of Justice has opened the Cassis formula as a basis for justification for discriminations. This can be negotiated. After all, the analysis of the Supreme Court decision comes to the result that the European Court of Justice has applied the known method of practical concordance in the PreussenElektra decision. In case of a collision of treaty objectives of equal rank - merchandise traffic and environmental traffic - one only has to perform an appreciation of values which may involve a justification of discriminating impacts in the free movement of goods and labour. The fundamentals of the minimis notice from the European Competition Act can be decisive for the justification and for the conformity of the domestic market of a discriminating national law if an intervention is connected with a partial market fore closure. These fundamentals have some influence on the consideration as part of the testing of concordance.

  13. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    claims of the encumbered dismounted Soldier. Soldiers are required to wear multiple layers of clothing and protective equipment in addition to mission...depth (i.e., bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements...bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements. The

  14. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Does the cerebellum initiate movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, W T

    2014-02-01

    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  16. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  17. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  18. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  19. Deriving movement properties and the effect of the environment from the Brownian bridge movement model in monkeys and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchin, Kevin; Sijben, Stef; van Loon, E Emiel; Sapir, Nir; Mercier, Stéphanie; Marie Arseneau, T Jean; Willems, Erik P

    2015-01-01

    The Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM) provides a biologically sound approximation of the movement path of an animal based on discrete location data, and is a powerful method to quantify utilization distributions. Computing the utilization distribution based on the BBMM while calculating movement parameters directly from the location data, may result in inconsistent and misleading results. We show how the BBMM can be extended to also calculate derived movement parameters. Furthermore we demonstrate how to integrate environmental context into a BBMM-based analysis. We develop a computational framework to analyze animal movement based on the BBMM. In particular, we demonstrate how a derived movement parameter (relative speed) and its spatial distribution can be calculated in the BBMM. We show how to integrate our framework with the conceptual framework of the movement ecology paradigm in two related but acutely different ways, focusing on the influence that the environment has on animal movement. First, we demonstrate an a posteriori approach, in which the spatial distribution of average relative movement speed as obtained from a "contextually naïve" model is related to the local vegetation structure within the monthly ranging area of a group of wild vervet monkeys. Without a model like the BBMM it would not be possible to estimate such a spatial distribution of a parameter in a sound way. Second, we introduce an a priori approach in which atmospheric information is used to calculate a crucial parameter of the BBMM to investigate flight properties of migrating bee-eaters. This analysis shows significant differences in the characteristics of flight modes, which would have not been detected without using the BBMM. Our algorithm is the first of its kind to allow BBMM-based computation of movement parameters beyond the utilization distribution, and we present two case studies that demonstrate two fundamentally different ways in which our algorithm can be applied to

  20. Studying the movement behaviour of benthic macroinvertebrates with automated video tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augusiak, J.A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying and understanding movement is critical for a wide range of questions in basic and applied ecology. Movement ecology is also fostered by technological advances that allow automated tracking for a wide range of animal species. However, for aquatic macroinvertebrates, such detailed methods

  1. Surgical management of movement disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with ... Stereotactic lesioning of basal ganglia and/or thalamic targets ... and there is some concern related to suicide.

  2. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  3. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  4. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at ... for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source of problems ...

  5. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  6. Geospatial Analysis of Grey Wolf Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.

    2017-12-01

    The grey wolf is a top predator that lives across a diverse habitat, ranging from Europe to North America. They often hunt in packs, preferring caribou, deer and elk as prey. Currently, many gray wolves live in Denali National Park and Preserve. In this study, several wolf packs were studied in three distinct regions of Denali. The purpose of my research was to investigate the links between wolf habitat, movement patterns, and prey thresholds. These are needed for projecting future population, growth and distribution of wolves in the studied region. I also investigated the effect wolves have on the ecological structure of the communities they inhabit. In the study I carried out a quantitative analysis of wolf population trends and daily distance movement by utilizing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the program JmpPro12 (SAS Institute, Crary, NC) to assess regional differences in pack size, wolf density, average daily distance moved. I found a clear link between the wolf habitat and prey thresholds; the habitat directly influences the types of prey available. However there was no link between the daily distance movement, the wolf habitat and prey density.

  7. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  8. A holistic measurement model of movement competency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J; Butson, M L; Barnett, L; Farrow, D; Berry, J; Borkoles, E; Polman, R

    2016-01-01

    Different countries have different methods for assessing movement competence in children; however, it is unclear whether the test batteries that are used measure the same aspects of movement competence. The aim of this paper was to (1) investigate whether the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder (KTK) measure the same aspects of children's movement competence and (2) examine the factorial structure of the TGMD-2 and KTK in a sample of Australian children. A total of 158 children participated (M age = 9.5; SD = 2.2). First, confirmatory factor analysis examined the independent factorial structure of the KTK and TGMD-2. Second, it was investigated whether locomotor, object control and body coordination loaded on the latent variable Movement Competency. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an adequate fit for both the KTK and TGMD-2. An adequate fit was also achieved for the final model. In this model, locomotor (r = .86), object control (r = .71) and body coordination (r = .52) loaded on movement competence. Findings support our hypothesis that the TGMD-2 and KTK measure discrete aspects of movement competence. Future researchers and practitioners should consider using a wider range of test batteries to assess movement competence.

  9. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

    2012-10-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists.

  10. THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Sulavik, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although many physical therapists have begun to focus on movement and function in clinical practice, a significant number continue to focus on impairments or pathoanatomic models to direct interventions. This paradigm may be driven by the current models used to direct and guide curricula used for physical therapist education. The methods by which students are educated may contribute to a focus on independent systems, rather than viewing the body as a functional whole. Students who enter practice must be able to integrate information across multiple systems that affect a patient or client's movement and function. Such integration must be taught to students and it is the responsibility of those in physical therapist education to embrace and teach the next generation of students this identifying professional paradigm of the movement system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to describe the current state of the movement system in physical therapy education, suggest strategies for enhancing movement system focus in entry level education, and envision the future of physical therapy education related to the movement system. Contributions by a student author offer depth and perspective to the ideas and suggestions presented. 5.

  11. Movement games in sports training of children

    OpenAIRE

    Komoň, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...

  12. Body Movement Music Score – Introduction of a newly developed model for the analysis and description of body qualities, movement and music in music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Agnieszka Skrzypek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In music therapy, there is a range of music therapy concepts that, in addition to music, describe and analyse the body and movement. A model that equally examines the body, movement and music has not been developed. The Body Movement Music Score (BMMS is a newly developed and evaluated music therapy model for analysing body qualities, movement, playing style of musical instruments and music and to describe body behaviour and body expression, movement behaviour and movement expression, playing behaviour and musical expression in music therapy treatment. The basis for the development of the Body Movement Music Score was the evaluation of the analytical movement model Emotorics-Emotive Body Movement Mind Paradigm (Emotorics-EBMMP by Yona Shahar Levy for the analysis and description of the emotive-motor behaviour and movement expression of schizophrenic patients in music therapy treatment. Participants and procedure The application of the Body Movement Music Score is presented in a videotaped example from the music therapy treatment of one schizophrenic patient. Results The results of applying the Body Movement Music Score are presented in the form of Body Qualities I Analysis, Body Qualities II Analysis, Movement Analysis, Playing Style Analysis and Music Analysis Profiles. Conclusions The Body Movement Music Score has been developed and evaluated for the music therapy treatment of schizophrenic patients. For the development of the model, a proof of reliability is necessary to verify the reliability and limitations of the model in practice and show that the Body Movement Music Score could be used for both practical and clinical work, for documentation purposes and to impact research in music therapy.

  13. 507 mechanical movements mechanisms and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Henry T

    2005-01-01

    Epicyclic trains, oblique rollers, trip hammers, and lazy-tongs are among the ingenious mechanisms defined and illustrated in this intriguing collection. Spanning the first century of the Industrial Revolution, this 1868 compilation features simplified, concise illustrations of the mechanisms used in hydraulics, steam engines, pneumatics, presses, horologes, and scores of other machines.The movements of each of the 507 mechanisms are depicted in drawings on the left-hand page, and the facing page presents a brief description of the item's use and operation. Ranging from simple to intricately c

  14. Post-exercise cortical depression following repetitive passive finger movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryohei; Sasaki, Ryoki; Tsuiki, Shota; Kojima, Sho; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to clarify the influence of range of repetitive passive finger movement on corticospinal excitability. Thirteen healthy subjects participated in this study. Passive index finger adduction-abduction movements were performed from 15° abduction to 15° adduction, 15° abduction to 0°, 0° to 15° adduction, and 15° adduction to 30° adduction, each at 15°/s for 10min on separate days. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and M- and F-waves were measured before and after each repetitive passive index finger movement protocol to evaluate changes in corticospinal excitability. MEP amplitude significantly decreased after all passive movements, while F-wave amplitude, F-wave persistence, and M-wave amplitude remained stable. These results suggest that cortical excitability decreases after repetitive passive movement. However, the range of repetitive passive movement does not markedly influence the magnitude of cortical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying Anxiety Through Tracked Head Movements in a Virtual Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Andrea Stevenson; Perone, Brian; Friend, Michelle; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2016-06-01

    Virtual reality allows the controlled simulation of complex social settings, such as classrooms, and thus provides an opportunity to test a range of theories in the social sciences in a way that is both naturalistic and controlled. Importantly, virtual environments also allow the body movements of participants in the virtual world to be tracked and recorded. In the following article, we discuss how tracked head movements were correlated with participants' reports of anxiety in a simulation of a classroom. Participants who reported a high sense of awareness of and concern about the other virtual people in the room showed different patterns of head movement (more lateral head movement, indicating scanning behavior) from those who reported a low level of concern. We discuss the implications of this research for understanding nonverbal behavior associated with anxiety and for the design of online educational systems.

  16. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  17. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  18. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  19. Evidence for intermittency and a truncated power law from highly resolved aphid movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanova, Alla; Oliver, Tom H; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2010-01-06

    Power laws are increasingly used to describe animal movement. Despite this, the use of power laws has been criticized on both empirical and theoretical grounds, and alternative models based on extensions of conventional random walk theory (Brownian motion) have been suggested. In this paper, we analyse a large volume of data of aphid walking behaviour (65,068 data points), which provides a highly resolved dataset to investigate the pattern of movement. We show that aphid movement is intermittent--with alternations of a slow movement with frequent change of direction and a fast, relatively directed movement--and that the fast movement consists of two phases--a strongly directed phase that gradually changes into an uncorrelated random walk. By measuring the mean-squared displacement and the duration of non-stop movement episodes we found that both spatial and temporal aspects of aphid movement are best described using a truncated power law approach. We suggest that the observed spatial pattern arises from the duration of non-stop movement phases rather than from correlations in turning angles. We discuss the implications of these findings for interpreting movement data, such as distinguishing between movement and non-movement, and the effect of the range of data used in the analysis on the conclusions.

  20. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  1. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  2. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  3. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  4. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  5. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  6. Movements and habitat use of mallard broods in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, D.M.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    To increase recruitment of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wildlife managers must understand the habitat and space needs of mallard broods. During 1989-90, we examined the movements, home range, and habitat use of 27 radio-marked mallard broods on Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, California. Twelve of the 27 broods made 22 relocation movements (>1,000 m in 24 hr) in the first week (n = 6) and after the fourth (n = 16) week of life. Mean home range size was 0.93 km2 (SE = 0.25) and did not differ between years (P = 0.26). Brood-rearing females selected seasonally flooded wetlands with a cover component and avoided open or permanently flooded habitats. In 1989, broods hatched in permanent wetlands were less successful in fledging (P = 0.006) radio-marked ducklings than broods from seasonal wetlands, suggesting habitat availability or movement to preferred habitats may affect duckling survival.

  7. From global discourse to local action: the makings of a sexual rights movement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Garcia

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of discourses around sexual rights, linking tendencies in official global dialogues with national and local realities. Recognizing some of the factors that have facilitated or impeded discourses and action to promote sexual rights around the world, we explore the principles and processes of framing sexual rights and sexual citizenship. We consider political opportunity and the mobilization of resources as important as cultural and emotional interpretations of sexual rights in conceptualizing a "sexual rights movement". Throughout the paper we question whether a movement based on solidarity can be forged between different social movements (i.e., feminist movements, HIV/AIDS movements, LGBT movements, etc. that are advocating for distinct sexual rights. While theoretically sexual rights range from protection from sexual violation to the celebration of sexual pleasure, in reality the agendas of sexual rights movements are still largely fragmented, heteronormative, and focused on negative rights.

  8. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  9. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  10. Observing position and movements in hydrotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann; Rudell, Barb; Haus, George

    2008-01-01

    To observe and describe the positions and movements women choose while immersed in water during the first stage of labor. Descriptive, observational pilot study. A rural community hospital that provided hydrotherapy in labor. Women (N = 7) who intended to use hydrotherapy in labor were recruited prenatally from a midwife-managed practice. For 15 minutes of each hour during the first stage of labor, position and movements of the participants were observed and recorded on a laptop computer. The observational tool was developed for this study from a review of the literature and interviews with nursing experts; 435 observations were recorded. Women were free to choose when and how long to use hydrotherapy and had no restriction on their positions and movements. Only 3 of the 7 participants labored in the tub. Women demonstrated a greater range of positions and movements in the tub than in bed, both throughout labor and during late first-stage labor (7-10 cm of dilatation). Women had more contractions and made more rhythmic movements while in the tub than in bed. Hydrotherapy may encourage upright positions and movements that facilitate labor progress and coping, helping women avoid unnecessary interventions.

  11. Poleward shifts in winter ranges of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank A. La Sorte; Frank R., III Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is thought to promote the poleward movement of geographic ranges; however, the spatial dynamics, mechanisms, and regional anthropogenic drivers associated with these trends have not been fully explored. We estimated changes in latitude of northern range boundaries, center of occurrence, and center of abundance for 254 species of winter avifauna in North...

  12. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  13. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  14. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both ...

  15. Acting without seeing: Eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness Miriam Spering & Marisa Carrasco

    OpenAIRE

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. We review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movements. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to part...

  16. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  17. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    /solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...

  18. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  19. Population consequences of aggregative movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin

    1989-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  20. Actuating movement in refined wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,

  1. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  2. Measuring leg movements during sleep using accelerometry: comparison with EMG and piezo-electric scored events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Leong, Matthew; Barton, Katrina; Freakley, Craig; Downey, Carl; Vanniekerk, Mark; Jorgensen, Greg; Douglas, James

    2013-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep (PLMS) can cause significant disturbance to sleep, resulting in daytime sleepiness and reduced quality of life. In conventional clinical practice, PLMS are measured using overnight electromyogram (EMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, although historically they have also been measured using piezo-electric gauges placed over the muscle. However, PLMS counts (PLM index) do not correlate well with clinical symptomology. In this study, we propose that because EMG and piezo derived signals measure muscle activation rather than actual movement, they may count events with no appreciable movement of the limb and therefore no contribution to sleep disturbance. The aim of this study is thus to determine the percentage of clinically scored limb movements which are not associated with movement of the great toe measured using accelerometry. 9 participants were studied simultaneously with an overnight diagnostic polysomnogram (including EMG and piezo instrumentation of the right leg) and high temporal resolution accelerometry of the right great toe. Limb movements were scored, and peak acceleration during each scored movement was quantified. Across the participant population, 54.9% (range: 26.7-76.3) and 39.0% (range: 4.8-69.6) of limb movements scored using piezo and EMG instrumentation respectively, were not associated with toe movement measured with accelerometry. If sleep disturbance is the consequence of the limb movements, these results may explain why conventional piezo or EMG derived PLMI is poorly correlated with clinical symptomology.

  3. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  4. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  5. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  6. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  7. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  8. Expanding Panjabi's stability model to express movement: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J; Gabel, P

    2013-06-01

    on human movement. The use of this model may provide a universal system for body movement analysis and understanding musculoskeletal disorders. In turn, this may lead to a simple categorisation system alluding to the functional face-value of a wide range of commonly used passive, active or combined musculoskeletal interventions. Further research is required to investigate the mechanisms that enable or interfere with harmonious body movements. Such work may then potentially lead to new and evolved evidence based interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Space Use and Movement of a Neotropical Top Predator: The Endangered Jaguar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo G Morato

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating home range and understanding movement behavior can provide important information on ecological processes. Advances in data collection and analysis have improved our ability to estimate home range and movement parameters, both of which have the potential to impact species conservation. Fitting continuous-time movement model to data and incorporating the autocorrelated kernel density estimator (AKDE, we investigated range residency of forty-four jaguars fit with GPS collars across five biomes in Brazil and Argentina. We assessed home range and movement parameters of range resident animals and compared AKDE estimates with kernel density estimates (KDE. We accounted for differential space use and movement among individuals, sex, region, and habitat quality. Thirty-three (80% of collared jaguars were range resident. Home range estimates using AKDE were 1.02 to 4.80 times larger than KDE estimates that did not consider autocorrelation. Males exhibited larger home ranges, more directional movement paths, and a trend towards larger distances traveled per day. Jaguars with the largest home ranges occupied the Atlantic Forest, a biome with high levels of deforestation and high human population density. Our results fill a gap in the knowledge of the species' ecology with an aim towards better conservation of this endangered/critically endangered carnivore-the top predator in the Neotropics.

  10. Space Use and Movement of a Neotropical Top Predator: The Endangered Jaguar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Ronaldo G; Stabach, Jared A; Fleming, Chris H; Calabrese, Justin M; De Paula, Rogério C; Ferraz, Kátia M P M; Kantek, Daniel L Z; Miyazaki, Selma S; Pereira, Thadeu D C; Araujo, Gediendson R; Paviolo, Agustin; De Angelo, Carlos; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Cruz, Paula; Lima, Fernando; Cullen, Laury; Sana, Denis A; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Carvalho, Marina M; Soares, Fábio H S; Zimbres, Barbara; Silva, Marina X; Moraes, Marcela D F; Vogliotti, Alexandre; May, Joares A; Haberfeld, Mario; Rampim, Lilian; Sartorello, Leonardo; Ribeiro, Milton C; Leimgruber, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating home range and understanding movement behavior can provide important information on ecological processes. Advances in data collection and analysis have improved our ability to estimate home range and movement parameters, both of which have the potential to impact species conservation. Fitting continuous-time movement model to data and incorporating the autocorrelated kernel density estimator (AKDE), we investigated range residency of forty-four jaguars fit with GPS collars across five biomes in Brazil and Argentina. We assessed home range and movement parameters of range resident animals and compared AKDE estimates with kernel density estimates (KDE). We accounted for differential space use and movement among individuals, sex, region, and habitat quality. Thirty-three (80%) of collared jaguars were range resident. Home range estimates using AKDE were 1.02 to 4.80 times larger than KDE estimates that did not consider autocorrelation. Males exhibited larger home ranges, more directional movement paths, and a trend towards larger distances traveled per day. Jaguars with the largest home ranges occupied the Atlantic Forest, a biome with high levels of deforestation and high human population density. Our results fill a gap in the knowledge of the species' ecology with an aim towards better conservation of this endangered/critically endangered carnivore-the top predator in the Neotropics.

  11. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  12. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  13. Oil price movements and production agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazraati, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this technical exercise is to apply econometric modelling to study the relationship between movements in the oil price and compliance by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) with its self-assigned production agreements, whose purpose is to bring order and stability to the international oil market. After introducing various methods of measurement of compliance, the study applies these methods to monthly data for 1995-2002 for OPEC. It then identifies the method ''over-production as a percentage of ceiling'' as the best-fitting and most accurate criterion for measuring OPEC compliance. The paper then elaborates on intervention analysis, explains the various types of intervention in detail and introduces a number of econometric models to monitor oil price movements resulting from OPEC's intervention in the oil market, along with the extent of its compliance with its agreements. On applying the models to a set of historical monthly data, the study finds that higher oil prices have been achieved when the effective level of compliance lies in the range of 94-99 per cent, and that lower oil prices have been experienced when there is less compliance and more volatility. The paper notes that the achievement of order and stability is the responsibility of all parties in an international market that is inherently volatile. (author)

  14. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  15. Spatial and temporal movements in Pyrenean bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus): Integrating movement ecology into conservation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Afonso, Ivan; Moreno-Opo, Rubén

    2016-10-25

    Understanding the movement of threatened species is important if we are to optimize management and conservation actions. Here, we describe the age and sex specific spatial and temporal ranging patterns of 19 bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus tracked with GPS technology. Our findings suggest that spatial asymmetries are a consequence of breeding status and age-classes. Territorial individuals exploited home ranges of about 50 km 2 , while non-territorial birds used areas of around 10 000 km 2 (with no seasonal differences). Mean daily movements differed between territorial (23.8 km) and non-territorial birds (46.1 km), and differences were also found between sexes in non-territorial birds. Daily maximum distances travelled per day also differed between territorial (8.2 km) and non-territorial individuals (26.5 km). Territorial females moved greater distances (12 km) than males (6.6 km). Taking into account high-use core areas (K20), Supplementary Feeding Sites (SFS) do not seem to play an important role in the use of space by bearded vultures. For non-territorial and territorial individuals, 54% and 46% of their home ranges (K90), respectively, were outside protected areas. Our findings will help develop guidelines for establishing priority areas based on spatial use, and also optimize management and conservation actions for this threatened species.

  16. Winter movements of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) in Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh B. Pierce; D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; John G. Himes; C. Mike Duran; Laurence M. Hardy; Robert R. Fleet

    2014-01-01

    Despite concerns that the Louisiana Pine Snake (Pituophis ruthveni) has been extirpated from large portions of its historic range, only a limited number of studies on their movement patterns have been published. Winter movement patterns are of particular interest since it has been hypothesized that impacts of management practices would be reduced during the winter....

  17. E pluribus unum, ex uno plures: Competition, violence, and fragmentation in ethnopolitical movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seymour, L.J.M.; Bakke, K.M.; Gallagher Cunningham, K.

    2016-01-01

    Why are some ethnopolitical movements divided while others are relatively unified? A growing literature examines the consequences of internal divisions in ethnopolitical movements - and shows that it matters for a range of conflict outcomes - yet the mechanisms causing such divisions remain poorly

  18. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  19. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  20. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  1. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  2. Characteristics of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) long-distance movements across their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Haukos, David A.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Elmore, Dwayne; Carleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance movements are important adaptive behaviors that contribute to population, community, and ecosystem connectivity. However, researchers have a poor understanding of the characteristics of long-distance movements for most species. Here, we examined long-distance movements for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern. We addressed the following questions: (1) At what distances could populations be connected? (2) What are the characteristics and probability of dispersal movements? (3) Do lesser prairie-chickens display exploratory and round-trip movements? (4) Do the characteristics of long-distance movements vary by site? Movements were examined from populations using satellite GPS transmitters across the entire distribution of the species in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. Dispersal movements were recorded up to 71 km net displacement, much farther than hitherto recorded. These distances suggest that there may be greater potential connectivity among populations than previously thought. Dispersal movements were displayed primarily by females and had a northerly directional bias. Dispersal probabilities ranged from 0.08 to 0.43 movements per year for both sexes combined, although these movements averaged only 16 km net displacement. Lesser prairie-chickens displayed both exploratory foray loops and round-trip movements. Half of round-trip movements appeared seasonal, suggesting a partial migration in some populations. None of the long-distance movements varied by study site. Data presented here will be important in parameterizing models assessing population viability and informing conservation planning, although further work is needed to identify landscape features that may reduce connectivity among populations.

  3. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  4. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  5. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  6. Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  7. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  8. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously.

    An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development.

    Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord

  9. A mass-wasting dominated Quaternary mountain range, the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Hogg, Alan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial bedrock incision, which creates topographic relief and controls hillslope development, has been considered the key medium linking denudation and tectonic uplift of unglaciated mountains. This article, however, shows a different scenario from the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. This range, with the steepness inherited from pre-orogenic volcanoes, has been subject to mass wasting even before its emergence above sea level no earlier than Middle Pleistocene. Numerous terraced alluvial fans/fan deltas record the ancient mass movements of the range, including rock avalanches. Multiple radiocarbon dates sequences not clearly related to the known climate-change events, and are believed to have been triggered mainly by severe rainfall events, large earthquakes, or their combinations. The resulting fluctuation of sediment yield has episodically changed river behavior, forming river terraces in catchments >1 km2. Alluvial terraces are typically exhibited close to the source ridges of mass movements, and strath terraces along the downstream parts of rivers. Both were created when enormous sediment supply had exceeded or matched the prevailing river transport capacity. This process, along with the protection by giant boulders from mass movement, disturbed the long-term incision trend of rivers in response to tectonic uplift. As a result, the observed Holocene bedrock incision at most sites has not kept pace with the tectonic uplift. The spatial contrast in mass-wasting histories further accounts for the great diversity of the terrace sequences, even in areas with similar tectonic and base-level conditions.

  10. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  11. Participant characteristics of users of holistic movement practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Ineke; Bennie, Jason A; Charity, Melanie J; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Biddle, Stuart J H; Eime, Rochelle M

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of users of holistic movement practices in Australia to people who were physically active but not using holistic movement practices. A second aim was to compare characteristics of users of specific holistic movement practices (yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong). We performed a secondary data analysis on pooled data of a nationally-representative physical activity survey conducted yearly 2001-2010 (n = 195,926). Australia-wide Exercise, Recreation, and Sport Survey (ERASS). A range of socio-demographic and participation characteristics were documented and compared between users and non-users of holistic movement practices and between yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong users, employing descriptive statistics, chi square, and multiple logistic regression analyses. Users of holistic movement practices (n = 6826) were significantly more likely than non-users to be female, older, have fewer children at home, and have higher levels of education, socio-economic background, and physical activity involvement (p users were also found to differ on a number of characteristics, including age, sex, socioeconomic background, and marital status. As a group, Australian users of holistic movement practices differ on a range of characteristics from those Australians active in other types of physical activities. However, differences between yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong users suggest these practices attract somewhat different sub-populations. To what extent these differences are due to characteristics inherent to the practices themselves or to differences in delivery-related parameters needs to be examined in future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The selective disruption of spatial working memory by eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postle, Bradley R; Idzikowski, Christopher; Sala, Sergio Della; Logie, Robert H; Baddeley, Alan D

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Baddeley and colleagues conducted a series of experiments investigating the role of eye movements in visual working memory. Although only described briefly in a book, these studies have influenced a remarkable number of empirical and theoretical developments in fields ranging from experimental psychology to human neuropsychology to nonhuman primate electrophysiology. This paper presents, in full detail, three critical studies from this series, together with a recently performed study that includes a level of eye movement measurement and control that was not available for the older studies. Together, the results demonstrate several facts about the sensitivity of visuospatial working memory to eye movements. First, it is eye movement control, not movement per se, that produces the disruptive effects. Second, these effects are limited to working memory for locations and do not generalize to visual working memory for shapes. Third, they can be isolated to the storage/maintenance components of working memory (e.g., to the delay period of the delayed-recognition task). These facts have important implications for models of visual working memory.

  13. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  14. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  15. 30 CFR 250.602 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...

  16. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  17. 30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...

  18. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...

  19. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  20. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  1. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  2. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  3. Structure-Specific Movement Patterns in Patients With Chronic Low Back Dysfunction Using Lumbar Combined Movement Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monie, Aubrey P; Price, Roger I; Lind, Christopher R P; Singer, Kevin P

    2017-06-01

    A test-retest cohort study was conducted to assess the use of a novel computer-aided, combined movement examination (CME) to measure change in low back movement after pain management intervention in 17 cases of lumbar spondylosis. Additionally we desired to use a CME normal reference range (NRR) to compare and contrast movement patterns identified from 3 specific structural pathologic conditions: intervertebral disc, facet joint, and nerve root compression. Computer-aided CME was used before and after intervention, in a cohort study design, to record lumbar range of movement along with pain, disability, and health self-report questionnaires in 17 participants who received image-guided facet, epidural, and/or rhizotomy intervention. In the majority of cases, CME was reassessed after injection together with 2 serial self-reports after an average of 2 and 14 weeks. A minimal clinically important difference of 30% was used to interpret meaningful change in self-reports. A CME NRR (n = 159) was used for comparison with the 17 cases. Post hoc observation included subgrouping cases into 3 discrete pathologic conditions, intervertebral disc, facet dysfunction, and nerve root compression, in order to report intergroup differences in CME movement. Seven of the 17 participants stated that a "combined" movement was their most painful CME direction. Self-report outcome data indicated that 4 participants experienced significant improvement in health survey, 5 improved by ≥30% on low back function, and 8 reported that low back pain was more bothersome than stiffness, 6 of whom achieved the minimal clinically important difference for self-reported pain. Subgrouping of cases into structure-specific groups provided insight to different CME movement patterns. The use of CME assists in identifying atypical lumbar movement relative to an age and sex NRR. Data from this study, exemplified by representative case studies, provide preliminary evidence for distinct intervertebral disc

  4. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  5. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  6. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  7. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  8. Individual Ranging Behaviour Patterns in Commercial Free-Range Layers as Observed through RFID Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Hannah; Cronin, Greg M; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Smith, Carolynn L; Hemsworth, Paul H; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-03-09

    In this exploratory study, we tracked free-range laying hens on two commercial flocks with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology with the aim to examine individual hen variation in range use. Three distinct outdoor zones were identified at increasing distances from the shed; the veranda [0-2.4 m], close range [2.4-11.4 m], and far range [>11.4 m]. Hens' movements between these areas were tracked using radio frequency identification technology. Most of the hens in both flocks (68.6% in Flock A, and 82.2% in Flock B) accessed the range every day during the study. Of the hens that accessed the range, most hens accessed all three zones (73.7% in Flock A, and 84.5% in Flock B). Hens spent half of their time outdoors in the veranda area. Within-individual consistency of range use (daily duration and frequency) varied considerably, and hens which were more consistent in their daily range use spent more time on the range overall ( p ranging behaviour may help elucidate the implications of ranging for laying hens.

  9. Atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais e amplitude de movimento da coluna cervical em indivíduos com e sem DTM Electrical activity of cervical muscles and range of movement of cervical column in individuals with and without DTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade elétrica e a dor à palpação dos músculos cervicais, a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna cervical e a relação entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical em indivíduos com e sem desordem temporomandibular (DTM. Participaram do estudo 53 voluntários, sendo 24 com DTM e 29 sem, de ambos os gêneros, com 18 a 32 anos de idade. A DTM foi diagnosticada pelo critério de diagnóstico em pesquisa para DTM (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. A eletromiografia dos músculos esternocleidomastoídeo (ECOM e trapézio superior foi realizada bilateralmente, na situação de repouso, com frequência de 2 KHz e filtro passa-faixa de 10-1000 Hz. As medidas de ADM de flexão, extensão, lateroflexão e rotação foram realizadas com um flexímetro e a comparação entre os grupos contou com o teste de Mann Whitney. O teste de Spearman foi aplicado para a correlação entre as variáveis, com nível de significância de 5%. Não foi verificada nenhuma diferença na ADM cervical entre os grupos. A atividade elétrica demonstrou-se significativamente maior nos músculos ECOM direito (p=0,0130, trapézio superior direito (p=0,0334 e esquerdo (p=0,0335 no grupo DTM em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve correlação significante entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical. A dor nos músculos cervicais apresentou-se significativamente maior apenas no músculo ECOM direito (p=0,0055. Conclui-se que os grupos estudados registraram diferença na atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais, sendo esta maior em indivíduos com DTM.The aim of the research was to evaluate the electrical activity and pain on palpation of the cervical muscles, the cervical range of motion (ROM and the relationship between electrical activity and ROM in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD. Fifty three volunteers took part in the study, being 24 with TMD and 29 without, both genders

  10. Correlation of the Auger electrons direction of movement with the internal electron conversion direction of movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrokhovich, N.F.; Kupryashkin, V.T.; Sidorenko, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    On installation of coincidences of γ-quanta with electrons and with law energy electrons about zero area the spatial correlation of the direction emitting Auger-electrons and electron of internal conversion was investigated at the 152 Eu decay. Auger-electrons were registered on e 0 -electrons of the secondary electron emission (γ e IC e 0 -coincidences). It was established, that Auger-electrons of M-series, as well as electrons 'shake-off' at β-decay and internal conversion, are strongly correlated at the direction of movement with the direction of movement of basic particle (β -particle, conversion electron), moving together mainly in the forward hemisphere. The intensity of correlated M-Auger radiation in range energy 1000 - 1700 eV is equal to intensity of correlated radiation 'shake-off' electron from internal conversion in this range. The assumption, that the presence of spatial correlating Auger-electron and conversion electron caused by cur-rent components of electron-electron interaction of particles in the final state is made

  11. What makes a movement a gesture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  13. Development of Foundational Movement Skills: A Conceptual Model for Physical Activity Across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2018-03-09

    Evidence supports a positive association between competence in fundamental movement skills (e.g., kicking, jumping) and physical activity in young people. Whilst important, fundamental movement skills do not reflect the broad diversity of skills utilized in physical activity pursuits across the lifespan. Debate surrounds the question of what are the most salient skills to be learned which facilitate physical activity participation across the lifespan. In this paper, it is proposed that the term 'fundamental movement skills' be replaced with 'foundational movement skills'. The term 'foundational movement skills' better reflects the broad range of movement forms that increase in complexity and specificity and can be applied in a variety of settings. Thus, 'foundational movement skills' includes both traditionally conceptualized 'fundamental' movement skills and other skills (e.g., bodyweight squat, cycling, swimming strokes) that support physical activity engagement across the lifespan. A proposed conceptual model outlines how foundational movement skill competency can provide a direct or indirect pathway, via specialized movement skills, to a lifetime of physical activity. Foundational movement skill development is hypothesized to vary according to culture and/or geographical location. Further, skill development may be hindered or enhanced by physical (i.e., fitness, weight status) and psychological (i.e., perceived competence, self-efficacy) attributes. This conceptual model may advance the application of motor development principles within the public health domain. Additionally, it promotes the continued development of human movement in the context of how it leads to skillful performance and how movement skill development supports and maintains a lifetime of physical activity engagement.

  14. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  15. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  16. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  17. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Jean

    2005-01-01

    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  18. Case vignettes of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.

  19. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  20. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.

    1991-01-01

    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  1. Detecting rapid mass movements using electrical self-potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Limbrock, Jonas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Kemna, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Rapid mass movements are a latent danger for lives and infrastructure in almost any part of the world. Often such mass movements are caused by increasing pore pressure, for example, landslides after heavy rainfall or dam breaking after intrusion of water in the dam. Among several other geophysical methods used to observe water movement, the electrical self-potential method has been applied to a broad range of monitoring studies, especially focusing on volcanism and dam leakage but also during hydraulic fracturing and for earthquake prediction. Electrical self-potential signals may be caused by various mechanisms. Though, the most relevant source of the self-potential field in the given context is the streaming potential, caused by a flowing electrolyte through porous media with electrically charged internal surfaces. So far, existing models focus on monitoring water flow in non-deformable porous media. However, as the self-potential is sensitive to hydraulic parameters of the soil, any change in these parameters will cause an alteration of the electric signal. Mass movement will significantly influence the hydraulic parameters of the solid as well as the pressure field, assuming that fluid movement is faster than the pressure diffusion. We will present results of laboratory experiments under drained and undrained conditions with fluid triggered as well as manually triggered mass movements, monitored with self-potential measurements. For the undrained scenarios, we observe a clear correlation between the mass movements and signals in the electric potential, which clearly differ from the underlying potential variations due to increased saturation and fluid flow. In the drained experiments, we do not observe any measurable change in the electric potential. We therefore assume that change in fluid properties and release of the load causes disturbances in flow and streaming potential. We will discuss results of numerical simulations reproducing the observed effect. Our

  2. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  3. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  4. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  5. The muscular flexibility training and the range of movement improvement: a critical literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Coelho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The muscular flexibility training put in evidence a train of neurophysiological principals and an intricate amount of muscular and viscous-elastic properties. There are a lot of stretching methods, used on the clinical and sport contexts. Despite its common utilization, it isn’t usual the health and educational professionals reflect about the compounds and efficacy of the diverse stretching methods. In this article, we realize a critical review about the diverse methods used on the flexibility training, as the principles and parameters related with that. We will done special emphasis to the principles of the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and the diverse local relaxation methods, like warming. We will also have in count the revealing data relating to the Elasticity Coefficient paradox, witch can help to conceive an intervention philosophy of the flexibility training different from what it have being defended and practiced.

  6. Orchestration: The Movement and Vocal Behavior of Free-Ranging Norwegian Killer Whales (Orcinus Orca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    features of the environment to the active instruction and shaping of behavior more directly ( Caro & Hauser, 1992; Boesch & 25 Tomasello, 1998). Social...comparison of association indices. AnimalBehaviour 35, 1454-1469. Caro , T. M. & Hauser, M. D. 1992. Is there teaching in nonhuman animals? QuarterAy...otel), o/* America: 115, 2346-2357. doi:l 0.1121 /1.1701899. Bordino, P., Kraus, S., Albareda, D., Fazio, A., Palmerio, A., Mendez , M. & Botta, S. 2002

  7. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2006-01-01

    The perception of locally applied airflow was studied with tropical subjects who had become passively acclimatized to hot conditions in the course of their day-to-day life. During the experiments, 24 subjects (male and female) performed normal office work in a room equipped with six workstations....

  8. The selective disruption of spatial working memory by eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Postle, Bradley R.; Idzikowski, Christopher; Sala, Sergio Della; Logie, Robert H.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Baddeley and colleagues conducted a series of experiments investigating the role of eye movements in visual working memory. Although only described briefly in a book (Baddeley, 1986), these studies have influenced a remarkable number of empirical and theoretical developments in fields ranging from experimental psychology to human neuropsychology to nonhuman primate electrophysiology. This paper presents, in full detail, three critical studies from this series, t...

  9. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  10. Deriving Animal Movement Behaviors Using Movement Parameters Extracted from Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Teimouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for distinguishing between three types of animal movement behavior (foraging, resting, and walking based on high-frequency tracking data. For each animal we quantify an individual movement path. A movement path is a temporal sequence consisting of the steps through space taken by an animal. By selecting a set of appropriate movement parameters, we develop a method to assess movement behavioral states, reflected by changes in the movement parameters. The two fundamental tasks of our study are segmentation and clustering. By segmentation, we mean the partitioning of the trajectory into segments, which are homogeneous in terms of their movement parameters. By clustering, we mean grouping similar segments together according to their estimated movement parameters. The proposed method is evaluated using field observations (done by humans of movement behavior. We found that on average, our method agreed with the observational data (ground truth at a level of 80.75% ± 5.9% (SE.

  11. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE...... without prerequisites but part of discourses and at the same time individual interpretations of specific practices. The teaching role is something that is constantly produced and reproduced in the bodily interaction. Understanding teaching as performativity means that teachers are not acting in certain...

  13. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    , we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...

  14. Integrating individual movement behaviour into dispersal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Simone K; Wissel, Christian; Conradt, Larissa; Frank, Karin

    2007-04-21

    Dispersal functions are an important tool for integrating dispersal into complex models of population and metapopulation dynamics. Most approaches in the literature are very simple, with the dispersal functions containing only one or two parameters which summarise all the effects of movement behaviour as for example different movement patterns or different perceptual abilities. The summarising nature of these parameters makes assessing the effect of one particular behavioural aspect difficult. We present a way of integrating movement behavioural parameters into a particular dispersal function in a simple way. Using a spatial individual-based simulation model for simulating different movement behaviours, we derive fitting functions for the functional relationship between the parameters of the dispersal function and several details of movement behaviour. This is done for three different movement patterns (loops, Archimedean spirals, random walk). Additionally, we provide measures which characterise the shape of the dispersal function and are interpretable in terms of landscape connectivity. This allows an ecological interpretation of the relationships found.

  15. Dissociating movement from movement timing in the rat primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Eric B; Powers, Marissa E; Moxon, Karen A

    2014-11-19

    Neural encoding of the passage of time to produce temporally precise movements remains an open question. Neurons in several brain regions across different experimental contexts encode estimates of temporal intervals by scaling their activity in proportion to the interval duration. In motor cortex the degree to which this scaled activity relies upon afferent feedback and is guided by motor output remains unclear. Using a neural reward paradigm to dissociate neural activity from motor output before and after complete spinal transection, we show that temporally scaled activity occurs in the rat hindlimb motor cortex in the absence of motor output and after transection. Context-dependent changes in the encoding are plastic, reversible, and re-established following injury. Therefore, in the absence of motor output and despite a loss of afferent feedback, thought necessary for timed movements, the rat motor cortex displays scaled activity during a broad range of temporally demanding tasks similar to that identified in other brain regions. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415576-11$15.00/0.

  16. How a simple adaptive foraging strategy can lead to emergent home ranges and increased food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Teilmann, Jonas; Tougaard, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    the optimal balance between alternative movement strategies is therefore selectively advantageous. Recent theory suggests that animals are capable of switching movement mode depend- ing on heterogeneities in the landscape, and that different modes may predominate at different temporal scales. Here we develop...... that the model was indeed able to produce either stable home ranges or movement patterns that resembled those of real porpoises. It enabled animals to maximize their food intake when fine-tuning the memory parameters that controlled the relative contribution of area concentrated and random movements....

  17. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  18. Outcomes of Social Movements and Protest Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Bosi, Lorenzo; Uba, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Scholarship has left the study of the consequences of social movements in the background for a long time, focusing instead on movement emergence, characteristics, and dynamics. Since the mid-1970s, however, scholars have paid an increasing interest in how social movements and protest activities may produce change at various levels. The existing literature can be ordered according to the kind of consequence addressed. In this regard, one can roughly distinguish between political, biographical,...

  19. Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile). Long distance juvenile movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rafael; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Mazzotti, Frank; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile) is the most widely distributed New World crocodilian species with its range extending from Peru in the south to the southern tip of peninsular Florida in the north. Crocodylus acutus occupies primarily coastal brackish water habitat, however it also occurs in freshwater to hypersaline habitats (Thorbjarnarson 2010. In Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. [Third Edition], American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus, pp. 46–53 S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin). There is limited literature on long distance movements of juvenile crocodilians worldwide and no literature on juvenile crocodiles in Florida. However, adult C. acutus in Florida have been documented to make seasonal movements of 5–15 km from preferred foraging habitat to nesting beaches (Mazzotti 1983. The Ecology of Crocodylus acutus in Florida. PhD Dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. 161pp), and one adult was documented making a 35 km trip from her nest site to preferred foraging habitat (Cherkiss et. al. 2006. Herpetol. Rev. 38:72–73). Rodda (1984. Herpetologica 40:444–451) reported on juvenile C. acutus movement in Gatun Lake, Panama, and found that juveniles stayed within 1 km of their nest site for the first month. Movements of juvenile Crocodylus porosus (Saltwater Crocodile) in a river system in Northern Australia showed a maximum movement of 38.9 km from a known nest site, with the majority of the crocodiles staying within 15.6 km downstream to 6.8 km upstream (Webb and Messel 1978. Aust. Wildlife Res. 5:263–283). Juvenile movement of Crocodylus niloticus (Nile Crocodile) in Lake Ngezi, Zimbabwe showed crocodiles restricted their movements from 1.0 km up to 4.5 km through the wet and dry seasons (Hutton 1989. Am. Zool. 29:1033–1049). Long distance movements of alligators were recorded for sizes ranging from 28 cm to 361 cm in a coastal refuge in Louisiana, where

  20. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  1. Development of the movement domain in the global body examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvåle, Alice; Bunkan, Berit Heir; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Friis, Svein

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Movement domain, based on 16 items from the Global Physiotherapy Examination-52 (GPE-52) and 18 items from the Comprehensive Body Examination (CBE). Furthermore, we examined how well the new domain and its scales would discriminate between healthy individuals and different groups of patients, compared to the original methods. Two physiotherapists, each using one method, independently examined 132 individuals (34 healthy, 32 with localized pain, 32 with generalized pain, and 34 with psychoses). The number of items was reduced by means of correlational and exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's alpha. For examination of discriminative validity, Mann-Whitney U-test and Area under the Curve (AUC) were used. The initial 34 items were reduced to two subscales with 13 items: one for range of movement and balance and one for flexibility. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 and 0.87 for the two subscales. The new subscales showed very good to excellent discriminating ability between healthy persons and the different patient groups (p movement aberrations than the other patient groups. The new Movement domain had fewer items than the GPE-52 and CBE, without losing discriminative validity.

  2. Social experience does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults from Eastern (e.g., China and Western (e.g., USA cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese (BBC adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of BBC adults deployed ‘Eastern’ eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ‘Western’ strategies. Furthermore, the cultural eye movement strategies used by individuals were consistent across recognition and expression tasks. These findings suggest that ‘culture’ alone cannot straightforwardly account for diversity in eye movement patterns. Instead a more complex understanding of how the environment and individual experiences can influence the mechanisms that govern visual processing is required.

  3. Precision of jaw-closing movements for different jaw gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Daniel; Becker, Georg; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos N; Eberhard, Lydia; Fingerhut, Christopher; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schindler, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    Jaw-closing movements are basic components of physiological motor actions precisely achieving intercuspation without significant interference. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that, despite an imperfect intercuspal position, the precision of jaw-closing movements fluctuates within the range of physiological closing movements indispensable for meeting intercuspation without significant interference. For 35 healthy subjects, condylar and incisal point positions for fast and slow jaw-closing, interrupted at different jaw gaps by the use of frontal occlusal plateaus, were compared with uninterrupted physiological jaw closing, with identical jaw gaps, using a telemetric system for measuring jaw position. Examiner-guided centric relation served as a clinically relevant reference position. For jaw gaps ≤4 mm, no significant horizontal or vertical displacement differences were observed for the incisal or condylar points among physiological, fast, and slow jaw-closing. However, the jaw positions under these three closing conditions differed significantly from guided centric relation for nearly all experimental jaw gaps. The findings provide evidence of stringent neuromuscular control of jaw-closing movements in the vicinity of intercuspation. These results might be of clinical relevance to occlusal intervention with different objectives. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  5. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  6. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  7. Effects of saccadic bilateral eye movements on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both episodic autobiographical memory (event/incident based memory) and semantic autobiographical memory (fact based memory) over recent and more distant time periods. It was found that saccadic eye movements facilitated the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories (over all time periods) but not semantic autobiographical memories. In addition, eye movements did not enhance the retrieval of non-autobiographical semantic memory. This finding illustrates a dissociation between the episodic and semantic characteristics of personal memory and is considered within the context of hemispheric contributions to episodic memory performance.

  8. Detection of directional eye movements based on the electrooculogram signals through an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkaymaz, Hande; Ozer, Mahmut; Orak, İlhami Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    The electrooculogram signals are very important at extracting information about detection of directional eye movements. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new intelligent detection model involving an artificial neural network for the eye movements based on the electrooculogram signals. In addition to conventional eye movements, our model also involves the detection of tic and blinking of an eye. We extract only two features from the electrooculogram signals, and use them as inputs for a feed-forwarded artificial neural network. We develop a new approach to compute these two features, which we call it as a movement range. The results suggest that the proposed model have a potential to become a new tool to determine the directional eye movements accurately

  9. Environmental drivers of harbour porpoise fine‑scale movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, Floris; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying intraspecific variation in movement behaviour of marine predators and the underlying environmental drivers is important to inform conservation management of protected species. Here, we provide the first empirical data on fine-scale movements of free-ranging harbour porpoises (Phocoena...... of various static and dynamic environmental conditions on the movement characteristics: speed, turning angle, dive duration, dive depth, dive wiggliness (a proxy for prey chasing behaviour), and post-dive duration. Despite substantial individual differences in horizontal and vertical movement patterns, we...... found that all the tracked porpoises responded similar to variation in environmental conditions and displayed movements that indicate a higher likelihood of foraging behaviour in shallower and more saline waters. Our study contributes to the identification of important feeding areas for porpoises...

  10. Acting without seeing: Eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness Miriam Spering & Marisa Carrasco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. We review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movements. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. PMID:25765322

  11. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  12. Movements of wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stephen B.; Goatcher, Buddy L.; Sapkota, Sijan

    2015-01-01

    The prolific breeding capability, behavioral adaptation, and adverse environmental impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have increased efforts towards managing their populations and understanding their movements. Currently, little is known about wild pig populations and movements in Louisiana and Mississippi. From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated spatial and temporal movements of wild pigs in both marsh and nonmarsh physiographic regions. Twenty-one Global Positioning System satellite telemetry tracking collars were installed on adult wild pigs captured with trained dogs and released. Coordinates of their locations were recorded hourly. We collected 16,674 hourly data points including date, time, air temperature, and position during a 3-year study. Solar and lunar attributes, such as sun and moon phases and azimuth angles, were not related significantly to the movements among wild pigs. Movements were significantly correlated negatively with air temperature. Differences in movements between seasons and years were observed. On average, movements of boars were significantly greater than those of sows. Average home range, determined by using a minimum convex polygon as a proxy, was 911 hectares for boars, whereas average home range for sows was 116 hectares. Wild pigs in marsh habitat traveled lesser distances relative to those from more arid, nonmarsh habitats. Overall, results of this study indicate that wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi have small home ranges. These small home ranges suggest that natural movements have not been a major factor in the recent broad-scale range expansion observed in this species in the United States.

  13. Inter-day Reliability of the IDEEA Activity Monitor for Measuring Movement and Non-Movement Behaviors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cámara, Miguel Ángel; Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Martinez-Gomez, David; Veiga, Oscar L

    2018-05-29

    The inter-day reliability of the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) has not been studied to date. The study purpose was to examine the inter-day variability and reliability on two consecutive days collected with the IDEEA, as well as to predict the number of days needed to provide a reliable estimate of several movement (walking and climbing stairs) and non-movement behaviors (lying, reclining, sitting) and standing in older adults. The sample included 126 older adults (74 women) who wore the IDEEA for 48-h. Results showed low variability between the two days and its reliability was from moderate (ICC=0.34) to high (ICC=0.80) in most of movement and non-movement behaviors analyzed. The Bland-Altman plots showed a high-moderate agreement between days and the Spearman-Brown formula estimated ranged from 1.2 and 9.1 days of monitoring with the IDEEA are needed to achieve ICCs≥0.70 in older adults for sitting and climbing stairs, respectively.

  14. Fetal Eye Movements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885

  15. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  16. Ranging Patterns of Critically Endangered Colobine, Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ampeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas endemic only in Sarawak and Kalimantan was categorized by IUCN as a critically endangered primate that require special attention from research and conservation perspectives. A qualitative study on ranging patterns of P. c. chrysomelas was conducted in the Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak. The study was conducted over a period of 13 months from December 2004 to December 2005 with 213 days of observation. Behavioural observation covered 17 groups with special emphasis on two main groups and 1 subadult group. Scanning and focal sampling were employed as the observation methods. Results indicated that P. c. chrysomelas had vertical, straight horizontal, and cross-horizontal types of movement patterns. P. c. chrysomelas was recorded to have a short movement distance (31.8–54.3 m. Distribution, abundance types, and food resources might be the factors that shaped the patterns of movement and distance in P. c. chrysomelas.

  17. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING: THE USE OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AS AN ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTION ‐ PART 1

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Voight, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To prepare an athlete for the wide variety of activities needed to participate in or return to their sport, the analysis of fundamental movements should be incorporated into screening in order to determine who possesses, or lacks, the ability to perform certain essential movements. In a series of two articles, the background and rationale for the analysis of fundamental movement will be provided. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) will be described, and any evidence related to its use will...

  18. MEG-compatible pneumatic stimulator to elicit passive finger and toe movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piitulainen, Harri; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Hari, Riitta; Jousmäki, Veikko

    2015-05-15

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals recorded from the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex are coherent with kinematics of both active and passive finger movements. The coherence mainly reflects movement-related proprioceptive afference to the cortex. Here we describe a novel MEG-compatible stimulator to generate computer-controlled passive finger and toe movements that can be used as stimuli in functional brain-imaging experiments. The movements are produced by pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM), elastic actuator that shortens with increasing air pressure. To test the applicability of the stimulator to functional brain-imaging, 4-min trains of passive repetitive 5-mm flexion-extension movements of the right and left index finger and the right hallux were produced at 3Hz while the subject's brain activity was measured with whole-scalp MEG and finger or toe kinematics with an accelerometer. In all ten subjects studied, statistically significant coherence (up to 0.78) occurred between the accelerometer and MEG signals at the movement frequency or its first harmonic. Sources of coherent activity were in the contralateral hand or foot SM1 cortices. Movement-evoked fields elicited with intermittent movements of the right index finger (once every 3.2-4.0s; mean±SD peak response latency 88±25ms) were co-located with the respective coherent sources. We further moved the right index finger at 3, 6, and 12Hz (movement ranges 5, 3, and 2mm, respectively), and analyzed the first 1, 2, and 4-min epochs of data. One minute of data was sufficient to locate the left hand area of the SM1 cortex at all movement frequencies. Sound-induced spurious coherence was reliably ruled out in a control experiment. Our novel movement stimulator thus provides a robust and reliable tool to track proprioceptive afference to the cortex and to locate the SM1 cortex. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the clinical utility of combined movement examination in symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monie, A P; Price, R I; Lind, C R P; Singer, K P

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to report the development and validation of a low back computer-aided combined movement examination protocol in normal individuals and record treatment outcomes of cases with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Test-retest, following intervention. Self-report assessments and combined movement examination were used to record composite spinal motion, before and following neurosurgical and pain medicine interventions. 151 normal individuals aged from 20 years to 69 years were assessed using combined movement examination between L1 and S1 spinal levels to establish a reference range. Cases with degenerative low back pain and sciatica were assessed before and after therapeutic interventions with combined movement examination and a battery of self-report pain and disability questionnaires. Change scores for combined movement examination and all outcome measures were derived. Computer-aided combined movement examination validation and intraclass correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval and least significant change scores indicated acceptable reliability of combined movement examination when recording lumbar movement in normal subjects. In both clinical cases lumbar spine movement restrictions corresponded with self-report scores for pain and disability. Post-intervention outcomes all showed significant improvement, particularly in the most restricted combined movement examination direction. This study provides normative reference data for combined movement examination that may inform future clinical studies of the technique as a convenient objective surrogate for important clinical outcomes in lumbar degenerative spondylosis. It can be used with good reliability, may be well tolerated by individuals in pain and appears to change in concert with validated measures of lumbar spinal pain, functional limitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoparticle movement: Plasmonic forces and physical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batson, P.E.; Reyes-Coronado, A.; Barrera, R.G.; Rivacoba, A.; Echenique, P.M.; Aizpurua, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle structures observed in aberration-corrected electron microscopes exhibit many types of behavior, some of which are dominated by intrinsic conditions, unrelated to the microscope environment. Some behaviors are clearly driven by the electron beam, however, and the question arises as to whether these are similar to intrinsic mechanisms, useful for understanding nanoscale behavior, or whether they should be regarded as unwanted modification of as-built specimens. We have studied a particular kind of beam–specimen interaction – plasmon dielectric forces caused by the electric fields imposed by a passing swift electron – identifying four types of forced motion, including both attractive and repulsive forces on single nanoparticles, and coalescent and non-coalescent forces in groups of two or more nanoparticles. We suggest that these forces might be useful for deliberate electron beam guided movement of nanoparticles. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the interaction of metal nanoparticles with a high energy electron beam. ► We find forces ranging from 0.1 to 50 pN forces between the metal particles and the beam. ► At moderate distances, dielectric forces are usually small and attractive. ► At sub-Nm distances the forces become repulsive, pushing nanoparticles away from the electron beam. ► While the repulsive behavior is predicted by electromagnetic theory, the detailed origin of the behavior is not yet understood.

  1. Determination of ventilatory liver movement via radiographic evaluation of diaphragm position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Dawson, Laura A.; Kazanjian, Sahira; McGinn, Cornelius; Brock, Kristy K.; Lawrence, Theodore; Haken, Randall ten

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of estimation of liver movement inferred by observing diaphragm excursion on radiographic images. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with focal liver cancer had platinum embolization microcoils implanted in their livers during catheterization of the hepatic artery for delivery of regional chemotherapy. These patients underwent fluoroscopy, during which normal breathing movement was recorded on videotape. Movies of breathing movement were digitized, and the relative projected positions of the diaphragm and coils were recorded. For 6 patients, daily radiographs were also acquired during treatment. Retrospective measurements of coil position were taken after the diaphragm was aligned with the superior portion of the liver on digitally reconstructed radiographs. Results: Coil movement of 4.9 to 30.4 mm was observed during normal breathing. Diaphragm position tracked inferior-superior coil displacement accurately (population σ 1.04 mm) throughout the breathing cycle. The range of coil movement was predicted by the range of diaphragm movement with an accuracy of 2.09 mm (σ). The maximum error observed measuring coil movement using diaphragm position was 3.8 mm for a coil 9.8 cm inferior to the diaphragm. However, the distance of the coil from the top of the diaphragm did not correlate significantly with the error in predicting liver excursion. Analysis of daily radiographs showed that the error in predicting coil position using the diaphragm as an alignment landmark was 1.8 mm (σ) in the inferior-superior direction and 2.2 mm in the left-right direction, similar in magnitude to the inherent uncertainty in alignment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the range of ventilatory movement of different locations within the liver is predicted by diaphragm position to an accuracy that matches or exceeds existing systems for ventilatory tracking. This suggests that the diaphragm is an acceptable anatomic landmark for radiographic

  2. The clinical approach to movement disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdo, W.F.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Burn, D.J.; Quinn, N.P.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Movement disorders are commonly encountered in the clinic. In this Review, aimed at trainees and general neurologists, we provide a practical step-by-step approach to help clinicians in their 'pattern recognition' of movement disorders, as part of a process that ultimately leads to the diagnosis.

  3. Detecting movement patterns using Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Sijben, S.; Arseneau, T.J.-M.; Willems, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    In trajectory data a low sampling rate leads to high uncertainty in between sampling points, which needs to be taken into account in the analysis of such data. However, current algorithms for movement analysis ignore this uncertainty and assume linear movement between sample points. In this paper we

  4. Towards a discursive analytics of movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    examples taken from Danish media, it is shown that the study of movement cannot be separated from that of discursive power. Access to and control over physical movement is unequally distributed. However, so is access to and control over assessing which activities can meaningfully be given the label...

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  6. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be

  7. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. ANALYSING SURFACE MOVEMENT DELAYS IN AN AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Queuing effect can be in the different components of ground operations. Causes of surface – movement delays are long taxi – in and taxi – out operations during departure and arrival of aircraft. Surface movement delays in an airport are analyzed

  9. Historical Development of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Šiljak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Movement is a term that covers all areas related to the phenomenon of Olympism. From its creation, the Olympic Movement has had to follow and to respond to numerous challenges and changes of the 20th and 21st century. The successful work of the International Olympic Committee (IOC on the implementation of their projects related to world peace, the education of youth, equal inclusion of women in every aspect of the Movement, the establishment of the Women’s Commission, the Sport for All Commission, and the Sports and the Environment Commission are facts indicating that the IOC has a significant impact on the values of the Olympic Movement. In addition to equal participation of all athletes, today, the Olympic Movement provides Olympic solidarity, education and other programs. The basic method that was used in this study was the historical method, which includes heuristic, empirical and theoretical study of the origin and development of the IOC and its operation as part of the Olympic Movement. Research results indicate that the management of the IOCas a sporting organization that manages this Movement is directed at achieving the goal to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world by educating young people through sports, and in accordance with the Olympic values. With proper management, the IOChas improved sports and has grown into an organization that is at the head of the Olympic Movement.

  10. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  11. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  12. Implementing Intervention Movement Programs for Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Eleni; Bakle, Iliana; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2006-01-01

    The reported study aimed to identify the effects of two 10-week intervention programs on fundamental locomotor skill performance in kindergarten children. Seventy-five children with mean age 5.4 plus or minus 0.5 years participated. Experimental Group A followed a movement program, experimental Group B followed a music and movement program, and…

  13. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency amongst Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Literature suggests that physical education programmes ought to provide intense instruction towards basic movement skills needed to enjoy a variety of physical activities. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are basic observable patterns of behaviour present from childhood to adulthood (e.g. run, skip and kick). Recent evidence indicates…

  14. Using a developmental movement programme to enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brain research has shown that the brain is “plastic” in that it can adapt continuously, and its structure can be changed by certain kinds of stimulation, including movement. The body is a sensory-motor response system that causes the brain to organize itself. Movement is essential to learning and can be regarded as the door ...

  15. Social Movement Theory: Past, Present and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  16. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  17. Surgical management of movement disorders | Enslin | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Movement disorders are usually treated by neurologists, and appropriately so. The first-line management of all conditions that are grouped together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with rehabilitative strategies, such as occupational therapy, ...

  18. The Ecology Movement after Ten Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Betty; Gerlach, Luther P.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are responses to a 1980 "Natural History""You and the Ecology Movement" questionnaire on ecological problems and the environmental movement. Returns indicate that concern for environmental quality is still very much in evidence, but some new directions and emphases are apparent. (WB)

  19. Mechanistic movement models to understand epidemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy

    2017-05-05

    An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Exploratory Visual Analysis for Animal Movement Ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingsby, A.; van Loon, E.

    2016-01-01

    Movement ecologists study animals' movement to help understand their behaviours and interactions with each other and the environment. Data from GPS loggers are increasingly important for this. These data need to be processed, segmented and summarised for further visual and statistical analysis,

  1. Using diel movement behavior to infer foraging strategies related to ecological and social factors in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Leo; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive movement behaviors allow individuals to respond to fluctuations in resource quality and distribution in order to maintain fitness. Classically, studies of the interaction between ecological conditions and movement behavior have focused on such metrics as travel distance, velocity, home range size or patch occupancy time as the salient metrics of behavior. Driven by the emergence of very regular high frequency data, more recently the importance of interpreting the autocorrelation structure of movement as a behavioral metric has become apparent. Studying movement of a free ranging African savannah elephant population, we evaluated how two movement metrics, diel displacement (DD) and movement predictability (MP - the degree of autocorrelated movement activity at diel time scales), changed in response to variation in resource availability as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We were able to capitalize on long term (multi-year) yet high resolution (hourly) global positioning system tracking datasets, the sample size of which allows robust analysis of complex models. We use optimal foraging theory predictions as a framework to interpret our results, in particular contrasting the behaviors across changes in social rank and resource availability to infer which movement behaviors at diel time scales may be optimal in this highly social species. Both DD and MP increased with increasing forage availability, irrespective of rank, reflecting increased energy expenditure and movement predictability during time periods of overall high resource availability. However, significant interactions between forage availability and social rank indicated a stronger response in DD, and a weaker response in MP, with increasing social status. Relative to high ranking individuals, low ranking individuals expended more energy and exhibited less behavioral movement autocorrelation during lower forage availability conditions, likely reflecting sub-optimal movement

  2. Movement patterns of stream-dwelling fishes from Mata Atlântica, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Rosana; Iglesias-Rios, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range) of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called "Long Movement Group" and the second one was called "Short Movement Group". The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that fish movement could explain

  3. Movement patterns of stream-dwelling fishes from Mata Atlântica, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms of spatial-temporal variation, obtained from the quantification of natural populations, is a central topic of ecological research. Despite its importance to life-history theory, as well as to conservation and management of natural populations, no studies concerning movement patterns and home range of small stream-dwelling fishes from Brazilian rain forests are known. In the present study we aimed to describe the longitudinal pattern of long distance movement as well as local patterns of short movement (daily home-range of fishes from a Mata Atlântica stream from Southeast Brazil. We gathered information about movement dynamic in order to discuss the relationship between swimming ability, fish morphology and home range. Long distance movement data were obtained in a mark-recapture experiment held in the field between June and September - 2008, on five sites along the Ubatiba stream. For this study, we had one day to mark fishes, on June-19, and 14 events for recapture. Considering the ten species that inhabit the study area, our study showed that four species: Astyanax janeiroensis, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Pimelodella lateristriga, moved at least 6 000m in 60 days. The other six species did not present long distance movements, as they were recaptured in the same site 90 days after being marked. For short distance study, movement data were obtained in one mark-recapture experiment held in a 100m long site subdivided into five 20m stretches where fishes were marked with different elastomer colours. We marked 583 specimens that after recapture showed two groups of different movement patterns. The first group was called “Long Movement Group” and the second one was called “Short Movement Group”. The Long Movement Group showed, on average, 89.8% of moving fishes and 10.2% of non moving fishes, against 21.3% and 78.7%, respectively, for the Short Movement Group. It was concluded that

  4. Identifying compensatory movement patterns in the upper extremity using a wearable sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Wang, Rui; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2017-11-30

    Movement impairments such as those due to stroke often result in the nervous system adopting atypical movements to compensate for movement deficits. Monitoring these compensatory patterns is critical for improving functional outcomes during rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and validity of a wearable sensor system for detecting compensatory trunk kinematics during activities of daily living. Participants with no history of neurological impairments performed reaching and manipulation tasks with their upper extremity, and their movements were recorded by a wearable sensor system and validated using a motion capture system. Compensatory movements of the trunk were induced using a brace that limited range of motion at the elbow. Our results showed that the elbow brace elicited compensatory movements of the trunk during reaching tasks but not manipulation tasks, and that a wearable sensor system with two sensors could reliably classify compensatory movements (~90% accuracy). These results show the potential of the wearable system to assess and monitor compensatory movements outside of a lab setting.

  5. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  6. Reliability of movement control tests in the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruin Eling D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement control dysfunction [MCD] reduces active control of movements. Patients with MCD might form an important subgroup among patients with non specific low back pain. The diagnosis is based on the observation of active movements. Although widely used clinically, only a few studies have been performed to determine the test reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-observer reliability of movement control dysfunction tests of the lumbar spine. Methods We videoed patients performing a standardized test battery consisting of 10 active movement tests for motor control in 27 patients with non specific low back pain and 13 patients with other diagnoses but without back pain. Four physiotherapists independently rated test performances as correct or incorrect per observation, blinded to all other patient information and to each other. The study was conducted in a private physiotherapy outpatient practice in Reinach, Switzerland. Kappa coefficients, percentage agreements and confidence intervals for inter- and intra-rater results were calculated. Results The kappa values for inter-tester reliability ranged between 0.24 – 0.71. Six tests out of ten showed a substantial reliability [k > 0.6]. Intra-tester reliability was between 0.51 – 0.96, all tests but one showed substantial reliability [k > 0.6]. Conclusion Physiotherapists were able to reliably rate most of the tests in this series of motor control tasks as being performed correctly or not, by viewing films of patients with and without back pain performing the task.

  7. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of Canister Movement on Water Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Requirements for evaluating the adherence characteristics of sludge on the fuel stored in the K East Basin and the effect of canister movement on basin water turbidity are documented in Briggs (1996). The results of the sludge adherence testing have been documented (Bergmann 1996). This report documents the results of the canister movement tests. The purpose of the canister movement tests was to characterize water turbidity under controlled canister movements (Briggs 1996). The tests were designed to evaluate methods for minimizing the plumes and controlling water turbidity during fuel movements leading to multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading. It was expected that the test data would provide qualitative visual information for use in the design of the fuel retrieval and water treatment systems. Video recordings of the tests were to be the only information collected

  9. Affective Body Movements (for Robots) Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Humans are very good in expressing and interpreting emotions from a variety of different sources like voice, facial expression, or body movements. In this article, we concentrate on body movements and show that those are not only a source of affective information but might also have a different i...... with a study on creating an affective knocking movement for a humanoid robot and give details about a co-creation experiment for collecting a cross-cultural database on affective body movements and about the probabilistic model derived from this data....... interpretation in different cultures. To cope with these multiple viewpoints in generating and interpreting body movements in robots, we suggest a methodological approach that takes the cultural background of the developer and the user into account during the development process. We exemplify this approach...

  10. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  11. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskins, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  13. Rainfall influence on styles of mass movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.; Rengers, F. K.; Foster, M. A.; Winchell, E. W.; Anderson, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation characteristics influence whether hillslope materials move in rain-splash driven hops, shallow landslides, or in deep-seated failures. While one might expect a particular style of slope failure to dominate in a region, we report on multiple distinctive mass movements on a single ridge, each associated with different weather events. This suggests that understanding climate regulation of denudation rates and hillslope morphology requires quantifying both triggering hydro-climates, and the corresponding hillslope response to the full spectrum of events. We explore these connections on Dakota Ridge, a hogback at the eastern margin of the Colorado Front Range. The dipslope of Dakota Ridge has generated slumps, debris flows, and an earthflow over the last 4 years; Pleistocene-era deep-seated landslides are also evident. We document mass-movements along a 1 km long segment of Dakota Ridge. Weeklong precipitation and flooding in September 2013 produced slumps, each of which displaced 50-100 m3 of mobile regolith several meters downslope, and some of which triggered shallow, relatively non-erosive debris flows. By contrast, a similar precipitation total over the month of May 2015 mobilized an earthflow. The 10 m wide earthflow displaced mobile regolith downslope as much as 10 m over its 150 m length. These recent landslides are dwarfed by a 400 m wide deep-seated landslide that controls slope morphology from ridge crest to toe. Exposure ages (10Be) suggest a late-Pleistocene age for this feature. Although the September 2013 storm produced record-setting rainfall totals at daily, monthly and annual timescales (e.g., annual exceedance probability of <1/1000 for daily totals), the failures from that event, while numerous, were the smallest of all the landslides in the study area. These observations raise the question: what hydro-climatic conditions produce deep-seated, bedrock involved slope failures? Recent storms suggest that within mobile regolith, individual

  14. A Finger Exoskeleton Robot for Finger Movement Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Heng Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a finger exoskeleton robot has been designed and presented. The prototype device was designed to be worn on the dorsal side of the hand to assist in the movement and rehabilitation of the fingers. The finger exoskeleton is 3D-printed to be low-cost and has a transmission mechanism consisting of rigid serial links which is actuated by a stepper motor. The actuation of the robotic finger is by a sliding motion and mimics the movement of the human finger. To make it possible for the patient to use the rehabilitation device anywhere and anytime, an Arduino™ control board and a speech recognition board were used to allow voice control. As the robotic finger follows the patients voice commands the actual motion is analyzed by Tracker image analysis software. The finger exoskeleton is designed to flex and extend the fingers, and has a rotation range of motion (ROM of 44.2°.

  15. Small media, big network: alternative media and social movements on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This thesis explores alternative media on the Internet by drawing on a range of theoretical literatures - particularly in the areas of the public sphere, social movements and globalisation. Parallel to this theoretical exploration, a significant body of published research is reviewed on Internet use by social movements and groups in global, national, and local contexts. From this review and analysis, an original conceptual framework for analysing alternative media on the Internet is developed...

  16. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  17. State Response to Contemporary Urban Movements in Turkey : A Critical Overview of State Entrepreneurialism and Authoritarian Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eraydin, A.; Tasa-Kok, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper grapples with the state's response to contemporary urban movements. In light of recent debates on the changing nature of urban movements, it presents an overview of the responses of states in different modes of regulation, ranging from a Keynesian regime to sequential stages of

  18. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  19. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  20. Human movement is both diffusive and directed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Padgham

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of the built environment on human movement requires quantifying spatial structure in a general sense. Because of the difficulty of this task, studies of movement dynamics often ignore spatial heterogeneity and treat movement through journey lengths or distances alone. This study analyses public bicycle data from central London to reveal that, although journey distances, directions, and frequencies of occurrence are spatially variable, their relative spatial patterns remain largely constant, suggesting the influence of a fixed spatial template. A method is presented to describe this underlying space in terms of the relative orientation of movements toward, away from, and around locations of geographical or cultural significance. This produces two fields: one of convergence and one of divergence, which are able to accurately reconstruct the observed spatial variations in movement. These two fields also reveal categorical distinctions between shorter journeys merely serving diffusion away from significant locations, and longer journeys intentionally serving transport between spatially distinct centres of collective importance. Collective patterns of human movement are thus revealed to arise from a combination of both diffusive and directed movement, with aggregate statistics such as mean travel distances primarily determined by relative numbers of these two kinds of journeys.

  1. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Suolinna

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  2. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.

  3. New social movements as a political subculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.) [de

  4. Memory and Culture in Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    on psychoanalytical, visual, and historical approaches. Movement scholars who focused on narrative, discourse, framing, and performance show how activists actively construct and mobilize collective memory. We know much less, however, about interactions between multiple layers and forms of remembering stored in images......, stories, or performances, or discursive forms. How do conflicting or contradictory memories about the past inside movement groups condition activists’ ability to speak, write, and even think about the future? While previous work conceived of memory in movements as a subcategory of narrative, discourse...

  5. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  6. Integrating cross-scale analysis in the spatial and temporal domains for classification of behavioral movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since various behavioral movement patterns are likely to be valid within different, unique ranges of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., instantaneous, diurnal, or seasonal with the corresponding spatial extents, a cross-scale approach is needed for accurate classification of behaviors expressed in movement. Here, we introduce a methodology for the characterization and classification of behavioral movement data that relies on computing and analyzing movement features jointly in both the spatial and temporal domains. The proposed methodology consists of three stages. In the first stage, focusing on the spatial domain, the underlying movement space is partitioned into several zonings that correspond to different spatial scales, and features related to movement are computed for each partitioning level. In the second stage, concentrating on the temporal domain, several movement parameters are computed from trajectories across a series of temporal windows of increasing sizes, yielding another set of input features for the classification. For both the spatial and the temporal domains, the ``reliable scale'' is determined by an automated procedure. This is the scale at which the best classification accuracy is achieved, using only spatial or temporal input features, respectively. The third stage takes the measures from the spatial and temporal domains of movement, computed at the corresponding reliable scales, as input features for behavioral classification. With a feature selection procedure, the most relevant features contributing to known behavioral states are extracted and used to learn a classification model. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a dataset of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio swimming movements in testing tanks, following exposure to different drug treatments. Our results show that behavioral classification accuracy greatly increases when firstly cross-scale analysis is used to determine the best analysis scale, and

  7. Inferring ecological and behavioral drivers of African elephant movement using a linear filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettiger, Alistair N; Wittemyer, George; Starfield, Richard; Volrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Getz, Wayne M

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the environmental factors influencing animal movements is fundamental to theoretical and applied research in the field of movement ecology. Studies relating fine-scale movement paths to spatiotemporally structured landscape data, such as vegetation productivity or human activity, are particularly lacking despite the obvious importance of such information to understanding drivers of animal movement. In part, this may be because few approaches provide the sophistication to characterize the complexity of movement behavior and relate it to diverse, varying environmental stimuli. We overcame this hurdle by applying, for the first time to an ecological question, a finite impulse-response signal-filtering approach to identify human and natural environmental drivers of movements of 13 free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from distinct social groups collected over seven years. A minimum mean-square error (MMSE) estimation criterion allowed comparison of the predictive power of landscape and ecological model inputs. We showed that a filter combining vegetation dynamics, human and physical landscape features, and previous movement outperformed simpler filter structures, indicating the importance of both dynamic and static landscape features, as well as habit, on movement decisions taken by elephants. Elephant responses to vegetation productivity indices were not uniform in time or space, indicating that elephant foraging strategies are more complex than simply gravitation toward areas of high productivity. Predictions were most frequently inaccurate outside protected area boundaries near human settlements, suggesting that human activity disrupts typical elephant movement behavior. Successful management strategies at the human-elephant interface, therefore, are likely to be context specific and dynamic. Signal processing provides a promising approach for elucidating environmental factors that drive animal movements over large time and spatial

  8. Detection of patient movement during CBCT examination using video observation compared with an accelerometer-gyroscope tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spin-Neto, Rubens; Matzen, Louise H; Schropp, Lars; Gotfredsen, Erik; Wenzel, Ann

    2017-02-01

    To compare video observation (VO) with a novel three-dimensional registration method, based on an accelerometer-gyroscope (AG) system, to detect patient movement during CBCT examination. The movements were further analyzed according to complexity and patient age. In 181 patients (118 females/63 males; age average 30 years, range: 9-84 years), 206 CBCT examinations were performed, which were video-recorded during examination. An AG was, at the same time, attached to the patient head to track head position in three dimensions. Three observers scored patient movement (yes/no) by VO. AG provided movement data on the x-, y- and z-axes. Thresholds for AG-based registration were defined at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm (movement distance). Movement detected by VO was compared with that registered by AG, according to movement complexity (uniplanar vs multiplanar, as defined by AG) and patient age (≤15, 16-30 and ≥31 years). According to AG, movement ≥0.5 mm was present in 160 (77.7%) examinations. According to VO, movement was present in 46 (22.3%) examinations. One VO-detected movement was not registered by AG. Overall, VO did not detect 71.9% of the movements registered by AG at the 0.5-mm threshold. At a movement distance ≥4 mm, 20% of the AG-registered movements were not detected by VO. Multiplanar movements such as lateral head rotation (72.1%) and nodding/swallowing (52.6%) were more often detected by VO in comparison with uniplanar movements, such as head lifting (33.6%) and anteroposterior translation (35.6%), at the 0.5-mm threshold. The prevalence of patients who move was highest in patients younger than 16 years (64.3% for VO and 92.3% for AG-based registration at the 0.5-mm threshold). AG-based movement registration resulted in a higher prevalence of patient movement during CBCT examination than VO-based registration. Also, AG-registered multiplanar movements were more frequently detected by VO than uniplanar movements. The prevalence of patients who move

  9. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  10. Goal-selection and movement-related conflict during bimanual reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Grafton, Scott; Albert, Neil; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ivry, Richard B

    2006-12-01

    Conflict during bimanual movements can arise during the selection of movement goals or during movement planning and execution. We demonstrate a behavioral and neural dissociation of these 2 types of conflict. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants performed bimanual reaching movements with symmetric (congruent) or orthogonal (incongruent) trajectories. The required movements were indicated either spatially, by illuminating the targets, or symbolically, using centrally presented letters. The processing of symbolic cues led to increased activation in a left hemisphere network including the intraparietal sulcus, premotor cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus. Reaction time cost for incongruent movements was substantially larger for symbolic than for spatial cues, indicating that the cost was primarily associated with the selection and assignment of movement goals, demands that are minimized when goals are directly specified by spatial cues. This goal-selection conflict increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area and cingulate motor areas. Both cueing conditions led to larger activation for incongruent movements in the convexity of the superior parietal cortex, bilaterally, making this region a likely neural site for conflict that arises during the planning and execution of bimanual movements. These results suggest distinct neural loci for 2 forms of constraint on our ability to perform bimanual reaching movements.

  11. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  12. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  13. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector...

  14. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector....

  15. Freedom Now! Radical Jazz and Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Pluciński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is obviously not only an aesthetic phenomenon. It is embeddedin a dense network of social relations. However, its social involvementis rather ambiguous, particularly since the second half of the twentiethcentury. On the one hand, music is one of the main elements of culturalcapitalism and a part of the system of domination. On the other hand,music provokes, (coproduces or possibly strengthens and coexists witha number of counterdiscourses and social projects of counterhegemoniccharacter.The main objective of the paper is to examine relationships between both, revolutionary jazz and revolutionary social movements, namely the civil rights movement, but above all radical movements, especially black power movement. The crucial questions I am interested in are problems of selforganization, performative social practices, as well as alternatives elaborated by radical-oriented jazz circles in various social dimensions, for instance economic or symbolic.

  16. Lebanon's Hizbollah Movement: The Party of God

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schad, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1982 in Lebanon, a group of radical Shi'a Muslim clerics in association with Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen formed the secretive and at times deadly movement known as Hizbollah, or the Party of God...

  17. Eventful places in the 2011 movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    ’ that is to be explained (della Porta 2008) instead of a political subject with the ability to affect itself and society; and a corrective to the growing body of literature on the geographies of social movements that often has a too static and state-centred approach. Using John Agnew’s (1987) conceptualisation of place...... is dialectical and mutually constitutive: the physical and symbolic characteristics of place influence the formation of the movement and its actions while the latter re-creates the place. This is a corrective to a dominant approach in social movement studies to see movements as a ‘dependent variable......, into an eventful place, a prefigurative place characterised by a new way of doing politics....

  18. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  19. How landscape dynamics link individual- to population-level movement patterns: A multispecies comparison of ungulate relocation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas; Olson, K.A.; Dressler, G.; Leimgruber, Peter; Fuller, Todd K.; Nicholson, Craig; Novaro, A.J.; Bolgeri, M.J.; Wattles, David W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Calabrese, J.M.; Fagan, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim  To demonstrate how the interrelations of individual movements form large-scale population-level movement patterns and how these patterns are associated with the underlying landscape dynamics by comparing ungulate movements across species.Locations  Arctic tundra in Alaska and Canada, temperate forests in Massachusetts, Patagonian Steppes in Argentina, Eastern Steppes in Mongolia.Methods  We used relocation data from four ungulate species (barren-ground caribou, Mongolian gazelle, guanaco and moose) to examine individual movements and the interrelation of movements among individuals. We applied and developed a suite of spatial metrics that measure variation in movement among individuals as population dispersion, movement coordination and realized mobility. Taken together, these metrics allowed us to quantify and distinguish among different large-scale population-level movement patterns such as migration, range residency and nomadism. We then related the population-level movement patterns to the underlying landscape vegetation dynamics via long-term remote sensing measurements of the temporal variability, spatial variability and unpredictability of vegetation productivity.Results  Moose, which remained in sedentary home ranges, and guanacos, which were partially migratory, exhibited relatively short annual movements associated with landscapes having very little broad-scale variability in vegetation. Caribou and gazelle performed extreme long-distance movements that were associated with broad-scale variability in vegetation productivity during the peak of the growing season. Caribou exhibited regular seasonal migration in which individuals were clustered for most of the year and exhibited coordinated movements. In contrast, gazelle were nomadic, as individuals were independently distributed and moved in an uncoordinated manner that relates to the comparatively unpredictable (yet broad-scale) vegetation dynamics of their landscape.Main conclusions

  20. Should I stay or should I go? A habitat-dependent dispersal kernel improves prediction of movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Vinatier

    Full Text Available The analysis of animal movement within different landscapes may increase our understanding of how landscape features affect the perceptual range of animals. Perceptual range is linked to movement probability of an animal via a dispersal kernel, the latter being generally considered as spatially invariant but could be spatially affected. We hypothesize that spatial plasticity of an animal's dispersal kernel could greatly modify its distribution in time and space. After radio tracking the movements of walking insects (Cosmopolites sordidus in banana plantations, we considered the movements of individuals as states of a Markov chain whose transition probabilities depended on the habitat characteristics of current and target locations. Combining a likelihood procedure and pattern-oriented modelling, we tested the hypothesis that dispersal kernel depended on habitat features. Our results were consistent with the concept that animal dispersal kernel depends on habitat features. Recognizing the plasticity of animal movement probabilities will provide insight into landscape-level ecological processes.

  1. Should I stay or should I go? A habitat-dependent dispersal kernel improves prediction of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatier, Fabrice; Lescourret, Françoise; Duyck, Pierre-François; Martin, Olivier; Senoussi, Rachid; Tixier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of animal movement within different landscapes may increase our understanding of how landscape features affect the perceptual range of animals. Perceptual range is linked to movement probability of an animal via a dispersal kernel, the latter being generally considered as spatially invariant but could be spatially affected. We hypothesize that spatial plasticity of an animal's dispersal kernel could greatly modify its distribution in time and space. After radio tracking the movements of walking insects (Cosmopolites sordidus) in banana plantations, we considered the movements of individuals as states of a Markov chain whose transition probabilities depended on the habitat characteristics of current and target locations. Combining a likelihood procedure and pattern-oriented modelling, we tested the hypothesis that dispersal kernel depended on habitat features. Our results were consistent with the concept that animal dispersal kernel depends on habitat features. Recognizing the plasticity of animal movement probabilities will provide insight into landscape-level ecological processes.

  2. Diagnostics of movement predispositions in fitnness centre

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Title: Diagnostics of movement predispositions in fitness Objectives: The objective of bachelor thesis is to summarize the findings of the initial diagnostics od movement predispositions in fitness and then serve as a resource for those interested in education in this field. The aim of the practical part of this work is to obtain information about the diagnostic methods used to assess physical assumptions in the fitness centers. Methods: In this thesis was used the method of analysis of scien...

  3. Movements in Parties: OccupyPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.

  4. FFUA - A popular movement FOR nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frydenberg, R.

    1977-01-01

    F F U A (Folkebevegelse for Fredelig Utnyttelse av Atomkraft - Popular Movement for Peaceful Exploitation of Atomic Power) was started in Jely 1976. Membership is concentrated mainly in Oslo and Trondheim and its main functions are to work for the development of nuclear power in Norway and to counteract the influence of the antinuclear groups on politicians and public opinion. The movement cooperates with R E O (Reel Energi Oplysning - True Energy Information) in Denmark and has established a literature service. (JIW)

  5. Vertical movement of Azospirillum brasilense in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mohan; Lal, B.; Shrivastava, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria like Azospirillum brasilense have considerable potential in increasing crop productivity. The success of bacterial inoculation in fields however, depends on their root colonizing ability. These bacteria, applied either through seed pelleting or directly to the soil are distributed along roots through active or passive movements. 32 P labelled A.brasilense has been used to study their movements in sandy loam soils. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  6. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  7. Comfortable synchronization of cyclic drawing movements with a metronome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H

    2011-02-01

    Continuous circle drawing is considered a paragon of emergent timing, whereas the timing of finger tapping is said to be event-based. Synchronization with a metronome, however, must to some extent be event-based for both types of movement. Because the target events in the movement trajectory are more poorly defined in circle drawing than in tapping, circle drawing shows more variable asynchronies with a metronome than does tapping. One factor that may have contributed to high variability in past studies is that circle size, drawing direction, and target point were prescribed and perhaps outside the comfort range. In the present study, participants were free to choose most comfortable settings of these parameters for two continuously drawn shapes, circles and infinity signs, while synchronizing with a regular or intermittently perturbed metronome at four different tempi. Results showed that preferred circle sizes were generally smaller than in previous studies but tended to increase as tempo decreased. Synchronization results were similar for circles and infinity signs, and similar to earlier results for circles drawn within a fixed template (Repp & Steinman, 2010). Comparison with tapping data still showed drawing to exhibit much greater variability and persistence of asynchronies as well as slower phase correction in response to phase shifts in the metronome. With comfort level ruled out as a factor, these differences can now be attributed more confidently to differences in event definition and/or movement dynamics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    KAUST Repository

    McKenzie, Hannah W

    2012-01-18

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  9. Water, gas and solute movement through argillaceous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.; Higgo, J.J.W.; Alexander, J.; Harrington, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    This report was commissioned by a consortium of companies and organisations with a common concern: the capacity of clay-rich media to act as barriers to the movement of radionuclides. Since the migration of such contaminants occurs primarily in aqueous solutions, considerable emphasis is placed on the motion of groundwater in the subsurface environment and on the advective and diffusive transport of solutes within this water. This report examines clay systems at a very wide range of scales, from the molecular-scale interactions between water molecules and clay surfaces, through to large-scale processes such as the movement of fluids in sedimentary basins. Its goal is to study the links between the colloidal interactions between clay mineral particles, the mechanical responses of the system and the movement of fluids. The Darcy's or Fick's laws were adopted as a basis for the phenomenological mass transfer calculations, and a very idealized porous medium having clearly identifiable characteristics and properties was considered to replace the inordinately complex and highly-variable geologic medium. It is also assumed that geological processes, other than transport processes, either cease to operate over the time-scale of interest or can have no secondary effect on mass transport. (J.S.). 737 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs., 2 appends

  10. Mining Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Elder's Daily Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Liu, M. E.; Tsai, S. J.; Son, N. T.; Kinh, L. V.

    2016-06-01

    With rapid developments in wearable device technology, a vast amount of spatiotemporal data, such as people's movement and physical activities, are generated. Information derived from the data reveals important knowledge that can contribute a long-term care and psychological assessment of the elders' living condition especially in long-term care institutions. This study aims to develop a method to investigate the spatial-temporal movement patterns of the elders with their outdoor trajectory information. To achieve the goal, GPS based location data of the elderly subjects from long-term care institutions are collected and analysed with geographic information system (GIS). A GIS statistical model is developed to mine the elderly subjects' spatiotemporal patterns with the location data and represent their daily movement pattern at particular time. The proposed method first finds the meaningful trajectory and extracts the frequent patterns from the time-stamp location data. Then, a density-based clustering method is used to identify the major moving range and the gather/stay hotspot in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The preliminary results indicate that the major moving area of the elderly people encompasses their dorm and has a short moving distance who often stay in the same site. Subjects' outdoor appearance are corresponded to their life routine. The results can be useful for understanding elders' social network construction, risky area identification and medical care monitoring.

  11. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    KAUST Repository

    McKenzie, Hannah W; Merrill, Evelyn H; Spiteri, Raymond J; Lewis, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  12. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  13. Reach-to-grasp movements in Macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the “isochrony principle” seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23658547

  14. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. [Dance/movement therapy in oncological rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Elana G; Helmes, Almut; Weis, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Dance/movement therapy may be defined as a psychosocial and body-oriented art therapy, which uses dance for the expression of emotional and cognitive issues. Dance/movement therapy is an important intervention for cancer patients to enhance coping strategies. There are only few studies investigating dance therapy with cancer patients. The present study investigates effects of dance/movement therapy (n = 115) in the setting of inpatient rehabilitation based on a pre-post design with a control group as well as a follow-up 3 months later. Standardized questionnaires measuring quality of life, anxiety and depression, and self-concept (EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS, FSKN) were used. In addition, at the end of the inpatient rehabilitation program subjective expectations of the dance/movement therapy and the patients' subjective evaluation of the benefits of the intervention were measured by a new developed questionnaire. As process factors of dance/movement therapy, expression of emotions, enhancement of self-esteem, development of the personality, vitality, getting inner balance, and getting in touch with the body have been identified. In terms of quality of life and psychological well-being, the results showed significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes. Even though those effects may not be attributed to the intervention alone, the analysis of the data and the patients' subjective statements help to reveal therapeutic factors and process characteristics of dance/movement therapy within inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Towards NIRS-based hand movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Marco; Luciani, Riccardo; Ariano, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    This work reports on preliminary results about on hand movement recognition with Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) and surface ElectroMyoGraphy (sEMG). Either basing on physical contact (touchscreens, data-gloves, etc.), vision techniques (Microsoft Kinect, Sony PlayStation Move, etc.), or other modalities, hand movement recognition is a pervasive function in today environment and it is at the base of many gaming, social, and medical applications. Albeit, in recent years, the use of muscle information extracted by sEMG has spread out from the medical applications to contaminate the consumer world, this technique still falls short when dealing with movements of the hand. We tested NIRS as a technique to get another point of view on the muscle phenomena and proved that, within a specific movements selection, NIRS can be used to recognize movements and return information regarding muscles at different depths. Furthermore, we propose here three different multimodal movement recognition approaches and compare their performances.

  17. Tropical deforestation alters hummingbird movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced pollination success, as a function of habitat loss and fragmentation, appears to be a global phenomenon. Disruption of pollinator movement is one hypothesis put forward to explain this pattern in pollen limitation. However, the small size of pollinators makes them very difficult to track; thus, knowledge of their movements is largely speculative. Using tiny radio transmitters (0.25 g), we translocated a generalist tropical ‘trap-lining’ hummingbird, the green hermit (Phaethornis guy), across agricultural and forested landscapes to test the hypothesis that movement is influenced by patterns of deforestation. Although, we found no difference in homing times between landscape types, return paths were on average 459±144 m (±s.e.) more direct in forested than agricultural landscapes. In addition, movement paths in agricultural landscapes contained 36±4 per cent more forest than the most direct route. Our findings suggest that this species can circumvent agricultural matrix to move among forest patches. Nevertheless, it is clear that movement of even a highly mobile species is strongly influenced by landscape disturbance. Maintaining landscape connectivity with forest corridors may be important for enhancing movement, and thus in facilitating pollen transfer. PMID:19158031

  18. Movement disorders secondary to craniocerebral trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades it has been recognized that traumatic brain injury may result in various movement disorders. In survivors of severe head injury, post-traumatic movement disorders were reported in about 20%, and they persisted in about 10% of patients. The most frequent persisting movement disorder in this population is kinetic cerebellar outflow tremor in about 9%, followed by dystonia in about 4%. While tremor is associated most frequently with cerebellar or mesencephalic lesions, patients with dystonia frequently have basal ganglia or thalamic lesions. Moderate or mild traumatic brain injury only rarely causes persistent post-traumatic movement disorders. It appears that the frequency of post-traumatic movement disorders overall has been declining which most likely is secondary to improved treatment of brain injury. In patients with disabling post-traumatic movement disorders which are refractory to medical treatment, stereotactic neurosurgery can provide long-lasting benefit. While in the past the primary option for severe kinetic tremor was thalamotomy and for dystonia thalamotomy or pallidotomy, today deep brain stimulation has become the preferred treatment. Parkinsonism is a rare consequence of single head injury, but repeated head injury such as seen in boxing can result in chronic encephalopathy with parkinsonian features. While there is still controversy whether or not head injury is a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease, recent studies indicate that genetic susceptibility might be relevant. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sandwich Hologram Interferometry For Determination Of Sacroiliac Joint Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, S.; Vinter, I.; Vukicevic, D.

    1983-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on embalmed and fresh specimens of human pelvisis with preserved lumbar spines, hip joints and all the ligaments. Specimens were tested under static vertical loading by pulsed laser interferometry. The deformations and behaviour of particular pelvic parts were interpreted by providing computer interferogram models. Results indicate rotation and tilting of the sacrum in the dorso-ventral direction and small but significant movements in the cranio-caudal direction. Sandwich holography proved to be the only applicable method when there is a combination of translation and tilt in the range of 200 μm to 1.5 mm.

  20. Vision system for measuring wagon buffers’ lateral movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision system designed for measuring horizontal and vertical displacements of a railway wagon body. The model comprises a commercial webcam and a cooperative target of an appropriate shape. The lateral buffer movement is determined by calculating target displacement in real time by processing the camera image in a LabVIEW platform using free OpenCV library. Laboratory experiments demonstrate an accuracy which is better than ±0.5 mm within a 50 mm measuring range.

  1. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  2. 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Cheong, Jadeera; Usman, Juliana; Ahmad, Mohd; Razman, Rizal; Selvanayagam, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise 2016 (MoHE2016). The conference was jointly organized by the Biomedical Engineering Department and Sports Centre, University of Malaya. It was held in Malacca, from 28-30 September 2016. MoHE 2016 provided a good opportunity for speakers and participants to actively discuss about recent developments in a wide range of topics in the area of sports and exercise science. In total, 83 presenters and 140 participants took part in this successful conference. .

  3. Integrating animal movement with habitat suitability for estimating dynamic landscape connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Kranstauber, Bart; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Technitis, Georgios; Weibel, Robert; Wikelski, Martin; Safi, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Context High-resolution animal movement data are becoming increasingly available, yet having a multitude of empirical trajectories alone does not allow us to easily predict animal movement. To answer ecological and evolutionary questions at a population level, quantitative estimates of a species’ potential to link patches or populations are of importance. Objectives We introduce an approach that combines movement-informed simulated trajectories with an environment-informed estimate of the trajectories’ plausibility to derive connectivity. Using the example of bar-headed geese we estimated migratory connectivity at a landscape level throughout the annual cycle in their native range. Methods We used tracking data of bar-headed geese to develop a multi-state movement model and to estimate temporally explicit habitat suitability within the species’ range. We simulated migratory movements between range fragments, and calculated a measure we called route viability. The results are compared to expectations derived from published literature. Results Simulated migrations matched empirical trajectories in key characteristics such as stopover duration. The viability of the simulated trajectories was similar to that of the empirical trajectories. We found that, overall, the migratory connectivity was higher within the breeding than in wintering areas, corroborating previous findings for this species. Conclusions We show how empirical tracking data and environmental information can be fused for meaningful predictions of animal movements throughout the year and even outside the spatial range of the available data. Beyond predicting migratory connectivity, our framework will prove useful for modelling ecological processes facilitated by animal movement, such as seed dispersal or disease ecology.

  4. Movement Discordance between Healthy and Non-Healthy US Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Swartz

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the

  5. 3D movement correction of CT brain perfusion image data of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, Fahmi; Marquering, Henk A.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Borst, Jordi; Beenen, Ludo F.M.; Majoie, Charles B.L.; Niesten, Joris M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; VanBavel, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during CT brain perfusion (CTP) acquisition can deteriorate the accuracy of CTP analysis. Most CTP software packages can only correct in-plane movement and are limited to small ranges. The purpose of this study is to validate a novel 3D correction method for head movement during CTP acquisition. Thirty-five CTP datasets that were classified as defective due to head movement were included in this study. All CTP time frames were registered with non-contrast CT data using a 3D rigid registration method. Location and appearance of ischemic area in summary maps derived from original and registered CTP datasets were qualitative compared with follow-up non-contrast CT. A quality score (QS) of 0 to 3 was used to express the degree of agreement. Furthermore, experts compared the quality of both summary maps and assigned the improvement score (IS) of the CTP analysis, ranging from -2 (much worse) to 2 (much better). Summary maps generated from corrected CTP significantly agreed better with appearance of infarct on follow-up CT with mean QS 2.3 versus mean QS 1.8 for summary maps from original CTP (P = 0.024). In comparison to original CTP data, correction resulted in a quality improvement with average IS 0.8: 17 % worsened (IS = -2, -1), 20 % remained unchanged (IS = 0), and 63 % improved (IS = +1, +2). The proposed 3D movement correction improves the summary map quality for CTP datasets with severe head movement. (orig.)

  6. Movement patterns of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus) on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Heupel, Michelle. R.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how sharks use coral reefs is essential for assessing risk of exposure to fisheries, habitat loss, and climate change. Despite a wide Indo-Pacific distribution, little is known about the spatial ecology of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus), compromising the ability to effectively manage their populations. We examined the residency and movements of silvertip sharks in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). An array of 56 VR2W acoustic receivers was used to monitor shark movements on 17 semi-isolated reefs. Twenty-seven individuals tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored from 70 to 731 d. Residency index to the study site ranged from 0.05 to 0.97, with a mean residency (±SD) of 0.57 ± 0.26, but most individuals were detected at or near their tagging reef. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent, with fewer individuals detected between September and February. A large proportion of the tagged population (>71 %) moved regularly between reefs. Silvertip sharks were detected less during daytime and exhibited a strong diel pattern in depth use, which may be a strategy for optimizing energetic budgets and foraging opportunities. This study provides the first detailed examination of the spatial ecology and behavior of silvertip sharks on coral reefs. Silvertip sharks remained resident at coral reef habitats over long periods, but our results also suggest this species may have more complex movement patterns and use larger areas of the GBR than common reef shark species. Our findings highlight the need to further understand the movement ecology of silvertip sharks at different spatial and temporal scales, which is critical for developing effective management approaches.

  7. Mass movement processes associated with volcanic structures in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Valerio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City, one of the most populated areas of the world, has been affected by various hazards of natural origin, such as subsidence and cracking of the soil, seismicity, floods and mass movement processes (MMPs. Owing to the lack of space on the plain, in recent years urban growth has been concentrated particularly on the slopes of the surrounding mountain ranges, and this has significantly modified the dynamics of the relief as well as the hydrogeological conditions. The specific character of natural susceptibility to mass movements is strongly dependent on the geological–structural and morphological characteristics of the volcanic bodies that form the mountainous relief. This natural susceptibility, combined with the characteristics of vulnerability of the society, creates risk conditions that can generate severe consequences for the population and the economy. Hence, based on an inventory of mass movement processes comprising 95 data points, the present study aimed to achieve a zoning of the areas susceptible to these processes, as well as to characterize the mechanisms of instability in the volcanic structures that form the relief of the area in question. The results of this work clearly show the role of the lithology, the mode of emplacement and the morpho–structural characteristics of the volcanic structures, in the types of mass movement processes. In addition, it identifies the diverse activities of anthropogenic origin that favour slope instability in the zone: deforestation and burning of rubbish, felling of timber on the slopes for building infrastructure and dwellings, leakages of water, vibrations of vehicles, rotating machinery and the use of explosives in mining works, overloading the heads of the slopes, disturbance of the geohydrological regime, generation of rubbish tips, terracing of the slopes for cultivation, inadequate building regulations, and the use of counterproductive or ineffectual stabilization measures.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of spatial movements of adult Hermann’s tortoises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recorded the movements of adult Eastern Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni boettgeri in a local population situated in a complex forested habitat system. The average total movement range size (TMRS calculated over three consecutive years was 4.56 ha and 7.53 ha for males and females, respectively. The largest estimated TMRS of male and female tortoises was 27 ha and 90 ha, respectively. Six females and three males (or 9% and 4%, respectively, of the overall sample had a movement range size (MRS greater than 10 ha. Significant differences between male and female MRS were not detected. Body size had no influence on the MRS of individuals in the sample, except on the core movement range size (CMRS in males. Although the collected data did not enable calculation of the home range in the studied population, the results indicate that the calculated average TMRS of local Hermann tortoises is larger than the average home range in some other populations. Therefore, in the absence of information on the home range size of local adult tortoises, the MRS could be a suitable alternative for planning local species reserves. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173025

  9. Economy, Movement Dynamics, and Muscle Activity of Human Walking at Different Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Guul, Martin Kjær; Nielsen, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The complex behaviour of human walking with respect to movement variability, economy and muscle activity is speed dependent. It is well known that a U-shaped relationship between walking speed and economy exists. However, it is an open question if the movement dynamics of joint angles and centre...... of mass and muscle activation strategy also exhibit a U-shaped relationship with walking speed. We investigated the dynamics of joint angle trajectories and the centre of mass accelerations at five different speeds ranging from 20 to 180% of the predicted preferred speed (based on Froude speed) in twelve...... healthy males. The muscle activation strategy and walking economy were also assessed. The movement dynamics was investigated using a combination of the largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. We observed an intermediate stage of the movement dynamics of the knee joint angle and the anterior...

  10. Lower Limb Voluntary Movement Improvement Following a Robot-Assisted Locomotor Training in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirbagheri Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI suffer from severe impairments in voluntary movements. Literature reports a reduction in major kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs’ joints. A body weight support treadmill training with robotic assistance has been widely used to improve lower-extremity function and locomotion in persons with SCI. Our objective was to explore the effects of 4-weeks robot-assisted locomotor training on voluntary movement of the ankle musculature in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, we aimed to characterize the therapeutic effects of Lokomat training on kinematic measures (range of motion, velocity, smoothness during a dorsiflexion movement. We hypothesized that training would improve these measures. Preliminary results show an improvement of kinematic parameters during ankle dorsiflexion voluntary movement after a 4-weeks training in the major part of our participants. Complementary investigations are in progress to confirm these results and understand underlying mechanisms associated with the recovery.

  11. Separating timing, movement conditions and individual differences in the analysis of human movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Grimme, Britta; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    mixed-effects models as viable alternatives to conventional analysis frameworks. The model is then combined with a novel factor-analysis model that estimates the low-dimensional subspace within which movements vary when the task demands vary. Our framework enables us to visualize different dimensions......A central task in the analysis of human movement behavior is to determine systematic patterns and differences across experimental conditions, participants and repetitions. This is possible because human movement is highly regular, being constrained by invariance principles. Movement timing...

  12. The Use of Wearable Microsensors to Quantify Sport-Specific Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Ryan; Gabbett, Tim J; Cole, Michael H; Beard, Adam

    2015-07-01

    -specific movements. Results demonstrated varying purposes for the use of microsensors, encompassing the detection of movement and movement frequency, the identification of movement errors and the assessment of forces during collisions. This systematic review has highlighted the use of microsensors to detect sport-specific movements across a wide range of individual and team sports. The ability of microsensors to capture sport-specific movements emphasises the capability of this technology to provide further detail on athlete demands and performance. However, there was mixed evidence on the ability of microsensors to quantify some movements (e.g. tackling within rugby union, rugby league and Australian rules football). Given these contrasting results, further research is required to validate the ability of wearable microsensors containing accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers to detect tackles in collision sports, as well as other contact events such as the ruck, maul and scrum in rugby union.

  13. The use of census migration data to approximate human movement patterns across temporal scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Wesolowski

    Full Text Available Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable information on relatively long timescale relocations across countries, but do not capture the shorter-scale patterns, trips less than a year, that make up the bulk of human movement. Census-derived migration data may provide valuable proxies for shorter-term movements however, as substantial migration between regions can be indicative of well connected places exhibiting high levels of movement at finer time scales, but this has never been examined in detail. Here, an extensive mobile phone usage data set for Kenya was processed to extract movements between counties in 2009 on weekly, monthly, and annual time scales and compared to data on change in residence from the national census conducted during the same time period. We find that the relative ordering across Kenyan counties for incoming, outgoing and between-county movements shows strong correlations. Moreover, the distributions of trip durations from both sources of data are similar, and a spatial interaction model fit to the data reveals the relationships of different parameters over a range of movement time scales. Significant relationships between census migration data and fine temporal scale movement patterns exist, and results suggest that census data can be used to approximate certain features of movement patterns across multiple temporal scales, extending the utility of census-derived migration data.

  14. The use of census migration data to approximate human movement patterns across temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O; Pindolia, Deepa K; Eagle, Nathan; Smith, David L; Garcia, Andres J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable information on relatively long timescale relocations across countries, but do not capture the shorter-scale patterns, trips less than a year, that make up the bulk of human movement. Census-derived migration data may provide valuable proxies for shorter-term movements however, as substantial migration between regions can be indicative of well connected places exhibiting high levels of movement at finer time scales, but this has never been examined in detail. Here, an extensive mobile phone usage data set for Kenya was processed to extract movements between counties in 2009 on weekly, monthly, and annual time scales and compared to data on change in residence from the national census conducted during the same time period. We find that the relative ordering across Kenyan counties for incoming, outgoing and between-county movements shows strong correlations. Moreover, the distributions of trip durations from both sources of data are similar, and a spatial interaction model fit to the data reveals the relationships of different parameters over a range of movement time scales. Significant relationships between census migration data and fine temporal scale movement patterns exist, and results suggest that census data can be used to approximate certain features of movement patterns across multiple temporal scales, extending the utility of census-derived migration data.

  15. Detection of movement intention using EEG in a human-robot interaction environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Pablo Lana

    Full Text Available Introduction : This paper presents a detection method for upper limb movement intention as part of a brain-machine interface using EEG signals, whose final goal is to assist disabled or vulnerable people with activities of daily living. Methods EEG signals were recorded from six naïve healthy volunteers while performing a motor task. Every volunteer remained in an acoustically isolated recording room. The robot was placed in front of the volunteers such that it seemed to be a mirror of their right arm, emulating a Brain Machine Interface environment. The volunteers were seated in an armchair throughout the experiment, outside the reaching area of the robot to guarantee safety. Three conditions are studied: observation, execution, and imagery of right arm’s flexion and extension movements paced by an anthropomorphic manipulator robot. The detector of movement intention uses the spectral F test for discrimination of conditions and uses as feature the desynchronization patterns found on the volunteers. Using a detector provides an objective method to acknowledge for the occurrence of movement intention. Results When using four realizations of the task, detection rates ranging from 53 to 97% were found in five of the volunteers when the movement was executed, in three of them when the movement was imagined, and in two of them when the movement was observed. Conclusions Detection rates for movement observation raises the question of how the visual feedback may affect the performance of a working brain-machine interface, posing another challenge for the upcoming interface implementation. Future developments will focus on the improvement of feature extraction and detection accuracy for movement intention using EEG data.

  16. Influence of In-Situ Oil Sands Development on Caribou (Rangifer tarandus Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Muhly

    Full Text Available In-situ oil sands development (ISD involves a network of facilities, wells, roads and pipelines to extract and transport subsurface bitumen. This technology is rapidly expanding and there is uncertainty whether ISDs restrict animal movement, leading to increased extinction probabilities for some wide-ranging species. Here we test for effects of simulated future (i.e., 50 years from now and current ISDs on simulated movements of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus, a threatened species across North America. In simulations of future scenarios, we varied the spacing and permeability of ISDs and the presence/absence of protected areas. Permeability was measured as the number of times simulated caribou crossed ISDs with different levels of modelled permeability. We estimated the effects of these factors on caribou step length and annual home range size, key metrics of small and large spatiotemporal scales of movement, respectively. Current caribou crossings of above-ground pipeline features of ISDs were measured using camera traps and compared to expected caribou crossing rates based on present-day caribou movement simulations. Current crossing rates were evaluated within the context of predicted future crossing success rates necessary to maintain caribou step lengths and home ranges. With few exceptions, permeability across ISDs was the main factor affecting caribou movement, more so than spacing between developments or the presence of protected areas. However, minimal permeability (crossing rates of c. 15% to 60%, relative to an undisturbed site was needed to maintain existing home range size and step lengths. The effect of permeability on home range size and step length was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in permeability would provide a disproportionately greater benefit to caribou movement. Our predictions demonstrate that maintaining permeability across ISDs is more important than spacing between leases or including protected areas

  17. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  18. Influence of arm movement on central tip location of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Bairbre; Amaral, Joao; Walsh, Sharon; Temple, Michael; Chait, Peter; Stephens, Derek

    2006-01-01

    PICCs are increasingly employed in children. Some of their risks relate to the location of the central tip. Despite care when placing lines, they sometimes move. To evaluate the influence of arm movement on the central tip location of PICCs placed in children. The central tip location of PICCs was studied in 85 children, with the arm placed in six positions. The variables of side, vein, site and arm position were examined to measure the direction and range of tip movement. The side, site or vein used did not influence the range of movement of the central tip. Change in position of the arm had a significant influence on the central tip location, moving it an average of 2.2 rib spaces, a maximum of 3.5 ribs. Elbow bending and adduction of the arm caused the central tip to move deeper into the chest, compared to when the arm was straight and abducted 90 . Arm position is the significant variable influencing PICC movement. Side, site and vein do not influence the range of movement significantly. Most PICCs descend deeper into the chest with arm adduction and elbow bending. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of movements of lower limbs in non-professional ballet dancers: hip abduction and flexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Erica E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old. We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers.

  20. Evaluation of movements of lower limbs in non-professional ballet dancers: hip abduction and flexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old). We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction) and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides) with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers. PMID:21819566

  1. A comparison between flexible electrogoniometers, inclinometers and three-dimensional video analysis system for recording neck movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaz, Letícia; Moriguchi, Cristiane S; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Santiago, Paulo R P; Caurin, Glauco A P; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice J C Gil

    2013-11-01

    This study compared neck range of movement recording using three different methods goniometers (EGM), inclinometers (INC) and a three-dimensional video analysis system (IMG) in simultaneous and synchronized data collection. Twelve females performed neck flexion-extension, lateral flexion, rotation and circumduction. The differences between EGM, INC, and IMG were calculated sample by sample. For flexion-extension movement, IMG underestimated the amplitude by 13%; moreover, EGM showed a crosstalk of about 20% for lateral flexion and rotation axes. In lateral flexion movement, all systems showed similar amplitude and the inter-system differences were moderate (4-7%). For rotation movement, EGM showed a high crosstalk (13%) for flexion-extension axis. During the circumduction movement, IMG underestimated the amplitude of flexion-extension movements by about 11%, and the inter-system differences were high (about 17%) except for INC-IMG regarding lateral flexion (7%) and EGM-INC regarding flexion-extension (10%). For application in workplace, INC presents good results compared to IMG and EGM though INC cannot record rotation. EGM should be improved in order to reduce its crosstalk errors and allow recording of the full neck range of movement. Due to non-optimal positioning of the cameras for recording flexion-extension, IMG underestimated the amplitude of these movements. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Movement constraints on interpersonal coordination and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.

  3. Dynamic representations of human body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtzi, Z; Shiffrar, M

    1999-01-01

    Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies suggest that human body motions can be readily recognized. Human bodies are highly articulated and can move in a nonrigid manner. As a result, we perceive highly dissimilar views of the human form in motion. How does the visual system integrate multiple views of a human body in motion so that we can perceive human movement as a continuous event? The results of a set of priming experiments suggest that motion can readily facilitate the linkage of different views of a moving human. Positive priming was found for novel views of a human body that fell within the path of human movement. However, no priming was observed for novel views outside the path of motion. Furthermore, priming was restricted to those views that satisfied the biomechanical constraints of human movement. These results suggest that visual representation of human movement may be based upon the movement limitations of the human body and may reflect a dynamic interaction of motion and object-recognition processes.

  4. Scholarship and Activism: A Social Movements Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Cox

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the debate over Barker and Cox’s (2011 use of Gramsci’s distinction between traditional and organic intellectuals to contrast academic and activist modes of theorizing about social movements. Often misread as an attack on personal choices in career and writing, the distinction aimed to highlight the different purposes, audiences, and social relationships entailed by these different forms of theorizing. Discourses which take ‘scholarship’ as their starting point position ‘activist’ as a personal choice within an institutional field, and substitute this moral commitment for a political assessment of its effects. By contrast, few academics have undergone the political learning curve represented by social movements. This may explain the widespread persistence – beyond any intellectual or empirical credibility – of a faith in ‘critical scholarship’ isolated from agency, an orientation to policy makers and mainstream media as primary audiences or an unquestioned commitment to existing institutional frameworks as pathways to substantial social change.  Drawing on over three decades of movement participation and two of academic work, this article explores two processes of activist training within the academy. It also explores the politics of different experiences of theoretical publishing for social movements audiences. This discussion focuses on the control of the “means of mental production” (Marx, 1965, and the politics of distribution. The conclusion explores the broader implications of these experiences for the relationship between movements and research.

  5. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  6. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  7. Elucidating the significance of spatial memory on movement decisions by African savannah elephants using state-space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Leo; Kilian, Werner; Wittemyer, George

    2015-04-22

    Spatial memory facilitates resource acquisition where resources are patchy, but how it influences movement behaviour of wide-ranging species remains to be resolved. We examined African elephant spatial memory reflected in movement decisions regarding access to perennial waterholes. State-space models of movement data revealed a rapid, highly directional movement behaviour almost exclusively associated with visiting perennial water. Behavioural change point (BCP) analyses demonstrated that these goal-oriented movements were initiated on average 4.59 km, and up to 49.97 km, from the visited waterhole, with the closest waterhole accessed 90% of the time. Distances of decision points increased when switching to different waterholes, during the dry season, or for female groups relative to males, while selection of the closest waterhole decreased when switching. Overall, our analyses indicated detailed spatial knowledge over large scales, enabling elephants to minimize travel distance through highly directional movement when accessing water. We discuss the likely cognitive and socioecological mechanisms driving these spatially precise movements that are most consistent with our findings. By applying modern analytic techniques to high-resolution movement data, this study illustrates emerging approaches for studying how cognition structures animal movement behaviour in different ecological and social contexts. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    1977-10-01

    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  9. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  10. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  11. Directional Tuning Curves, Elementary Movement Detectors, and the Estimation of the Direction of Visual Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1990-01-01

    Both the insect brain and the vertebrate retina detect visual movement with neurons having broad, cosine-shaped directional tuning curves oriented in either of two perpendicular directions. This article shows that this arrangement can lead to isotropic estimates of the direction of movement: for any

  12. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  13. From movement to mechanism : exploring expressive movement qualities in shape-change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, M.; Frens, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This one-day studio revolves around the exploration of expressive movement qualities in shape-change by means of physical sketching and prototyping. It is a hands-on studio where participants first explore expressive movement qualities and interaction scenarios with a generic shape-changing platform

  14. Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in farmlands in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, T. Y.; Horgan, J.; Shotton, J.; McKenna, R.; Wilson, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method. Cheetahs had medium-sized home ranges compared to previously studied cheetah in similar farming environments. Results showed that cheetahs actively visited scent marking trees and avoided visiting homesteads. A slight preference for visiting game farms over cattle farms was found, but there was no difference in duration of visits between farm types. We conclude that cheetahs selected for areas that are important for their dietary and social needs and prefer to avoid human-occupied areas. Improved knowledge of how cheetahs use farmlands can allow farmers to make informed decisions when developing management practices and can be an important tool for reducing human-wildlife conflict. PMID:27913453

  15. Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus in farmlands in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Van der Weyde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method. Cheetahs had medium-sized home ranges compared to previously studied cheetah in similar farming environments. Results showed that cheetahs actively visited scent marking trees and avoided visiting homesteads. A slight preference for visiting game farms over cattle farms was found, but there was no difference in duration of visits between farm types. We conclude that cheetahs selected for areas that are important for their dietary and social needs and prefer to avoid human-occupied areas. Improved knowledge of how cheetahs use farmlands can allow farmers to make informed decisions when developing management practices and can be an important tool for reducing human-wildlife conflict.

  16. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  17. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  18. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....

  19. Bodystorming for Movement-Based Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Márquez Segura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of movement-based interaction in human–computer interaction, designing for the moving body still remains a challenge. Research in this field requires methods to help access, articulate, and harness embodied experiences in ways that can inform the design process. To address this challenge, this article appropriates bodystorming, an embodied ideation method for movement-based interaction design. The proposed method allows for early consideration of the physical, collocated, and social aspects of a designed activity as illustrated with two explorative workshops in different application domains: interactive body games and interactive performances. Using a qualitative methods approach, we used video material from the workshops, feedback from participants, and our own experience as participants and facilitators to outline important characteristics of the bodystorming method in the domain of movement-based interaction. The proposed method is compared with previous ones and application implications are discussed.

  20. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  1. Effect of drugs on orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Aulia Amrullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response to mechanical forces given to the teeth in orthodontic treatment, which involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structure. Remodeling changes in periodontal tissues are considered to be essential in effecting orthodontic tooth movement which is the base of orthodontic correction. Molecules produced in various diseased tissues or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can influence mechanically stressed periodontal tissue through the circulation and interact with target cell combination of which may be inhibitory, additive or synergize. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement, and information on their consumption is essential to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients. Therefore it is imperative to the practitioners being in medical profession, must pay close attention to the drug consumption history of every patient before and during the course of treatment.

  2. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  3. Quantifying Motor Impairment in Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. FitzGerald

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the assessment of many movement disorders has relied on clinical rating scales that despite careful design are inherently subjective and non-linear. This makes accurate and truly observer-independent quantification difficult and limits the use of sensitive parametric statistical methods. At last, devices capable of measuring neurological problems quantitatively are becoming readily available. Examples include the use of oculometers to measure eye movements and accelerometers to measure tremor. Many applications are being developed for use on smartphones. The benefits include not just more accurate disease quantification, but also consistency of data for longitudinal studies, accurate stratification of patients for entry into trials, and the possibility of automated data capture for remote follow-up. In this mini review, we will look at movement disorders with a particular focus on Parkinson's disease, describe some of the limitations of existing clinical evaluation tools, and illustrate the ways in which objective metrics have already been successful.

  4. Quantifying Motor Impairment in Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, James J; Lu, Zhongjiao; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Antoniades, Chrystalina A

    2018-01-01

    Until recently the assessment of many movement disorders has relied on clinical rating scales that despite careful design are inherently subjective and non-linear. This makes accurate and truly observer-independent quantification difficult and limits the use of sensitive parametric statistical methods. At last, devices capable of measuring neurological problems quantitatively are becoming readily available. Examples include the use of oculometers to measure eye movements and accelerometers to measure tremor. Many applications are being developed for use on smartphones. The benefits include not just more accurate disease quantification, but also consistency of data for longitudinal studies, accurate stratification of patients for entry into trials, and the possibility of automated data capture for remote follow-up. In this mini review, we will look at movement disorders with a particular focus on Parkinson's disease, describe some of the limitations of existing clinical evaluation tools, and illustrate the ways in which objective metrics have already been successful.

  5. Social movements as emotional contexts: the emotional drive in the Basque linguistic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Larrinaga Renteria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on some of the functions that the emotions perform in constructing and maintaining the collective action of social movements in the long term. Based on a case study, we applied the conceptual instrument known as “Frame Analysis” to the successive discursive frames produced by the linguistic movement of the Basque Country between the 1980s and the first decade of 2000. With the aid of qualitative techniques, consisting in in-depth interviews conducted with qualified activists of the movement and an analysis of documents it produced, we identified the emotional contexts associated with the discourses and meanings generated by the movement at different times. Activation of the emotional components aided both the movement’s internal solidarity and external adhesion and, in short, favored the long-term sustainability of an increasingly institutionalized and professionalized movement.

  6. Dispersal, individual movement and spatial ecology a mathematical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Philip; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal of plants and animals is one of the most fascinating subjects in ecology. It has long been recognized as an important factor affecting ecosystem dynamics. Dispersal is apparently a phenomenon of biological origin; however, because of its complexity, it cannot be studied comprehensively by biological methods alone. Deeper insights into dispersal properties and implications require interdisciplinary approaches involving biologists, ecologists and mathematicians. The purpose of this book is to provide a forum for researches with different backgrounds and expertise and to ensure further advances in the study of dispersal and spatial ecology. This book is unique in its attempt to give an overview of dispersal studies across different spatial scales, such as the scale of individual movement, the population scale and the scale of communities and ecosystems. It is written by top-level experts in the field of dispersal modeling and covers a wide range of problems ranging from the identification of Levy walks...

  7. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  8. Comparison of the practical diagnostic value of different tomographic movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laehde, S.; Vuoria, P.

    1977-01-01

    The practical results of linear and circular tomography with angles of 6, 20, 30 and 45 degrees and spiral tomography were compared. The spiral proved to be suitable as a tomographic movement for different purposes. In zonography, circular movement with 6 degrees of deviation proved suitable. The linear movement presented no advantages when compared with the multidirectional movements. ( orig.) [de

  9. Dance/Movement Therapy: A Unique Career Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeniox, Leslie Flint

    Dance and movement therapy is a form of psychotherapy that uses the body, dance, and movement as the primary mediums for the therapeutic process. Dance is a fundamental art form that involves the body as an instrument of self-expression; movement is a universal means of learning and communicating. Dance and movement therapy is the…

  10. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ila

    1998-01-01

    Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…

  11. Polycythemia vera presenting with left hemichoreiform movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1985-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880x10 4 , Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9x10 4 , ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 μg/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6x10 4 . ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870x10 4 , Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4x10 4 . Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author)

  12. The Role of Cracks in Accelerating the Rate of Landslide Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, F. H.; Blesius, L.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for deep seated landslides often involve the complex interplay of a number of factors that contribute to the initiation, accelerated rates of movement, and often catastrophic failures associated with these types of mass movement processes. One of the challenges associated with the study of such events is the determination of the trigger mechanism that tips the scale in favor of movement, accelerated movement, or catastrophic failure. Much research has been directed at the role of a number of factors such as: basic geology, failure zones, preferential slide planes,vegetative root strength, rainfall amounts, rates and basic infiltration dynamics that may contribute to movement or failure, or at times even serve as the primary forcing mechanism leading to failure or accelerated movement. However, the role of surface cracks in impacting the hydrologic balance of a hillslope and ultimately the stability of a hillside has received relatively little attention. In an effort to better understand the potential role of surface cracks in altering the hydrologic balance and ultimately the stability and rate of movement of deep seated slope failures, an evaluation of a relatively large scale landslide in Los Flores Canyon, Malibu, CA was undertaken. The Los Flores Canyon slide area encompasses an area in excess of 50 acres (+ 200,000 m2), with an overall slide volume in excess of 25 M cubic meters. Over the years, it has undergone wide and often relatively rapid variation in movement rates with toe movement rates ranging from under 0.3 m/yr up to rates exceeding 2.5 m/yr. Local rates on major portions of the slide surface have exceeded 25 m/yr at times. Combining basic geologic, rainfall, urban runoff, fire, and landslide movement data with a careful GIS based evaluation of the initiation and development of crack systems on the slide mass it was determined that in some instances, once the initial movement of the slide had begun, some of the subsequent

  13. Quantifying the quality of hand movement in stroke patients through three-dimensional curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osu Rieko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To more accurately evaluate rehabilitation outcomes in stroke patients, movement irregularities should be quantified. Previous work in stroke patients has revealed a reduction in the trajectory smoothness and segmentation of continuous movements. Clinically, the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS evaluates the clumsiness of arm movements using an ordinal scale based on the examiner's observations. In this study, we focused on three-dimensional curvature of hand trajectory to quantify movement, and aimed to establish a novel measurement that is independent of movement duration. We compared the proposed measurement with the SIAS score and the jerk measure representing temporal smoothness. Methods Sixteen stroke patients with SIAS upper limb proximal motor function (Knee-Mouth test scores ranging from 2 (incomplete performance to 4 (mild clumsiness were recruited. Nine healthy participant with a SIAS score of 5 (normal also participated. Participants were asked to grasp a plastic glass and repetitively move it from the lap to the mouth and back at a conformable speed for 30 s, during which the hand movement was measured using OPTOTRAK. The position data was numerically differentiated and the three-dimensional curvature was computed. To compare against a previously proposed measure, the mean squared jerk normalized by its minimum value was computed. Age-matched healthy participants were instructed to move the glass at three different movement speeds. Results There was an inverse relationship between the curvature of the movement trajectory and the patient's SIAS score. The median of the -log of curvature (MedianLC correlated well with the SIAS score, upper extremity subsection of Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the jerk measure in the paretic arm. When the healthy participants moved slowly, the increase in the jerk measure was comparable to the paretic movements with a SIAS score of 2 to 4, while the MedianLC was distinguishable

  14. Designing for movement quality in exergames: lessons learned from observing senior citizens playing stepping games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjæret, Nina; Nawaz, Ather; Ystmark, Kristine; Dahl, Yngve; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Svanæs, Dag; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values independency (p < 0.03 and p < 0.0005, respectively), and lower than The Mole on speed variation (p < 0.05). The physical space players used when exergaming and the on-screen representation of the player, affected movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality

  15. Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C R; Buckolz, E

    1982-03-01

    Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.

  16. Geometric and numerical foundations of movements

    CERN Document Server

    Mansard, Nicolas; Lasserre, Jean-Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This book aims at gathering roboticists, control theorists, neuroscientists, and mathematicians, in order to promote a multidisciplinary research on movement analysis. It follows the workshop “ Geometric and Numerical Foundations of Movements ” held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in November 2015[1]. Its objective is to lay the foundations for a mutual understanding that is essential for synergetic development in motion research. In particular, the book promotes applications to robotics --and control in general-- of new optimization techniques based on recent results from real algebraic geometry.

  17. Cross-slope Movement Patterns in Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D.; Murphy, W.; Bulmer, M. H.; Keefer, D.

    2002-12-01

    There is growing evidence that there is a significant element of cross-slope movement in many large landslide systems. These movements may result in changing states of stress between landslide blocks that can establish complex displacement patterns. Such motions, which are not considered in traditional two-dimensional limit-equilibrium analyses, are important in the investigation of a variety of landslide types, such as those triggered by earthquakes. In addition, these movements may introduce considerable errors into the interpretation of strain patterns as derived from InSAR studies. Finally, even traditional interpretation techniques may lead to the amount of total displacement being underestimated. These observations suggest that a three dimensional form of analysis may be more appropriate for large landslide complexes. The significance of such cross-slope movements are being investigated using a detailed investigation of the Lishan landslide complex in Central Taiwan. This landslide system, which was reactivated in 1990 related to the construction of a hotel. The total recorded movements have been approximately 1.5 m over an area of sliding that is estimated to be 450 m wide and 200 m long. Extensive damage has been caused to roads and buildings within the town. Remediation work has resulted largely in the stabilization of the landslide complex. Detailed geomorphological mapping has revealed that the landslide complex is composed of two main components. The first, immediately upslope of the hotel construction site, is a relatively shallow earthflow. The second, which has formed a large headscarp upslope from the main road in the centre of the town, is a deeper translational slide. Both appear to have been reactivations of previous failures. While the displacement patterns of the earthflow indicate a relatively simple downslope movement, the vectors derived from kinematic analysis of surface features have indicated that the movement of the deeper

  18. Zadoff-Chu coded ultrasonic signal for accurate range estimation

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed H.

    2017-11-02

    This paper presents a new adaptation of Zadoff-Chu sequences for the purpose of range estimation and movement tracking. The proposed method uses Zadoff-Chu sequences utilizing a wideband ultrasonic signal to estimate the range between two devices with very high accuracy and high update rate. This range estimation method is based on time of flight (TOF) estimation using cyclic cross correlation. The system was experimentally evaluated under different noise levels and multi-user interference scenarios. For a single user, the results show less than 7 mm error for 90% of range estimates in a typical indoor environment. Under the interference from three other users, the 90% error was less than 25 mm. The system provides high estimation update rate allowing accurate tracking of objects moving with high speed.

  19. Zadoff-Chu coded ultrasonic signal for accurate range estimation

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed H.; Saad, Mohamed; Siala, Mohamed; Ballal, Tarig; Boujemaa, Hatem; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptation of Zadoff-Chu sequences for the purpose of range estimation and movement tracking. The proposed method uses Zadoff-Chu sequences utilizing a wideband ultrasonic signal to estimate the range between two devices with very high accuracy and high update rate. This range estimation method is based on time of flight (TOF) estimation using cyclic cross correlation. The system was experimentally evaluated under different noise levels and multi-user interference scenarios. For a single user, the results show less than 7 mm error for 90% of range estimates in a typical indoor environment. Under the interference from three other users, the 90% error was less than 25 mm. The system provides high estimation update rate allowing accurate tracking of objects moving with high speed.

  20. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  1. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  2. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  3. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  4. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-09-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders have shown a partial benefit with pharmacological approach.

  5. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders ...

  6. Everyday movement and use of the arms: Relationship in children with hemiparesis differs from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Brad; Uswatte, Gitendra; Vogtle, Laura; Byrom, Ezekiel; Barman, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    In adults with hemiparesis amount of movement of the more-affected arm is related to its amount of use in daily life. In children, little is known about everyday arm use. This report examines the relationships between everyday movement of the more-affected arm and its (a) everyday use and (b) motor capacity in children with hemiparesis. Participants were 28 children with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis subsequent to cerebral palsy due to pre- or peri-natal stroke. Everyday movement of the more-affected arm was assessed by putting accelerometers on the children's forearms for three days. Everyday use of that arm and its motor capacity were assessed with the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised and Pediatric Arm Function Test, respectively. Intensity of everyday movement of the more-affected arm was correlated with its motor capacity (rs ≥ 0.52, ps ≤ 0.003). However, everyday movement of that arm was not correlated with its everyday use (rs ≤ 0.30, ps ≥ $ 0.126). In children with upper-extremity hemiparesis who meet the study intake criteria amount of movement of the more-affected arm in daily life is not related to its amount to use, suggesting that children differ from adults in this respect.

  7. Development of a detection system for head movement robust to illumination change at radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Takuya; Ogawa, Koichi; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the development of a detection system for head movement at stereotactic radio-therapy of head tumors. In the system, the pattern matching algorithm is applied as follows. Regions of interest like the nose and right/ left ears, the objects of movement to be traced, are selected by GUI (graphical user interface) from pictures taken by 3 USB cameras (DC-NCR20U, Hanwha, Japan) set around the head on the supportive arms to make the template of standard position; the frame pictures (5 fps) inputted as the real-time monitor are matched to the template so that the actual movement can be detected by the distance between the template and collation points; and precision is improved by calculating mean square errors. Alarming is set when the movement exceeds the permissible range. At the actual clinical site, as the wrong detection of the movement occurs by illumination change caused by the gantry migration, infrared pictures are taken in place of the ordinary room light condition. This results in reduction of position errors from 16.7, 9.5 and 8.1 mm (the latter light condition) to 0.6, 0.3 and 0.2 mm (infrared), of the nose, right and left ears, respectively. Thus a detection system for head movement robust (error <1 mm) to illumination change at radio-therapy is established. (T.T.)

  8. To migrate, stay put, or wander? Varied movement strategies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Rachel E; Lewis, Stephen B; Wang, Yiwei; Levi, Taal; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying individual variability in movement behavior is critical to understanding population-level patterns in animals. Here, we explore intraspecific variation in movement strategies of bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) in the north Pacific, where there is high spatiotemporal resource variability. We tracked 28 bald eagles (five immature, 23 adult) using GPS transmitters between May 2010 and January 2016. We found evidence of four movement strategies among bald eagles in southeastern Alaska and western Canada: breeding individuals that were largely sedentary and remained near nest sites year-round, non-breeding migratory individuals that made regular seasonal travel between northern summer and southern winter ranges, non-breeding localized individuals that displayed fidelity to foraging sites, and non-breeding nomadic individuals with irregular movement. On average, males traveled farther per day than females. Most nomadic individuals were immature, and all residential individuals (i.e. breeders and localized birds) were adults. Alternative movement strategies among north Pacific eagles are likely associated with the age and sex class, as well as breeding status, of an individual. Intraspecific variation in movement strategies within the population results in different space use patterns among contingents, which has important implications for conservation and management.

  9. Detection and correction of patient movement in prostate brachytherapy seed reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steve T.; Cho, Paul S.; Marks, Robert J., II; Narayanan, Sreeram

    2005-05-01

    Intraoperative dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy can help optimize the dose distribution and potentially improve clinical outcome. Evaluation of dose distribution during the seed implant procedure requires the knowledge of 3D seed coordinates. Fluoroscopy-based seed localization is a viable option. From three x-ray projections obtained at different gantry angles, 3D seed positions can be determined. However, when local anaesthesia is used for prostate brachytherapy, the patient movement during fluoroscopy image capture becomes a practical problem. If uncorrected, the errors introduced by patient motion between image captures would cause seed mismatches. Subsequently, the seed reconstruction algorithm would either fail to reconstruct or yield erroneous results. We have developed an algorithm that permits detection and correction of patient movement that may occur between fluoroscopy image captures. The patient movement is decomposed into translational shifts along the tabletop and rotation about an axis perpendicular to the tabletop. The property of spatial invariance of the co-planar imaging geometry is used for lateral movement correction. Cranio-caudal movement is corrected by analysing the perspective invariance along the x-ray axis. Rotation is estimated by an iterative method. The method can detect and correct for the range of patient movement commonly seen in the clinical environment. The algorithm has been implemented for routine clinical use as the preprocessing step for seed reconstruction.

  10. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R.; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  11. Long term subsidence movements and behavior of subsidence-damaged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, J.W.; Marino, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    Surface ground movement related to sag mine subsidence has been monitored above Illinois abandoned room and pillar coal workings for periods of more than 15 years. The long term movement related to a specific mine subsidence is typically small relative to the initial displacements but have caused crack and tilt damage in both repaired and unrepaired structures. Seasonal variations in ground surface elevations are superimposed on the downward movement related to mine subsidence. Thus it is necessary to measure long term subsidence movement at about the same time each year in order to minimize environmental factors. This paper presents long term monitoring data from five subsidence sags in central and southern Illinois. The abandoned coal mine workings are located at depths of 160 to 460 ft below the ground surface. measured residual mine subsidence ranges between 1.4 and 3.6 in. 4.4 to 15 years after mine failure. The magnitude of downward displacement is greater than settlement design values (1 in.) and are at rates (0.0004 to 0.0056 ft/month) that cause damage to structures. Most of the damage in unrepaired structures occurs along existing cracks and separations. In all five cases, the ground movements are continuing at residual rates. Sag subsidence movement in Illinois takes place for a minimum of five years after the damage is manifested at the ground surface. A classification of say development is provided based on the displacement-time data

  12. Intense imagery movements: a common and distinct paediatric subgroup of motor stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Woods, Martin; Cardona, Francesco; Baglioni, Valentina; Hedderly, Tammy

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a subgroup of children who presented with stereotyped movements in the context of episodes of intense imagery. This is of relevance to current discussions regarding the clinical usefulness of diagnosing motor stereotypies during development. The sample consisted of 10 children (nine males, one female; mean age 8y 6mo [SD 2y 5mo], range 6-15y). Referrals were from acute paediatricians, neurologists, and tertiary epilepsy services. Children were assessed by multidisciplinary teams with expertise in paediatric movement disorders. Stereotypies presented as paroxysmal complex movements involving upper and lower limbs. Imagery themes typically included computer games (60%), cartoons/films (40%), and fantasy scenes (30%). Comorbid developmental difficulties were reported for 80% of children. Brain imaging and electrophysiological investigations had been conducted for 50% of the children before referral to the clinic. The descriptive term 'intense imagery movements' (IIM) was applied if (after interview) the children reported engaging in acts of imagery while performing stereotyped movements. We believe these children may form a common and discrete stereotypy subgroup, with the concept of IIM being clinically useful to ensure the accurate diagnosis and clinical management of this paediatric movement disorder. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Computerized supervision and control system for movement at the RP-10 reactor control rods bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla M, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The project involves the use of a compatible microcomputer, Labwindows/CVI software, as well as National Instruments data acquisition cards AT-MIO16-E10 and PC-DIO96 to modify the sequence of movement of the reactor's rods and control them from a graphic interface in a computer's monitor. This graphic presentation is set as console of virtual instruments from where rod movement can be conducted. Normal rod movement, bank rod movement, and rod calibration have been considered. These experiences involve different logic of rod movements, which will determine movement sequence. Control of the automatic range of a current amplifier module was also considered. This module is know as 'automatic pilot amplifier' and given the strategic location of its detector (compensated ionizing camera) at the reactor's core, it delivers neutron flux current considered as reference to superficial neutron flux distribution at the reactor's core. Lecture and monitoring of this signal allows taking the reactor to a certain power, current of this signal is proportional to the power we want the reactor to reach. Advantages obtained with this system include the update of the control console, more uniform distribution of neutron flux, with lower and uniform burnup of nuclear fuel. (author)

  14. The predictive value of general movement tasks in assessing occupational task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of evaluating individuals' movement behavior it is generally assumed that the tasks chosen will predict their competency to perform activities relevant to their occupation. This study sought to examine whether a battery of general tasks could be used to predict the movement patterns employed by firefighters to perform select job-specific skills. Fifty-two firefighters performed a battery of general and occupation-specific tasks that simulated the demands of firefighting. Participants' peak lumbar spine and frontal plane knee motion were compared across tasks. During 85% of all comparisons, the magnitude of spine and knee motion was greater during the general movement tasks than observed during the firefighting skills. Certain features of a worker's movement behavior may be exhibited across a range of tasks. Therefore, provided that a movement screen's tasks expose the motions of relevance for the population being tested, general evaluations could offer valuable insight into workers' movement competency or facilitate an opportunity to establish an evidence-informed intervention.

  15. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-01-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts

  16. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy [Advanced Data Security, 1933 O' Toole Way, San Jose, CA 95131 (United States); Poutivski, Iouri [Terimber Corporation, 2456 Homewood Drive, San Jose, CA 95128, USA and Facebook Inc, 1601 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  17. The ability of external immobilizers to restrict movement of the cervical spine: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.; Huisman, J.M.; Verdonschot, N.; Goosen, J.; Hosman, A.J.; Hannink, G.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ability of various types of external immobilizers to restrict cervical spine movement. METHODS: With a systematical review of original scientific articles, data on range of motion, type of used external immobilization device and risk of bias were extracted. The described

  18. The ability of external immobilizers to restrict movement of the cervical spine: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.; Huisman, J.M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Goosen, J.; Hosman, A.J.; Hannink, G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To review the ability of various types of external immobilizers to restrict cervical spine movement. Methods With a systematical review of original scientific articles, data on range of motion, type of used external immobilization device and risk of bias were extracted. The described

  19. Eugenics and Education: A Note on the Origins of the Intelligence Testing Movement in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roy

    1980-01-01

    Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…

  20. Evaluation of movements of lower limbs in non-professional ballet dancers: hip abduction and flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti, Erica E; Valenti, Vitor E; Ferreira, Celso; Vanderlei, Luiz C M; Moura Filho, Oseas F; de Carvalho, Dias T; Tassi, Nadir; Petenusso, Marcio; Leone, Claudio; Fujiki, Edison N; Junior, Hugo M; de Mello Monteiro, Carlos B; Moreno, Isadora L; Gonçalves, Ana C C; de Abreu, Luiz C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Method...