WorldWideScience

Sample records for range measuring system

  1. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng

    2016-11-29

    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  2. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  3. Communication system features dual mode range acquisition plus time delay measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, S. W.; Kline, A. W., Jr.; Welter, N. E.

    1968-01-01

    Communication system combines range acquisition system and time measurement system for tracking high velocity aircraft and spacecraft. The range acquisition system uses a pseudonoise code to determine range and the time measurement system reduces uncontrolled phase variations in the demodulated signal.

  4. Long-range measurement system using ultrasonic range sensor with high-power transmitter array in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sahdev; Furuhashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A long-range measurement system comprising an ultrasonic range sensor with a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array in air was investigated. The system is simple in construction and can be used under adverse conditions such as fog, rain, darkness, and smoke. However, due to ultrasonic waves are well absorbed by air molecules, the measurable range is limited to a few meters. Therefore, we developed a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array consisting of 144 transmitting elements. All elements are arranged in the form of a 12×12 array pattern. The sound pressure level at 5m from the transmitter array was >30dB higher than that of a single element. A measuring range of over 25m was achieved using this transmitter array in conjunction with a receiver array having 32 receiving elements. The characteristics of the transmitter array and range sensor system are discussed by comparing simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trieu Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers.

  6. LUMOS - A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 mu mol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based...... measurement system called the LUMOS (Luminescence Measuring Oxygen Sensor). It consists of a readout device and specialized "sensing chemistry" that relies on commercially available components. The sensor material is based on palladium(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin embedded...... for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used...

  7. LUMOS - A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Larsen, Morten; Borisov, Sergey M.; Revsbech, Niels-Peter; Glud, Ronnie N.; Canfield, Donald E.; Klimant, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 μmol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based measurement system called the LUMOS (Luminescence Measuring Oxygen Sensor). It consists of a readout device and specialized “sensing chemistry” that relies on commercially available components. The sensor material is based on palladium(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin embedded in a Hyflon AD 60 polymer matrix and has a KSV of 6.25 x 10-3 ppmv-1. The applicable measurement range is from 1000 nM down to a detection limit of 0.5 nM. A second sensor material based on the platinum(II) analogue of the porphyrin is spectrally compatible with the readout device and has a measurement range of 20 μM down to 10 nM. The LUMOS device is a dedicated system optimized for a high signal to noise ratio, but in principle any phase flourimeter can be adapted to act as a readout device for the highly sensitive and robust sensing chemistry. Vise versa, the LUMOS fluorimeter can be used for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used to measure nanomolar oxygen concentrations. Oxygen contamination in common sample containers has been investigated and microbial or enzymatic oxygen consumption at nanomolar concentrations is presented. PMID:26029920

  8. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved.......This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...

  9. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Rim [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Gyun [Heavy-ion Clinical Research Division, Korean Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hansang [Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Hyeong, E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-11

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a {sup 90}Sr beta source, a {sup 60}Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  11. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    geometry of basic bodies for compression and injection moulding of plastic negatives with different step height, sinusoidal-, triangular and arcuate profiles covering Pt-values from 0.05 µm up to 100 µm and PSm values from 0.8 µm up to 800 µm. For active calibration in Z-direction a small size vertical...... and for the calibration of filters. Existing ISO standards on calibration specimens are inadequate and limited in that they only cover contacting instruments and only partially the measuring ranges for these instruments. The whole range of non-contacting instruments are not covered despite their increasing use...... compression and injection moulded plastic negatives and Ni-negatives have been made from which again Ni-positives were produced. The replication processes showed negligible deviations from the Pt and Pa values compared to the primary standards. An important prerequisite is the cleanliness of the surfaces...

  12. Measured electric field intensities near electric cloud discharges detected by the Kennedy Space Center's Lightning Detection and Ranging System, LDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    For a summer thunderstorm, for which simultaneous, airborne electric field measurements and Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System data was available, measurements were coordinated to present a picture of the electric field intensity near cloud electrical discharges detected by the LDAR System. Radar precipitation echos from NOAA's 10 cm weather radar and measured airborne electric field intensities were superimposed on LDAR PPI plots to present a coordinated data picture of thunderstorm activity.

  13. Measurement of long-range particle correlations in small systems with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Milov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Study of particle correlations is an important instrument to understand the nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions. Using a wealth of new data available from the recent heavy ion runs of Large Hadron Collider at CERN it becomes possible to study particle correlations in different collisions systems under the same conditions. The results of several recent measurement performed by the ATLAS experiment are reviewed in this proceeding. Measurements are performed in various techniques in $pp$, $p+$Pb and PbPb collisions at the energies $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm{NN}}}}$, $\\sqrt{s}$ from 2.76 to 13 TeV. The results are compared between the systems having the same charged particle multiplicities in the final state, but different initial geometries. Results for multiplicity correlations, two-particle and muti-particle correlations measured in different techniques are presented and discussed. The goal of these comparison is to make further steps in understanding the nature of fluctuations observed in the small collisions sy...

  14. [Research on the range of motion measurement system for spine based on LabVIEW image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Deng, Linhong; Lu, Hu; He, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A measurement system based on the image processing technology and developed by LabVIEW was designed to quickly obtain the range of motion (ROM) of spine. NI-Vision module was used to pre-process the original images and calculate the angles of marked needles in order to get ROM data. Six human cadaveric thoracic spine segments T7-T10 were selected to carry out 6 kinds of loads, including left/right lateral bending, flexion, extension, cis/counterclockwise torsion. The system was used to measure the ROM of segment T8-T9 under the loads from 1 Nm to 5 Nm. The experimental results showed that the system is able to measure the ROM of the spine accurately and quickly, which provides a simple and reliable tool for spine biomechanics investigators.

  15. Neck range of motion measurements using a new three-dimensional motion analysis system: validity and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Haruhi; Tojima, Michio; Mano, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Ogata, Naoshi; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Neck movement is important for many activities of daily living (ADL). Neck disorders, such as cervical spondylosis and whiplash can limit neck movement and ADL. The cervical range of motion (CROM) device has been recently used to measure neck range of motion (ROM); however, this measurement includes trunk motion, and therefore does not represent a pure neck ROM measurement. The authors aimed to develop a new method to establish pure neck ROM measurements during flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, VICON. Twelve healthy participants were recruited and neck ROMs during flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation were measured using VICON and the CROM device. Test-retest repeatability was assessed using interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Validity between two measurements was evaluated using a determination coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. ICCs of neck ROM measured using VICON and the CROM device were all at substantial or almost perfect levels [VICON: ICC(1,2) = 0.786-0.962, the CROM device: ICC(1,2) = 0.736-0.950]. Both SEMs and MDCs were low in all measurement directions (VICON: SEM = 1.3°-4.5°, MDC = 3.6°-12.5°; the CROM device: SEM = 2.2°-3.9°, MDC = 6.1°-10.7°). Determination coefficients (R(2)s) and Pearson's correlation coefficients (rs) between the two measurement methods were high (R(2) = 0.607-0.745, r = 0.779-0.863). VICON is a useful system to measure neck ROMs and evaluate the efficacy of interventions, such as surgery or physiotherapeutic exercise.

  16. Systematic Study of Acquisition Electronics with a High Dynamic Range for a Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini, G G; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Zamantzas, C

    2009-01-01

    A discrete components design for a current digitizer based on the current-to-frequency converter (CFC) principle is currently under development at CERN. The design targets at higher current inputs than similar designs, with a maximum equal to 100mA and a minimum of 1nA, as required by the ionization chamber that will be employed in the Proton Synchrotron and Booster accelerators as well as in the LINAC 4. It allows the acquisition of currents of both polarities without requiring any configuration and provides fractional counts through an ADC to increase resolution. Several architectural choices are considered for the front-end circuit, including charge balance integrators, dual-integrator input stages, integrators with switchable-capacitor. Design approach and measurements are discussed in this article.

  17. Study of Acquisition Electronics with a High Dynamic Range for a Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini, G; Dehning, B; Effinger, E

    2010-01-01

    The particles accelerated in CERN accelerator chain reach high energies, topped by the particle energy at collision in the LHC, 7 GeV. During the operation, an amount of particles is inevitably lost from the beam. Depending on the extent of the losses, physical damage to machine components may be caused and the shower of secondary emission particles deposits energy in the surrounding equipment constituting the accelerator. The hadronic cascade also activates their materials, representing a hazard to the workers at CERN. In the LHC, the superconducting magnets that constitute the synchrotron lattice are kept at an operating temperature of 1:9K through a cryogenic facility employing superliquid helium, the increase in their temperature potentially initiates a quench. In the SPS, the damage due to a lost beam is also visible. The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system has been developed to reliably protect the machines composing CERN’s accelerator chain and additionally provide information about the beam status: th...

  18. Evaluation of EIT systems and algorithms for handling full void fraction range in two-phase flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi; Faraj, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    In the aqueous-based two-phase flow, if the void fraction of dispersed phase exceeds 0.25, conventional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) produces a considerable error due to the linear approximation of the sensitivity back-projection (SBP) method, which limits the EIT’s wider application in the process industry. In this paper, an EIT sensing system which is able to handle full void fraction range in two-phase flow is reported. This EIT system employs a voltage source, conducts true mutual impedance measurement and reconstructs an online image with the modified sensitivity back-projection (MSBP) algorithm. The capability of the Maxwell relationship to convey full void fraction is investigated. The limitation of the linear sensitivity back-projection method is analysed. The MSBP algorithm is used to derive relative conductivity change in the evaluation. A series of static and dynamic experiments demonstrating the mean void fraction obtained using this EIT system has a good agreement with reference void fractions over the range from 0 to 1. The combination of the new EIT system and MSBP algorithm would significantly extend the applications of EIT in industrial process measurement.

  19. Validation of Attitude and Heading Reference System and Microsoft Kinect for Continuous Measurement of Cervical Range of Motion Compared to the Optical Motion Capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Seop; Yang, Kyung Yong; Youn, Kibum; Yoon, Chiyul; Yeom, Jiwoon; Hwang, Hyeoncheol; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Keewon

    2016-08-01

    To compare optical motion capture system (MoCap), attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) sensor, and Microsoft Kinect for the continuous measurement of cervical range of motion (ROM). Fifteen healthy adult subjects were asked to sit in front of the Kinect camera with optical markers and AHRS sensors attached to the body in a room equipped with optical motion capture camera. Subjects were instructed to independently perform axial rotation followed by flexion/extension and lateral bending. Each movement was repeated 5 times while being measured simultaneously with 3 devices. Using the MoCap system as the gold standard, the validity of AHRS and Kinect for measurement of cervical ROM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot with 95% limits of agreement (LoA). MoCap and ARHS showed fair agreement (95% LoA10°) for measuring ROM in all directions. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values between MoCap and AHRS in -40° to 40° range were excellent for flexion/extension and lateral bending (ICC>0.9). ICC values were also fair for axial rotation (ICC>0.8). ICC values between MoCap and Kinect system in -40° to 40° range were fair for all motions. Our study showed feasibility of using AHRS to measure cervical ROM during continuous motion with an acceptable range of error. AHRS and Kinect system can also be used for continuous monitoring of flexion/extension and lateral bending in ordinary range.

  20. Wide range instantaneous temperature measurements of convective fluid flows by using a schlieren system based in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, A.; Moreno-Hernández, D.; Monzón-Hernández, D.; León-Rodríguez, M.

    2017-06-01

    In the schlieren method, the deflection of light by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium is proportional to the gradient of its refractive index. Such deflection, in a schlieren system, is represented by light intensity variations on the observation plane. Then, for a digital camera, the intensity level registered by each pixel depends mainly on the variation of the medium refractive index and the status of the digital camera settings. Therefore, in this study, we regulate the intensity value of each pixel by controlling the camera settings such as exposure time, gamma and gain values in order to calibrate the image obtained to the actual temperature values of a particular medium. In our approach, we use a color digital camera. The images obtained with a color digital camera can be separated on three different color-channels. Each channel corresponds to red, green, and blue color, moreover, each one has its own sensitivity. The differences in sensitivity allow us to obtain a range of temperature values for each color channel. Thus, high, medium and low sensitivity correspond to green, blue, and red color channel respectively. Therefore, by adding up the temperature contribution of each color channel we obtain a wide range of temperature values. Hence, the basic idea in our approach to measure temperature, using a schlieren system, is to relate the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the system. Our approach was applied to the measurement of instantaneous temperature fields of the air convection caused by a heated rectangular metal plate and a candle flame. We found that for the metal plate temperature measurements only the green and blue color-channels were required to sense the entire phenomena. On the other hand, for the candle case, the three color-channels were needed to obtain a complete measurement of temperature. In our study, the candle temperature was took as

  1. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Morales, Carlos; Calvo Lobo, César; Rodríguez Sanz, David; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; López López, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures) and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis); no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer's disease or dementia). Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S®) with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98), tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80), goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44.50° ± 5.54) and inclinometer app (right

  2. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis; no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S® with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Results Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98, tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80, goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44

  3. Compact ranges in antenna and RCS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audone, B.

    1989-09-01

    With the increased complexity and extended frequency range of operation model measurements and far field test ranges are no longer suitable to satisfy the demand of accurate testing. Moreover plane wave test conditions are required for Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements which represent a key point in stealth technology. Compact ranges represent the best test facilities available presently since they allow for indoor measurements under far field conditions in real time without any calculation effort. Several types of compact ranges are described and compared discussing their relevant advantages with regard to RCS and antenna measurements. In parallel to measuring systems sophisticated computer models were developed with such a high level of accuracy that it is questionable whether experiments give better results than theory. Tests performed on simple structures show the correlation between experimental results and theoretical ones derived on the basis of GTD computer codes.

  4. Evaluation of Spatial Resolution for Heavy Ion CT System Based on the Measurement of Residual Range Distribution With HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, H.; Nishimura, K.; Abe, S.; Satoh, H.; Hara, S.; Hara, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Mogaki, T.; Kawai, R.; Yokoyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Tomida, T.; Ohno, Y.; Kanai, T.

    2009-10-01

    We report experimental results from a heavy ion CT system based on the measurement of residual range distribution using an X-ray intensifying screen and a charged coupled device (CCD) camera system. This technique was first investigated by Zygmanski (2000) for proton beams, and they reported that the spatial resolution was significantly degraded by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) effects in the irradiated medium. Experiments were done on the spatial resolution phantom by using helium and carbon beams accelerated up to 120 MeV/u and 230 MeV/u by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), installed in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan, using a high performance intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. We show that the MCS blurring effect can be significantly reduced in the reconstructed image by using a carbon beam with this technique. Our results suggest that heavier particles such as carbon would be more useful if this technique is envisioned as a clinical tool to obtain data that would aid proton and/or heavy ion treatment planning.

  5. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Morales, Carlos; Calvo Lobo, C?sar; Rodr?guez Sanz, David; Sanz Corbal?n, Irene; Ruiz Ruiz, Beatriz; L?pez L?pez, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods A...

  6. A system to measure isomeric state half-lives in the 10 ns to 10 μs range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toufen, D. L., E-mail: dennis@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo - IFSP, 07115-000 Guarulhos, São Paulo (Brazil); Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Cybulska, E. W.; Seale, W. A.; Ribas, R. V. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Linares, R. [Fluminense Federal University, 24220-900 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silveira, M. A. G. [Universitary Center of FEI, 09850-901 São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The Isomeric State Measurement System (SISMEI) was developed to search for isomeric nuclear states produced by fusion-evaporation reactions. The SISMEI consists of 10 plastic phoswich telescopes, two lead shields, one NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, two Compton suppressed HPGe γ-ray detectors, and a cone with a recoil product catcher. The new system was tested at the 8 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of the University of São Paulo with the measurement of two known isomeric states: {sup 54}Fe, 10{sup +} state (E = 6527.1 (11) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 364(7) ns) and the 5/2{sup +} state of {sup 19}F (E = 197.143 (4) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 89.3 (10) ns). The results indicate that the system is capable of identifying delayed transitions, of measuring isomeric state lifetimes, and of identifying the feeding transitions of the isomeric state through the delayed γ-γ coincidence method. The measured half-life for the 10{sup +} state was T{sub 1/2} = 365(14) ns and for the 5/2{sup +} state, 100(36) ns.

  7. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earths atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  8. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  9. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  10. Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements pH range from 4 to 12

    OpenAIRE

    Guichet, Xavier; Jouniaux, Laurence; Catel, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com; We acknowledge the Geophysical Journal International, the Royal Astronomical Society and Blackwell Publishing. Full bibliographic reference is : Guichet, X., L. Jouniaux, and N. Catel, Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements in the pH range from 4 to 12, Geophysical Journal International, 166, 445-460, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02922.x, 2006; Spontaneous...

  11. Reliability and validity of CODA motion analysis system for measuring cervical range of motion in patients with cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongyang; Song, Hui; Ren, Fenggang; Li, Yuhuan; Wang, Dong; He, Xijing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the Cartesian Optoelectronic Dynamic Anthropometer (CODA) motion system in measuring the cervical range of motion (ROM) and verify the construct validity of the CODA motion system. A total of 26 patients with cervical spondylosis and 22 patients with anterior cervical fusion were enrolled and the CODA motion analysis system was used to measure the three-dimensional cervical ROM. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed by interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEm), Limits of Agreements (LOA) and minimal detectable change (MDC). Independent samples t-tests were performed to examine the differences of cervical ROM between cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion patients. The results revealed that in the cervical spondylosis group, the reliability was almost perfect (intra-rater reliability: ICC, 0.87-0.95; LOA, -12.86-13.70; SEm, 2.97-4.58; inter-rater reliability: ICC, 0.84-0.95; LOA, -13.09-13.48; SEm, 3.13-4.32). In the anterior cervical fusion group, the reliability was high (intra-rater reliability: ICC, 0.88-0.97; LOA, -10.65-11.08; SEm, 2.10-3.77; inter-rater reliability: ICC, 0.86-0.96; LOA, -10.91-13.66; SEm, 2.20-4.45). The cervical ROM in the cervical spondylosis group was significantly higher than that in the anterior cervical fusion group in all directions except for left rotation. In conclusion, the CODA motion analysis system is highly reliable in measuring cervical ROM and the construct validity was verified, as the system was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between the cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion groups based on their ROM.

  12. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: Measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Rebecca M., E-mail: rhowell@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Burgett, E. A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83201 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. Methods: The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results: The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. Conclusions: The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire

  13. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca M; Burgett, E A

    2014-09-01

    Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire energy range being measured, i.e., thermal to

  14. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  15. Investigations of coal ignition in a short-range flame burner using optical measuring systems; Untersuchungen zur Kohlezuendung am Flachflammenbrenner unter Verwendung optischer Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackert, G.; Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik

    1999-09-01

    The short-range flame burner and the KOALA reactor of DMT are experimental facilities for realistic simulation of coal conversion processes at high temperatures and pressures in atmospheric conditions. The TOSCA system enable measurements of temperatures, sizes, shapes and velocities of the fuel particles, which serve as a basis for a three-dimensional simulation model of coal combustion. In the future, further parameter studies will deepen the present knowledge of coal dust combustion under pressure and enable optimisation of the numerical models for simulation of industrial-scale systems for coal dust combustion under pressure. [Deutsch] Mit dem Flachflammenbrenner und dem KOALA-Reaktor der DMT stehen Versuchsapparaturen zur Verfuegung, mit deren Hilfe die Kohleumwandlungsprozesse bei hohen Temperaturen unter Druck und unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen realistisch wiedergegeben werden. Das TOSCA-System erlaubt dabei die Bestimmung von Temperaturen, Groessen, Formen und Geschwindigkeiten der Brennstoffpartikel. Diese Daten liefern die Grundlage fuer die Erstellung eines dreidimensionalen Simulationsmodells zur Modellierung der Kohleverbrennung. In Zukunft werden weitere Parameterstudien das Verstaendnis der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung vertiefen und ein Optimierung der numerischen Modelle ermoeglichen, so dass die Simulation grosstechnischer Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennungsanlagen realisiert werden kann. (orig.)

  16. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  17. Discrete filtering techniques applied to sequential GPS range measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangraas, Frank

    1987-01-01

    The basic navigation solution is described for position and velocity based on range and delta range (Doppler) measurements from NAVSTAR Global Positioning System satellites. The application of discrete filtering techniques is examined to reduce the white noise distortions on the sequential range measurements. A second order (position and velocity states) Kalman filter is implemented to obtain smoothed estimates of range by filtering the dynamics of the signal from each satellite separately. Test results using a simulated GPS receiver show a steady-state noise reduction, the input noise variance divided by the output noise variance, of a factor of four. Recommendations for further noise reduction based on higher order Kalman filters or additional delta range measurements are included.

  18. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is

  19. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  20. The peculiarity of the construction of an optical-electronic system for measurement of geometrical parameters of objects in the micrometer range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, Olga M.; Markin, Maksym O.; Filippova, Maryna V.; Harasim, Damian; Mussabekov, Kanat; Annabayev, Azamat

    2017-08-01

    The optical-electronic system for measuring of geometrical parameters of micrometrical objects is a difficult process that requires the observance of certain features designing or improvement. The observance of that will provide a higher measurement accuracy compared with the accuracy metrics of measurement that were developed without compliance with these design features. Every feature of the design reduces the error of the functioning of individual nodes of the system or errors in nodes under the influence of various internal or external factors. When reducing or eliminating each factor of occurrence of the error, respectively, will increase the overall measurement accuracy. In this work, the result of introducing measurement error for each factor is determined experimentally and proved the correctness of such actions. Experimental researches of the measurement error to the stage of compliance with subtleties in the improvement of the opto-electronic system was 10 ± 1.5 μm, and after improvement with considering of the specifics of the design measurement error of geometrical parameters was 10 ± 0,33 μm.

  1. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ

    1992-07-01

    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  2. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  3. A trunk ranging system based on binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixuan; Kan, Jiangming

    2017-07-01

    Trunk ranging is an essential function for autonomous forestry robots. Traditional trunk ranging systems based on personal computers are not convenient in practical application. This paper examines the implementation of a trunk ranging system based on the binocular vision theory via TI's DaVinc DM37x system. The system is smaller and more reliable than that implemented using a personal computer. It calculates the three-dimensional information from the images acquired by binocular cameras, producing the targeting and ranging results. The experimental results show that the measurement error is small and the system design is feasible for autonomous forestry robots.

  4. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  5. Entanglement-enhanced lidars for simultaneous range and velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-10-01

    Lidar is a well-known optical technology for measuring a target's range and radial velocity. We describe two lidar systems that use entanglement between transmitted signals and retained idlers to obtain significant quantum enhancements in simultaneous measurements of these parameters. The first entanglement-enhanced lidar circumvents the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainty relation for simultaneous measurements of range and radial velocity from the detection of a single photon returned from the target. This performance presumes there is no extraneous (background) light, but is robust to the round-trip loss incurred by the signal photons. The second entanglement-enhanced lidar—which requires a lossless, noiseless environment—realizes Heisenberg-limited accuracies for both its range and radial-velocity measurements, i.e., their root-mean-square estimation errors are both proportional to 1 /M when M signal photons are transmitted. These two lidars derive their entanglement-based enhancements from the use of a unitary transformation that takes a signal-idler photon pair with frequencies ωS and ωI and converts it to a signal-idler photon pair whose frequencies are (ωS+ωI)/2 and (ωS-ωI)/2 . Insight into how this transformation provides its benefits is provided through an analogy to continuous-variable superdense coding.

  6. An Observability Metric for Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Range Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrichiello, Filippo; Antonelli, Gianluca; Aguiar, Antonio Pedro; Pascoal, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses observability issues related to the general problem of single and multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) localization using only range measurements. While an AUV is submerged, localization devices, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, are ineffective, due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves. AUV localization based on dead reckoning techniques and the use of affordable motion sensor units is also not practical, due to divergence caused by sensor bias and drift. For these reasons, localization systems often build on trilateration algorithms that rely on the measurements of the ranges between an AUV and a set of fixed transponders using acoustic devices. Still, such solutions are often expensive, require cumbersome calibration procedures and only allow for AUV localization in an area that is defined by the geometrical arrangement of the transponders. A viable alternative for AUV localization that has recently come to the fore exploits the use of complementary information on the distance from the AUV to a single transponder, together with information provided by on-board resident motion sensors, such as, for example, depth, velocity and acceleration measurements. This concept can be extended to address the problem of relative localization between two AUVs equipped with acoustic sensors for inter-vehicle range measurements. Motivated by these developments, in this paper, we show that both the problems of absolute localization of a single vehicle and the relative localization of multiple vehicles can be treated using the same mathematical framework, and tailoring concepts of observability derived for nonlinear systems, we analyze how the performance in localization depends on the types of motion imparted to the AUVs. For this effect, we propose a well-defined observability metric and validate its usefulness, both in simulation and by carrying out experimental tests with a real marine vehicle during which the performance of an

  7. An Observability Metric for Underwater Vehicle Localization Using Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Arrichiello

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses observability issues related to the general problem of single and multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV localization using only range measurements. While an AUV is submerged, localization devices, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, are ineffective, due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves. AUV localization based on dead reckoning techniques and the use of affordable motion sensor units is also not practical, due to divergence caused by sensor bias and drift. For these reasons, localization systems often build on trilateration algorithms that rely on the measurements of the ranges between an AUV and a set of fixed transponders using acoustic devices. Still, such solutions are often expensive, require cumbersome calibration procedures and only allow for AUV localization in an area that is defined by the geometrical arrangement of the transponders. A viable alternative for AUV localization that has recently come to the fore exploits the use of complementary information on the distance from the AUV to a single transponder, together with information provided by on-board resident motion sensors, such as, for example, depth, velocity and acceleration measurements. This concept can be extended to address the problem of relative localization between two AUVs equipped with acoustic sensors for inter-vehicle range measurements. Motivated by these developments, in this paper, we show that both the problems of absolute localization of a single vehicle and the relative localization of multiple vehicles can be treated using the same mathematical framework, and tailoring concepts of observability derived for nonlinear systems, we analyze how the performance in localization depends on the types of motion imparted to the AUVs. For this effect, we propose a well-defined observability metric and validate its usefulness, both in simulation and by carrying out experimental tests with a real marine vehicle during which the

  8. Note: A wide temperature range MOKE system with annealing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Narpinder Singh; Mankey, G. J.

    2017-07-01

    A novel sample stage integrated with a longitudinal MOKE system has been developed for wide temperature range measurements and annealing capabilities in the temperature range 65 K < T < 760 K. The sample stage incorporates a removable platen and copper block with inserted cartridge heater and two thermocouple sensors. It is supported and thermally coupled to a cold finger with two sapphire bars. The sapphire based thermal coupling enables the system to perform at higher temperatures without adversely affecting the cryostat and minimizes thermal drift in position. In this system the hysteresis loops of magnetic samples can be measured simultaneously while annealing the sample in a magnetic field.

  9. Pile volume measurement by range imaging camera in indoor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Altuntas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Range imaging (RIM camera is recent technology in 3D location measurement. The new study areas have been emerged in measurement and data processing together with RIM camera. It has low-cost and fast measurement technique compared to the current measurement techniques. However its measurement accuracy varies according to effects resulting from the device and the environment. The direct sunlight is affect measurement accuracy of the camera. Thus, RIM camera should be used for indoor measurement. In this study gravel pile volume was measured by SwissRanger SR4000 camera. The measured volume is acquired as different 8.13% from the known.

  10. Comparison of methods of measuring active cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcroft, Katherine L; Massouh, Laura; Amirfeyz, Rouin; Bannister, Gordon

    2010-09-01

    Experimental study. Cervical range of motion (CROM) was measured using different clinical methods. To compare the reliability and accuracy of visual estimation, tape measurement, and the universal goniometer (UG) with that of the CROM goniometer in measuring active CROM in healthy volunteers. The secondary objective was to identify the single neck movement that best represents overall range of motion. Neck movement is affected by pathology in the spine and shoulder. A reliable and accurate measurement of neck movement is required to quantify injury, recovery, and disability. Various methods of measuring neck movement have been described of which radiography remains the accepted reference standard. However, radiography is impractical for routine clinical assessment. Visual estimation, tape measurement, and the UG are convenient alternatives. To date, the accuracy and reliability of these methods have not been compared in healthy subjects, and the single neck movement that best reflects overall range has not yet been identified. Active cervical flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexion and rotation were measured in 100 healthy volunteers. Visual estimation, tape measurement between fixed landmarks, and the UG aligned on fixed and anatomic landmarks were compared with the CROM goniometer, which was used as the reference standard. Compared with the CROM goniometer, the UG aligned on fixed landmarks was the most accurate method, followed by the UG on anatomic landmarks. The reliability of the UG was between substantial and perfect. Visual estimation was reproducible but measured range of movement inaccurately. Tape measurement was inaccurate. Extension best reflected overall range. The UG aligned on a fixed landmark is most reliable method of measuring neck movement clinically. Where range must be quickly assessed, extension should be measured.

  11. Smartphone photography utilized to measure wrist range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric R; Conti Mica, Megan; Shin, Alexander Y

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to determine if smartphone photography is a reliable tool in measuring wrist movement. Smartphones were used to take digital photos of both wrists in 32 normal participants (64 wrists) at extremes of wrist motion. The smartphone measurements were compared with clinical goniometry measurements. There was a very high correlation between the clinical goniometry and smartphone measurements, as the concordance coefficients were high for radial deviation, ulnar deviation, wrist extension and wrist flexion. The Pearson coefficients also demonstrated the high precision of the smartphone measurements. The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated 29-31 of 32 smartphone measurements were within the 95% confidence interval of the clinical measurements for all positions of the wrists. There was high reliability between the photography taken by the volunteer and researcher, as well as high inter-observer reliability. Smartphone digital photography is a reliable and accurate tool for measuring wrist range of motion. II.

  12. Compact-range coordinate system established using a laser tracker.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Floyd H.; Bryce, Edwin Anthony

    2006-12-01

    Establishing a Cartesian coordinate reference system for an existing Compact Antenna Range using the parabolic reflector is presented. A SMX (Spatial Metrix Corporation) M/N 4000 laser-based coordinate measuring system established absolute coordinates for the facility. Electric field characteristics with positional movement correction are evaluated. Feed Horn relocation for alignment with the reflector axis is also described. Reference points are established for follow-on non-laser alignments utilizing a theodolite.

  13. Program to perform research on use of lidar for range resolved turbulence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Warren P.; Garner, Richard C.

    1989-11-01

    The design of a lidar system capable of measuring remotely range resolved atmospheric turbulence is presented. The connection between the measured quantities and the accepted turbulence strength parameter (C sub n)-sq is developed theoretically. Simulations of an operating system were made, and the results provide a measure of system capability. A typical value for (C sub n)-sq of 10(exp -16) m to the -2/3 power at 3 km vertical range is measurable with a 200 m range resolution.

  14. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only val...

  15. A novel track imaging system as a range counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Matsufuji, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Ishida, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kohno, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Koba, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    An image-intensified, camera-based track imaging system has been developed to measure the tracks of ions in a scintillator block. To study the performance of the detector unit in the system, two types of scintillators, a dosimetrically tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator EJ-240 and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, were separately irradiated with carbon ion ({sup 12}C) beams of therapeutic energy from HIMAC at NIRS. The images of individual ion tracks in the scintillators were acquired by the newly developed track imaging system. The ranges reconstructed from the images are reported here. The range resolution of the measurements is 1.8 mm for 290 MeV/u carbon ions, which is considered a significant improvement on the energy resolution of the conventional ΔE/E method. The detector is compact and easy to handle, and it can fit inside treatment rooms for in-situ studies, as well as satisfy clinical quality assurance purposes.

  16. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...

  17. Measuring the relativistic perigee advance with satellite laser ranging

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L; Pavlis, E C

    2002-01-01

    The pericentric advance of a test body by a central mass is one of the classical tests of general relativity. Today, this effect is measured with radar ranging by the perihelion shift of Mercury and other planets in the gravitational field of the Sun, with a relative accuracy of the order of 10 sup - sup 2 -10 sup - sup 3. In this paper, we explore the possibility of a measurement of the pericentric advance in the gravitational field of Earth by analysing the laser-ranged data of some orbiting, or proposed, laser-ranged geodetic satellites. Such a measurement of the perigee advance would place limits on hypothetical, very weak, Yukawa-type components of the gravitational interaction with a finite range of the order of 10 sup 4 km. Thus, we show that, at the present level of knowledge of the orbital perturbations, the relative accuracy, achievable with suitably combined orbital elements of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, is of the order of 10 sup - sup 3. With the corresponding measured value of (2 + 2 gamma - beta)/3, ...

  18. Ion range measurements using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimpki, G.; Osinga, J.-M.; Herrmann, R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) show excellent detection properties for heavy charged particles and have, therefore, been investigated in this study in terms of their potential for in-vivo range measurements. We irradiated FNTDs with protons as well as with C, Mg, S, Fe and Xe ion beams...

  19. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  20. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  1. Reliability of three measures of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konor, Megan M; Morton, Sam; Eckerson, Joan M; Grindstaff, Terry L

    2012-06-01

    A variety of methods exist to measure ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM). Few studies have examined the reliability of a novice rater. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ankle ROM measurements using three different techniques in a novice rater. Twenty healthy subjects (mean±SD, age=24±3 years, height=173.2±8.1 cm, mass=72.6±15.2 kg) participated in this study. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM measures were obtained in a weight-bearing lunge position using a standard goniometer, digital inclinometer, and a tape measure using the distance-to-wall technique. All measures were obtained three times per side, with 10 minutes of rest between the first and second set of measures. Intrarater reliability was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(2,3)) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Standard error of measurement (SEM) and the minimal detectable change (MDC) for each measurement technique were also calculated. The within-session intrarater reliability (ICC(2,3)) estimates for each measure are as follows: tape measure (right 0.98, left 0.99), digital inclinometer (right 0.96; left 0.97), and goniometer (right 0.85; left 0.96). The SEM for the tape measure method ranged from 0.4-0.6 cm and the MDC was between 1.1-1.5 cm. The SEM for the inclinometer was between 1.3-1.4° and the MDC was 3.7-3.8°. The SEM for the goniometer ranged from 1.8-2.8° with an MDC of 5.0-7.7°. The results indicate that reliable measures of weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion ROM can be obtained from a novice rater. All three techniques had good reliability and low measurement error, with the distance-to-wall technique using a tape measure and inclinometer methods resulting in higher reliability coefficients (ICC(2,3)=0.96 to 0.99) and a lower SEM compared to the goniometer (ICC(2,3)=0.85 to 0.96). 2b.

  2. Range-limited centrality measures in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N.; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2012-06-01

    Here we present a range-limited approach to centrality measures in both nonweighted and weighted directed complex networks. We introduce an efficient method that generates for every node and every edge its betweenness centrality based on shortest paths of lengths not longer than ℓ=1,...,L in the case of nonweighted networks, and for weighted networks the corresponding quantities based on minimum weight paths with path weights not larger than wℓ=ℓΔ, ℓ=1,2...,L=R/Δ. These measures provide a systematic description on the positioning importance of a node (edge) with respect to its network neighborhoods one step out, two steps out, etc., up to and including the whole network. They are more informative than traditional centrality measures, as network transport typically happens on all length scales, from transport to nearest neighbors to the farthest reaches of the network. We show that range-limited centralities obey universal scaling laws for large nonweighted networks. As the computation of traditional centrality measures is costly, this scaling behavior can be exploited to efficiently estimate centralities of nodes and edges for all ranges, including the traditional ones. The scaling behavior can also be exploited to show that the ranking top list of nodes (edges) based on their range-limited centralities quickly freezes as a function of the range, and hence the diameter-range top list can be efficiently predicted. We also show how to estimate the typical largest node-to-node distance for a network of N nodes, exploiting the afore-mentioned scaling behavior. These observations were made on model networks and on a large social network inferred from cell-phone trace logs (˜5.5×106 nodes and ˜2.7×107 edges). Finally, we apply these concepts to efficiently detect the vulnerability backbone of a network (defined as the smallest percolating cluster of the highest betweenness nodes and edges) and illustrate the importance of weight-based centrality measures in

  3. Mode-locked laser autocollimator with an expanded measurement range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Shimizu, Yuki; Kudo, Yukitoshi; Ito, So; Gao, Wei

    2016-07-11

    A mode-locked laser is employed as the light source of a laser autocollimator, instead of the conventionally employed single-wavelength laser, for an expanded range of tilt angle measurement. A group of the spatially separated diffracted beams from a diffraction grating are focused by a collimator objective to form an array of light spots on the focal plane of the collimator objective where a light position-sensing photodiode is located for detecting the linear displacement of the light spot array corresponding to the tilt angle of the reflector. A prototype mode-locked femtosecond laser autocollimator is designed and constructed for achieving a measurement range of 11000 arc-seconds.

  4. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  5. Optical measurements of long-range protein vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acbas, Gheorghe; Niessen, Katherine A.; Snell, Edward H.; Markelz, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein biological function depends on structural flexibility and change. From cellular communication through membrane ion channels to oxygen uptake and delivery by haemoglobin, structural changes are critical. It has been suggested that vibrations that extend through the protein play a crucial role in controlling these structural changes. While nature may utilize such long-range vibrations for optimization of biological processes, bench-top characterization of these extended structural motions for engineered biochemistry has been elusive. Here we show the first optical observation of long-range protein vibrational modes. This is achieved by orientation-sensitive terahertz near-field microscopy measurements of chicken egg white lysozyme single crystals. Underdamped modes are found to exist for frequencies >10 cm-1. The existence of these persisting motions indicates that damping and intermode coupling are weaker than previously assumed. The methodology developed permits protein engineering based on dynamical network optimization.

  6. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  7. Measurement of individual loudness functions by trisection of loudness ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villchur, Edgar; Killion, Mead C

    2008-10-01

    Loudness-balance measurements with monaurally impaired subjects have shown that the shape of the loudness versus sound-pressure curve among hearing-impaired persons varies significantly. But the effectiveness of adjusting the compression characteristics of wide-dynamic-range compression hearing aids-the compression ratios, the variation of compression ratio with level, and the threshold of compression-to restore normal loudness growth for the individual patient has never been properly tested; individual loudness measurements have been too uncertain to permit meaningful individual adjustments. Recent investigators have reported standard deviations of such measurements in normal-hearing subjects of 6.4 dB and 7.8 dB. This investigation describes a method of measuring loudness function with a standard deviation in normal-hearing subjects of the order of 1 dB, both significantly lower than that of previous methods and sufficiently accurate for individual-subject adjustments. Each of nine normal-hearing subjects-seven of them inexperienced and one a 9-year-old was asked to make three successive loudness trisections within an amplitude range of 40 to 80 dB SPL, providing six points from which to plot a loudness-function curve between these limits. The individual and average curves were validated as accurate loudness functions by comparing them to the curve defined by the equation of loudness versus amplitude in current Standards. In a second validation experiment, the loudness functions of masked ears measured by trisection were compared to the loudness function of those ears measured by loudness balance between masked and unmasked ears. The difference between a loudness function based on the average of subject trisections and the loudness function defined by the ANSI Standard loudness equation was -1.92 dB at the lowest trisection level and +0.05 dB at the highest level. The standard deviations of subject responses were 1.63 dB for the lowest trisection level and 0.68 d

  8. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution's contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution's leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system's loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are ‘taxed’ based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular...

  9. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  10. Robust Long-Range Optical Tracking for Tunneling Measurement Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossel, Annette; Gerstweiler, Georg; Vonach, Emanuel; Chmelina, Klaus; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, automation for tunnel construction and mining activities increased rapidly. To allow for enhanced tunneling measurement, monitoring of workers and remote control of machines, systems are required that are capable of real-time positioning of several static as well as moving targets. Such a system must provide continuous and precise 3D position estimation in large volumes and must be capable to be installed and work correctly during on-going tunneling or mining tasks. Tracking systems are a fundamental component of a VR system to determine the 3D-position and orientation of a target in 3D space. Infrared optical tracking systems use infrared light to track several static or moving targets simultaneously with low latency in small tracking volumes. To benefit from the capabilities of infrared optical tracking, a system is proposed to track static as well as moving optical targets in large tracking volumes with a maximum depth extend of 70 meters. Our system needs a minimal hardware setup consisting out of two high quality machine vision cameras, which are mounted on both walls of the tunnel, and a standard (portable) workstation for data processing. Targets are equipped with infrared LEDs and can be either carried by workers or attached to a machine. The two cameras form a stereo rig and face into the measurement volume to allow for continuous tracking. Using image processing techniques, the LEDs of the target(s) are detected in both 2D camera images and are back-projected into 3D using projective reconstruction algorithms. Thereby, the 3D position estimate of the target is determined. Using image filtering techniques, fitting methods based on target's geometric constraints and prediction heuristics, the system allows for unique target identification during calibration and tracking even in environments with heavy interferences such as vibrations, tunnel illumination or machine lights. We extensively tested the system to (1) determine optimal

  11. Proton range verification in homogeneous materials through acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Jones, Kevin C.; Petro, Scott; Kassaee, Alireza; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Avery, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Clinical proton beam quality assurance (QA) requires a simple and accurate method to measure the proton beam Bragg peak (BP) depth. Protoacoustics, the measurement of the pressure waves emitted by thermal expansion resulting from proton dose deposition, may be used to obtain the depth of the BP in a phantom by measuring the time-of-flight of the pressure wave. Rectangular and cylindrical phantoms of different materials (aluminum, lead, and polyethylene) were used for protoacoustic studies. Four different methods for analyzing the protoacoustic signals are compared. Data analysis shows that, for Methods 1 and 2, plastic phantoms have better accuracy than metallic ones because of the lower speed of sound. Method 3 does not require characterizing the speed of sound in the material, but it results in the largest error. Method 4 exhibits minimal error, less than 3 mm (with an uncertainty  ⩽1.5 mm) for all the materials and geometries. Psuedospectral wave-equation simulations (k-Wave MATLAB toolbox) are used to understand the origin of acoustic reflections within the phantom. The presented simulations and experiments show that protoacoustic measurements may provide a low cost and simple QA procedure for proton beam range verification as long as the proper phantoms and calculation methods are used.

  12. Microprocessor realizations of range and range-rate filters in radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, D.; Aronhime, P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of digital radar range-rate filters on a microprocessor-based system. A range-rate filter processes a digitized noisy range signal to recover smoothed range data and its derivative, range rate. Two filter designs are implemented. Considerations aiding their efficient operation on an 8-bit microprocessor are discussed. The filters are subjected to a noisy range input signal of known variance, and the associated output signals are statistically analysed to determine noise-rejection characteristics. These results are compared to analytical predictions.

  13. Broadband Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Visible Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quanfu; Bluvshtein, Nir; Segev, Lior; Flores, Michel; Rudich, Yinon; Washenfelder, Rebecca; Brown, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. Aerosol direct forcing remains one of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the role that aerosols play in the Earth's radiative budget. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross section and complex refractive indices, particularly in the blue and visible spectral range. There is also currently a large gap in our knowledge of how the optical properties evolve as a function of atmospheric aging in the visible spectrum. In this study, we constructed a new and novel laboratory instrument to measure aerosol extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a white light source. This broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES) covers the 395-700 nm spectral region using a broadband light source and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device detector (CCD). We evaluated this BBCES by measuring extinction cross section for aerosols that are pure scattering, slightly absorbing and strongly absorbing atomized from standard materials. We also retrieved the refractive indices from the measured extinction cross sections. Secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors were "aged" to differential time scales (1 to 10 days) in an Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) under the combined influence of OH, O3 and UV light. The new BBCES was used to online measure the extinction cross sections of the SOA. This talk will provide a comprehensive understanding of aerosol optical properties alerting during aging process in the 395 - 700 nm spectrum.

  14. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular...

  15. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  16. Tunnel and Subsurface Void Detection and Range to Target Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip B. West

    2009-06-01

    Engineers and technicians at the Idaho National Laboratory invented, designed, built and tested a device capable of detecting and measuring the distance to, an underground void, or tunnel. Preliminary tests demonstrated positive detection of, and range to, a void thru as much as 30 meters of top-soil earth. Device uses acoustic driving point impedance principles pioneered by the Laboratory for well-bore physical properties logging. Data receipts recorded by the device indicates constructive-destructive interference patterns characteristic of acoustic wave reflection from a downward step-change in impedance mismatch. Prototype tests demonstrated that interference patterns in receipt waves could depict the patterns indicative of specific distances. A tool with this capability can quickly (in seconds) indicate the presence and depth/distance of a void or tunnel. Using such a device, border security and military personnel can identify threats of intrusion or weapons caches in most all soil conditions including moist and rocky.

  17. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... (SES), that is, its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases in the institution’s leverage and its marginal expected shortfall (MES), that is, its losses in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. We demonstrate empirically the ability...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  18. In situ measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  19. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  20. Short range spread-spectrum radiolocation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-04-29

    A short range radiolocation system and associated methods that allow the location of an item, such as equipment, containers, pallets, vehicles, or personnel, within a defined area. A small, battery powered, self-contained tag is provided to an item to be located. The tag includes a spread-spectrum transmitter that transmits a spread-spectrum code and identification information. A plurality of receivers positioned about the area receive signals from a transmitting tag. The position of the tag, and hence the item, is located by triangulation. The system employs three different ranging techniques for providing coarse, intermediate, and fine spatial position resolution. Coarse positioning information is provided by use of direct-sequence code phase transmitted as a spread-spectrum signal. Intermediate positioning information is provided by the use of a difference signal transmitted with the direct-sequence spread-spectrum code. Fine positioning information is provided by use of carrier phase measurements. An algorithm is employed to combine the three data sets to provide accurate location measurements.

  1. Spatiotemporal treadmill gait measurements using a laser range scanner: feasibility study of the healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, S; Ii, T; Koyama, S; Saitoh, E; Itoh, N; Ohtsuka, K; Katoh, Y; Shimizu, A; Tomita, Y

    2017-04-01

    Spatio-temporal parameters are typically used for gait analysis. Although these parameters are measured by sophisticated systems such as 3D motion capture system or optoelectronic bars, these systems cannot be deployed easily because of their high costs, large space requirements and elaborate set-up. The purpose of this study is to develope a system for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters using a laser range scanner during treadmill gait. To calculate accurate spatiotemporal parameters, the differences between the laser range scanner measured values and the reference values obtained from a 3D motion capture system were investigated in thirty subjects. From measurements in time and position at foot contact/off, adjustments to compensate for the differences in time and position were derived. Then, to determine the validity of the proposed system, values from the proposed system and the reference system were compared in four additional subjects. The results indicate that the data from the laser range scanner demonstrate certain differences in time and position compared with reference values. However, when compensation values were introduced, each spatiotemporal parameter correlated well with the reference values. This newer system is smaller, is easier to deploy and requires less training than the 3D motion capture system.

  2. The value of forage measurement information in rangeland management. [implementation of satellite data in range management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An economic model and simulation are developed to estimate the potential social benefit arising from the use of alternative measurement systems in rangeland management. In order to estimate these benefits, it was necessary to model three separate systems: the range environment, the rangeland manager, and the information system which links the two. The rancher's decision-making behavior is modeled according to sound economic principles. Results indicate substantial potential benefits, particularly when used in assisting management of government-operated ranges; possible annual benefits in this area range from $20 to $46 million, depending upon the system capabilities assumed. Possible annual benefit in privately-managed stocker operations range from $2.8 to $49.5 million, depending upon where actual rancher capabilities lie and what system capabilities are assumed.

  3. Optical absorption measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  4. Evapotranspiration Rate Measurements of Vegetation Typical of Ground-Water Discharge Areas in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah, September 2005-August 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Stannard, David I.

    2007-01-01

    Evapotranspiration was measured at six eddy-correlation sites for a 1-year period between September 1, 2005, and August 31, 2006. Five sites were in phreatophytic shrubland dominated by greasewood, and one site was in a grassland meadow. The measured annual evapotranspiration ranged from 10.02 to 12.77 inches at the shrubland sites and 26.94 inches at the grassland site. Evapotranspiration rates correlated to measured vegetation densities and to satellite-derived vegetation indexes. Evapotranspiration rates were greater at sites with denser vegetation. The primary water source supporting evapotranspiration was water derived from local precipitation at the shrubland sites, and ground water at the grassland site. Measured precipitation, ranging from 6.21 to 11.41 inches, was within 20 percent of the computed long-term annual mean. The amount of ground water consumed by phreatophytes depends primarily on local precipitation and vegetation density. The ground-water contribution to local evapotranspiration ranged from 6 to 38 percent of total evapotranspiration at the shrubland sites, and 70 percent of total evapotranspiration at the grassland site. Average depth to water ranged from 7.2 to 32.4 feet below land surface at the shrubland sites, and 3.9 feet at the grassland site. Water levels declined throughout the growing season and recovered during the non-growing season. Diurnal water-level fluctuations associated with evapotranspiration were evident at some sites but not at others.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of spectra at multiple ranges using a single spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Barry; Porter, John; Sharma, Shiv K

    2009-08-20

    We have designed and built an instrument having the capability to measure and display spectra at multiple ranges near simultaneously in real time. An excitation laser beam is oriented parallel to and offset from the axis of the light collection optics. The image of the laser beam is then displaced with range. Multiple optical fibers collect the displaced images at different ranges. The output ends of these fibers are positioned vertically along the input slit of a spectrometer that disperses the light from each fiber along different rows of the spectrometer's two-dimensional detector array. The detector array rows then give an immediate visual comparison of spectra at different ranges. A small prototype of this system covering a range from 3 to 13 m has been built. It has been successfully tested using containers holding two distinct fluorescent dyes. Numerical simulations indicate that the technique can be extended to longer-range systems.

  6. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  7. Calorimetric measuring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Power Electronics remains an emerging technology. New materials, new devices, and new circuit topologies reduce the cost, weight, and volume for important applications [1]. Two important factors in power electronic circuits are the switching speed of the devices and the total power losses in the ...... of increasing the switching frequency electrically because the system efficiency is high and a pure input-output measurement gives an unsatisfactory resolution and accuracy....... in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...

  8. Multipath error in range rate measurement by PLL-transponder/GRARR/TDRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, S. J.

    1970-01-01

    Range rate errors due to specular and diffuse multipath are calculated for a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) using an S band Goddard range and range rate (GRARR) system modified with a phase-locked loop transponder. Carrier signal processing in the coherent turn-around transponder and the GRARR reciever is taken into account. The root-mean-square (rms) range rate error was computed for the GRARR Doppler extractor and N-cycle count range rate measurement. Curves of worst-case range rate error are presented as a function of grazing angle at the reflection point. At very low grazing angles specular scattering predominates over diffuse scattering as expected, whereas for grazing angles greater than approximately 15 deg, the diffuse multipath predominates. The range rate errors at different low orbit altutudes peaked between 5 and 10 deg grazing angles.

  9. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  10. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  11. Improvements in medium range weather forecasting system of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Medium range weather forecasts are being generated in real time using Global Data Assimilation Forecasting System (GDAFS) at NCMRWF since 1994. The system has been continuously upgraded in terms of data usage, assimilation and forecasting system. Recently this system was upgraded to a horizontal resolution of ...

  12. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  13. Fusing range measurements from ultrasonic beacons and a laser range finder for localization of a mobile robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Kuc, Tae-Yong

    2015-05-11

    This paper proposes a method for mobile robot localization in a partially unknown indoor environment. The method fuses two types of range measurements: the range from the robot to the beacons measured by ultrasonic sensors and the range from the robot to the walls surrounding the robot measured by a laser range finder (LRF). For the fusion, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Because finding the Jacobian matrix is not feasible for range measurement using an LRF, UKF has an advantage in this situation over the extended KF. The locations of the beacons and range data from the beacons are available, whereas the correspondence of the range data to the beacon is not given. Therefore, the proposed method also deals with the problem of data association to determine which beacon corresponds to the given range data. The proposed approach is evaluated using different sets of design parameter values and is compared with the method that uses only an LRF or ultrasonic beacons. Comparative analysis shows that even though ultrasonic beacons are sparsely populated, have a large error and have a slow update rate, they improve the localization performance when fused with the LRF measurement. In addition, proper adjustment of the UKF design parameters is crucial for full utilization of the UKF approach for sensor fusion. This study contributes to the derivation of a UKF-based design methodology to fuse two exteroceptive measurements that are complementary to each other in localization.

  14. Laser system range calculations and the Lambert W function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove

    2009-02-01

    The knowledge of range performance versus atmospheric transmission, often given by the visibility, is critical for the design, use, and prediction of laser and passive electro-optic systems. I present a solution of the ladar-lidar equation based on Lambert's W function. This solution will reveal the dependence of the maximum range on the system and target parameters for different atmospheric attenuations and will also allow us to take the signal statistics into account by studying the influence on the threshold signal-to-noise ratio. The method is also applicable to many range calculations for passive systems where the atmospheric loss can be approximated by an exponential term.

  15. Extending the range of turbidity measurement using polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S.

    2017-11-21

    Turbidity measurements are obtained by directing a polarized optical beam to a scattering sample. Scattered portions of the beam are measured in orthogonal polarization states to determine a scattering minimum and a scattering maximum. These values are used to determine a degree of polarization of the scattered portions of the beam, and concentrations of scattering materials or turbidity can be estimated using the degree of polarization. Typically, linear polarizations are used, and scattering is measured along an axis that orthogonal to the direction of propagation of the polarized optical beam.

  16. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  17. Long-Range Channel Measurements on Small Terminal Antennas Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, details are given on a novel measurement device for radio propagation-channel measurements. To avoid measurement errors due to the conductive cables on small terminal antennas, as well as to improve the handling of the prototypes under investigation, an optical measurement device has...... been developed. It utilizes thin, light, and flexible glass fibers as opposed to heavy, stiff, and conductive coaxial cables. This paper looks at the various system parameters such as overall gain, noise figure, and dynamic range and compares the solution to other methods. An estimate of the device...

  18. Intensity autocorrelation measurements of frequency combs in the terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea-Chelmus, Ileana-Cristina; Rösch, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2017-09-01

    We report on direct measurements of the emission character of quantum cascade laser based frequency combs, using intensity autocorrelation. Our implementation is based on fast electro-optic sampling, with a detection spectral bandwidth matching the emission bandwidth of the comb laser, around 2.5 THz. We find the output of these frequency combs to be continuous even in the locked regime, but accompanied by a strong intensity modulation. Moreover, with our record temporal resolution of only few hundreds of femtoseconds, we can resolve correlated intensity modulation occurring on time scales as short as the gain recovery time, about 4 ps. By direct comparison with pulsed terahertz light originating from a photoconductive emitter, we demonstrate the peculiar emission pattern of these lasers. The measurement technique is self-referenced and ultrafast, and requires no reconstruction. It will be of significant importance in future measurements of ultrashort pulses from quantum cascade lasers.

  19. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray; Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett

    1991-01-01

    The results of the NPN bipolar transistor (BJT) (2N6023) breakdown voltage measurements were analyzed. Switching measurements were made on the NPN BJT, the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) (TA9796) and the N-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) (RFH75N05E). Efforts were also made to build a H-bridge inverter. Also discussed are the plans that have been made to do life testing on the devices, to build an inductive switching test circuit and to build a dc/dc switched mode converter.

  20. Offshore wind profiling using light detection and ranging measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of the ZephlR (R), a continuous-wave, focused light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler, to observe offshore winds and turbulence characteristics were tested during a 6 month campaign at the tronsformer/platform of Hams Rev, the world's largest wind form......-derived friction velocities and roughness lengths were compared to Charnock's sea roughness model. These overage values were found to be close to the model, although the scatter of the individual estimations of sea roughness length was large. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  1. Measurements of Capture Efficiency of Range Hoods in Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    mapped the pollution distribution in the room, and showed that the pollutants escape more at the sides of the cooktop. These preliminary results suggest that more measurements should be conducted investigating the capture efficiency at different pollutant source temperature, size and location...

  2. Recent Advances in Source Localisation Using Range Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    RELAXATION ( SDR ) ........................... 8 4. 4.1 Cheung’s Method [7...transforming the R-LS problem into a system of multivariate polynomial equations. Other solution methods are based on semidefinite relaxation ( SDR ) [7...different from that of the original R-LS problem. An alternative relaxation formulation, called CPNBSP- SDR , is proposed in this paper, which shows

  3. Long range acoustic measurements of an undersea volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heaney, K.D.; Campbell, R.L.; Snellen, M.

    2013-01-01

    A seamount 8?km southeast of Sarigan Island erupted on 29 May 2010 and was visually observed. The recordings on two sets of hydrophones, operated by International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are analyzed. Each array is a triplet of axial single

  4. Electro-optical System Measures Aircraft Deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodale, B.; Hampton, H. R.; Seymour, H. R.; Deangelis, V. M.

    1986-01-01

    In-flight deflections of aircraft surfaces are measured accurately over wide range of airspeeds and attitudes by electro-optical instrumentation system. Deflections caused by aerodynamic and acceleration forces are measured on wings, stabilizers, helicopter rotors, and other surfaces. Electro-optical system replaces 70-millimeter motor-driven camera previously used to observe deflections.

  5. Varying the item format improved the range of measurement in patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H. Felix

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical function (PF) is a core patient-reported outcome domain in clinical trials in rheumatic diseases. Frequently used PF measures have ceiling effects, leading to large sample size requirements and low sensitivity to change. In most of these instruments, the response category...... easy, increases the range of precise measurement of self-reported PF. Methods: Three five-item PF short forms were constructed from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) wave 1 data. All forms included the same physical activities but varied in item stem and response...... precision between the short forms using different item formats. Results: Sufficient unidimensionality of all short-form items and the original PF item bank was supported. Compared to formats A and B, format C increased the range of reliable measurement by about 0.5 standard deviations on the positive side...

  6. Intersatellite laser ranging with homodyne optical phase locking for Space Advanced Gravity Measurements mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Yan, Qi-Zhong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Ying; Luo, Jun

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we present the scheme and the preliminary results of an intersatellite laser ranging system that is designed for the Earth's gravity recovery mission proposed in China, called Space Advanced Gravity Measurements (SAGM). The proposed intersatellite distance is about 100 km and the precision of inter-satellite range monitoring is 10 nm/Hz(1/2) at 0.1 Hz. To meet the needs, we designed a transponder-type intersatellite laser ranging system by using a homodyne optical phase locking technique, which is different from the heterodyne optical phase-locked loop used in GRACE follow-on mission. Since an ultrastable oscillator is unnecessary in the homodyne phase-locked loop, the measurement error caused by the frequency instability of the ultrastable oscillator need not be taken into account. In the preliminary study, a heterodyne interferometer with 10-m baseline (measurement arm-length) was built up to demonstrate the validity of the measurement scheme. The measurement results show that a resolution of displacement measurement of about 3.2 nm had been achieved. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. An impedance bridge measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee Kim, Dan; Kew Lee, Hyung; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a 2-terminal-pair impedance bridge, measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz. The bridge was configured with two voltage sources and a phase control unit which enabled the bridge balance by synchronizing the voltage sources with an enhanced phase resolution. Without employing the transformers such as inductive voltage divider, injection and detection transformers, etc, the bridge system is quite simple to set up, and the balance procedure is quick and easy. Using this dual-source coaxial bridge, the 1:1 and 10:1 capacitance ratios were measured with 1 pF-1 nF capacitors in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The measurement values obtained by the dual-source bridge were then compared with reference values measured using a commercial precision capacitance bridge of AH2700A, the Z-matrix method developed by ourselves, and the 4-terminal-pair coaxial bridge by the Czech Metrological Institute. All the measurements agreed within the reference uncertainty range of an order of 10-6-10-5, proving the bridge ability as a trustworthy tool for measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range.

  8. Range Information Systems Management (RISM) Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    RISM investigated alternative approaches, technologies, and communication network architectures to facilitate building the Spaceports and Ranges of the future. RISM started by document most existing US ranges and their capabilities. In parallel, RISM obtained inputs from the following: 1) NASA and NASA-contractor engineers and managers, and; 2) Aerospace leaders from Government, Academia, and Industry, participating through the Space Based Range Distributed System Working Group (SBRDSWG), many of whom are also; 3) Members of the Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) subgroups, and; 4) Members of the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These diverse inputs helped to envision advanced technologies for implementing future Ranges and Range systems that builds on today s cabled and wireless legacy infrastructures while seamlessly integrating both today s emerging and tomorrow s building-block communication techniques. The fundamental key is to envision a transition to a Space Based Range Distributed Subsystem. The enabling concept is to identify the specific needs of Range users that can be solved through applying emerging communication tech

  9. The research of binocular vision ranging system based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuan; Yang, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the study of the principle of binocular parallax ranging, a binocular vision ranging system is designed and built. The stereo matching algorithm is realized by LabVIEW software. The camera calibration and distance measurement are completed. The error analysis shows that the system fast, effective, can be used in the corresponding industrial occasions.

  10. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  11. The effects of the Mulligan Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glide (SNAG mobilisation in the lumbar flexion range of asymptomatic subjects as measured by the Zebris CMS20 3-D motion analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strimpakos Nikolaos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulligan's mobilisation techniques are thought to increase the range of movement (ROM in patients with low back pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the application of the Mulligan's Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glide (SNAG technique on lumbar flexion ROM. The secondary aim was to measure the intra- and inter-day reliability of lumbar ROM employing the same procedure. Methods 49 asymptomatic volunteers participated in this double-blinded study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either SNAG mobilisation (n = 25, or a sham mobilisation (n = 24. The SNAG technique was applied at the L3and L4 spinal levels with active flexion in sitting by an experienced manual therapist. Three sets of 10 repetitions at each of the two spinal levels were performed. The sham mobilisation was similar to the SNAG but did not apply the appropriate direction or force. Lumbar ROM was measured by a three dimensional electronic goniometer (Zebris CMS20, before and after each technique. For the reliability, five measurements in two different days (one week apart were performed in 20 healthy subjects. Results When both interventions were compared, independent t tests yielded no statistically significant results in ROM between groups (p = 0.673. Furthermore no significant within group differences were observed: SNAG (p = 0.842, sham (p = 0.169. Intra- and inter-day reliability of flexion measurements was high (ICC1,1 > 0.82, SEM Conclusion While the Zebris proved to be a reliable device for measuring lumbar flexion ROM, SNAG mobilisation did not demonstrate significant differences in flexion ROM when compared to sham mobilisation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT00678093.

  12. Application of the NAVSTAR/GLOBAL positioning system on instrumented ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This report treats the application of the NAVSTAR/Global Positioning System as the Position/Location System in Real Time Casualty Assessment experiments. The desirable characteristics of a position/location system are listed. A current position/location system, the Range Measuring System, is used as a comparison reference for the Global Positioning System. Operation and parameters of the Global Positioning System are presented. A d...

  13. Hybrid gesture recognition system for short-range use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Akihiro; Fan, Wei; Katsuyama, Yutaka; Takebe, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Noriaki; Hotta, Yoshinobu; Sun, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, various gesture recognition systems have been studied for use in television and video games[1]. In such systems, motion areas ranging from 1 to 3 meters deep have been evaluated[2]. However, with the burgeoning popularity of small mobile displays, gesture recognition systems capable of operating at much shorter ranges have become necessary. The problems related to such systems are exacerbated by the fact that the camera's field of view is unknown to the user during operation, which imposes several restrictions on his/her actions. To overcome the restrictions generated from such mobile camera devices, and to create a more flexible gesture recognition interface, we propose a hybrid hand gesture system, in which two types of gesture recognition modules are prepared and with which the most appropriate recognition module is selected by a dedicated switching module. The two recognition modules of this system are shape analysis using a boosting approach (detection-based approach)[3] and motion analysis using image frame differences (motion-based approach)(for example, see[4]). We evaluated this system using sample users and classified the resulting errors into three categories: errors that depend on the recognition module, errors caused by incorrect module identification, and errors resulting from user actions. In this paper, we show the results of our investigations and explain the problems related to short-range gesture recognition systems.

  14. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  15. Measuring finite-range phase coherence in an optical lattice using Talbot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Bodhaditya; Baals, Christian; Labouvie, Ralf; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.; Pelster, Axel; Ott, Herwig

    2017-06-01

    One of the important goals of present research is to control and manipulate coherence in a broad variety of systems, such as semiconductor spintronics, biological photosynthetic systems, superconducting qubits and complex atomic networks. Over the past decades, interferometry of atoms and molecules has proven to be a powerful tool to explore coherence. Here we demonstrate a near-field interferometer based on the Talbot effect, which allows us to measure finite-range phase coherence of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. We apply this interferometer to study the build-up of phase coherence after a quantum quench of a Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Our technique of measuring finite-range phase coherence is generic, easy to adopt and can be applied in practically all lattice experiments without further modifications.

  16. Improving the Dynamic Emissivity Measurement Above 1000 K by Extending the Spectral Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, D.; Krenek, S.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    To improve the dynamic emissivity measurement, which is based on the laser-flash method, an array spectrometer is characterized regarding its spectral radiance responsivity for a spectrally resolved emissivity measurement above 1000 K in the wavelength range between 550 nm and 1100 nm. Influences like dark signals, the nonlinearity of the detector, the size-of-source effect, wavelength calibration and the spectral radiance responsivity of the system are investigated to obtain an uncertainty budget for the spectral radiance and emissivity measurements. Uncertainties for the spectral radiance of lower than a relative 2 % are achieved for wavelengths longer than 550 nm. Finally, the spectral emissivity of a graphite sample was determined in the temperature range between 1000 K and 1700 K, and the experimental data show a good repeatability and agreement with literature data.

  17. Long-Range Correlations in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chung-Kang

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore a wide variety of physical and biological systems without any temporal (or spatial) characteristic scale. These systems are usually associated with the terms "fractal," "scale free," "1/f noise" and "long-range correlations." In the first part of the thesis, I discuss some general concepts of scale-free systems and introduce several useful analytic and numerical tools to describe and analyze them. In the second part, I study simple physical models that exhibit long-range correlations in their spatial or temporal sequences. Two concrete examples are the one -dimensional diffusion of hard-core particles and the diffusion of particles in a random velocity field. Although, both examples exhibit power-law behavior in their velocity auto -correlation function, higher order correlations are completely different. Furthermore, I apply a novel numerical algorithm for generating correlated stochastic variables to study numerically the behavior of a dynamical system in the presence of long-range correlated noise. In the last part, I present two biological systems with long-range correlations: The DNA sequences and the human heartbeat time series. Two observations are made: (1) By constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk--called a "DNA walk," one can show that long -range correlations exist in non-coding nucleotide sequences but not in cDNA (protein coding) sequences. (2) Under healthy conditions, cardiac interbeat interval dynamics exhibit long-term correlations; with severe pathology this correlation behavior breaks down. For both systems, I discuss possible origins of these correlations and their biological implications.

  18. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 29th Annual conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx Towards a Medium-Range Coastal Station Fog Forecasting System Stephanie Landman*1, Estelle Marx1, Willem A. Landman2...

  19. Measured Response of Local, Mid-range and Far-range Discontinuities of Large Metal Groundplanes using Time Domain Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method to detect and to quantify any local or mid-range discontinuity on extended flat metal planes. Often these planes are used for antenna calibration (open area test site - OATS or the plane could be the ground of a semi-anechoic chamber used in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC testing. The measurement uncertainty of antenna calibration or EMC testing depends on the groundplane's quality, which can be accessed using this method. A vector network analyzer with time-domain option is used to determine the complex-valued input scattering parameter S11,F of an aperture antenna in a monostatic setup. S11,F contains the information desired about the discontinuities and is measured in the frequency domain with high dynamic range. But only after a linear filtering utilizing the Chirp-Z-Transform the obtained time-domain signal S11,T evidence of local and mid-range discontinuities.

  20. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  1. Wide-range dynamic strain measurements based on K-BOTDA and frequency-agile technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dengwang; Dong, Yongkang; Wang, Benzhang; Zhang, Hongying; Lu, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel fast Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system using the coefficient K spectrum which is defined as the ratio of phase-shift and gain of Brillouin amplification, where K features linear response, immune to the variation of pump power and a wide measure range. For a 30ns-square pump pulse, the frequency span of K spectrum can reach up to 200MHz. In dynamic strain experiment, a multi-slope assisted K-BOTDA with the measured strain of 5358.3μɛ and the vibration frequency of 6.01Hz and 12.05Hz are demonstrated.

  2. High-resolution and wide range displacement measurement based on planar grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Guan, Jian; Wen, Feng; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-12-01

    High/ultra-precision motion measurements for precision translation stages are highly desired in modern manufacturing systems and instruments. In this work, we introduce a wide range three-axis grating encoder with nanometric resolution, which can measure the x-, y- and z-axial translational motions of a stage simultaneously. The grating encoder is composed of a reflective-type planar scale grating with a period of 8 μm and an optical reading head. A planar reference grating, which is the same as the planar scale grating except the length and width, is employed in the optical reading head. The x- and y- directional ±1st order diffractive beams of the planar scale grating interfere with the corresponding diffractive beams of the planar reference grating, forming the measurement signals. The x- and y- directional ±1st order diffractive beams of the two planar gratings propagate against their original incident path, working as the autocollimatic diffractive beams. Therefore, the z-axial measurement range of the proposed grating encoder is greatly enhanced. The x- and y- axial measurement ranges depend on the size of the planar scale grating. To make the grating encoder more compact, a double grating beam-splitting (DGBS) unit and two diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are introduced. The experimental results indicate that the z-axial displacement resolution is as high as 4 nm with an electronic data division card of 80 segments developed by our lab.

  3. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, M.; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  4. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this repor...

  5. Microbial ecology measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The sensitivity and potential rapidity of the PIA test that was demonstrated during the feasibility study warranted continuing the effort to examine the possibility of adapting this test to an automated procedure that could be used during manned missions. The effort during this program has optimized the test conditions for two important respiratory pathogens, influenza virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, developed a laboratory model automated detection system, and investigated a group antigen concept for virus detection. Preliminary tests on the handling of oropharygeal clinical samples for PIA testing were performed using the adenovirus system. The results obtained indicated that the PIA signal is reduced in positive samples and is increased in negative samples. Treatment with cysteine appeared to reduce nonspecific agglutination in negative samples but did not maintain the signal in positive samples.

  6. A proposed test area for the spaceborne geodynamic ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Precise geodetic measurements are proposed in which an orbiting laser obtains intersite distance between retroreflectors 25 to 100 km apart on the ground. The recommended area is a rectangle 200 by 400 km in southern California and adjacent Nevada, trending northeast. It includes the entire width of the San Andreas fault zone, the Garlock fault, the thrust faults of the Transverse Ranges, and the active strike-slip faults of the Mojave Desert.

  7. Ranging Apparatus and Method Implementing Stereo Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Larry C. (Inventor); Cox, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A laser-directed ranging system for use in telerobotics applications and other applications involving physically handicapped individuals. The ranging system includes a left and right video camera mounted on a camera platform, and a remotely positioned operator. The position of the camera platform is controlled by three servo motors to orient the roll axis, pitch axis and yaw axis of the video cameras, based upon an operator input such as head motion. A laser is provided between the left and right video camera and is directed by the user to point to a target device. The images produced by the left and right video cameras are processed to eliminate all background images except for the spot created by the laser. This processing is performed by creating a digital image of the target prior to illumination by the laser, and then eliminating common pixels from the subsequent digital image which includes the laser spot. The horizontal disparity between the two processed images is calculated for use in a stereometric ranging analysis from which range is determined.

  8. Sirius: a long-range infrared search and track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sirius is a long range infra red search and track system (LR- IRST) and intended to be used in an anti air warfare (AAW) multisensor suite on board of modern frigates. This Dutch/Canadian development program started 1/1/95 and includes also the evaluation of the system in warm and cold water scenarios. The operational requirements were drafted by both the national navies. The primary task is automatic detection, tracking and reporting of seaskimming missiles at long range. The design is based on recent experiences with IRSTs and the latest technological achievements in the areas of processing capabilities and IR-detectors. In this presentation design drivers and main technical choices are discussed.

  9. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2007-01-01

    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  10. Improving detection range, signal-to-noise ratio, and measurement time through hyperentanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2017-07-01

    An atmospheric imaging system based on quantum hyperentanglement has been developed. Hyper-entanglement can increase the maximum detection range of the system by more than a factor of 10, improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by more than a factor of 10,000, and decrease measurement time. Hyperentanglement refers to entanglement in more than one degree of freedom. A design for creating states hyperentangled in the degrees of freedom polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum (OAM), and the radial quantum number is examined. The design helps reduce propagation loss. Figures of merit related to generation and detection efficiencies, the SNR, signal to interference ratio, the measurement time, and phase estimation are provided in closed form. A formula describing how hyperentanglement greatly improves the maximum detection range of the system is derived. Hermite-Gaussian modes, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes, OAM dependence of the LG modes, and mode conversion are discussed. Bell state generation and Bell state measurement, i.e., the ability to distinguish the various Bell states, is discussed. Mathematical and circuit representations of Bell state generation and the Bell state analyzer are provided. Signatures for unique detection of the various Bell states are developed. The formalism permits random noise and entangled or nonentangled sources of interference to be modeled.

  11. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  12. UAV sensor systems for close-range operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Clement-Serge; Thompson, Karl S.; Hickman, Duncan

    2002-07-01

    Although UAV systems have received much interest over the last few years, much of this has focused on either relatively large platforms with complex on-board equipment, or micro systems (typically 6' in every dimension). The operational use of low-cost lightweight UAVs as over-the- hill reconnaissance systems is a new concept offering additional flexibility, providing local knowledge and helping maintain operational tempo. An extensive modeling trade-off study has been performed for different sensor technologies and combinations. The model considered configurations including cooled and uncooled IR sensors, visible-band CCD sensors and image intensifiers. These mathematical models provide an evaluation of sensor performance for both navigation and the gathering of reconnaissance imagery, through Resolution Elements calculations (Johnson criteria) and Signal-to-Noise Ratios. Based upon this analysis, a system specification is presented that exploits next generation sensor technologies. Results obtained from a number of UAV trials are reported and used in order to provide model verification and validation of both the operational concepts and the sensor system modeling activities. Considering the sensor system itself, the low-altitude close-range environment ensures high ground resolved distance and signal-to-noise ratios, with low-cost sensors. Coupled with up-to-date image processing software, the imagery provided directly to the section-level units via a simple standard image interface allows a reduction of time response. Finally, future modeling and trials activities are discussed in the framework of the lightweight UAV system roadmap.

  13. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...

  14. Technical Note: Range verification system using edge detection method for a scintillator and a CCD camera system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saotome, Naoya, E-mail: naosao@nirs.go.jp; Furukawa, Takuji; Hara, Yousuke; Mizushima, Kota; Tansho, Ryohei; Saraya, Yuichi; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji [Department of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional irradiation with a scanned carbon-ion beam has been performed from 2011 at the authors’ facility. The authors have developed the rotating-gantry equipped with the scanning irradiation system. The number of combinations of beam properties to measure for the commissioning is more than 7200, i.e., 201 energy steps, 3 intensities, and 12 gantry angles. To compress the commissioning time, quick and simple range verification system is required. In this work, the authors develop a quick range verification system using scintillator and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and estimate the accuracy of the range verification. Methods: A cylindrical plastic scintillator block and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. The optical spatial resolution of the system is 0.2 mm/pixel. The camera control system was connected and communicates with the measurement system that is part of the scanning system. The range was determined by image processing. Reference range for each energy beam was determined by a difference of Gaussian (DOG) method and the 80% of distal dose of the depth-dose distribution that were measured by a large parallel-plate ionization chamber. The authors compared a threshold method and a DOG method. Results: The authors found that the edge detection method (i.e., the DOG method) is best for the range detection. The accuracy of range detection using this system is within 0.2 mm, and the reproducibility of the same energy measurement is within 0.1 mm without setup error. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the authors’ range check system is capable of quick and easy range verification with sufficient accuracy.

  15. Technical Note: Range verification system using edge detection method for a scintillator and a CCD camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saotome, Naoya; Furukawa, Takuji; Hara, Yousuke; Mizushima, Kota; Tansho, Ryohei; Saraya, Yuichi; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional irradiation with a scanned carbon-ion beam has been performed from 2011 at the authors' facility. The authors have developed the rotating-gantry equipped with the scanning irradiation system. The number of combinations of beam properties to measure for the commissioning is more than 7200, i.e., 201 energy steps, 3 intensities, and 12 gantry angles. To compress the commissioning time, quick and simple range verification system is required. In this work, the authors develop a quick range verification system using scintillator and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and estimate the accuracy of the range verification. A cylindrical plastic scintillator block and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. The optical spatial resolution of the system is 0.2 mm/pixel. The camera control system was connected and communicates with the measurement system that is part of the scanning system. The range was determined by image processing. Reference range for each energy beam was determined by a difference of Gaussian (DOG) method and the 80% of distal dose of the depth-dose distribution that were measured by a large parallel-plate ionization chamber. The authors compared a threshold method and a DOG method. The authors found that the edge detection method (i.e., the DOG method) is best for the range detection. The accuracy of range detection using this system is within 0.2 mm, and the reproducibility of the same energy measurement is within 0.1 mm without setup error. The results of this study demonstrate that the authors' range check system is capable of quick and easy range verification with sufficient accuracy.

  16. Weightbearing and nonweightbearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: are we measuring the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion has been measured in weightbearing and nonweightbearing conditions. The different measurement conditions may contribute to inconsistent conclusions regarding the role of ankle dorsiflexion in several pathologic conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion as measured in weightbearing and nonweightbearing conditions. We compared ankle dorsiflexion range of motion as measured in a weightbearing versus a nonweightbearing position in 43 healthy volunteers. Measurements were taken separately by two examiners. Weightbearing and nonweightbearing ankle dorsiflexion measurements produced significantly different results (P dorsiflexion measurements produce significantly different results and only a moderate correlation, suggesting that these two measurements should not be used interchangeably as measures of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

  17. Microminiature inertial measurement system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gang; Gu, Qitai

    2000-05-01

    The microminiature inertial measurement system, a new style of the inertial measurement system, has many advantages compared with the traditional one, such as small size, light weight, low cost, little power consumption, high bearing capacity and long life. Undoubtedly, it will have wider applications in military and commercial fields. However, it is a pity that current micro inertial sensors do not have enough accuracy. Therefore, its applications were limited to some extent. This paper described a design of microminiature inertial measurement system and its composing and operating theory. In addition, its performance and applications were evaluated.

  18. The validity and reliability of a new instrumented device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Martin, Fernando; Gargallo, Pedro; García-Redondo, Jessica; Colado, Juan Carlos; Marín, Pedro J

    2015-04-01

    A restriction in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) has been linked to several clinical manifestations such as metatarsalgia, heel pain, nerve entrapment, ankle joint equinus, patellar and ankle injuries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM. Descriptive repeated-measures study. Twenty-six healthy male university students were recruited to test the reliability of the Leg Motion system, which is a portable tool used for assessment of ankle dorsiflexion during the weight-bearing lunge test. The participants were tested two times separated by two weeks and measurements were performed at the same time of the day by the same single rater. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, other maximal ankle dorsiflexion ROM assessments (goniometer, inclinometer and measuring tape) were measured in a single session (i.e., the first test session) during the weight-bearing lunge position using a standard goniometer, a digital inclinometer and a measuring tape measure with the ability to measure to the nearest 0.1 cm. Paired t-tests showed the absence of significant differences between right and left limb measurements of dorsiflexion in all tests. Mean values ± standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion test (left 11.6cm±3.9; right 11.9cm ±4.0), tape measure (left 11.6cm±4.0; right 11.8cm±4.2), goniometer (left 40.6º±5.2; right 40.6º±5.2), and digital inclinometer (left 40.0º±5.8; right 39.9º±5.6). The Leg Motion composite values (i.e., average of the two legs) showed a significant (pMotion system as a valid, portable, and easy to use alternative to the weight-bearing lunge test to assess ankle dorsiflexion ROM in healthy participants. 2b.

  19. Reliability of digital compass goniometer in knee joint range of motion measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikwawongs, Nammond; Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Wilairatana, Vajara

    2009-04-01

    To compare the reliability of range of motion measurement in the knee joint using a digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer with standard range of motion measurement from roentgenographic picture. Range of flexion and extension of the knee joint in volunteer participants was measured by the newly developed digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer (DCG). The results were compared with range of knee joint motion obtained from standard roentgenographic picture by intraclass correlation coefficient. Range of motion of knee joint measured by DCG correlated very well with the data obtained from standard knee roentgenographic picture. The intraclass correlation coefficient equals 0.973. The digital compass goniometer was a reliable tool to measure knee joint range of motion in flexion and extension plane.

  20. Achilles tendon reflex measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeszczyk, Janina; Straszecka, Joanna

    1995-06-01

    The examination of Achilles tendon reflex is widely used as a simple, noninvasive clinical test in diagnosis and pharmacological therapy monitoring in such diseases as: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetic neuropathy, the lower limbs obstructive angiopathies and intermittent claudication. Presented Achilles tendon reflect measuring system is based on the piezoresistive sensor connected with the cylinder-piston system. To determinate the moment of Achilles tendon stimulation a detecting circuit was used. The outputs of the measuring system are connected to the PC-based data acquisition board. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy and repeatability is good enough for diagnostics and therapy monitoring purposes. A user friendly, easy-to-operate measurement system fulfills all the requirements related to recording, presentation and storing of the patients' reflexograms.

  1. Measurement of soil water potential over an extended range by polymer tensiometers: comparison with other instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Gooren, H. P.; Hoogendam, R. C.; Bakker, G.; Huiskes, C.; Koopal, L. K.; Kruidhof, H.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2007-12-01

    In water scarce areas, plant growth and productivity can be severely hampered by irregular precipitation and overall water shortage. Root water uptake is mainly driven by matric potential gradients, but measurement of soil water matric potential is limited by the measurement range of water-filled tensiometers (-0.085 MPa). Other measurement techniques indirectly measure soil water potential by converting soil water content with the use of the water retention curve. In dry soils, the water content measurements may become insensitive to small variations, and consequently this conversion may lead to large errors. We developed a polymer tensiometer (POT) that is able to measure matric potentials down to -2.0 MPa. The POT consists of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Hence, the water in the polymer tensiometer will cavitate at a much lower matric potential than the nearly pure water in a conventional tensiometer. Direct observation of the potential of soil water at different locations in the root-system will yield knowledge about the ability of a plant to take up the water under conditions of water shortage or salinity stress. With this knowledge it will be possible to adjust existing unsaturated flow models accounting for root water uptake. We tested 8 POTs in an experimental setup, where we compared matric potential measurements to TDR water content measurements, matric potentials derived from measured water contents, and matric potentials measured by water-filled tensiometers. The experimental setup consisted of two evaporation boxes, one filled with sand (97.6% sand, 1

  2. Classical investigation of long-range coherence in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preto, Jordane

    2016-12-01

    Almost five decades ago, H. Fröhlich [H. Fröhlich, "Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2(5), 641-649 (1968)] reported, on a theoretical basis, that the excitation of quantum modes of vibration in contact with a thermal reservoir may lead to steady states, where under high enough rate of energy supply, only specific low-frequency modes of vibration are strongly excited. This nonlinear phenomenon was predicted to occur in biomolecular systems, which are known to exhibit complex vibrational spectral properties, especially in the terahertz frequency domain. However, since the effects of terahertz or lower-frequency modes are mainly classical at physiological temperatures, there are serious doubts that Fröhlich's quantum description can be applied to predict such a coherent behavior in a biological environment, as suggested by the author. In addition, a quantum formalism makes the phenomenon hard to investigate using realistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) as they are usually based on the classical principles. In the current paper, we provide a general classical Hamiltonian description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an external energy source. It is shown that a coherent behaviour similar to Fröhlich's effect is to be expected in the classical case for a given range of parameter values. Thus, the supplied energy is not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. The connection between our Hamiltonian description, carried out in the space of normal modes, and a more standard treatment in the physical space is emphasized in order to facilitate the prediction of the effect from MD simulations. It is shown how such a coherent phenomenon may induce long-range resonance effects that could be of critical importance at the biomolecular level. The present work is motivated by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited low

  3. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  4. measurements by Thomson scattering system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oirity in measuring the electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. The method is a ... shot to shot basis. This paper discusses the initial measurements of the plasma temperature from ADITYA. Keywords. .... All the in-situ calibrations required for the system are also performed. As the ...

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Smart Materials for Ranging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Franse, Jaap; Sirenko, Valentyna

    2006-01-01

    The problem of determining the location of an object (usually called ranging) attracts at present much attention in different areas of applications, among them in ecological and safety devices. Electromagnetic waves along with sound waves are widely used for these purposes. Different aspects of materials with specific magnetic, electric and elastic properties are considered in view of potential application in the design and manufacturing of smart materials. Progress is reported in the fabrication and understanding of in-situ formation and characterization of solid state structures with specified properties. Attention is paid to the observation and study of the mobility of magnetic structures and of the kinetics of magnetic ordering transitions. Looking from a different perspective, one of the outcomes of the ARW is the emphasis on the important role that collective phenomena (like spin waves in systems with a magnetically ordered ground state, or critical currents in superconductors) could play at the design ...

  6. 10-decade wide-range neutron-monitoring system. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, W.K.

    1970-10-01

    The objective of Project Agreement 49 was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate under actual nuclear reactor operating conditions, one prototype counting-Campbelling wide-range type thermal neutron flux measurement channel. This report describes the basic system designed for PA 49, and describes and presents the results of tests conducted on the system. Individual module descriptions and schematics are contained in the instruction manual which was issued with the system.

  7. Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.

  8. Phobos laser ranging: Numerical Geodesy experiments for Martian system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Laser ranging is emerging as a technology for use over (inter)planetary distances, having the advantage of high (mm-cm) precision and accuracy and low mass and power consumption. We have performed numerical simulations to assess the science return in terms of geodetic observables of a hypothetical Phobos lander performing active two-way laser ranging with Earth-based stations. We focus our analysis on the estimation of Phobos and Mars gravitational, tidal and rotational parameters. We explicitly include systematic error sources in addition to uncorrelated random observation errors. This is achieved through the use of consider covariance parameters, specifically the ground station position and observation biases. Uncertainties for the consider parameters are set at 5 mm and at 1 mm for the Gaussian uncorrelated observation noise (for an observation integration time of 60 s). We perform the analysis for a mission duration up to 5 years. It is shown that a Phobos Laser Ranging (PLR) can contribute to a better understanding of the Martian system, opening the possibility for improved determination of a variety of physical parameters of Mars and Phobos. The simulations show that the mission concept is especially suited for estimating Mars tidal deformation parameters, estimating degree 2 Love numbers with absolute uncertainties at the 10-2 to 10-4 level after 1 and 4 years, respectively and providing separate estimates for the Martian quality factors at Sun and Phobos-forced frequencies. The estimation of Phobos libration amplitudes and gravity field coefficients provides an estimate of Phobos' relative equatorial and polar moments of inertia with an absolute uncertainty of 10-4 and 10-7, respectively, after 1 year. The observation of Phobos tidal deformation will be able to differentiate between a rubble pile and monolithic interior within 2 years. For all parameters, systematic errors have a much stronger influence (per unit uncertainty) than the uncorrelated Gaussian

  9. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  10. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonay Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement.

  11. Evaluation of knee range of motion: Correlation between measurements using a universal goniometer and a smartphone goniometric application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael Aparecido; Derhon, Viviane; Brandalize, Michelle; Brandalize, Danielle; Rossi, Luciano Pavan

    2017-07-01

    Goniometers are commonly used to measure range of motion in the musculoskeletal system. Recently smartphone goniometry applications have become available to clinicians. Compare angular measures using a universal goniometer and a smartphone application. Thirty four healthy women with at least 20° of limited range of motion regarding knee extension were recruited. Knee flexion angles of the dominant limb were measured with a universal goniometer and the ROM(©) goniometric application for the smartphone. Three trained examiners compared the two assessment tools. Strong correlations were found between the measures of the universal goniometer and smartphone application (Pearson's correlation and interclass correlation coefficient > 0.93). The measurements with both devices demonstrated low dispersion and little variation. Measurements obtained using the smartphone goniometric application analyzed are as reliable as those of a universal goniometer. This application is therefore a useful tool for the evaluation of knee range of motion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  13. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Min Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0% of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  14. OPO DIAL lidar for remote measurements of atmospheric gases in the IR range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Shumskii, V. K.; Sadovnikov, S. A.; Yakovlev, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3-4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG) is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The new technique uses broadband radiation and a CCD detector, which ensures measurement of backscattering signals with simultaneous altitude and wavelength resolution. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. The laser system design provides a possibility of narrowing the laser line within the 0.01-5 cm-1 limits. This possible improvement along with a small step of laser line tuning and the presence of absorption lines of other atmospheric gases, including atmospheric pollutants, in the spectral range under study make this laser a unique instrument for atmospheric sounding.

  15. BOCDA system enhanced by concurrent interrogation of multiple correlation peaks with a 10-km sensing range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Gukbeen; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Song, Kwang Yong; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2017-04-01

    A Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (BOCDA) system using time-domain data processing for concurrently interrogating a plurality of sensing positions is proposed, where the time-domain data processing combined with differential measurement effectively enhances the measurement range and measurement time as much as the spatial resolution of the BOCDA system. In the experiment, the distribution of the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) along a 10.15 km test fiber is successfully obtained with a spatial resolution less than 5 cm by concurrently interrogating 980 correlation peaks.

  16. A Multifrequency Radar System for Detecting Humans and Characterizing Human Activities for Short-Range Through-Wall and Long-Range Foliage Penetration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram M. Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multifrequency radar system for detecting humans and classifying their activities at short and long ranges is described. The short-range radar system operates within the S-Band frequency range for through-wall applications at distances of up to 3 m. It utilizes two separate waveforms which are selected via switching: a wide-band noise waveform or a continuous single tone. The long-range radar system operating in the W-Band millimeter-wave frequency range performs at distances of up to about 100 m in free space and up to about 30 m through light foliage. It employs a composite multimodal signal consisting of two waveforms, a wide-band noise waveform and an embedded single tone, which are summed and transmitted simultaneously. Matched filtering of the received and transmitted noise signals is performed to detect targets with high-range resolution, whereas the received single tone signal is used for the Doppler analysis. Doppler measurements are used to distinguish between different human movements and gestures using the characteristic micro-Doppler signals. Our measurements establish the ability of this system to detect and range humans and distinguish between different human movements at different ranges.

  17. Correction of motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Heard, Freddie E [Albuquerque, NM; Cordaro, J Thomas [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-06-24

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  18. Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duo

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

  19. Mating System of Free-Ranging Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen females belonging to five groups were selected for the study of mating system in free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris All the matings occurred between August and December with a peak in late monsoon months (September to November. Both males and females differed in their degree of attractiveness to the opposite sex. The duration of courting association increased with the number of courting males in an association. The females exhibited selectivity by readily permitting some males to mate and avoiding, or even attacking others, if they attempted to mount. Frequency of mounting in courting association increased with the number of males present. There was a positive correlation between the duration of courting association and the frequency of mounting. The young adult males were more likely to copulate successfully than the old adult males. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulations. In this study, six types of mating (monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity, polyandry, opportunity and rape were recorded. Mean (±S.E. duration of copulatory ties was 25.65 (±1.43 min. Several natural factors influencing the duration of copulatory ties were identified.

  20. Information Measures for Multisensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    focused on the development of effective data fusion techniques for multisensor systems for Navy and other DoD and DHS sensing applications. These...spectral sensors to field-able multisensor instruments through an information-theoretic approach to sensor data analysis and fusion , as well as...modalities. Results are presented for several types of spectral data in multisensor systems, as well as strategies for using information measures with other

  1. Measurement of mobile antenna systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    If you're involved with the design, installation or maintenance of mobile antenna systems, this thoroughly revised and updated edition of a classic Artech book offers you the most current and comprehensive coverage of all the mandatory measurement techniques you need for your work in the field. This Second Edition presents critical new material in key areas, including radiation efficiency measurement, mobile phone usage position, and MIMO (multiple-input/multiple-output) antennas.This unique resource provides in-depth examinations of all relevant mobile antenna measurement theories, along with

  2. Design Optimization for the Measurement Accuracy Improvement of a Large Range Nanopositioning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Torralba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both an accurate machine design and an adequate metrology loop definition are critical factors when precision positioning represents a key issue for the final system performance. This article discusses the error budget methodology as an advantageous technique to improve the measurement accuracy of a 2D-long range stage during its design phase. The nanopositioning platform NanoPla is here presented. Its specifications, e.g., XY-travel range of 50 mm × 50 mm and sub-micrometric accuracy; and some novel designed solutions, e.g., a three-layer and two-stage architecture are described. Once defined the prototype, an error analysis is performed to propose improvement design features. Then, the metrology loop of the system is mathematically modelled to define the propagation of the different sources. Several simplifications and design hypothesis are justified and validated, including the assumption of rigid body behavior, which is demonstrated after a finite element analysis verification. The different error sources and their estimated contributions are enumerated in order to conclude with the final error values obtained from the error budget. The measurement deviations obtained demonstrate the important influence of the working environmental conditions, the flatness error of the plane mirror reflectors and the accurate manufacture and assembly of the components forming the metrological loop. Thus, a temperature control of ±0.1 °C results in an acceptable maximum positioning error for the developed NanoPla stage, i.e., 41 nm, 36 nm and 48 nm in X-, Y- and Z-axis, respectively.

  3. Validation of an in-vivo proton beam range check method in an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom using dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentefour, El H; Tang, Shikui; Cascio, Ethan W; Testa, Mauro; Samuel, Deepak; Prieels, Damien; Gottschalk, Bernard; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2015-04-01

    In-vivo dosimetry and beam range verification in proton therapy could play significant role in proton treatment validation and improvements. In-vivo beam range verification, in particular, could enable new treatment techniques one of which could be the use of anterior fields for prostate treatment instead of opposed lateral fields as in current practice. This paper reports validation study of an in-vivo range verification method which can reduce the range uncertainty to submillimeter levels and potentially allow for in-vivo dosimetry. An anthropomorphic pelvic phantom is used to validate the clinical potential of the time-resolved dose method for range verification in the case of prostrate treatment using range modulated anterior proton beams. The method uses a 3 × 4 matrix of 1 mm diodes mounted in water balloon which are read by an ADC system at 100 kHz. The method is first validated against beam range measurements by dose extinction measurements. The validation is first completed in water phantom and then in pelvic phantom for both open field and treatment field configurations. Later, the beam range results are compared with the water equivalent path length (WEPL) values computed from the treatment planning system XIO. Beam range measurements from both time-resolved dose method and the dose extinction method agree with submillimeter precision in water phantom. For the pelvic phantom, when discarding two of the diodes that show sign of significant range mixing, the two methods agree with ±1 mm. Only a dose of 7 mGy is sufficient to achieve this result. The comparison to the computed WEPL by the treatment planning system (XIO) shows that XIO underestimates the protons beam range. Quantifying the exact XIO range underestimation depends on the strategy used to evaluate the WEPL results. To our best evaluation, XIO underestimates the treatment beam range between a minimum of 1.7% and maximum of 4.1%. Time-resolved dose measurement method satisfies the two basic

  4. Accurate Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth over a Wide Range in Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L

    2016-06-30

    Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, 0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1).

  5. Variable Phase Propagation Velocity for Long Range Lightning Location System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Koh, K.; Mezentsev, A.; Enno, S. E.; Sugier, J.; Fullekrug, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning Location System (LLS) is of key importance to numerous meteorological, industrial and aviation systems worldwide. A crucial input parameter of a LLS which utilizes time-of-arrival (TOA) method is the wave propagation velocity at low frequencies. For example, the WWLLN network use group velocity approach, which is assumed to be constant near the speed of light [e.g. Dowden et al., 2002]. The detected lightning signals are normally a mixture of ground waves and sky waves (i.e. ionospheric hops), which are associated with different elevation angle of the incident wave [e.g., Fullekrug et al., 2015]. In this study, we introduce the new concept of "phase propagation velocity" as observed by the receiver considering the elevation angle. It is found that the radio waves from two submarine communication transmitters at 20.9 kHz and 23.4 kHz exhibit phase propagation velocities that are 0.51% slower and 0.64% faster than the speed of light as a result of sky wave contributions and ground effects. Here, we apply our new technique, using a variable phase propagation velocity, to the TOA method for the first time. This method was applied to electric field recordings from a long range LLS ( 500km) that consists of four radio receivers in Western Europe. The lightning locations inferred from variable velocities improve the accuracy of locations inferred from a fixed velocity by 0.89-1.06 km when compared to the lightning locations reported by the UK Met Office. The observed phase propagation velocities depend on the ground and ionosphere conditions along the propagation paths. The distribution of the observed phase propagation velocities in small geographic areas fit a normal distribution that is not centered at the speed of light. Consequently, representative velocities can be calculated for many small geographic areas to produce a velocity map over central France where numerous lightning discharges occurred. This map reflects the impact of sky waves and ground

  6. Coherent change detection and interferometric ISAR measurements in the folded compact range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    A folded compact range configuration has been developed ant the Sandia National Laboratories` compact range antenna and radar-cross- section measurement facility as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of distributed target samples (i.e. gravel, sand, etc.). The folded compact range configuration has previously been used to perform coherent-change-detection (CCD) measurements, which allow disturbances to distributed targets on the order of fractions of a wavelength to be detected. This report describes follow-on CCD measurements of other distributed target samples, and also investigates the sensitivity of the CCD measurement process to changes in the relative spatial location of the SAR sensor between observations of the target. Additionally, this report describes the theoretical and practical aspects of performing interferometric inverse-synthetic-aperture-radar (IFISAR) measurements in the folded compact range environment. IFISAR measurements provide resolution of the relative heights of targets with accuracies on the order of a wavelength. Several examples are given of digital height maps that have been generated from measurements performed at the folded compact range facility.

  7. Investigation of hopped frequency waveforms for range and velocity measurements of radar targets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kathree, U

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of radar, High Range Resolution (HRR) profiles are often used to improve target tracking accuracy in range and to allow the radar system to produce an image of an object using techniques such as inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR...

  8. Measurement of dragging of inertial frames and gravitomagnetic field using laser-ranged satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, I.; Lucchesi, D.; Vespe, F.; Mandiello, A.

    1996-05-01

    By analysing the observations of the orbits of the laser-ranged satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, using the program GEODYN, the authors have obtained the first direct measurement of the Lense-Thirring effect, or dragging of inertial frames and the first direct experimental evidence for the gravitomagnetic field. The accuracy of their measurement is of about 30%.

  9. Expanding the dynamic measurement range for polymeric nanoparticle pH sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Honghao; Almdal, Kristoffer; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2011-01-01

    Conventional optical nanoparticle pH sensors that are designed for ratiometric measurements in cells have been based on utilizing one sensor fluorophore and one reference fluorophore in each nanoparticle, which results in a relatively narrow dynamic measurement range. This results in substantial...

  10. Variation in measurements of range of motion : a study in reflex sympathetic dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stewart, R.E; Groothoff, J.W.; ten Duis, H J; Eisma, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the amount of variation attributed to different sources of variation in measurement results of upper extremity range of motion, and to estimate the smallest detectable difference (SDD) between measurements in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) patients. Design: Two observers

  11. Inter and intra-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Nilima; Suryawanshi, Mayuri; Rairikar, Savita; Sancheti, Parag; Shyam, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of range of motion (ROM) is integral part of assessment of musculoskeletal system. This is required in health fitness and pathological conditions; also it is used as an objective outcome measure. Several methods are described to check spinal flexion range of motion. Different methods for measuring spine ranges have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, a new device was introduced in this study using the method of dual inclinometer to measure lumbar spine flexion range of motion (ROM). To determine Intra and Inter-rater reliability of mobile device goniometer in measuring lumbar flexion range of motion. iPod mobile device with goniometer software was used. The part being measure i.e the back of the subject was suitably exposed. Subject was standing with feet shoulder width apart. Spinous process of second sacral vertebra S2 and T12 were located, these were used as the reference points and readings were taken. Three readings were taken for each: inter-rater reliability as well as the intra-rater reliability. Sufficient rest was given between each flexion movement. Intra-rater reliability using ICC was r=0.920 and inter-rater r=0.812 at CI 95%. Validity r=0.95. Mobile device goniometer has high intra-rater reliability. The inter-rater reliability was moderate. This device can be used to assess range of motion of spine flexion, representing uni-planar movement.

  12. Outlier Detection in GNSS Pseudo-Range/Doppler Measurements for Robust Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zair, Salim; Le Hégarat-Mascle, Sylvie; Seignez, Emmanuel

    2016-04-22

    In urban areas or space-constrained environments with obstacles, vehicle localization using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is hindered by Non-Line Of Sight (NLOS) and multipath receptions. These phenomena induce faulty data that disrupt the precise localization of the GNSS receiver. In this study, we detect the outliers among the observations, Pseudo-Range (PR) and/or Doppler measurements, and we evaluate how discarding them improves the localization. We specify a contrario modeling for GNSS raw data to derive an algorithm that partitions the dataset between inliers and outliers. Then, only the inlier data are considered in the localization process performed either through a classical Particle Filter (PF) or a Rao-Blackwellization (RB) approach. Both localization algorithms exclusively use GNSS data, but they differ by the way Doppler measurements are processed. An experiment has been performed with a GPS receiver aboard a vehicle. Results show that the proposed algorithms are able to detect the 'outliers' in the raw data while being robust to non-Gaussian noise and to intermittent satellite blockage. We compare the performance results achieved either estimating only PR outliers or estimating both PR and Doppler outliers. The best localization is achieved using the RB approach coupled with PR-Doppler outlier estimation.

  13. Outlier Detection in GNSS Pseudo-Range/Doppler Measurements for Robust Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Zair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas or space-constrained environments with obstacles, vehicle localization using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data is hindered by Non-Line Of Sight (NLOS and multipath receptions. These phenomena induce faulty data that disrupt the precise localization of the GNSS receiver. In this study, we detect the outliers among the observations, Pseudo-Range (PR and/or Doppler measurements, and we evaluate how discarding them improves the localization. We specify a contrario modeling for GNSS raw data to derive an algorithm that partitions the dataset between inliers and outliers. Then, only the inlier data are considered in the localization process performed either through a classical Particle Filter (PF or a Rao-Blackwellization (RB approach. Both localization algorithms exclusively use GNSS data, but they differ by the way Doppler measurements are processed. An experiment has been performed with a GPS receiver aboard a vehicle. Results show that the proposed algorithms are able to detect the ‘outliers’ in the raw data while being robust to non-Gaussian noise and to intermittent satellite blockage. We compare the performance results achieved either estimating only PR outliers or estimating both PR and Doppler outliers. The best localization is achieved using the RB approach coupled with PR-Doppler outlier estimation.

  14. In-situ measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, David E.

    1983-01-01

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop "hairpin" configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. The electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements are obtained, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  15. Clinical measurement of range of motion. Review of goniometry emphasizing reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, R L; Bohannon, R W

    1987-12-01

    Clinical measurement of range of motion is a fundamental evaluation procedure with ubiquitous application in physical therapy. Objective measurements of ROM and correct interpretation of the measurement results can have a substantial impact on the development of the scientific basis of therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the related literature on the reliability and validity of goniometric measurements of the extremities. Special emphasis is placed on how the reliability of goniometry is influenced by instrumentation and procedures, differences among joint actions and body regions, passive versus active measurements, intratester versus intertester measurements, and different patient types. Our discussion of validity encourages objective interpretation of the meaning of ROM measurements in light of the purposes and the limitations of goniometry. We conclude that clinicians should adopt standardized methods of testing and should interpret and report goniometric results as ROM measurements only, not as measurements of factors that may affect ROM.

  16. Near Field HF Antenna Pattern Measurement Method Using an Antenna Pattern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3006 December 2015 Near-Field HF Antenna Pattern Measurement Method Using an Antenna Pattern Range Ani Siripuram Michael Daly...link budget. This report focuses on computing absolute gain for HF antennas measured on the APR. Recent research efforts by SSC Pacific’s Applied...Electromagnetics Branch (Code 52250) show that the APR extends to accurate measurement of normalized far-field radiation patterns of HF antennas. The

  17. A simple and wide-range refractive index measuring approach by using a sub-micron grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Chun-Che; Lin, Shih-Chieh [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-13

    This paper presents the design and simulation results of a high-precision low-cost refractometer that demonstrates the main advantage of a wide measurement range (1 ≤ n ≤ 2). The proposed design is based on the diffractive properties of sub-micron gratings and Snell's Law. The precision and uncertainty factors of the proposed system were tested and analyzed, revealing that the proposed refractometer demonstrates a wide measurement range with sensitivity of 10{sup −4}.

  18. Accuracy and Reliability of Visual Inspection and Smartphone Applications for Measuring Finger Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah H; St Louis, Kwesi; Fowler, John R

    2018-01-08

    Measurement of finger range of motion is critical in clinical settings, especially for outcome analysis, clinical decision making, and rehabilitation/disability assessment. Although goniometer measurement is clinically considered the gold standard, its accuracy compared with the true radiographic measurements of the joint angles remains questionable. The authors compared 3 smartphone applications and visual inspection measurements of the finger joints with the radiographic measurements and determined interrater reliability for these measurement tools. A finger was held in place using an aluminum-alloy splint, and a fluoroscopic image was acquired by a mini C-arm. An independent observer measured each joint flexion angle of the fluoroscopic image using a universal handheld goniometer, and this was used as the reference. Finger joint flexion angles were then independently measured by 3 observers using 3 different smartphone applications. In addition, visual inspection was used to estimate the flexion angles of finger joints. The results of this study suggest that all 3 smartphone measurement tools, as well as visual inspection, agree and correlate well with the reference fluoroscopic image measurement. Average differences between the fluoroscopic image measurements with the measured angles using the tools studied ranged from 9.4° to 12.2°. The mean correlation coefficients for each smartphone application exceeded 0.7. Overall interrater reliabilities were similar, with the interclass correlation coefficient being greater than 0.9 for all of the measurement tools. These data suggest that new smartphone applications hold promise for providing accurate and reliable measures of range of motion. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. A short-range ensemble prediction system for southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Park, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available numerical weather prediction system over southern Africa using the Conformal- Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM). An ensemble prediction system (EPS) combines several individual weather model setups into an average forecast system where each member... contributes to the final weather forecast (Atger, 1999). Four different EPSs were configured using lagged-average forecasting techniques (Kalnay, 2003) and two different cloud parameterisation schemes (McGregor, 2003; Rotstayn, 1997). Rainfall forecasts...

  20. Propagation Loss Measurements at 400 Hertz in the BIFI Range Using a Towed Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-27

    series using the BIFI Range (Reference 1) located between Block Island, Rhode Island and Fishers Island, New York. Three types of acoustic tests were... Colossus theoretical predictions (Reference 7). The agreement is fairly good; it is apparent, howev er, that the Colossus predictions do not take into...given in reference 11. - Propagation loss was measured as a function of range and the results compared to the Colossus predictions’ (reference 7). The

  1. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  2. Measuring the Balance Control System – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Jančová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of postural control during standing have employed wide range of procedures including the outcome measures use to quantify postural control, the duration of the sample collected, sampling frequency and methods for data processing. Due to these differences there remains little, if any, common grounds for comparisons between studies to establish a concrete understanding of the features and bouns which characterize normal healthy postural control. This article deals with terms such as reliability and repeatability of stabilometric measurements, stabilometric data quantification and analysis. To clear up those terms is suggested, by the author of this paper, very important. The stabilometric measurements remain, nevertheless, different when dealing with aging adults. Though, we notes some alterations of the aging systems, this article is not entirely dedicated to the seniors population. Measurements of COP and technical notes remain the main axis of present paper.

  3. Structure, stability, and formation pathways of colloidal gels in systems with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooneveld, Matti M; de Villeneuve, Volkert W A; Dullens, Roel P A; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Leunissen, Mirjam E; Kegel, Willem K

    2009-04-09

    We study colloidal gels formed upon centrifugation of dilute suspensions of spherical colloids (radius 446 nm) that interact through a long-range electrostatic repulsion (Debye length approximately 850 nm) and a short-range depletion attraction (approximately 12.5 nm), by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). In these systems, at low colloid densities, colloidal clusters are stable. Upon increasing the density by centrifugation, at different stages of cluster formation, we show that colloidal gels are formed that significantly differ in structure. While significant single-particle displacements do not occur on the hour time scale, the different gels slowly evolve within several weeks to a similar structure that is at least stable for over a year. Furthermore, while reference systems without long-range repulsion collapse into dense glassy states, the repulsive colloidal gels are able to support external stress in the form of a centrifugal field of at least 9g.

  4. Improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy of a pulsed Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode laser ranging system with turbulence effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanjun; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Liu, Qiang; Lu, Zhenli; Li, Bin

    2017-10-10

    There exists a performance limitation in a pulsed Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode laser ranging system because of the echo intensity random fluctuation caused by turbulence effects. To suppress the influence of turbulence effects, we present a cumulative pulse detection technique with the ability to achieve improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy. Based on the modulated Poisson model, the cumulative probabilities, range accuracy, and their influencing factors are investigated for a cumulative Q-switched laser pulse train. The results show that the improved cumulative probabilities and range accuracy can be obtained by utilizing cumulative pulse detection, with the condition that the echo intensity is 10, the echo pulse width is 10 ns, and the turbulence degree is 3, the target detection probability increases by 0.4, the false alarm probability decreases by 0.08, and the accuracy and precision increase by 46 cm and 27 cm, respectively.

  5. Accurate Measurement of First Metatarsophalangeal Range of Motion in Patients With Hallux Rigidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Ettore; Tracey, Joseph A; Myerson, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    The reliability of range of motion (ROM) measurements has not been established for the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint in patients with hallux rigidus. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the clinical versus radiographic difference in ROM of the arthritic hallux MTP joint. One hundred consecutive patients who presented with any grade of hallux rigidus were included in this prospective study to determine the hallux MTP range of motion. Clinical range of motion using a goniometer and radiographic range of motion on dynamic x-rays was recorded. The mean difference between clinical and radiographic dorsiflexion was 13 degrees (P dorsiflexion was equal to or less than radiographically measured dorsiflexion. The difference was significantly greater in patients with a clinical dorsiflexion of less than 30 degrees than in patients with 30 degrees or more. Radiographic measurement of hallux dorsiflexion had an excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. We describe a reliable, reproducible, and straightforward method of measuring hallux MTP ROM that improved upon measuring clinical ROM. Level II, prospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Francescantonio Della Rosa; Mauro Pelosi; Jari Nurmi

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors intr...

  7. On a long range particle system with unbounded flip rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, R.; Quant, C.

    2000-01-01

    We consider an interacting particle system on f0; 1g Z with non-local, unbounded ip rates. Zeroes ip to one at a rate that depends on the number of ones to the right until we see a zero (the ip rate equals times one plus this number). The ip rate of the ones equals . We give motivation for models

  8. Evaluation of Soil Loss and Erosion Control Measures on Ranges and Range Structures at Installations in Temperate Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    classified as discontinu- ous loess on bedrock and are finely textured silty clays and silty loams (Noble et al. 1990). The first visit to Camp...challenge as vegetation reestablishment is diffi- cult on the remaining eroded nutrient -poor soil. Investigations of newly constructed embankments as in...concentrations through range monitoring. Camp Atterbury Soils The soils in this area are classified as discontinuous loess on bedrock. Soil surveys completed

  9. Entanglement Entropy of Quantum Hall Systems with Short Range Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Barry; Levine, Greg

    2015-03-01

    The critical value of the mobility for which the filling 5/2 quantum Hall effect is destroyed by short range disorder is determined from an earlier calculation of the entanglement entropy. The value agrees well with experiment; this agreement is particularly significant in that there are no adjustable parameters. Entanglement entropy vs. disorder strength for filling 1/2, filling 9/2 and filling 7/3 is calculated. For filling 1/2 there is no evidence for a transition for the disorder strengths considered; for filling 9/2 there appears to be a stripe-liquid transition. For filling 7/3 there again appears to be a transition at similar value of the disorder strength as the 5/2 transition but there are stronger finite size effects.

  10. Pairing and Short-Range Correlations in Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, A.; Polls, A.; Dickhoff, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The structure and density dependence of the pairing gap in infinite matter is relevant for astrophysical phenomena and provides a starting point for the discussion of pairing properties in nuclear structure. Short-range correlations can significantly deplete the available single-particle strength around the Fermi surface and thus provide a reduction mechanism of the pairing gap. Here, we study this effect in the singlet and triplet channels of both neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter. Our calculations use phase-shift equivalent interactions and chiral two-body and three-body interactions as a starting point. We find an unambiguous reduction of the gap in all channels with very small dependence on the NN force in the singlet neutron matter and the triplet nuclear matter channel. In the latter channel, SRC alone provide a 50% reduction of the pairing gap.

  11. Acoustic absorption measurement of human hair and skin within the audible frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B F

    2000-11-01

    Utilizing the two-microphone impedance tube method, the acoustic absorption of human skin and hair is measured in the frequency range 1-6 kHz. Various locations on a number of human subjects are measured to determine if the presence of bone or an air pocket affects the acoustic absorption of human skin. The absorption coefficient of human hair is also measured. Additional techniques are utilized to minimize errors due to sample mounting methods. Techniques are employed to minimize potential errors in sensor and sample locations. The results of these measurements are compared to relevant historical papers on similar investigations. Results for skin measurements compare well with previous work. Measured hair absorption data do not agree with previous work in the area but do coincide with expected trends, which previous works do not.

  12. An extended set-value observer for position estimation using single range measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcal, Jose; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    of transponders. The knowledge of the bearing of the vehicle and the range measurements from a single location can provide a solution which is sensitive to the trajectory that the vehicle is following, since there is no complete constraint on the position estimate with a single beacon. In this paper...

  13. Polymeric pH nanosensor with extended measurement range bearing octaarginine as cell penetrating peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Peng; Sun, Honghao; Liu, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    A synthetic peptide octaarginine which mimics human immunodeficiency virus-1, Tat protein is used as cell penetrating moiety for new pH nanosensors which demonstrate enhanced cellular uptake and expanded measurement range from pH 3.9 to pH 7.3 by simultaneously incorporating two complemental p...

  14. Multi-scale biomedical systems: measurement challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-scale biomedical systems are those that represent interactions in materials, sensors, and systems from a holistic perspective. It is possible to view such multi-scale activity using measurement of spatial scale or time scale, though in this paper only the former is considered. The biomedical application paradigm comprises interactions that range from quantum biological phenomena at scales of 10-12 for one individual to epidemiological studies of disease spread in populations that in a pandemic lead to measurement at a scale of 10+7. It is clear that there are measurement challenges at either end of this spatial scale, but those challenges that relate to the use of new technologies that deal with big data and health service delivery at the point of care are also considered. The measurement challenges lead to the use, in many cases, of model-based measurement and the adoption of virtual engineering. It is these measurement challenges that will be uncovered in this paper.

  15. Spin motion determination of the Envisat satellite through laser ranging measurements from a single pass measured by a single station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Jean-Noël; Šilha, Jiří; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to accurately determine the position of space objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to measure the range to the spacecraft with high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits for these targets. Non-active spacecraft, which are not attitude controlled any longer, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques and forces. If the return signal is measured for a non-spherical non-active rotating object, the signal in the range residuals with respect to the reference orbit is more complex. For rotating objects the return signal shows an oscillating pattern or patterns caused by the RRA moving around the satellite's centre of mass. This behaviour is projected onto the radial component measured by the SLR. In our work, we demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique from one sensor to a satellite equipped with a RRA can be used to precisely determine its spin motion during one passage. Multiple SLR measurements of one target over time allow to accurately monitor spin motion changes which can be further used for attitude predictions. We show our solutions of the spin motion determined for the non-active ESA satellite Envisat obtained from measurements acquired during years 2013-2015 by the Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. All the necessary parameters are defined for our own so-called point-like model which describes the motion of a point in space around the satellite centre of mass.

  16. Performance Analysis of Frequency Shift Keyed Signals in a Sonar Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tetsuji; Nakahira, Kenji; Koyama, Yuu; Murakami, Junichi

    Pulsed ultrasonic distance measurement systems are frequently used in robotics applications, thanks to their low cost and small size. The pulse compression techniques, originally developed by radar engineers, were adopted to eliminate frequent misreadings caused by crosstalk or external ultrasound sources. High-performance computing systems for the implementation of pulse compression techniques enable reliable and accurate distance measurement. In most cases however, they significantly increase the complexity of the total system, cutting down one of the advantages of ultrasonic systems. The ultrasonic ranging using a digital polarity correlator can overcome this drawback, because the cost of realizing delay and multiplication for each point on the polarity correlation function as a parallel operation is very low. This paper presents an analysis of the binary coded frequency shift keyed signals for the ultrasonic ranging using a digital polarity correlator. The spectra of the frequency shift keyed signals have been observed to be narrow compared with the spectra of the corresponding phase shift keyed signals. This suggests the possibility of a more reliable and accurate distance measurement with the frequency shift keyed signals in terms of occupied bandwidth.

  17. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory. [spark gap configuration and photomultiplier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Range measurements to an accuracy of 5 cm were achieved following improvements in the laser oscillator configuration and the photomultiplier system. Modifications to the laser include a redesigned pockel cell mount to eliminate stressing of the cell crystal; an improved electrically triggered spark gap for sharpening the electrical pulse; the use of a brewster plate in the cavity to eliminate pre-pulsing; improved alignment for the oscillator system; and increased cavity lifetime through thin film polarizer technology. Laser calibration data are presented along with the lunar laser operations log for June to October 1977.

  18. Signal processing and analysis for copper layer thickness measurement within a large variation range in the CMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongkai; Zhao, Qian; Lu, Xinchun; Luo, Jianbin

    2017-11-01

    In the copper (Cu) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, accurate determination of a process reaching the end point is of great importance. Based on the eddy current technology, the in situ thickness measurement of the Cu layer is feasible. Previous research studies focus on the application of the eddy current method to the metal layer thickness measurement or endpoint detection. In this paper, an in situ measurement system, which is independently developed by using the eddy current method, is applied to the actual Cu CMP process. A series of experiments are done for further analyzing the dynamic response characteristic of the output signal within different thickness variation ranges. In this study, the voltage difference of the output signal is used to represent the thickness of the Cu layer, and we can extract the voltage difference variations from the output signal fast by using the proposed data processing algorithm. The results show that the voltage difference decreases as thickness decreases in the conventional measurement range and the sensitivity increases at the same time. However, it is also found that there exists a thickness threshold, and the correlation is negative, when the thickness is more than the threshold. Furthermore, it is possible that the in situ measurement system can be used within a larger Cu layer thickness variation range by creating two calibration tables.

  19. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics. Part II: two-dimensional scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Juan-José; Bingöl, Ferhat; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    A nacelle-mounted lidar system pointing downstream has been used to measure wind turbine wake dynamics. The new measurement and data analysis techniques allow estimation of quasi-instantaneous wind fields in planes perpendicular to the rotor axis. A newly developed wake tracking procedure deliver...

  20. Hydrogeology of Pico Frentes Karst system (Iberian range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, P.; Sanz, E.; Menendez-Pidal, I.

    2016-07-01

    The karst system of Pico Frentes has developed within an Upper Cretaceous calcareous series whose welldefined folded geometry determines that its aquifer reserves are held mainly in three hydraulically-connected synclines, with a groundwater capacity of between 5 and 7 hm3 . The recharge to this unconfined peneplain aquifer is autogenous and diffuse. On a large scale, groundwater flow is directed by the base of the synclines, while on a small scale, it flows along groundwater conduits towards the Fuentetoba Spring (210 l/s) and source of the River Mazos (50 l/s), following a highly variable flow regime of low inertia, with other smaller discharges emanating during periods of high water. Analysis of hydrographs of these springs indicates a very variable rate system and little power regulating natural, characteristic of a typical karstic aquifer, with great capacity for renewal and low residence time. Using hydrogram simulations of these upwellings using a mathematical rainfall-runoff model, a detailed quantification of the average water balance was made for a twenty-year time series. This water balance consists of 16,86 hm3 rainfall (100%); natural recharge, 8,35 hm3 (49,53%); EVT 8,50 hm3 (50,41%); pumped groundwater abstractions, 0,01hm3 (0,06%); surface runoff, 0 hm3, groundwater transfers to other aquifer, 0 hm3. (Author)

  1. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  2. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    2010-08-17

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  3. Field System for Extended Range Continuous Monitoring of Near Surface CO2 Gas from Multiple Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J.; Amonette, J.

    2007-12-01

    A novel system was developed for continuous measurement of near surface carbon dioxide gas concentrations associated with the monitoring of carbon dioxide capture and storage in geologic formations. In the current configuration, the battery powered system allows for near surface CO2 gas collection (0-300,000 ppm) from seven (expandable) independently located steady state chambers. Each chamber has an associated pump and metering valve attached to a control manifold that either directs the flow to the analyzer (test chamber) or to exhaust (all others). The uniquely large concentration range in which the system is capable of operating is achieved by using an auto-control system that senses when the LiCor LI-7000 analyzer is approaching saturation and then dilutes the incoming sample using a metered flow of nitrogen gas from the reference gas supply. The dilution is carried out in stages and is capable of increasing or decreasing on the fly to keep the analyzer within range. By reading in the sample flow rate, the dilution gas flow rate, and the output flow it is possible to calculate a dilution scalar that acts as a multiplier for the LiCor analyzer concentration, allowing for immediate read and record of true sampler concentrations. This system was tested and validated during a week of continuous operation and field use, monitoring the seven chambers 24 hours/day with CO2 concentrations ranging from background to over 130,000 ppm.

  4. Wind pump system FC 4000 measurement on a model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisko, J.

    1993-02-01

    Small electrical wind pump systems in developing countries, and in general, are described in addition to the wind pump system designated FC 4000. The latter system supports pump heads from 50 to 8 m in a frequency range of 43 - to 17 Hz. The results of measurements taken on the FC 4000 pump system are presented graphically. (AB)

  5. Knee range of motion: reliability and agreement of 3 measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Paul G; Herbenick, Michael A; Anloague, Philip A; Markert, Ronald J; Rubino, L Joseph

    2011-12-01

    We conducted a study to compare 3 methods of measuring knee range of motion: visual estimation by physicians, hand goniometry by physical therapists, and radiographic goniometry. We hypothesized that reliability would be high within and across all techniques. We found intrarater and interrater reliability to be satisfactory for visual estimation, hand goniometry, and radiographic goniometry. Interrater reliability across methods did not agree satisfactorily. Between-methods differences in estimating knee range of motion may result from variations in technique among physicians and physical therapists.

  6. Fluorescent Protein Based FRET Pairs with Improved Dynamic Range for Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Abraham, Bobin; Sarkisyan, Karen S.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Santala, Ville; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Karp, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using fluorescent protein variants is widely used to study biochemical processes in living cells. FRET detection by fluorescence lifetime measurements is the most direct and robust method to measure FRET. The traditional cyan-yellow fluorescent protein based FRET pairs are getting replaced by green-red fluorescent protein variants. The green-red pair enables excitation at a longer wavelength which reduces cellular autofluorescence and phototoxicity while monitoring FRET. Despite the advances in FRET based sensors, the low FRET efficiency and dynamic range still complicates their use in cell biology and high throughput screening. In this paper, we utilized the higher lifetime of NowGFP and screened red fluorescent protein variants to develop FRET pairs with high dynamic range and FRET efficiency. The FRET variations were analyzed by proteolytic activity and detected by steady-state and time-resolved measurements. Based on the results, NowGFP-tdTomato and NowGFP-mRuby2 have shown high potentials as FRET pairs with large fluorescence lifetime dynamic range. The in vitro measurements revealed that the NowGFP-tdTomato has the highest Förster radius for any fluorescent protein based FRET pairs yet used in biological studies. The developed FRET pairs will be useful for designing FRET based sensors and studies employing Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). PMID:26237400

  7. Fluorescent Protein Based FRET Pairs with Improved Dynamic Range for Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin George Abraham

    Full Text Available Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET using fluorescent protein variants is widely used to study biochemical processes in living cells. FRET detection by fluorescence lifetime measurements is the most direct and robust method to measure FRET. The traditional cyan-yellow fluorescent protein based FRET pairs are getting replaced by green-red fluorescent protein variants. The green-red pair enables excitation at a longer wavelength which reduces cellular autofluorescence and phototoxicity while monitoring FRET. Despite the advances in FRET based sensors, the low FRET efficiency and dynamic range still complicates their use in cell biology and high throughput screening. In this paper, we utilized the higher lifetime of NowGFP and screened red fluorescent protein variants to develop FRET pairs with high dynamic range and FRET efficiency. The FRET variations were analyzed by proteolytic activity and detected by steady-state and time-resolved measurements. Based on the results, NowGFP-tdTomato and NowGFP-mRuby2 have shown high potentials as FRET pairs with large fluorescence lifetime dynamic range. The in vitro measurements revealed that the NowGFP-tdTomato has the highest Förster radius for any fluorescent protein based FRET pairs yet used in biological studies. The developed FRET pairs will be useful for designing FRET based sensors and studies employing Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM.

  8. Fluorescent Protein Based FRET Pairs with Improved Dynamic Range for Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Abraham, Bobin; Sarkisyan, Karen S; Mishin, Alexander S; Santala, Ville; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Karp, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using fluorescent protein variants is widely used to study biochemical processes in living cells. FRET detection by fluorescence lifetime measurements is the most direct and robust method to measure FRET. The traditional cyan-yellow fluorescent protein based FRET pairs are getting replaced by green-red fluorescent protein variants. The green-red pair enables excitation at a longer wavelength which reduces cellular autofluorescence and phototoxicity while monitoring FRET. Despite the advances in FRET based sensors, the low FRET efficiency and dynamic range still complicates their use in cell biology and high throughput screening. In this paper, we utilized the higher lifetime of NowGFP and screened red fluorescent protein variants to develop FRET pairs with high dynamic range and FRET efficiency. The FRET variations were analyzed by proteolytic activity and detected by steady-state and time-resolved measurements. Based on the results, NowGFP-tdTomato and NowGFP-mRuby2 have shown high potentials as FRET pairs with large fluorescence lifetime dynamic range. The in vitro measurements revealed that the NowGFP-tdTomato has the highest Förster radius for any fluorescent protein based FRET pairs yet used in biological studies. The developed FRET pairs will be useful for designing FRET based sensors and studies employing Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM).

  9. Performance Analysis of ToA-Based Positioning Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Targets with Low Ranging Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, André G; Fernandes, Duarte; Catarino, André P; Monteiro, João L

    2017-08-19

    Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) for emergency responders is a challenging field attracting researchers worldwide. When compared with traditional indoor positioning solutions, the IPSs for emergency responders stand out as they have to operate in harsh and unstructured environments. From the various technologies available for the localization process, ultra-wide band (UWB) is a promising technology for such systems due to its robust signaling in harsh environments, through-wall propagation and high-resolution ranging. However, during emergency responders' missions, the availability of UWB signals is generally low (the nodes have to be deployed as the emergency responders enter a building) and can be affected by the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. In this paper, the performance of four typical distance-based positioning algorithms (Analytical, Least Squares, Taylor Series, and Extended Kalman Filter methods) with only three ranging measurements is assessed based on a COTS UWB transceiver. These algorithms are compared based on accuracy, precision and root mean square error (RMSE). The algorithms were evaluated under two environments with different propagation conditions (an atrium and a lab), for static and mobile devices, and under the human body's influence. A NLOS identification and error mitigation algorithm was also used to improve the ranging measurements. The results show that the Extended Kalman Filter outperforms the other algorithms in almost every scenario, but it is affected by the low measurement rate of the UWB system.

  10. Is goniometry suitable for measuring ankle range of motion in female ballet dancers? An initial comparison with radiographic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Shave, Ruth M; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2011-06-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion to attain the demi-plié (weight-bearing full dorsiflexion [DF]) and en pointe (weight-bearing full plantar flexion [PF]) positions of ballet. However, techniques for assessing this amount of motion have not yet received sufficient scientific scrutiny. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences between weight-bearing goniometric and radiographic ankle range of motion measurements in female ballet dancers. Ankle range of motion in 8 experienced female ballet dancers was assessed by goniometry and 2 radiographic measurement methods. The latter were performed on 3 mediolateral x-rays, in demi-plié, neutral, and en pointe positions; one of them used the same landmarks as goniometry. DF values were not significantly different among the methods, but PF values were (P ballet dancers and suggest that goniometry may not be ideal for assessing ankle range of motion in these individuals. Therefore, further research is needed to standardize how DF and PF are measured in ballet dancers. Diagnostic, Level I.

  11. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurement of thin-film thickness in the nanometre range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, M; Radtke, M; Krumrey, M; Hasche, K; Schädlich, S; Frank, W

    2002-10-01

    The thickness of thin films of platinum and nickel on fused silica and silicon substrates has been determined by EPMA using the commercial software STRATAGEM for calculation of film thickness. Film thickness ranged in the order 10 nm. An attempt was made to estimate the confidence range of the method by comparison with results from other methods of analysis. The data show that in addition to the uncertainty of the spectral intensity measurement and the complicated fitting routine, systematic deviation caused by the underlying model should be added. The scattering in the results from other methods does not enable specification of a range of uncertainty, but deviations from the real thickness are estimated to be less than 20%.

  12. Advanced technologies in the ASI MLRO towards a new generation laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Thomas; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO) is a high performance, highly automated optical and astronomical observatory currently under design and development by AlliedSignal for the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is projected to become operational at the Centro Geodesia Spaziale in Matera, Italy, in 1997. MLRO, based on a 1.5-meter astronomical quality telescope, will perform ranging to spacecraft in earthbound orbits, lunar reflectors, and specially equipped deep space missions. The primary emphasis during design is to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to produce an intelligent, automated, high accuracy ranging system that will mimic the characteristic features of a fifth generation laser ranging system. The telescope has multiple ports and foci to support future experiments in the areas of laser communications, lidar, astrometry, etc. The key features providing state-of-the-art ranging performance include: a diode-pumped picosecond (50 ps) laser, high speed (3-5 GHz) optoelectronic detection and signal processing, and a high accuracy (6 ps) high resolution (less than 2 ps) time measurement capability. The above combination of technologies is expected to yield millimeter laser ranging precision and accuracy on targets up to 300,000 km, surpassing the best operational instrument performance to date by a factor of five or more. Distributed processing and control using a state-of-the-art computing environment provides the framework for efficient operation, system optimization, and diagnostics. A computationally intelligent environment permits optimal planning, scheduling, tracking, and data processing. It also supports remote access, monitor, and control for joint experiments with other observatories.

  13. [Measurement of the knee range of motion: standard goniometer or smartphone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwakabayiza, Sylvia; Pereira, Luis Carlos; Lécureux, Estelle; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte

    2013-12-18

    Universal standard goniometer is an essential tool to measure articulations' range of motion (ROM). In this time of technological advances and increasing use of smartphones, new measurement's tools appear as specific smartphone applications. This article compares the iOS application "Knee Goniometer" with universal standard goniometer to assess knee ROM. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a goniometer application in a clinical context. The purpose of this study is to determine if this application could be used in clinical practice.

  14. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...

  15. Repeatability of Contour Method Residual Stress Measurements for a Range of Material, Process, and Geometry (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    titanium, and nickel, reflecting key industrial alloys . The set of conditions also includes a range of geometry, including plate, disk, and...for measurements. 2.2.3. Titanium Electron Beam Welded Plate Titanium alloy electron beam (EB) welded plate specimens were fabricated using one...right to use , modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This paper examines precision of

  16. Measurement of the short-range attractive force between Ge plates using a torsion balance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Lamoreaux, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    We have measured the short-range attractive force between crystalline Ge plates, and found contributions from both the Casimir force and an electrical force possibly generated by surface patch potentials. Using a model of surface patch effects that generates an additional force due to a distance dependence of the apparent contact potential, the electrical force was parameterized using data at distances where the Casimir force is relatively small. Extrapolating this model, to provide a correct...

  17. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    OpenAIRE

    Adie Sam; Ko Victoria; Naylor Justine M; Gaskin Clive; Walker Richard; Harris Ian A; Mittal Rajat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodolo...

  18. Comparison of linear gain and wide dynamic range compression hearing aid circuits II: aided loudness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstad, L M; Pumford, J; Seewald, R C; Cornelisse, L E

    2000-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the theoretical advantages of a single-channel wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) circuit fitted using the DSL method for increased dynamic range and normalized loudness growth. Ten adolescents and young adults with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss were fitted monaurally with the Siemens Viva 2 Pro behind-the-ear instrument set to DSL 4.0 targets for both linear gain and WDRC processing. Threshold, upper limit of comfort and loudness growth were measured in the unaided, linear gain and WDRC conditions for warble tones, environmental sounds and speech. Twelve adult listeners with normal hearing also were tested monaurally in the unaided condition to provide normative data for comparison purposes. The WDRC hearing aid provided a greater input dynamic range than the linear circuit for all stimuli. The dynamic range was normalized for more subjects with the WDRC than the linear hearing aid. In addition, exponential loudness growth functions fitted to the loudness growth data showed that, on average, loudness growth was more normalized with the WDRC hearing aid fitted to DSL[i/o] targets than the linear hearing aid fitted to DSL[i/o] targets. WDRC processing, fitted using the DSL[i/o] method, has potential applications in hearing aid fittings for listeners with moderate to severe hearing loss because it provides an audible, comfortable and tolerable amplified signal across a wider range of inputs than linear gain processing, without the need for volume control adjustments.

  19. Measuring Nanoparticle Attachment Efficiency in Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitner, Nicholas K; O'Brien, Niall J; Turner, Amalia A; Cummins, Enda J; Wiesner, Mark R

    2017-11-21

    As process-based environmental fate and transport models for engineered nanoparticles are developed, there is a need for relevant and reliable measures of nanoparticle behavior. The affinity of nanoparticles for various surfaces (α) is one such measure. Measurements of the affinity of nanoparticles obtained by flowing particles through a porous medium are constrained by the types of materials or exposure scenarios that can be configured into such column studies. Utilizing glass beads and kaolinite as model collector surfaces, we evaluate a previously developed mixing method for measuring nanoparticle attachment to environmental surfaces, and validate this method with an equivalent static column system over a range of organic matter concentrations and ionic strengths. We found that, while both impacted heteroaggregation rates in a predictable manner when varied individually, neither dominated when both parameters were varied. The theory behind observed nanoparticle heteroaggregation rates (αβB) to background particles in mixed systems is also experimentally validated, demonstrating both collision frequency (β) and background particle concentration (B) to be independent for use in fate modeling. We further examined the effects of collector particle composition (kaolinite vs glass beads) and nanoparticle surface chemistry (PVP, citrate, or humic acid) on α, and found a strong dependence on both.

  20. Close Range Photogrammetry for Direct Multiple Feature Positioning Measurement without Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Gorka Kortaberria; Aitor Olarra; Alberto Tellaeche; Rikardo Minguez

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to present a new method to carry out measurements so as to improve the positioning verification step in the wind hub part dimensional validation process. This enhancement will speed up the measuring procedures for these types of parts. An industrial photogrammetry based system was applied to take advantage of its results, and new functions were added to existing capabilities. In addition to a new development based on photogrammetry modelling and image proce...

  1. Reliability of speaking and maximum voice range measures in screening for dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella; Robertson, Jennie; Radford, Claire; Vagne, Sarah; El-Halabi, Ruba; Yiu, Edwin

    2007-07-01

    Speech range profile (SRP) is a graphical display of frequency-intensity occurring interactions during functional speech activity. Few studies have suggested the potential clinical applications of SRP. However, these studies are limited to qualitative case comparisons and vocally healthy participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of voice disorders on speaking and maximum voice ranges in a group of vocally untrained women. It also aimed to examine whether voice limit measures derived from SRP were as sensitive as those derived from voice range profile (VRP) in distinguishing dysphonic from healthy voices. Ninety dysphonic women with laryngeal pathologies and 35 women with normal voices, who served as controls, participated in this study. Each subject recorded a VRP for her physiological vocal limits. In addition, each subject read aloud the "North Wind and the Sun" passage to record SRP. All the recordings were captured and analyzed by Soundswell's computerized real-time phonetogram Phog 1.0 (Hitech Development AB, Täby, Sweden). The SRPs and the VRPs were compared between the two groups of subjects. Univariate analysis results demonstrated that individual SRP measures were less sensitive than the corresponding VRP measures in discriminating dysphonic from normal voices. However, stepwise logistic regression analyses revealed that the combination of only two SRP measures was almost as effective as a combination of three VRP measures in predicting the presence of dysphonia (overall prediction accuracy: 93.6% for SRP vs 96.0% for VRP). These results suggest that in a busy clinic where quick voice screening results are desirable, SRP can be an acceptable alternate procedure to VRP.

  2. Dynamic Data Filtering of Long-Range Doppler LiDAR Wind Speed Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke Beck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Doppler LiDARs have become flexible and versatile remote sensing devices for wind energy applications. The possibility to measure radial wind speed components contemporaneously at multiple distances is an advantage with respect to meteorological masts. However, these measurements must be filtered due to the measurement geometry, hard targets and atmospheric conditions. To ensure a maximum data availability while producing low measurement errors, we introduce a dynamic data filter approach that conditionally decouples the dependency of data availability with increasing range. The new filter approach is based on the assumption of self-similarity, that has not been used so far for LiDAR data filtering. We tested the accuracy of the dynamic data filter approach together with other commonly used filter approaches, from research and industry applications. This has been done with data from a long-range pulsed LiDAR installed at the offshore wind farm ‘alpha ventus’. There, an ultrasonic anemometer located approximately 2.8 km from the LiDAR was used as reference. The analysis of around 1.5 weeks of data shows, that the error of mean radial velocity can be minimised for wake and free stream conditions.

  3. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  4. Performance analysis of a full-field and full-range swept-source OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, J.; Boettcher, T.; Körner, K.; Gronle, M.; Osten, W.; Passilly, N.; Froehly, L.; Perrin, S.; Gorecki, C.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) became gained importance in medical disciplines like ophthalmology, due to its noninvasive optical imaging technique with micrometer resolution and short measurement time. It enables e. g. the measurement and visualization of the depth structure of the retina. In other medical disciplines like dermatology, histopathological analysis is still the gold standard for skin cancer diagnosis. The EU-funded project VIAMOS (Vertically Integrated Array-type Mirau-based OCT System) proposes a new type of OCT system combined with micro-technologies to provide a hand-held, low-cost and miniaturized OCT system. The concept is a combination of full-field and full-range swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) detection in a multi-channel sensor based on a micro-optical Mirau-interferometer array, which is fabricated by means of wafer fabrication. This paper presents the study of an experimental proof-of-concept OCT system as a one-channel sensor with bulk optics. This sensor is a Linnik-interferometer type with similar optical parameters as the Mirau-interferometer array. A commercial wavelength tunable light source with a center wavelength at 845nm and 50nm spectral bandwidth is used with a camera for parallel OCT A-Scan detection. In addition, the reference microscope objective lens of the Linnik-interferometer is mounted on a piezo-actuated phase-shifter. Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied for resolving the conjugate complex artifact and consequently contribute to an increase of image quality and depth range. A suppression ratio of the complex conjugate term of 36 dB is shown and a system sensitivity greater than 96 dB could be measured.

  5. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  6. Measurements and correlations of turbulent burning velocities over wide ranges of fuels and elevated pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Bradley, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The implosion technique has been used to extend measurements of turbulent burning velocities over greater ranges of fuels and pressures. Measurements have been made up to 3.5 MPa and at strain rate Markstein numbers as low as 23. The implosion technique, with spark ignition at two opposite wall positions within a fan-stirred spherical bomb is capable of measuring turbulent burning velocities, at higher pressures than is possible with central ignition. Pressure records and schlieren high speed photography define the rate of burning and the smoothed area of the flame front. The first aim of the study was to extend the previous measurements with ethanol and propane-air, with further measurements over wider ranges of fuels and equivalence ratios with mixtures of hydrogen, methane, 10% hydrogen-90% methane, toluene, and i-octane, with air. The second aim was to study further the low turbulence regime in which turbulent burning co-exists with laminar flame instabilities. Correlations are presented of turbulent burning velocity normalised by the effective rms turbulent velocity acting on the flame front, ut=u0k , with the Karlovitz stretch factor, K, for different strain rate Markstein numbers, a decrease in which increases ut=u0k . Experimental correlations are presented for the present measurements, combined with previous ones. Different burning regimes are also identified, extending from that of mixed turbulence/laminar instability at low values of K to that at high values of K, in which ut=u0k is gradually reduced due to increasing localised flame extinctions. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  7. Feasibility of RACT for 3D dose measurement and range verification in a water phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, Fahed; Moskvin, Vadim; Stantz, Keith M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the feasibility of using radiation-induced acoustics to measure the range and Bragg peak dose from a pulsed proton beam. Simulation studies implementing a prototype scanner design based on computed tomographic methods were performed to investigate the sensitivity to proton range and integral dose. Derived from thermodynamic wave equation, the pressure signals generated from the dose deposited from a pulsed proton beam with a 1 cm lateral beam width and a range of 16, 20, and 27 cm in water using Monte Carlo methods were simulated. The resulting dosimetric images were reconstructed implementing a 3D filtered backprojection algorithm and the pressure signals acquired from a 71-transducer array with a cylindrical geometry (30 × 40 cm) rotated over 2π about its central axis. Dependencies on the detector bandwidth and proton beam pulse width were performed, after which, different noise levels were added to the detector signals (using 1 μs pulse width and a 0.5 MHz cutoff frequency/hydrophone) to investigate the statistical and systematic errors in the proton range (at 20 cm) and Bragg peak dose (of 1 cGy). The reconstructed radioacoustic computed tomographic image intensity was shown to be linearly correlated to the dose within the Bragg peak. And, based on noise dependent studies, a detector sensitivity of 38 mPa was necessary to determine the proton range to within 1.0 mm (full-width at half-maximum) (systematic error ionizing radiation-induced acoustics can be used to verify dose distribution and proton range with centi-Gray sensitivity. Realizing this technology into the clinic has the potential to significantly impact beam commissioning, treatment verification during particle beam therapy and image guided techniques.

  8. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  9. Close Range Photogrammetry for Direct Multiple Feature Positioning Measurement without Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Kortaberria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to present a new method to carry out measurements so as to improve the positioning verification step in the wind hub part dimensional validation process. This enhancement will speed up the measuring procedures for these types of parts. An industrial photogrammetry based system was applied to take advantage of its results, and new functions were added to existing capabilities. In addition to a new development based on photogrammetry modelling and image processing, a measuring procedure was defined based on optical and vision system considerations. A validation against a certified procedure by means of a laser-tracker has also been established obtaining deviations of ±0.125 μm/m.

  10. Sensitivity of physiological emotional measures to odors depends on the product and the pleasantness ranges used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marie Pichon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are characterized by synchronized changes in several components of an organism. Among them, physiological variations provide energy support for the expression of approach/avoid action tendencies induced by relevant stimuli, while self-reported subjective pleasantness feelings integrate all other emotional components and are plastic.Consequently, emotional responses evoked by odors should be highly differentiated when they are linked to different functions of olfaction (e.g., avoiding environmental hazards. As this differentiation has been observed for contrasted odors (very pleasant or unpleasant, we questioned whether subjective and physiological emotional response indicators could still disentangle subtle affective variations when no clear functional distinction is made (mildly pleasant or unpleasant fragrances. Here, we compared the sensitivity of behavioral and physiological (respiration, skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG, and heart rate indicators in differentiating odor-elicited emotions in two situations: when a wide range of odor families was presented (e.g., fruity, animal, covering different functional meanings; or in response to a restricted range of products in one particular family (fragrances. Results show clear differences in physiological indicators to odors that display a wide range of reported pleasantness, but these differences almost entirely vanish when fragrances are used even though their subjective pleasantness still differed. Taken together, these results provide valuable information concerning the ability of classic verbal and psychophysiological measures to investigate subtle differences in emotional reactions to a restricted range of similar olfactory stimuli.

  11. Validation of a photography-based goniometry method for measuring joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonna, Davide; Zarkadas, Peter C; Fitzsimmons, James S; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of evaluating the outcomes after surgery to restore lost elbow motion is the range of motion (ROM) of the elbow. This study examined if digital photography-based goniometry is as accurate and reliable as clinical goniometry for measuring elbow ROM. Instrument validity and reliability for photography-based goniometry were evaluated for a consecutive series of 50 elbow contractures by 4 observers with different levels of elbow experience. Goniometric ROM measurements were taken with the elbows in full extension and full flexion directly in the clinic (once) and from digital photographs (twice in a blinded random manner). Instrument validity for photography-based goniometry was extremely high (intraclass correlation coefficient: extension = 0.98, flexion = 0.96). For extension and flexion measurements by the expert surgeon, systematic error was negligible (0° and 1°, respectively). Limits of agreement were 7° (95% confidence interval [CI], 5° to 9°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for extension and 8° (95% CI, 6° to 10°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for flexion. Interobserver reliability for photography-based goniometry was better than that for clinical goniometry. The least experienced observer's photographic goniometry measurements were closer to the reference measurements than the clinical goniometry measurements. Photography-based goniometry is accurate and reliable for measuring elbow ROM. The photography-based method relied less on observer expertise than clinical goniometry. This validates an objective measure of patient outcome without requiring doctor-patient contact at a tertiary care center, where most contracture surgeries are done. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CFD comparison with centrifugal compressor measurements on a wide operating range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnou D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressors are widely used in industrial applications thanks to their high efficiency. They are able to provide a wide operating range before reaching the flow barrier or surge limits. Performances and range are described by compressor maps obtained experimentally. After a description of performance test rig, this article compares measured centrifugal compressor performances with computational fluid dynamics results. These computations are performed at steady conditions with R134a refrigerant as fluid. Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with k-ε turbulence model, are solved by the commercial software ANSYS-CFX by means of volume finite method. Input conditions are varied in order to calculate several speed lines. Theoretical isentropic efficiency and theoretical surge line are finally compared to experimental data.

  13. Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, John

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be greater than approximately 20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (less than approximately 0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels.

  14. Testing accuracy of long-range ultrasonic sensors for olive tree canopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra-Diezma, Juan Luis; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Cuenca, Andrés; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor's field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate.

  15. Geophysical interpretation of satellite laser ranging measurements of crustal movement in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    As determined by satellite laser ranging the rate of contraction of a 900 kilometer baseline between sites located near Quincy in northern California and San Diego in southern California is about 61 to 65 mm/yr with a formal uncertainty of about 10 mm/yr. The measured changes in baseline length are a manifestation of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific tectonic plates. This long baseline result is compared to measurements made by more conventional means on shorter baselines. Additional information based on seismicity, geology, and theoretical modelling is also analyzed. Deformation lying within a few tens of kilometers about the major faults in southern California accounts for most, but not all of the observed motion. Further motion is attributable to a broader scale deformation in southern California. Data suggesting crustal movements north of the Garlock fault, in and near the southern Sierra Nevada and local motion at an observatory are also critically reviewed. The best estimates of overall motion indicated by ground observations lie between 40 and 60 mm/yr. This lies within one or two standard deviations of that deduced by satellite ranging but the possibility of some unresolved deficit cannot be dismissed. The long time scale RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan predicts a contraction between 47 and 53 mm/yr depending on the extension rate of the Basin and Range. Thus the ground based observations, satellite laser ranging (SLR) results, and RM2 rates differ at about the 10 mm/yr level and are consistent with one another within the data and model uncertainties.

  16. Feasibility of RACT for 3D dose measurement and range verification in a water phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsanea, Fahed [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2051 (United States); Moskvin, Vadim [Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 535 Barnhill Drive, RT 041, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5289 (United States); Stantz, Keith M., E-mail: kstantz@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2051 and Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 950 West Walnut Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5289 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to establish the feasibility of using radiation-induced acoustics to measure the range and Bragg peak dose from a pulsed proton beam. Simulation studies implementing a prototype scanner design based on computed tomographic methods were performed to investigate the sensitivity to proton range and integral dose. Methods: Derived from thermodynamic wave equation, the pressure signals generated from the dose deposited from a pulsed proton beam with a 1 cm lateral beam width and a range of 16, 20, and 27 cm in water using Monte Carlo methods were simulated. The resulting dosimetric images were reconstructed implementing a 3D filtered backprojection algorithm and the pressure signals acquired from a 71-transducer array with a cylindrical geometry (30 × 40 cm) rotated over 2π about its central axis. Dependencies on the detector bandwidth and proton beam pulse width were performed, after which, different noise levels were added to the detector signals (using 1 μs pulse width and a 0.5 MHz cutoff frequency/hydrophone) to investigate the statistical and systematic errors in the proton range (at 20 cm) and Bragg peak dose (of 1 cGy). Results: The reconstructed radioacoustic computed tomographic image intensity was shown to be linearly correlated to the dose within the Bragg peak. And, based on noise dependent studies, a detector sensitivity of 38 mPa was necessary to determine the proton range to within 1.0 mm (full-width at half-maximum) (systematic error < 150 μm) for a 1 cGy Bragg peak dose, where the integral dose within the Bragg peak was measured to within 2%. For existing hydrophone detector sensitivities, a Bragg peak dose of 1.6 cGy is possible. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that computed tomographic scanner based on ionizing radiation-induced acoustics can be used to verify dose distribution and proton range with centi-Gray sensitivity. Realizing this technology into the clinic has the potential to significantly

  17. A Recommendation on SLR Ranging to Future Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, J. L.; Miller, J. J.; Pearlman, M.

    2008-12-01

    The multi-agency US Geodetic Requirements Working Group has recommended that Satellite Laser Retro- reflectors be installed on GPS III satellites as a principal component of the Positioning, Navigation, and Timing mandate of the Global Positioning System. The Working Group, which includes NASA, NGA, NOAA, NRL, USGS, and the USNO, echoes the Global Geodetic Observing System recommendation that SLR retro- reflectors be installed on all GNSS satellites. It is further recommended that the retro-reflectors conform to and hopefully exceed the minimum standard of the International Laser Ranging Service for retro-reflector cross sections of 100 million square meters for the HEO GNSS satellites to insure sufficiently accurate ranging by the global network of satellite laser ranging systems. The objective of this recommendation is to contribute to the improvement in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, and its derivative the WGS84 reference frame, through continuing improvements in the characterization of the GPS orbits and clocks. Another objective is to provide an independent means of assessing the interoperability and accuracy of the GNSS systems and regional augmentation systems. The ranging to GNSS-mounted retro-reflectors will constitute a significant new means of space-based collocation to constrain the tie between the GPS and SLR networks that constitute over 50% of the data from which the ITRF is derived. The recommendation for the installation of SLR retro-reflectors aboard future GPS satellites is one of a number of efforts aimed at improving the accuracy and stability of ITRF. These steps are being coordinated with and supportive of the efforts of the GGOS and its services such at the VLBI2010 initiative, developing a next generation geodetic network, near real-time GPS positioning and EOP determination, and numerous efforts in the improvement of geodetic algorithms for GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS, and the determination of the ITRF. If past is prologue, the

  18. Frequency Comb Driven Raman Transitions in the THz Range: High Precision Isotope Shift Measurements in Ca+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    to picoseconds in the previous experiments. For the broad spectrum, the additional effect of group delay dispersion (GDD) has to be taken into account, since the Raman process relies on the coherent interaction of all frequency components of the spectrum, with GDD influencing the relative phase which leads......This thesis presents for the first time the experimental implementation of coherent Raman oscillations with a femtosecond frequency comb for transition frequencies in the THz range. The technique has been successfully demonstrated before to drive Raman transitions between hyperfine structure states...... to destructive interference. Therefore, GDD is compensated using a prism compressor and it is shown quantitatively that the measured GDD matches the theoretically predicted effect on the total Raman Rabi frequency. For the measurements and compensation of GDD, the techniques of interferometric autocorrelation...

  19. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francescantonio Della Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS- based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities.

  20. THE INTEGRATING SYSTEM OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MEASUR?MENT

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa Stojkoviæ-Krstiæ

    2014-01-01

    The integrating business performance measurement system in the enterprise has the important role of development and guidance, giving the basis for formulating and guiding the corporate strategy. Relevance of the integrating business performance measurement system, that is, application of the performance measurement process at the different levels of activities and business dimensions includes the motivation role, since it stimulates higher objectives realization. The integrating business perf...

  1. Measurement of cervical range of motion (CROM) by electronic CROM goniometer: a test of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ellis Yuk Hung; Chiu, Thomas Tai-Wing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of the Electronic Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) Goniometer in measurement of cervical spine mobility in adults with and without neck pain. A cross-sectional reliability study was conducted on 54 subjects (26 neck pain and 26 non-neck pain) aged from 20-70 years old. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Chinese version of Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire were used to assess neck pain severity and disability respectively. The CROM was measured in sitting position except left to right rotation was measured in supine lying. All the cervical active movements were measured by using the Electronic CROM Goniometer from ARCON TM Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) systems. The intra-tester and inter-tester reliability were high in both normal and chronic neck pain groups with ICC coefficients ranged from 0.75-*0.92. There was significant difference in the total CROM between the normal (374.7°) and chronic neck pain group (292.6°). The ACRON cervical goniometer was found to be reliable for measuring cervical mobility in 3 planes for both normal and patient subjects. Construct validity of the goniometer was supported as the test's result documented significant difference in CROM between the control and the neck pain groups.

  2. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: lining@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  3. The 1995-99 measurements of the Lense-Thirring effect using laser-ranged satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2000-06-01

    In general relativity a current of mass-energy, such as a spinning body, gives rise to peculiar phenomena on bodies, particles and clocks in its vicinity, which are not predicted by the Newtonian gravitational theory; one of these phenomena is the Lense-Thirring effect on particles orbiting a spinning central body. In this paper we first review the method used to measure the Lense-Thirring effect, by analysing the orbits of the two laser-ranged satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, that has provided a direct measurements of this effect; we then report on these detections of the Lense-Thirring effect, obtained by analysing the nodes of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II and the perigee of LAGEOS II with the orbital programs GEODYN-SOLVE, using the Earth gravitational models JGM-3 and EGM-96 and this new method. The first detection was obtained in 1995, the most accurate measurements were obtained in 1998 using EGM-96, with about 20-30% accuracy. Finally, we briefly review the proposed LARES experiment to measure the Lense-Thirring effect with an accuracy of about 2-3% and to provide other basic tests of general relativity and gravitation.

  4. Development of a Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar for Range Resolved Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulgueta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo. C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffery J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-m coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) / Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument will measure atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) initially from a ground platform, and then be prepared for aircraft installation to measure the atmospheric CO2 column densities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower troposphere. The airborne prototype CO2 lidar can measure atmospheric CO2 column density in a range bin of 1km with better than 1.5% precision at horizontal resolution of less than 50km. It can provide the image of the pooling of CO2 in lowlying areas and performs nighttime mass balance measurements at landscape scale. This sensor is unique in its capability to study the vertical ABL-free troposphere exchange of CO2 directly. It will allow the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop.

  5. Damage assessment of long-range rocket system by electromagnetic pulse weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingyu; Liu, Guoqing; Li, Jinming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyzes the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, establishes the index system of survivability of long-range rocket launcher system, and uses AHP method to establish the combat effectiveness model of long-range rocket missile system. According to the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, the damage effect of the remote rocket system is established by using the exponential method to realize the damage efficiency of the remote rocket system.

  6. Measuring tablet porosity using multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippolainen, Ervin; Ervasti, Tuomas; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Kamshilin, Alexei A.

    2010-05-01

    A multispectral imaging system with computer controlled light source of 16 light emitting diodes is applied for measuring of tablet porosity. The system is based on a subspace vector model of surface reflection. The measured spectral data are compressed on the stage of measurement and used directly for the discrimination of tablets with different porosity. The experimental results demonstrate that the multispectral imaging system is a potential method for tablet porosity measurement.

  7. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  8. Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging System Using Spread Spectrum and MEMS Technology for Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Segers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization of persons and objects poses a great engineering challenge. Previously developed localization systems demonstrate the use of wideband techniques in ultrasound ranging systems. Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum ultrasound signals have been proven to achieve a high level of accuracy. A novel ranging method using the frequency hopping spread spectrum with finite impulse response filtering will be investigated and compared against the direct sequence spread spectrum. In the first setup, distances are estimated in a single-access environment, while in the second setup, two senders and one receiver are used. During the experiments, the micro-electromechanical systems are used as ultrasonic sensors, while the senders were implemented using field programmable gate arrays. Results show that in a single-access environment, the direct sequence spread spectrum method offers slightly better accuracy and precision performance compared to the frequency hopping spread spectrum. When two senders are used, measurements point out that the frequency hopping spread spectrum is more robust to near-far effects than the direct sequence spread spectrum.

  9. Measurements of pulse rate using long-range imaging photoplethysmography and sunlight illumination outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.

    2017-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography, a method using imagers to record absorption variations caused by microvascular blood volume pulsations, shows promise as a non-contact cardiovascular sensing technology. The first long-range imaging photoplethysmography measurements at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters from the participant was recently demonstrated. Degraded signal quality was observed with increasing imager-to-subject distances. The degradation in signal quality was hypothesized to be largely attributable to inadequate light return to the image sensor with increasing lens focal length. To test this hypothesis, a follow-up evaluation with 27 participants was conducted outdoors with natural sunlight illumination resulting in 5-33 times the illumination intensity. Video was recorded from cameras equipped with ultra-telephoto lenses and positioned at distances of 25, 50, 100, and 150 meters. The brighter illumination allowed high-definition video recordings at increased frame rates of 60fps, shorter exposure times, and lower ISO settings, leading to higher quality image formation than the previous indoor evaluation. Results were compared to simultaneous reference measurements from electrocardiography. Compared to the previous indoor study, we observed lower overall error in pulse rate measurement with the same pattern of degradation in signal quality with respect to increasing distance. This effect was corroborated by the signal-to-noise ratio of the blood volume pulse signal which also showed decreasing quality with respect to increasing distance. Finally, a popular chrominance-based method was compared to a blind source separation approach; while comparable in measurement of signal-to-noise ratio, we observed higher overall error in pulse rate measurement using the chrominance method in this data.

  10. At Home Photography-Based Method for Measuring Wrist Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Samir K; Rancy, Schneider K; Johnsen, Parker H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Lee, Steve K; Wolfe, Scott W

    2017-11-01

    Purpose  To determine the reliability of wrist range of motion (WROM) measurements based on digital photographs taken by patients at home compared with traditional measurements done in the office with a goniometer. Methods  Sixty-nine postoperative patients were enrolled in this study at least 3 months postoperatively. Active and passive wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation were recorded by one of the two attending surgeons with a 1-degree resolution goniometer at the last postoperative office visit. Patients were provided an illustrated instruction sheet detailing how to take digital photographic images at home in six wrist positions (active and passive flexion/extension, and radial/ulnar deviation). Wrist position was measured from digital images by both the attending surgeons in a randomized, blinded fashion on two separate occasions greater than 2 weeks apart using the same goniometer. Reliability analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient to assess agreement between clinical and photography-based goniometry, as well as intra- and interobserver agreement. Results  Out of 69 enrolled patients, 30 (43%) patients sent digital images. Of the 180 digital photographs, only 9 (5%) were missing or deemed inadequate for WROM measurements. Agreement between clinical and photography-based measurements was "almost perfect" for passive wrist flexion/extension and "substantial" for active wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation. Inter- and intraobserver agreement for the attending surgeons was "almost perfect" for all measurements. Discussion  This study validates a photography-based goniometry protocol allowing accurate and reliable WROM measurements without direct physician contact. Passive WROM was more accurately measured from photographs than active WROM. This study builds on previous photography-based goniometry literature by validating a protocol in which patients or their families take and submit their own

  11. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collé, R; Hutchinson, J M R; Unterweger, M P

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon ((222)Rn) against international and national radium ((226)Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon standard. This primary radon measurement system consists of pulse ionization chambers and ancillary gas handling and gas purification equipment. The system is currently undergoing a significant upgrading and expansion which will replace the extant outdated system.

  12. Measurement of the extreme ankle range of motion required by female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2010-12-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion, especially plantar flexion, but research about measuring such motion is lacking. The purposes of this study were to determine in a sample of ballet dancers whether non-weight-bearing ankle range of motion is significantly different from the weight-bearing equivalent and whether inclinometric plantar flexion measurement is a suitable substitute for standard plantar flexion goniometry. Fifteen female ballet dancers (5 university, 5 vocational, and 5 professional dancers; age 21 ± 3.0 years) volunteered. Subjects received 5 assessments on 1 ankle: non-weight-bearing goniometry dorsiflexion (NDF) and plantar flexion (NPF), weight-bearing goniometry in the ballet positions demi-plié (WDF) and en pointe (WPF), and non-weight-bearing plantar flexion inclinometry (IPF). Mean NDF was significantly lower than WDF (17° ± 1.3° vs 30° ± 1.8°, P ballet proficiency. The authors conclude that assessment of extreme ankle motion in female ballet dancers is challenging, and goniometry and inclinometry appear to measure plantar flexion differently.

  13. Accelerated ice-sheet mass loss in Antarctica from 18-year satellite laser ranging measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanggen Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the ice-sheet mass balance in Antarctic is very difficult due to complex ice sheet condition and sparse in situ measurements. In this paper, the low-degree gravity field coefficients of up to degree and order 5 derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR measurements are used to determine the ice mass variations in Antarctica for the period 1993–2011. Results show that the ice mass is losing with -36±13 Gt/y in Antarctica, -42±11 Gt/y in the West Antarctica and 6±10 Gt/y in the East Antarctica from 1993 to 2011. The ice mass variations from the SLR 5×5 have a good agreement with the GRACE 5×5, GRACE 5×5 (1&2 and GRACE (60×60 for the entire continent since 2003, but degree 5 from SLR is not sufficient to quantify ice losses in West and East Antarctica, respectively. The rate of ice loss in Antarctica is -28±17 Gt/y for 1993-2002 and -55±17 Gt/y for 2003-2011, indicating significant accelerated ice mass losses since 2003. Furthermore, the results from SLR are comparable with GRACE measurements.

  14. Realization of High Dynamic Range Imaging in the GLORIA Network and Its Effect on Astronomical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vítek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science project GLORIA (GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array is a first free- and open-access network of robotic telescopes in the world. It provides a web-based environment where users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes and/or by analyzing data that other users have acquired with GLORIA or from other free-access databases. Network of 17 telescopes allows users to control selected telescopes in real time or schedule any more demanding observation. This paper deals with new opportunity that GLORIA project provides to teachers and students of various levels of education. At the moment, there are prepared educational materials related to events like Sun eclipse (measuring local atmosphere changes, Aurora Borealis (calculation of Northern Lights height, or transit of Venus (measurement of the Earth-Sun distance. Student should be able to learn principles of CCD imaging, spectral analysis, basic calibration like dark frames subtraction, or advanced methods of noise suppression. Every user of the network can design his own experiment. We propose advanced experiment aimed at obtaining astronomical image data with high dynamic range. We also introduce methods of objective image quality evaluation in order to discover how HDR methods are affecting astronomical measurements.

  15. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  16. Research on risk long range identification for vessel traffic dynamic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Guo, Ruijuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Hainan

    2017-09-01

    Vessel Long-range identification and tracking system has already been widely installed and applied in vessel. In this paper AIS system, vessel reporting system and LRIT in China are compared and analyzed based on the coverage area, confidentiality and accuracy of the LRIT information. Vessel Long-range identification and tracking model is established through a combination of AIS with LRIT system, which is applied to the research of vessel traffic dynamic system risk long range identification. Finally, the application of LRIT in the maritime field is discussed.

  17. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike

    2016-10-01

    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  18. A Practical, Robust and Fast Method for Location Localization in Range-Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiping; Wu, Zhifeng; Misra, Anil

    2017-12-11

    Location localization technology is used in a number of industrial and civil applications. Real time location localization accuracy is highly dependent on the quality of the distance measurements and efficiency of solving the localization equations. In this paper, we provide a novel approach to solve the nonlinear localization equations efficiently and simultaneously eliminate the bad measurement data in range-based systems. A geometric intersection model was developed to narrow the target search area, where Newton's Method and the Direct Search Method are used to search for the unknown position. Not only does the geometric intersection model offer a small bounded search domain for Newton's Method and the Direct Search Method, but also it can self-correct bad measurement data. The Direct Search Method is useful for the coarse localization or small target search domain, while the Newton's Method can be used for accurate localization. For accurate localization, by utilizing the proposed Modified Newton's Method (MNM), challenges of avoiding the local extrema, singularities, and initial value choice are addressed. The applicability and robustness of the developed method has been demonstrated by experiments with an indoor system.

  19. Measures of Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    nervous system (pSNS). The repercussions of the stress response are manifested physiologically through the following: pupillary dilation, increased...used to diagnose narcotic influence, head injury, Parkinson’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis or lupus . It may also be used to assess degeneration of...deployment - field Neuro-Optics Pupillometer (Galetta SL, Hariprasad R, Maguire MG, Plotkin ES, Volpe NJ, oral communication, 1999) • Pupil

  20. Validity and intra-rater reliability of an android phone application to measure cervical range-of-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, June; Brauer, Sandra G; Treleaven, Julia; Pua, Yong-Hao; Mentiplay, Benjamin; Clark, Ross Allan

    2014-04-17

    Concurrent validity and intra-rater reliability using a customized Android phone application to measure cervical-spine range-of-motion (ROM) has not been previously validated against a gold-standard three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system. Twenty-one healthy individuals (age:31 ± 9.1 years, male:11) participated, with 16 re-examined for intra-rater reliability 1-7 days later. An Android phone was fixed on a helmet, which was then securely fastened on the participant's head. Cervical-spine ROM in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation were performed in sitting with concurrent measurements obtained from both a 3DMA system and the phone.The phone demonstrated moderate to excellent (ICC = 0.53-0.98, Spearman ρ = 0.52-0.98) concurrent validity for ROM measurements in cervical flexion, extension, lateral-flexion and rotation. However, cervical rotation demonstrated both proportional and fixed bias. Excellent intra-rater reliability was demonstrated for cervical flexion, extension and lateral flexion (ICC = 0.82-0.90), but poor for right- and left-rotation (ICC = 0.05-0.33) using the phone. Possible reasons for the outcome are that flexion, extension and lateral-flexion measurements are detected by gravity-dependent accelerometers while rotation measurements are detected by the magnetometer which can be adversely affected by surrounding magnetic fields. The results of this study demonstrate that the tested Android phone application is valid and reliable to measure ROM of the cervical-spine in flexion, extension and lateral-flexion but not in rotation likely due to magnetic interference. The clinical implication of this study is that therapists should be mindful of the plane of measurement when using the Android phone to measure ROM of the cervical-spine.

  1. Respiration rate of stream insects measured in situ along a large altitude range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, S.; Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    conditions in streams from 400 to 3800 m above sea level in tropical Ecuador. Mean active respiration rates of the animals at 3800 m were approximately half of those at 400 m. Trichoptera showed a slightly larger difference in respiration with altitude than Ephemeroptera. Comparative respiration measurements...... at 100 and 50% oxygen saturation indicated that highland animals reduced their oxygen uptake more than their counterparts in the lowland when oxygen availability decreased. The temperature response of respiration calculated between the insect assemblages at different altitudes showed a mean assemblage Q...... to temperature in tropical streams is probably due to full acclimatization of the component species to stable and narrow temperature ranges. Adaptations to the low oxygen availability at high altitude probably consist of a suite of genetic physiological and behavioural features....

  2. Entropy measures, entropy estimators, and their performance in quantifying complex dynamics: Effects of artifacts, nonstationarity, and long-range correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wanting; Faes, Luca; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2017-06-01

    Entropy measures are widely applied to quantify the complexity of dynamical systems in diverse fields. However, the practical application of entropy methods is challenging, due to the variety of entropy measures and estimators and the complexity of real-world time series, including nonstationarities and long-range correlations (LRC). We conduct a systematic study on the performance, bias, and limitations of three basic measures (entropy, conditional entropy, information storage) and three traditionally used estimators (linear, kernel, nearest neighbor). We investigate the dependence of entropy measures on estimator- and process-specific parameters, and we show the effects of three types of nonstationarities due to artifacts (trends, spikes, local variance change) in simulations of stochastic autoregressive processes. We also analyze the impact of LRC on the theoretical and estimated values of entropy measures. Finally, we apply entropy methods on heart rate variability data from subjects in different physiological states and clinical conditions. We find that entropy measures can only differentiate changes of specific types in cardiac dynamics and that appropriate preprocessing is vital for correct estimation and interpretation. Demonstrating the limitations of entropy methods and shedding light on how to mitigate bias and provide correct interpretations of results, this work can serve as a comprehensive reference for the application of entropy methods and the evaluation of existing studies.

  3. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bianca C.; Brune, William H.; Miller, David O.; Blake, Donald; Long, Russell; Wisthaler, Armin; Cantrell, Christopher; Fried, Alan; Heikes, Brian; Brown, Steven; McDuffie, Erin; Flocke, Frank; Apel, Eric; Kaser, Lisa; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3), to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3) calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3) is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3) to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measured net P(O3) in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3) was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3) was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO) levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3) for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3) behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3) and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2) discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3) discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model-data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3), then these results would imply that P(O3) in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3) regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone regulations

  4. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  5. The effect of human-body shadowing on indoor UWB TOA-based ranging systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Y.; Ali, Ameenulla J.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its superior time resolution, ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) transmission can be a highly accurate technique for ranging in indoor localization systems. Nevertheless, the presence of obstructions may deteriorate the ranging performance of the system. Indoor environments are often densely

  6. Objective Measurement of Fusional Vergence Ranges and Heterophoria in Infants and Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Babinsky, Erin E.; Wu, Yifei; Candy, T. Rowan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Binocular alignment typically includes motor fusion compensating for heterophoria. This study evaluated heterophoria and then accommodation and vergence responses during measurement of fusional ranges in infants and preschoolers. Methods Purkinje image eye tracking and eccentric photorefraction (MCS PowerRefractor) were used to record the eye alignment and accommodation of uncorrected infants (n = 17; 3–5 months old), preschoolers (n = 19; 2.5–5 years), and naïve functionally emmetropic adults (n = 14; 20–32 years; spherical equivalent [SE], +1 to −1 diopters [D]). Heterophoria was derived from the difference between monocular and binocular alignments while participants viewed naturalistic images at 80 cm. The presence or absence of fusion was then assessed after base-in (BI) and base-out (BO) prisms (2–40 prism diopters [pd]) were introduced. Results Mean (±SD) SE refractions were hyperopic in infants (+2.4 ± 1.2 D) and preschoolers (+1.1 ± 0.6 D). The average exophoria was similar (P = 0.11) across groups (Infants, −0.79 ± 2.5 pd; Preschool, −2.43 ± 2.0 pd; Adults, −1.0 ± 2.7 pd). Mean fusional vergence range also was similar (P = 0.1) for BI (Infants, 11.2 ± 2.5 pd; Preschool, 8.8 ± 2.8 pd; Adults, 11.8 ± 5.2 pd) and BO (Infants, 14 ± 6.6 pd; Preschool, 15.3 ± 8.3 pd; Adults, 20 ± 9.2 pd). Maximum change in accommodation to the highest fusible prism was positive (increased accommodation) for BO (Infants, 1.69 ± 1.4 D; Preschool, 1.35 ± 1.6 D; Adults, 1.22 ± 1.0 D) and negative for BI (Infants, −0.96 ± 1.0 D; Preschool, −0.78 ± 0.6 D; Adults, −0.62 ± 0.3 D), with a similar magnitude across groups (BO, P = 0.6; BI, P = 0.4). Conclusions Despite typical uncorrected hyperopia, infants and preschoolers exhibited small exophorias at 80 cm, similar to adults. All participants demonstrated substantial fusional ranges, providing evidence that even 3- to 5-month-old infants can respond to a large range of image disparities

  7. Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    impacts of weather involve continuing costs of the order of 1% of GDP, a large fraction of which could be retrieved if high-fidelity predictions of two weeks forward applicability were available. These {approx}$10{sup 2} B annual savings dwarf the <$1 B costs of operating a rational, long-range weather prediction system of the type proposed.

  8. Reliability assessment of measuring active wrist pronation and supination range of motion with a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C; Pauchard, N; Guilloteau, A

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to improve clinical examination techniques by determining the reliability of different methods to evaluate forearm movements. Two methods using the iPhone™ 5 and its gyroscope application (alone [I5] or attached to a selfie stick [ISS]) were compared with two conventional measurement devices (a plastic goniometer with a hand-held pencil [HHP] and a bubble goniometer [BG]) to evaluate the active range of movement (AROM) of the wrist during pronation and supination. Two independent groups of subjects took part in this prospective single-center diagnostic study: 20 healthy subjects and 20 patients. The four evaluation methods had high intra-observer consistency after three measurements (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] [3, 1] of 0.916 for the HHP; 0.944 for ISS; 0.925 for BG; 0.933 for I5) and excellent inter-observer reliability (ICC [2, k] of 0.926 for HHP; 0.934 for ISS; 0.899 for BG; 0.894 for I5), with an agreement of plus or minus 2°. When these devices are used with rigorous methodology, they are reliable for the goniometric evaluation of AROM of wrist pronation and supination. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Track Geometry Measurement System Software Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    The Track Geometry Measurement System (TGMS) was developed through the United States Department of Transportation's, Urban Mass Transportation Administration by the Transportation Systems Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts under its Test and Evaluati...

  10. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates (n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA, ironA, and misL. There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella

  11. Functional renormalization group approach for inhomogeneous one-dimensional Fermi systems with finite-ranged interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Lukas; Bauer, Florian; von Delft, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an equilibrium formulation of the functional renormalization group (fRG) for inhomogeneous systems capable of dealing with spatially finite-ranged interactions. In the general third-order truncated form of fRG, the dependence of the two-particle vertex is described by O (N4) independent variables, where N is the dimension of the single-particle system. In a previous paper [Bauer et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 045128 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.045128], the so-called coupled-ladder approximation (CLA) was introduced and shown to admit a consistent treatment for models with a purely onsite interaction, reducing the vertex to O (N2) independent variables. In this work, we introduce an extended version of this scheme, called the extended coupled ladder approximation (eCLA), which includes a spatially extended feedback between the individual channels, measured by a feedback length L , using O (N2L2) independent variables for the vertex. We apply the eCLA in a static approximation and at zero temperature to three types of one-dimensional model systems, focusing on obtaining the linear response conductance. First, we study a model of a quantum point contact (QPC) with a parabolic barrier top and on-site interactions. In our setup, where the characteristic length lx of the QPC ranges between approximately 4-10 sites, eCLA achieves convergence once L becomes comparable to lx. It also turns out that the additional feedback stabilizes the fRG flow. This enables us, second, to study the geometric crossover between a QPC and a quantum dot, again for a one-dimensional model with on-site interactions. Third, the enlarged feedback also enables the treatment of a finite-ranged interaction extending over up to L sites. Using a simple estimate for the form of such a finite-ranged interaction in a QPC with a parabolic barrier top, we study its effects on the conductance and the density. We find that for low densities and sufficiently large interaction ranges the conductance

  12. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates ( n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA , ironA , and misL There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella serovars in

  13. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Justine M; Ko, Victoria; Adie, Sam; Gaskin, Clive; Walker, Richard; Harris, Ian A; Mittal, Rajat

    2011-04-18

    The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method') which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method') which requires estimation of the line of femur. Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects). Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs). Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Validity (referenced to radiographs): Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988), and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678). The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998). Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995) were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained for flexion compared to extension, and with the Marker compared to the Line of Femur Method

  14. Darwin: dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Satoh, D; Endo, A; Yamaguchi, Y

    2007-01-01

    A new radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with Wide energy ranges), has been developed for real-time monitoring of doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with (6)Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. DARWIN has the following features: (1) capable of monitoring doses from neutrons, photons and muons with energies from thermal energy to 1 GeV, 150 keV to 100 MeV and 1 MeV to 100 GeV, respectively, (2) highly sensitive with precision and (3) easy to operate with a simple graphical user-interface. The performance of DARWIN was examined experimentally in several radiation fields. The results of the experiments indicated the accuracy and wide response range of DARWIN for measuring dose rates from neutrons, photons and muons with wide energies. It was also found from the experiments that DARWIN enables us to monitor small fluctuations of neutron dose rates near the background level because of its high sensitivity. With these properties, DARWIN will be able to play a very important role for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  15. Earth gravity field modeling and relativistic measurements with laser-ranged satellites and the LARASE research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucacco, Giuseppe; Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The importance of General Relativity (GR) for space geodesy — and for geodesy in general — is well known since several decades and it has been confirmed by a number of very significant results. For instance, GR plays a fundamental role for the following very notable techniques: Satellite-and-Lunar Laser Ranging (SLR/LLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Each of these techniques is intimately and closely related with both GR and geodesy, i.e. they are linked in a loop where benefits in one field provide positive improvements in the other ones. A common ingredient for a suitable and reliable use of each of these techniques is represented by the knowledge of the Earth's gravitational field, both in its static and temporal dependence. Spaceborne gravimetry, with the inclusion of accelerometers and gradiometers on board dedicated satellites, together with microwave links between satellites and GPS measurements, have allowed a huge improvement in the determination of the Earth's geopotential during the last 15 years. In the near future, further improvements are expected in this knowledge thanks to the inclusion of laser inter-satellite link and the possibility to compare frequency and atomic standards by a direct use of atomic clocks, both on the Earth's surface and in space. Such results will be also important for the possibility to further improve the GR tests and measurements in the field of the Earth with laser-ranged satellites in order to compare the predictions of Einstein's theory with those of other (proposed) relativistic theories for the interpretation of the gravitational interaction. Within the present paper we describe the state of the art of such measurements with geodetic satellites, as the two LAGEOS and LARES, and we discuss the effective impact of the systematic errors of gravitational origin on the measurement of

  16. Cloud cover detection combining high dynamic range sky images and ceilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, R.; Cazorla, A.; Toledano, C.; Olmo, F. J.; Cachorro, V. E.; de Frutos, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for cloud detection based on high dynamic range images from a sky camera and ceilometer measurements. The algorithm is also able to detect the obstruction of the sun. This algorithm, called CPC (Camera Plus Ceilometer), is based on the assumption that under cloud-free conditions the sky field must show symmetry. The symmetry criteria are applied depending on ceilometer measurements of the cloud base height. CPC algorithm is applied in two Spanish locations (Granada and Valladolid). The performance of CPC retrieving the sun conditions (obstructed or unobstructed) is analyzed in detail using as reference pyranometer measurements at Granada. CPC retrievals are in agreement with those derived from the reference pyranometer in 85% of the cases (it seems that this agreement does not depend on aerosol size or optical depth). The agreement percentage goes down to only 48% when another algorithm, based on Red-Blue Ratio (RBR), is applied to the sky camera images. The retrieved cloud cover at Granada and Valladolid is compared with that registered by trained meteorological observers. CPC cloud cover is in agreement with the reference showing a slight overestimation and a mean absolute error around 1 okta. A major advantage of the CPC algorithm with respect to the RBR method is that the determined cloud cover is independent of aerosol properties. The RBR algorithm overestimates cloud cover for coarse aerosols and high loads. Cloud cover obtained only from ceilometer shows similar results than CPC algorithm; but the horizontal distribution cannot be obtained. In addition, it has been observed that under quick and strong changes on cloud cover ceilometers retrieve a cloud cover fitting worse with the real cloud cover.

  17. A shielded measurement system for irradiated nuclear fuel measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.; Aumeier, S.E.; Klann, R.T.

    1999-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is driving a transition toward dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF), toward characterization of INF for final disposition, and toward resumption of measurement-based material control and accountability (MC and A) efforts for INF. For these reasons, the ability to efficiently acquire radiological measurements of INF in a dry environment is important. The DOE has recently developed a guidance document proposing MC and A requirements for INF. The intent of this document is to encourage the direct measurement of INF on inventory within DOE. The guidance document reinforces and clarifies existing material safeguards requirements as they pertain to INF. Validation of nuclear material contents of non-self-protecting INF must be accomplished by direct measurement, application of validated burnup codes using qualified initial fissile content, burnup data, and age or by other valid means. The fuel units must remain intact with readable identification numbers. INF may be subject to periodic inventories with visual item accountability checks. Quantitative measurements may provide greater assurance of the integrity of INF inventories at a lower cost and with less personnel exposure than visual item accountability checks. Currently, several different approaches are used to measure the radiological attributes of INF. Although these systems are useful for a wide variety of applications, there is currently no relatively inexpensive measurement system that is readily deployable for INF measurements for materials located in dry storage. The authors present the conceptual design of a shielded measurement system (SMS) that could be used for this purpose. The SMS consists of a shielded enclosure designed to house a collection of measurement systems to allow measurements on spent fuel outside of a hot cell. The phase 1 SMS will contain {sup 3}He detectors and ionization chambers to allow for gross neutron and gamma-ray measurements. The phase 2

  18. Validity and test-retest reliability of manual goniometers for measuring passive hip range of motion in femoroacetabular impingement patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussbaumer Silvio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the construct validity (known group, concurrent validity (criterion based and test-retest (intra-rater reliability of manual goniometers to measure passive hip range of motion (ROM in femoroacetabular impingement patients and healthy controls. Methods Passive hip flexion, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation ROMs were simultaneously measured with a conventional goniometer and an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS on two different testing sessions. A total of 15 patients and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Results The goniometer provided greater hip ROM values compared to the ETS (range 2.0-18.9 degrees; P P Conclusions The present study suggests that goniometer-based assessments considerably overestimate hip joint ROM by measuring intersegmental angles (e.g., thigh flexion on trunk for hip flexion rather than true hip ROM. It is likely that uncontrolled pelvic rotation and tilt due to difficulties in placing the goniometer properly and in performing the anatomically correct ROM contribute to the overrating of the arc of these motions. Nevertheless, conventional manual goniometers can be used with confidence for longitudinal assessments in the clinic.

  19. Formation of the multidimensional performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Sližytė, Asta

    2009-01-01

    The growing attention of scientists and practitioners towards the issues of performance measurement encourage to analyze actualities of performance measurement as individual object of management. It becomes relevant to analyze what performance measurement system must be in order to ensure for the organizations operating in the changing environment the multidimensional performance measurement and usage of measurement results for the management of organization. In dissertation concepts of pe...

  20. Comparison of linear gain and wide dynamic range compression hearing aid circuits: aided speech perception measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstad, L M; Seewald, R C; Cornelisse, L E; Shantz, J

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this study was to test the theoretical advantages of a single-channel wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) circuit for speech intelligibility and loudness comfort for five speech spectra. Twelve adolescents and young adults with moderate to severe hearing loss were fitted with the Siemens Viva 2 Pro behind-the-ear instrument set to DSL 4.0 targets for both linear gain and WDRC processing. Speech intelligibility was measured in the unaided, linear gain and WDRC conditions using two tasks in quiet: nonsense words and sentences. The items were digitally filtered to represent five speech spectra: average speech at 4 m, average speech at 1 m, own voice at ear level, classroom at 1 m, and shouted speech at 1 m. The subjects also rated the loudness of each hearing aid/speech spectrum combination using a categorical rating scale. Both the linear gain and WDRC settings provided improved speech recognition relative to the unaided condition, and the two circuits resulted in equivalent performance for average speech input levels. On average, the WDRC aid resulted in high and uniform speech recognition scores across the five spectra. In contrast, the linear gain aid resulted in a lower recognition score for soft speech and shouted speech relative to that obtained with an average speech level. Analysis of individual speech recognition benefit scores revealed that 11 out of 12 subjects had equal or greater performance with the WDRC processing than the linear processing. Subjective loudness ratings in the linear gain condition were compatible with decreased sensation level for soft speech and loudness discomfort for shouted speech. WDRC processing has potential applications in hearing aid fittings for listeners with moderate to severe hearing loss because it provides a consistently audible and comfortable signal across a wide range of listening conditions in quiet without the need for volume control adjustments.

  1. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification Pollutant Concentration range...

  2. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  3. MeV-range velocity-space tomography from gamma-ray and neutron emission spectrometry measurements at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the measurement of a 2D MeV-range ion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography at JET. Deuterium ions were accelerated into the MeV-range by third harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating. We made measurements with three neutron emission spectrometers and a high-...

  4. A high accuracy broadband measurement system for time resolved complex bioimpedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, S; Malhotra, A; Ardelt, G; Ryschka, M

    2014-06-01

    Bioimpedance measurements are useful tools in biomedical engineering and life science. Bioimpedance is the electrical impedance of living tissue and can be used in the analysis of various physiological parameters. Bioimpedance is commonly measured by injecting a small well known alternating current via surface electrodes into an object under test and measuring the resultant surface voltages. It is non-invasive, painless and has no known hazards. This work presents a field programmable gate array based high accuracy broadband bioimpedance measurement system for time resolved bioimpedance measurements. The system is able to measure magnitude and phase of complex impedances under test in a frequency range of about 10-500 kHz with excitation currents from 10 µA to 5 mA. The overall measurement uncertainties stay below 1% for the impedance magnitude and below 0.5° for the phase in most measurement ranges. Furthermore, the described system has a sample rate of up to 3840 impedance spectra per second. The performance of the bioimpedance measurement system is demonstrated with a resistor based system calibration and with measurements on biological samples.

  5. Radar measurements of surface deformation in the sub mm-range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gerhard; Hort, Matthias; Gerst, Alexander; Scharff, Lea

    2016-04-01

    A portable low power Doppler radar at 24 GHz is used for volcano eruption observations since more than a decade (e.g. Hort and Seyfried, 1998, doi: 10.1029/97GL03482; Seyfried and Hort, 1999, doi: 10.1007/s004450050256; Vöge et al., 2005, doi: 10.1029/2005 EO510001, Vöge and Hort, 2009, doi: 10.1109/TGRS. 2008.2002693, Gerst et al., 2013, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50234; Scharff et al, 2015, doi: 10.1130/G36705.1) The typical radar products are range resolved Doppler spectra containing information on the reflectivity, radial velocity and its distribution of ejected particles. Here we present the analysis of the phase of radar signals for the detection of comparably slow and small deformations of the solid surface which may occur for example prior to an eruption [Hort et al., 2010, AGU Fall meeting, Abstract V32B-03]. While the phase analysis of weather radar echoes from ground targets is established for estimating the atmospheric refractivity [Besson and du Châtelet, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1175/ JTECH-D-12-00167.1], we consider here the variability of the atmosphere as a source of uncertainty. We describe the implementation of this technique in a dedicated compact low power FMCW system. Observations at Stromboli suggest an expansion of the vent prior to the eruption on the order of millimeter which is on the same oder as reported by [Noferini et al., 2009, doi: 10.1109/IGARSS. 2009. 5416901] and in case of Santiaguito volcano we were able to observe the post eruptive subsidence of the volcanic dome. We suggest further to resolve the range/refractivity ambiguity by using a dual frequency radar with sufficient frequency separation for utilizing the frequency dependence of refractivity.

  6. Compressibility measurement of fluid-system ullage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzienis, D. A.; See, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Portable self-contained instrument measures volume of free gas or air trapped in closed fluid systems, such as lubricating-oil lines or hydraulic brakes. In response to measurement readings, operator may use device to accurately add or withdraw fluid to or from system.

  7. Linear heating system for measurement of thermoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear heating system is developed using a 8031/51 microcontroller for the measurement of thermoluminescence (TL) in alkali halides and other related compounds. This system also measures the temperature and the amount of light emitted by the sample for TL studies.

  8. Qualification of a Voltammetry Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Sunna

    2014-01-01

    The voltammetry measurement system consisting of a potentiostat μStat 200, electrode strips and accessories has been scrutinized, following the four phases of instrument qualification. These are design qualification, installation qualification, operational qualification and performance qualification in succeeding order. As design qualification operational specifications of the voltammetry measurement system have been collected. These were the innovative technique of screen printing electro...

  9. Mobile Robot Self-Localization by Matching Range Maps Using a Hausdorff Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines techniques for a mobile robot to perform self-localization in natural terrain by comparing a dense range map computed from stereo imagery to a range map in a known frame of reference.

  10. An intercomparison of POLARIS measurement results from the DTU-ESA Facility and from the ESTEC Near-Field Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report documents an intercomparison of measurement results of the POLARIS antenna from measurement at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in August 2011 and from measurement at the ESTEC Near-Field Range in the fall 2012. The comparison was carried out at the DTU-ESA Facil......This report documents an intercomparison of measurement results of the POLARIS antenna from measurement at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in August 2011 and from measurement at the ESTEC Near-Field Range in the fall 2012. The comparison was carried out at the DTU...

  11. Measurement of a wide-range of X-ray doses using specialty doped silica fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Sani, S. F.; Hammond, R.; Jafari, S. M.; Wahab, Norfadira; Amouzad Mahdiraji, G.; Siti Shafiqah, A. S.; Abdul Rashid, H. A.; Maah, M. J.; Aldousari, H.; Alkhorayef, M.; Alzimami, M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Using six types of tailor-made doped optical fibres, we carry out thermoluminescent (TL) studies of X-rays, investigating the TL yield for doses from 20 mGy through to 50 Gy. Dosimetric parameters were investigated for nominal 8 wt% Ge doped fibres that in two cases were co-doped, using B in one case and Br in the other. A comparative measurement of surface analysis has also been made for non-annealed and annealed capillary fibres, use being made of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Comparison was made with the conventional TL phosphor LiF in the form of the proprietary product TLD-100, including dose response and glow curves investigated for X-rays generated at 60 kVp over a dose range from 2 cGy to 50 Gy. The energy response of the fibres was also performed for X-rays generated at peak accelerating potentials of 80 kVp, 140 kVp, 250 kVp and 6 MV photons for an absorbed dose of 2 Gy. Present results show the samples to be suitable for use as TL dosimeters, with good linearity of response and a simple glow curve (simple trap) distribution. It has been established that the TL performance of an irradiated fibre is not only influenced by radiation parameters such as energy, dose-rate and total dose but also the type of fibre.

  12. Measurement of long-range angular correlations and azimuthal anisotropies in high-multiplicity $p$$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aidala, C; Alfred, M; Andrieux, V; Apadula, N; Asano, H; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bandara, N S; Barish, K N; Bathe, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Belmont, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Bumazhnov, V; Campbell, S; Cervantes, R; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Citron, Z; Cronin, N; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Danley, T W; Daugherity, M S; David, G; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dion, A; Dixit, D; Do, J H; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fan, W; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukuda, Y; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Goto, Y; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamilton, H F; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hill, J C; Hill, K; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoshino, T; Hotvedt, N; Huang, J; Huang, S; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Jezghani, M; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kang, J H; Kapukchyan, D; Karthas, E; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Khachatryan, V; Khanzadeev, A; Kim, C; Kim, E -J; Kim, M; Kincses, D; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kotov, D; Kudo, S; Kurita, K; Kwon, Y; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Leung, Y H; Li, X; Lim, S H; Liu, M X; Loggins, V-R; Lovasz, K; Lynch, D; Majoros, T; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Mendoza, M; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Mitsuka, G; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Montuenga, P; Moon, T; Morrison, D P; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagai, K; Nagashima, K; Nagashima, T; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novák, T; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Koop, J D Orjuela; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Ottino, G J; Ozawa, K; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J S; Park, S; Pate, S F; Patel, M; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; PerezLara, C E; Perry, J; Petti, R; Phipps, M; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rinn, T; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rowan, Z; Safonov, A S; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seidl, R; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shioya, T; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Snowball, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Tarnai, G; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Tomášek, M; Towell, C L; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Ueda, Y; Ujvari, B; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vukman, N; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y S; Wong, C P; Woody, C L; Xu, C; Xu, Q; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamamoto, H; Yanovich, A; Yoo, J H; Yoon, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zou, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the first measurements of long-range angular correlations and the transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow $v_2$ in high-multiplicity $p$$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. A comparison of these results with previous measurements in high-multiplicity $d$$+$Au and $^3{\\rm He}$$+$Au collisions demonstrates a relation between $v_2$ and the initial collision eccentricity $\\varepsilon_2$, suggesting that the observed momentum-space azimuthal anisotropies in these small systems have a collective origin and reflect the initial geometry. Good agreement is observed between the measured $v_2$ and hydrodynamic calculations for all systems, and an argument disfavoring theoretical explanations based on momentum-space domain correlations is presented. The set of measurements presented here allows us to leverage the distinct intrinsic geometry of each of these systems to distinguish between different theoretical descriptions of the long-range correlations observed in small collision systems.

  13. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  14. Design and implementation of range-gated underwater laser imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2014-02-01

    A range-gated underwater laser imaging system is designed and implemented in this article, which is made up of laser illumination subsystem, photoelectric imaging subsystem and control subsystem. The experiment of underwater target drone detection has been done, the target of distance 40m far from the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can be imaged in the pool which water attenuation coefficient is 0.159m-1. Experimental results show that the range-gated underwater laser imaging system can detect underwater objects effectively.

  15. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie Sam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method' which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method' which requires estimation of the line of femur. Setting: Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. Participants: 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects. Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Main outcomes: Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs. Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Results Validity (referenced to radiographs: Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988, and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678. The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998. Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995 were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained

  16. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  17. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  18. Validity of clinical outcome measures to evaluate ankle range of motion during the weight-bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily A; Docherty, Carrie L

    2017-07-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of standard clinical outcome measures compared to laboratory outcome measure while performing the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT). Cross-sectional study. Fifty participants performed the WBLT to determine dorsiflexion ROM using four different measurement techniques: dorsiflexion angle with digital inclinometer at 15cm distal to the tibial tuberosity (°), dorsiflexion angle with inclinometer at tibial tuberosity (°), maximum lunge distance (cm), and dorsiflexion angle using a 2D motion capture system (°). Outcome measures were recorded concurrently during each trial. To establish concurrent validity, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were conducted, comparing each dependent variable to the 2D motion capture analysis (identified as the reference standard). A higher correlation indicates strong concurrent validity. There was a high correlation between each measurement technique and the reference standard. Specifically the correlation between the inclinometer placement at 15cm below the tibial tuberosity (44.9°±5.5°) and the motion capture angle (27.0°±6.0°) was r=0.76 (p=0.001), between the inclinometer placement at the tibial tuberosity angle (39.0°±4.6°) and the motion capture angle was r=0.71 (p=0.001), and between the distance from the wall clinical measure (10.3±3.0cm) to the motion capture angle was r=0.74 (p=0.001). This study determined that the clinical measures used during the WBLT have a high correlation with the reference standard for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion. Therefore, obtaining maximum lunge distance and inclinometer angles are both valid assessments during the weight-bearing lunge test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  20. Stochastic stability of measures in gradient systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic stability of a compact invariant set of a finite dimensional, dissipative system is studied in our recent work "Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures" (Huang et al., 2015) for general white noise perturbations. In particular, it is shown under some Lyapunov conditions that the global attractor of the systems is always stable under general noise perturbations and any strong local attractor in it can be stabilized by a particular family of noise perturbations. Nevertheless, not much is known about the stochastic stability of an invariant measure in such a system. In this paper, we will study the issue of stochastic stability of invariant measures with respect to a finite dimensional, dissipative gradient system with potential function f. As we will show, a special property of such a system is that it is the set of equilibria which is stable under general noise perturbations and the set Sf of global minimal points of f which is stable under additive noise perturbations. For stochastic stability of invariant measures in such a system, we will characterize two cases of f, one corresponding to the case of finite Sf and the other one corresponding to the case when Sf is of positive Lebesgue measure, such that either some combined Dirac measures or the normalized Lebesgue measure on Sf is stable under additive noise perturbations. However, we will show by constructing an example that such measure stability can fail even in the simplest situation, i.e., in 1-dimension there exists a potential function f such that Sf consists of merely two points but no invariant measure of the corresponding gradient system is stable under additive noise perturbations. Crucial roles played by multiplicative and additive noise perturbations to the measure stability of a gradient system will also be discussed. In particular, the nature of instabilities of the normalized Lebesgue measure on Sf under multiplicative noise perturbations will be exhibited by an example.

  1. A comparison of two stretching modalities on lower-limb range of motion measurements in recreational dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew; Felton, Lee; Galloway, Shaun

    2009-10-01

    Most stretching techniques are designed to place a "stress" on the musculoskeletal unit that will increase its resting length and range of motion (ROM). Twenty-four adolescent dancers participated in a 6-week intervention program that compared low-intensity stretching (Microstretching) with moderate-intensity static stretching on active and passive ranges of motion. Microstretching is a new modality that reduces the possibility of the parasympathetic system being activated. Repeated measures analysis indicated changes in ROM over the intervention period (p active ROM than the static stretch group (p stretching increases the compliance of any given muscle and therefore increases the range of motion. One main finding of the present study was that throughout a 6-week training program very-low-intensity stretching had a greater positive effect on lower-limb ROM than moderate-intensity static stretching. The most interesting aspect of the study was the greater increase in active ROM compared to passive ROM by the Microstretching group. This suggests that adaptation has occurred within the muscle itself to a greater extent than in structures of the hip joint. Practical application for this technique suggests it is beneficial as a postexercise modality that potentially has a restorative component.

  2. A protein-dye hybrid system as a narrow range tunable intracellular pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Palapuravan; Sudheesh, Karivachery V; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Chandrika, Arunkumar R; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai V; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2016-11-18

    Accurate monitoring of pH variations inside cells is important for the early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. Even though a variety of different pH sensors are available, construction of a custom-made sensor array for measuring minute variations in a narrow biological pH window, using easily available constituents, is a challenge. Here we report two-component hybrid sensors derived from a protein and organic dye nanoparticles whose sensitivity range can be tuned by choosing different ratios of the components, to monitor the minute pH variations in a given system. The dye interacts noncovalently with the protein at lower pH and covalently at higher pH, triggering two distinguishable fluorescent signals at 700 and 480 nm, respectively. The pH sensitivity region of the probe can be tuned for every unit of the pH window resulting in custom-made pH sensors. These narrow range tunable pH sensors have been used to monitor pH variations in HeLa cells using the fluorescence imaging technique.

  3. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, R.; Hutchinson, J. M. R.; Unterweger, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon (222Rn) against international and national radium (226Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon ...

  4. Local and regional characterisation of the diurnal mountain wind systems in the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Cano, Darío; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Morales, Gema; Viana, Samuel; Inclán, Rosa M.; Fidel González-Roúco, J.; Santolaria, Edmundo; Durán, Luis; Yagüe, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal mountain wind systems that develop in the surroundings of the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain) are studied in this work. This area is highly interesting: the city of Madrid is located at approximately 50 km towards the SE; and on the other hand, unlike in other mountainous regions, the summers are characterised to be significantly dry, providing an interesting case study of energy balance in the context of complex orography. Slope and basin circulations formed play an important role in the development of fog and pollution episodes in the whole region. On top of that, when upslope basin winds strengthened by diurnal convection exceed 10 m s-1, the runway configuration at the airport of Madrid needs to be modified. Continuous meteorological data and turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour, momentum and heat are provided since June 2016 from measurements at a 10 m tower at La Herrería site, which is located at the foot of the Guadarrama mountain range. Besides, a 4 m high portable station is available for complementary measurements. La Herrería is part of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet; www.ucm.es/gumnet/), an atmospheric and subsurface observational facility distributed over the Guadarrama mountain range. As a support for the analysis, data from conventional meteorological stations within the region and a wind profiler at the airport are also employed. The wind roses for the period analysed (summer 2016) show how the diurnal cycle of the flows is influenced by local slopes and by the configuration of the basin. The irruption of the downslope flow in the evening produces a significant increase of the turbulence intensity and the eventual breakdown of the surface-based thermal inversion. However, the severe drying out of the soil throughout the summer, evident from the evolution of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, seems to play a role in altering the characteristics of the mountain-breeze system and its impact on turbulence

  5. Multi-objective optimization to improve the product range of baking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Esveld, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The operational range of a food production system can be used to obtain a variation in certain product characteristics. The range of product characteristics that can be simultaneously realized by an optimal choice of the process conditions is inherently limited. Knowledge of this feasible product

  6. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... tax return in accordance with § 1.167(a)-11 of this chapter (relating to depreciation allowances using...

  7. Analysis of the exactness of mean-field theory in long-range interacting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Relationships between general long-range interacting classical systems on a lattice and the corresponding mean-field models (infinitely long-range interacting models) are investigated. We study systems in arbitrary dimension d for periodic boundary conditions and focus on the free energy for fixed value of the total magnetization. As a result, it is shown that the equilibrium free energy of the long-range interacting systems are exactly the same as that of the corresponding mean-field models (exactness of the mean-field theory). Moreover, the mean-field metastable states can be also preserved in general long-range interacting systems. It is found that in the case that the magnetization is conserved, the mean-field theory does not give correct property in some parameter region.

  8. Photon Pressure Force on Space Debris TOPEX/Poseidon Measured by Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, D.; Kirchner, G.; Bennett, J. C.; Lachut, M.; Sośnica, K.; Koshkin, N.; Shakun, L.; Koidl, F.; Steindorfer, M.; Wang, P.; Fan, C.; Han, X.; Grunwaldt, L.; Wilkinson, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Bianco, G.; Vespe, F.; Catalán, M.; Salmins, K.; del Pino, J. R.; Lim, H.-C.; Park, E.; Moore, C.; Lejba, P.; Suchodolski, T.

    2017-10-01

    The (TOPography EXperiment) TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry mission operated for 13 years before the satellite was decommissioned in January 2006, becoming a large space debris object at an altitude of 1,340 km. Since the end of the mission, the interaction of T/P with the space environment has driven the satellite's spin dynamics. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements collected from June 2014 to October 2016 allow for the satellite spin axis orientation to be determined with an accuracy of 1.7°. The spin axis coincides with the platform yaw axis (formerly pointing in the nadir direction) about which the body rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The combined photometric and SLR data collected over the 11 year time span indicates that T/P has continuously gained rotational energy at an average rate of 2.87 J/d and spins with a period of 10.73 s as of 19 October 2016. The satellite attitude model shows a variation of the cross-sectional area in the Sun direction between 8.2 m2 and 34 m2. The direct solar radiation pressure is the main factor responsible for the spin-up of the body, and the exerted photon force varies from 65 μN to 228 μN around the mean value of 138.6 μN. Including realistic surface force modeling in orbit propagation algorithms will improve the prediction accuracy, giving better conjunction warnings for scenarios like the recent close approach reported by the ILRS Space Debris Study Group—an approximate 400 m flyby between T/P and Jason-2 on 20 June 2017.

  9. Inflammatory challenge increases measures of oxidative stress in a free-ranging, long-lived mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-12-15

    Oxidative stress - the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutralising antioxidants - has been under debate as the main cause of ageing in aerobial organisms. The level of ROS should increase during infection as part of the activation of an immune response, leading to oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Yet, it is unknown how long-lived organisms, especially mammals, cope with oxidative stress. Bats are known to carry a variety of zoonotic pathogens and at the same time are, despite their high mass-specific basal metabolic rate, unusually long lived, which may be partly the result of low oxidative damage of organs. Here, we asked whether an immune challenge causes oxidative stress in free-ranging bats, measuring two oxidative stress markers. We injected 20 short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) with bacterially derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 20 individuals with phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) as a control. Individuals injected with LPS showed an immune reaction by increased white blood cell count after 24 h, whereas there was no significant change in leukocyte count in control animals. The biological antioxidant potential (BAP) remained the same in both groups, but reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) increased after treatment with LPS, indicating a significant increase in oxidative stress in animals when mounting an immune reaction toward the inflammatory challenge. Control individuals did not show a change in oxidative stress markers. We conclude that in a long-lived mammal, even high concentrations of antioxidants do not immediately neutralise free radicals produced during a cellular immune response. Thus, fighting an infection may lead to oxidative stress in bats.

  10. INFORMATION SECURITY IN MOBILE MODULAR MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tkhishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A special aspect of aircraft test is carrying out both flight evaluation and ground operation evaluation in a structure of flying aids and special tools equipment. The specific of flight and sea tests involve metering in offshore zone, which excludes the possibility of fixed geodetically related measuring tools. In this regard, the specific role is acquired by shipbased measurement systems, in particular the mobile modular measuring systems. Information processed in the mobile modular measurement systems is a critical resource having a high level of confidentiality. When carrying out their functions, it should be implemented a proper information control of the mobile modular measurement systems to ensure their protection from the risk of data leakage, modification or loss, i.e. to ensure a certain level of information security. Due to the specific of their application it is difficult to solve the problems of information security in such complexes. The intruder model, the threat model, the security requirements generated for fixed informatization objects are not applicable to mobile systems. It was concluded that the advanced mobile modular measuring systems designed for flight experiments monitoring and control should be created due to necessary information protection measures and means. The article contains a diagram of security requirements formation, starting with the data envelopment analysis and ending with the practical implementation. The information security probabilistic model applied to mobile modular measurement systems is developed. The list of current security threats based on the environment and specific of the mobile measurement system functioning is examined. The probabilistic model of the information security evaluation is given. The problems of vulnerabilities transformation of designed information system into the security targets with the subsequent formation of the functional and trust requirements list are examined.

  11. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  12. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Current fluctuations in stochastic systems with long-range memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.

    2009-08-01

    We propose a method to calculate the large deviations of current fluctuations in a class of stochastic particle systems with history-dependent rates. Long-range temporal correlations are seen to alter the speed of the large deviation function in analogy with long-range spatial correlations in equilibrium systems. We give some illuminating examples and discuss the applicability of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.

  13. Wildlife speed cameras: measuring animal travel speed and day range using camera traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowcliffe, J.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Kays, R.; Kranstauber, B.; Carbone, C.

    2016-01-01

    Travel speed (average speed of travel while active) and day range (average speed over the daily activity cycle) are behavioural metrics that influence processes including energy use, foraging success, disease transmission and human-wildlife interactions, and which can therefore be applied to a range

  14. Determination of plant growth rate and growth temperature range from measurement of physiological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Criddle; B. N. Smith; L. D. Hansen; J. N. Church

    2001-01-01

    Many factors influence species range and diversity, but temperature and temperature variability are always major global determinants, irrespective of local constraints. On a global scale, the ranges of many taxa have been observed to increase and their diversity decrease with increasing latitude. On a local scale, gradients in species distribution are observable with...

  15. Dynamic Properties of Impulse Measuring Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Lausen, P.

    1971-01-01

    After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason the intera......After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason...

  16. Analysis of measurement system as the mechatronics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniotis, V [Institute of Geodesy, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Grattan, K T V [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Electrical, Electronic and Information Eng, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Rybokas, M [Department of Information Technologies, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Brucas, D, E-mail: gi@ap.vtu.l, E-mail: k.t.v.grattan@city.ac.u, E-mail: MRybokas@gama.l, E-mail: domka@ktv.l, E-mail: vg@ai.vgtu.l [Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania)

    2010-07-01

    The paper deals with the mechatronic arrangement for angle measuring system application. The objects to be measured are the circular raster scales, rotary encoders and coded scales. The task of the measuring system is to determine the bias of angle measuring standard as the circular scale and to use the results for the error correction and accuracy improvement of metal cutting machines, coordinate measuring machines, robots, etc. The technical solutions are given with the application of active materials for smart piezoactuators implemented into the several positions of angular measuring equipment. Mechatronic measuring system is analysed as complex integrated system and some of its elements can be used as separate units. All these functional elements are described and commented in the paper with the diagrams and graphs of errors and examples of microdisplacement devices using the mechatronic elements.

  17. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Floreková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.

  18. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the workshop was for participants to interactively discuss (with regard to optical imaging or optical imaging systems): Local end-user needs; What those needs imply for associated new & existing laboratory testing & measurement...

  19. Navigational and Environmental Measurement System (NEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, T. D.

    1988-01-01

    The NEMS concept and design were initiated from the need to measure and record positional and environmental information during aircraft flights of developmental science research instrumentation. The unit was designed as a stand-alone system which could serve the needs of instruments whose developmental nature did not justify the cost and complexity of including these measurements within the instrument data system. Initially, the system was comprised of a Loran-C receiver and a portable IBM compatible computer recording position and time. Later, the system was interfaced with the Wallops aircraft inertial navigation system (INS), and various other sensors were supplied and shared by the Goddard science users. Real-time position mapping on video monitors was added for investigator's use and information. In 1987, the use of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver was included in some missions. A total configuration of the system and the various sensors which can be incorporated are shown.

  20. Telemetric measurement system of beehive environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.

  1. Automatic system for ionization chamber current measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaccio, Franco; Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F

    2004-12-01

    The present work describes an automatic system developed for current integration measurements at the Laboratório de Metrologia Nuclear of Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. This system includes software (graphic user interface and control) and a module connected to a microcomputer, by means of a commercial data acquisition card. Measurements were performed in order to check the performance and for validating the proposed design.

  2. System Measures Logic-Gate Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, Brent R.

    1988-01-01

    Many gates on chip tested automatically. Automatic testing system measures signal-propagation delays of experimental integrated-circuit array of logic gates. Includes controlling computer, counter/time, and feedback-controlled timing-waveform generator. Multiplexer included on integrated-circuit chip with logic-gate array to be tested. Delays measured by system serve as valuable data for design of fast logic and memory chips.

  3. Precise Gravity Measurements for Lunar Laser Ranging at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D. J.; Murphy, T.; Boy, J.; De Linage, C.; Wheeler, R. D.; Krauterbluth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) at Apache Point Observatory began in 2006 under the APOLLO project using a 3.5 m telescope on a 2780 m summit in New Mexico. Recent improvements in the technical operations are producing uncertainties at the few-mm level in the 1.5 x 10^13 cm separation of the solar orbits of the Earth and Moon. This level of sensitivity permits a number of important aspects of gravitational theory to be tested. Among these is the Equivalence Principle that determines the universality of free fall, tests of the time variation of the Gravitational Constant G, deviations from the inverse square law, and preferred frame effects. In 2009 APOLLO installed a superconducting gravimeter (SG) on the concrete pier under the main telescope to further constrain the deformation of the site as part of an initiative to improve all aspects of the modeling process. We have analyzed more than 3 years of high quality SG data that provides unmatched accuracy in determining the local tidal gravimetric factors for the solid Earth and ocean tide loading. With on-site gravity we have direct measurements of signals such as polar motion, and can compute global atmospheric and hydrological loading for the site using GLDAS and local hydrology models that are compared with the SG observations. We also compare the SG residuals with satellite estimates of seasonal ground gravity variations from the GRACE mission. Apache Point is visited regularly by a team from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency to provide absolute gravity values for the calibration of the SG and to determine secular gravity changes. Nearby GPS location P027 provides continuous position information from the Plate Boundary Observatory of Earthscope that is used to correlate gravity/height variations at the site. Unusual aspects of the data processing include corrections for the telescope azimuth that appear as small offsets at the 1 μGal level and can be removed by correlating the azimuth data with the SG

  4. Impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H.

    2004-10-01

    Transverse coupling impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam extraction system were performed and the results are here reported. The SNS beam extraction system is composed from 14 subsystems, each of which consists of a vertical kicker magnet plus a pulse forming network (PFN). Impedance bench measurements were performed on one large and one small aperture magnet, stand-alone as well as assembled with the first-article production PFN. The impedance measuring methods to cover the interesting frequency range from below 1 to 100MHz are described in considerable detail. The upper frequency range is properly covered by the conventional twin-wire method but it had to be supplemented at the low-frequency end by a direct input impedance measurement at the magnet busbar. Required modifications of the PFN to maintain the impedance budget are discussed. The total impedance estimate was finally obtained by quadratic scaling with vertical aperture from the two tested kicker subsystems.

  5. A hydrogel based nanosensor with an unprecedented broad sensitivity range for pH measurements in cellular compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, M.; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Optical pH nanosensors have been applied for monitoring intracellular pH in real-time for about two decades. However, the pH sensitivity range of most nanosensors is too narrow, and measurements that are on the borderline of this range may not be correct. Furthermore, ratiometric measurements...... of acidic intracellular pH (pH nanosensors. In this paper we successfully developed a multiple sensor, a fluorophore based nanosensor, with an unprecedented broad measurement range from pH 1.4 to 7.0. In this nanosensor, three p......H-sensitive fluorophores (difluoro-Oregon Green, Oregon Green 488, and fluorescein) and one pH-insensitive fluorophore (Alexa 568) were covalently incorporated into a nanoparticle hydrogel matrix. With this broad range quadruple-labelled nanosensor all physiological relevant pH levels in living cells can be measured...

  6. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zybtsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  7. Submillimeter-Wave Polarimetric Compact Ranges for Scale-Model Radar Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulombe, Michael J; Waldman, Jerry; Giles, R. H; Gatesman, Andrew J; Goyette, Thomas M; Nixon, William

    2002-01-01

    .... A dielectric material fabrication and characterization capability has also been developed to fabricate custom anechoic materials for the ranges as well as scaled dielectric parts for the models and clutter scenes...

  8. Time measurment system at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yasuo [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A proposal of time measurement system at the SSC experiment is described. An example of a possible scheme for central tracking chambers is shown. Designs of a preamp/shaper/discri chip and a time digitizer chip are described. A method to distribute system clock and power/cooling problems are also discussed.

  9. Acoustic systems for the measurement of streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Antonius; Smith, Winchell

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic velocity meter (AVM), also referred to as an ultrasonic flowmeter, has been an operational tool for the measurement of streamflow since 1965. Very little information is available concerning AVM operation, performance, and limitations. The purpose of this report is to consolidate information in such a manner as to provide a better understanding about the application of this instrumentation to streamflow measurement. AVM instrumentation is highly accurate and nonmechanical. Most commercial AVM systems that measure streamflow use the time-of-travel method to determine a velocity between two points. The systems operate on the principle that point-to-point upstream travel-time of sound is longer than the downstream travel-time, and this difference can be monitored and measured accurately by electronics. AVM equipment has no practical upper limit of measurable velocity if sonic transducers are securely placed and adequately protected. AVM systems used in streamflow measurement generally operate with a resolution of ?0.01 meter per second but this is dependent on system frequency, path length, and signal attenuation. In some applications the performance of AVM equipment may be degraded by multipath interference, signal bending, signal attenuation, and variable streamline orientation. Presently used minicomputer systems, although expensive to purchase and maintain, perform well. Increased use of AVM systems probably will be realized as smaller, less expensive, and more conveniently operable microprocessor-based systems become readily available. Available AVM equipment should be capable of flow measurement in a wide variety of situations heretofore untried. New signal-detection techniques and communication linkages can provide additional flexibility to the systems so that operation is possible in more river and estuary situations.

  10. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems....... The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers...

  11. NKS MOMS. Final report. [Mobile Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilssen, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IRSA) (Iceland)

    2013-02-15

    Mobile car-borne measurement systems are an important asset in early phase emergency response in all Nordic countries. However, through the development of the systems in the different countries, there are considerable differences between the systems developed. This complicates Nordic cooperation and mutual assistance in emergency situations. This project aimed to facilitate harmonization of mobile measurement systems between the Nordic countries. The project focused on harmonizing data formats, information exchange and measurement strategies. Although the work done was funded by each member, the project established a good platform for cooperation which will hopefully continue beyond the scope of the project. A two-day seminar was held in May 2012, where all participants presented the current status (equipment, methods used etc.), in addition to invited speakers presenting development within the field of mobile detection and in situ measurements. Exchange of experiences and information on different measurement systems and practises in use was an important part of the seminar. The seminar was followed up by a small workshop during the REFOX exercise in Lund, Sweden, September 2012. Exchange of measurement data from the exercise was facilitated through a workspace proveded by NRPA as part of the MOMS project. The work done in this project will be presented at the NordEx12 seminar in March 2013. (Author)

  12. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  13. Telerobotic system performance measurement: motivation and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-11-01

    Telerobotic systems (TRSs) and shared teleautonomous systems result from the integration of multiple sophisticated modules. Procedures used in systems integration design decision-making of such systems are frequently ad hoc compared to more quantitative and systematic methods employed elsewhere in engineering. Experimental findings associated with verification and validation (V&V) are often application-specific. Furthermore, models and measurement strategies do not exist which allow prediction of overall TRS performance in a given task based on knowledge of the performance characteristics of individual subsystems. This paper introduces the use of general systems performance theory (GSPT), developed by the senior author to help resolve similar problems in human performance, as a basis for: (1) measurement of overall TRS performance (viewing all system components, including the operator, as a single entity); (2) task decomposition; (3) development of a generic TRS model; and (4) the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT uses a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented in the context of a distributed telerobotics network (Universities Space Automation and Robotics Consortium) as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data (i.e., multi-purpose or reusable) is described. Although the work is motivated by space automation and robotics challenges, it is considered to be applicable to telerobotic systems in general.

  14. Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufridin Wahab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis.

  15. System to Measure Thermal Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient for Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Nagavalli, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at elevated temperatures. This has led to the implementation of nonstandardized practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. The major objective of the procedure described is for the simultaneous measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity within a given temperature range. These thermoelectric measurements must be precise, accurate, and reproducible to ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data. The custom-built thermal characterization system described in this NASA-TM is specifically designed to measure the inplane thermal diffusivity, and the Seebeck coefficient for materials in the ranging from 73 K through 373 K.

  16. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Improving Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Condition for Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the delay-range-dependent stability for systems with interval time-varying delay. Through defining the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and estimating the derivative of the LKF by introducing new vectors, using free matrices and reciprocally convex approach, the new delay-range-dependent stability conditions are obtained. Two well-known examples are given to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed theoretical results.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of nacelle lidar free stream wind speed measurements to wind-induction reconstruction model and lidar range configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elin; Borraccino, Antoine; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    The sensitivity of nacelle lidar wind speed measurements to wind-induction models and lidar range configurations is studied using experimental data from the Nørrekær Enge (NKE) measurement campaign and simulated lidar data from Reynold-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) aerodynamic computational fluid...

  19. Aerial low-frequency hearing in captive and free-ranging harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) measured using auditory brainstem responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucke, K.; Hastie, Gordon D.; Ternes, Kerstin; McConnell, Bernie; Moss, Simon; Russell, Deborah J.F.; Weber, Heike; Janik, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    The hearing sensitivity of 18 free-ranging and 10 captive harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to aerial sounds was measured in the presence of typical environmental noise through auditory brainstem response measurements. A focus was put on the comparative hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. Low-

  20. A Newly Developed X-Y Planar Nano-Motion Table System with Large Travel Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki, Yugo; Sawano, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Hayato; Shinno, Hidenori

    Precision motion control technology has been widely used in high accuracy applications such as advanced scientific instruments and semiconductor fabrication equipment. In particular, the nano-motion control system with multiple degrees of freedom positioning in large travel ranges has been required in the field of precision engineering. In order to realize such a system, it is necessary and indispensable to develop a planar motion table system based on a new design concept. This paper presents a newly developed X-Y planar nano-motion table system with large travel ranges. This system is composed of a fine motion table and a coarse motion mechanism. The fine motion table is supported by porous aerostatic bearings and driven by voice coil motors with a laser interferometer feedback in a perfect non-contact condition. In addition, the table is driven at the center of gravity during the X-Y planar motion. The coarse motion mechanism has the frame structure with the coils of voice coil motors for the fine motion table. In order to enlarge the table travel ranges, the coarse motion mechanism follows the fine table motion. Performance evaluation results confirm that the developed table system has a remarkable performance which includes nanometer positioning capability over large travel ranges.

  1. Design of a sun tracker for the automatic measurement of spectral irradiance and construction of an irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.; Maj, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Utrillas, M.P.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Pedros, R.; Gomez-Amo, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Termodinamica, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    An automatic global and direct solar spectral irradiance system has been designed based on two LICOR spectro radiometers equipped with fibre optics and remote cosine sensors. To measure direct irradiance a sun tracker based on step motors has been developed. The whole system is autonomous and works continuously. From the measurements provided by this system a spectral irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range has been created. This database contains normal direct and global horizontal irradiances as well as diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane, together with total atmospheric optical thickness and aerosol optical depth. (author)

  2. High dynamic range isotope ratio measurements using an analog electron multiplier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, P.; Lorinčík, Jan; Franzreb, K.; Herwig, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2013), s. 549-552 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 894 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Isotope ratios * electron multiplier * dynamic range Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2013

  3. Mobile network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per

    In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked...... to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...... the requirements of running the long-range WindScanner system using a mobile network such as 3G. This architecture allows us to have the WindScanners and the master computer in different geographical locations, and in general facilitates deployments of the long-range WindScanner system....

  4. Equilibrium properties of quantum spin systems with nonadditive long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    We study equilibrium states of quantum spin systems with nonadditive long-range interactions by adopting an appropriate scaling of the interaction strength, i.e., the so-called Kac prescription. In classical spin systems, it is known that the equilibrium free energy is obtained by minimizing the free-energy functional over the coarse-grained magnetization. Here we show that it is also true for quantum spin systems. From this observation, it is found that when the canonical ensemble and the microcanonical ensemble are not equivalent in some parameter region, it is not necessarily justified to replace the actual long-range interaction by the infinite-range interaction (Curie-Weiss-type interaction). On the other hand, in the parameter region where the two ensembles are equivalent, this replacement is always justified. We examine the Heisenberg XXZ model as an illustrative example and discuss the relation to experiments.

  5. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. The study was designed in a randomized block plan on 44 patients (24 women, 20 men) with limited wrist or hand motions. Two experienced raters measured active wrist ROMs, and active and passive index PIP flexion using two digital goniometers. All measures were repeated by one rater 2-5 days after the initial measurements. The reliability measures were analyzed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and the construct validity was determined by correlation coefficients analysis between sub measures of scores; patient rated pain and function (PRWE) and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (quick DASH) scores. The intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities were high in most ROM measures (range 0.64-0.97) for both types of electro-goniometers. The 95% limit of agreements and Bland and Altman plots did not show progressive changes. There was a significant difference in force application between the raters when performing passive ROM measures for PIP index, but the same rater produced consistent force. Most of the NK and J-Tech ROM measures were moderately correlated with the patient rated pain and function scores (range 0.32-0.63).

  6. In-vitro corneal transparency measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liliane; da Costa Vieira, Marcelo A.; Isaac, Flavio; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    2001-06-01

    A system for measuring the average corneal transparency of preserved corneas has been developed in order to provide a more accurate and standard report of the corneal tissue. The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. The small portable system consists of two main parts: the optical and the electronic parts. The optical system consists of a white light, lenses and pin-holes that collimate white light beams that illuminates the cornea in its preservative medium. The light that passes through the cornea is detected by a resistive detector and the average corneal transparency is shown in a display. In order to obtain just the tissue transparency, the electronic circuit was built in a way that there is a baseline input of the preservative medium, previous to the measurement of the corneal transparency. Manipulating the system consists of three steps: (1) Adjusting the zero percentage in the absence of light (at this time the detectors in the dark); (2) Placing the preservative medium in the system and adjusting the 100% value (this is the baseline input); (3) Preserving the cornea and placing it in the system. The system provides the tissue transparency. The system is connected to an endothelium evaluation system for Slit Lamp, that we have developed, and statistics about the relationship of the corneal transparency and density of the endothelial cells will be provided in the next years. The system is being used in a public Eye Bank in Brasil.

  7. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations with the extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometer at high-energy mixed fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00406842; Bay, Aurelio; Silari, Marco; Aroua, Abbas

    The use of spectrometry to provide information for neutron radiation protection has become an increasingly important activity over recent years. The need for spectral data arises because neither area survey instruments nor personal dosimeters give the correct dose equivalent results at all neutron energies. It is important therefore to know the spectra of the fields in which these devices are used. One of the systems most commonly employed in neutron spectrometry and dosimetry is the Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS). The extended- range BSS that was used for this work, consists of 7 spheres with an overall response to neutrons up to 2 GeV. A 3He detector is used as a thermal counter in the centre of each sphere. In the context of this thesis the BSS was calibrated in monoenergetic neutron fields at low and intermediate energies. It was also used for measurements in several high energy mixed fields. These measurements have led to the calculation of neutron yields and spectral fluences from unshielded targets....

  8. Ultrasonic Measurement of Body Fat as a Means of Assessing Body Condition in Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon lotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Stringer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of body condition of free-ranging animals is important when evaluating population health and fitness. The following study used body condition scoring, ultrasound, and dissected physical measurement to assess fat stores in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor. Measurements were taken of subcutaneous fat at interscapular, thoracolumbar, and lumbosacral paraspinal and ventral midline sites. These measurements were examined in relationship to body condition scores and body weight. The ultrasound technique accurately measured the subcutaneous fat of raccoons when compared to dissected physical measurement and yielded data that strongly correlated with both body condition score and body weight, with the ventral midline measurement most strongly correlated. This noninvasive method may be useful in conjunction with body condition score and body weight when assessing the nutritional status of raccoons and potentially other small carnivore species.

  9. Comparison of the measurement of heart rate in adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) by auscultation and electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Gavaghan, B J; McSweeney, D; Powell, V; Lisle, A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the heart rates of adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) measured by auscultation with a stethoscope with those measured simultaneously using electrocardiography (ECG). With each bird in a standing position, estimation of the heart rate was performed by placing a mark on paper for every 4 beats for roosters and 8 beats for hens as detected by auscultation over 30 s, while simultaneous ECG was performed. Heart rates measured by auscultation showed a high correlation (r = 0.97) with those measured by ECG. There was a high correlation between the heart rates of adult free-range chickens measured by auscultation with a stethoscope and those measured simultaneously using ECG. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sładek, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  11. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S. E-mail: deme@sunserv.kfki.hu; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.A.; Reitz, G.; Arkhanguelski, V.V

    2002-10-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised.

  12. Microwave-range shielding effectiveness measurements using a dual vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Serra, Ramiro; Schipper, H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverberation chambers create a statistical uniformly distributed field which is very useful for reliable electromagnetic interference measurements. Another advantage of these chambers is the high field strength which can be generated compared to conventional test setups. A reverberation chamber

  13. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...... disease, as was epidermal p16INK4a positivity. All associations with cardiovascular or metabolic disease attenuated when adjusting for age. In conclusion, in middle-aged to old persons, the molecular measures tested here were more weakly associated with age and health status than functional capacity...... and dermis and putative immunosenescence (presence of CD57+ T cells)). All functional capacity measures were associated with age. CRP and epidermal p16INK4a positivity were also associated with age, but with smaller estimates. Grip strength and the Stroop test were associated with cardiovascular or metabolic...

  14. The European Legislation Applicable to Medium-Range Inductive Wireless Power Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Broydé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-range inductive wireless power transmission systems allow a sufficient power transfer without requiring close proximity between a primary coil and a secondary coil. We briefly investigate the range of a typical system and its radiated emission, from the perspectives of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and human exposure requirements. We then discuss the applicable legislation in the European Union, the main question being the applicability of the R&TTE or radio equipment directives. Our conclusion is that this applicability depends on multiple parameters, among which is the presence of a self-tuning capability or of a transmitter control based on telemetry.

  15. Validity and reliability of range of motion measured on smartphone (mROM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, as internet-based communication is advancing rapidly, it is getting more and more interesting to adapt clinical examination of patients to remote communication. The use of smartphone photographic is presented as a method for studying the measurement of shoulders joint ROM. Objective: To investigate the reliability of smartphone photographic measurements of upper limbs abduction angle through mRom app compared to inertial sensors as the criterion standard. Methods: ...

  16. Fluorescent Protein Based FRET Pairs with Improved Dynamic Range for Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Bobin George Abraham; Karen S Sarkisyan; Mishin, Alexander S.; Ville Santala; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Matti Karp

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using fluorescent protein variants is widely used to study biochemical processes in living cells. FRET detection by fluorescence lifetime measurements is the most direct and robust method to measure FRET. The traditional cyan-yellow fluorescent protein based FRET pairs are getting replaced by green-red fluorescent protein variants. The green-red pair enables excitation at a longer wavelength which reduces cellular autofluorescence and phototoxicit...

  17. New measurements of high-momentum nucleons and short-range structures in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, N; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M H S; Chudakov, E; Clasie, B; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Daniel, A; Day, D B; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Fassi, L El; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Garrow, K; Gaskell, D; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lindgren, R; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Seely, J; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wasko, C; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Zheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We present new, high-Q^2 measurements of inclusive electron scattering from high-momentum nucleons in nuclei. This yields an improved extraction of the strength of two-nucleon correlations for several nuclei, including light nuclei where clustering effects can, for the first time, be examined. The data extend to the kinematic regime where three-nucleon correlations are expected to dominate and we observe significantly greater strength in this region than previous measurements.

  18. Direct measurement of additional Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling bands in the millimeter-submillimeter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2016-06-01

    Three new weak bands of the Ar-H2O vibration-rotation-tunneling spectrum have been measured in the millimeter wavelength range. These bands were predicted from combination differences based on previously measured bands in the submillimeter region. Two previously reported submillimeter bands were also remeasured with higher frequency resolution. These new measurements allow us to obtain accurate information on the Coriolis interaction between the 101 and 110 states. Here we report these results and the associated improved molecular constants.

  19. Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus

    2015-12-03

    Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.

  20. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  1. Novel surface measurement system reading cost savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sword, M.

    1996-05-01

    A new state-of-the-art data acquisition system for the oil and natural gas industries is being marketed by OPSCO`92 Industries Ltd. The unit is portable, it measures surface data which is calibrated to bottom-hole conditions and designed to measure temperature and pressure information without the necessity of sending testing equipment downhole. The Surface Data System (SDS) uses silicon-crystal technology, is mounted in a suitcase size carrying case, and runs off a 12-volt battery enclosure which can be backed up by a small solar panel. The first generation system can handle 16 different channels of information input on a laptop computer. Pressure, pressure differential, temperature, frequency and pulse signals for flow meter measurements are handled by standard sensors. Areas of application include build-up and fall-off tests, pipeline evaluation, pre-frac tests, underbalanced drilling and gas well evaluation. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  2. What range of trait levels can the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure reliably? An item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been noted that inventories measuring traits that originated in a psychopathological paradigm can often reliably measure only a very narrow range of trait levels that are near and above clinical cutoffs. Much recent work has, however, suggested that autism spectrum disorder traits are on a continuum of severity that extends well into the nonclinical range. This implies a need for inventories that can capture individual differences in autistic traits from very high levels all the way to the opposite end of the continuum. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed based on a closely related rationale, but there has, to date, been no direct test of the range of trait levels that the AQ can reliably measure. To assess this, we fit a bifactor item response theory model to the AQ. Results suggested that AQ measures moderately low to moderately high levels of a general autistic trait with good measurement precision. The reliable range of measurement was significantly improved by scoring the instrument using its 4-point response scale, rather than dichotomizing responses. These results support the use of the AQ in nonclinical samples, but suggest that items measuring very low and very high levels of autistic traits would be beneficial additions to the inventory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A hydrogel based nanosensor with an unprecedented broad sensitivity range for pH measurements in cellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Søndergaard, R V; Kumar, E K P; Henriksen, J R; Cui, D; Hammershøj, P; Clausen, M H; Andresen, T L

    2015-11-07

    Optical pH nanosensors have been applied for monitoring intracellular pH in real-time for about two decades. However, the pH sensitivity range of most nanosensors is too narrow, and measurements that are on the borderline of this range may not be correct. Furthermore, ratiometric measurements of acidic intracellular pH (pH pH 1.4 to 7.0. In this nanosensor, three pH-sensitive fluorophores (difluoro-Oregon Green, Oregon Green 488, and fluorescein) and one pH-insensitive fluorophore (Alexa 568) were covalently incorporated into a nanoparticle hydrogel matrix. With this broad range quadruple-labelled nanosensor all physiological relevant pH levels in living cells can be measured without being too close to the limits of its pH-range. The nanosensor exhibits no susceptibility to interference by other intracellular ions at physiological concentrations. Due to its positive surface charge it is spontaneously internalized by HeLa cells and localizes to the lysosomes where the mean pH was measured at 4.6. This quadruple-labelled nanosensor performs accurate measurements of fluctuations of lysosomal pH in both directions, which was shown by treatment with the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or its substrate ATP in HeLa cells. These measurements indicate that this novel quadruple-labelled nanosensor is a promising new tool for measuring the pH of acidic compartments in living cells.

  4. Differential Measurement Periodontal Structures Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to a periodontal structure mapping system employing a dental handpiece containing first and second acoustic sensors for locating the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) and measuring the differential depth between the CEJ and the bottom of the periodontal pocket. Measurements are taken at multiple locations on each tooth of a patient, observed, analyzed by an optical analysis subsystem, and archived by a data storage system for subsequent study and comparison with previous and subsequent measurements. Ultrasonic transducers for the first and second acoustic sensors are contained within the handpiece and in connection with a control computer. Pressurized water is provided for the depth measurement sensor and a linearly movable probe sensor serves as the sensor for the CEJ finder. The linear movement of the CEJ sensor is obtained by a control computer actuated by the prober. In an alternate embodiment, the CEJ probe is an optical fiber sensor with appropriate analysis structure provided therefor.

  5. Methane emission from free-ranging sheep: a comparison of two measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuning, R.; Baker, S. K.; Jamie, I. M.; Hsu, C. H.; Klein, L.; Denmead, O. T.; Griffith, D. W. T.

    Methane emissions from a flock of 14, 1-year old sheep grazing on a grass and legume pasture were measured using a micrometeorological mass-balance method and a sulphur hexaflouride (SF 6) tracer technique. The former measured the mean emission, over 45 min intervals, from all the sheep within a fenced 24 m×24 m enclosure, from the enrichment of methane (CH 4) in air as it passed over the sheep. The tracer technique measured emissions from a subset of 7 individual animals over 24 h periods from measurements of CH 4 and SF 6 concentrations in air exhaled by the sheep, and from the known rate of release of SF 6 from small permeation tubes placed in the animals' rumens. Both methods gave highly similar results for 4 out of 5 days. When the species composition of dietary intake was steady during the last two days of measurement, the mean emission rate from the mass-balance method was 11.9±1.5 (SEM) g CH 4 sheep -1 d -1, while the rate from the tracer technique was 11.7±0.4 (SEM) g CH 4 sheep -1 d -1. These rates are for sheep with mean live mass of 27 kg, with a measured dry matter intake of 508 g sheep -1 d -1 and pasture dry matter digestibility of 69.5%. There was close agreement between these measurements and estimates from algorithms used to predict methane emissions from sheep for the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

  6. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.

  7. Design of an Antenna Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kyle

    Modern communication systems require next generation antenna, whose performance can only be verified through specialized equipment and methodology. For example, a vector network analyzer can be used to determine metrics such as the impedance bandwidth of an antenna. However, a vector network analyzer provides only a portion of the operational characteristics of an antenna. Instead, controlled environments known as anechoic chambers are used to ascertain the radiation characteristics of an antenna under test. These facilities typically incorporate a variety of different instruments to facilitate the measurement process. Rotary tables, linear actuators, vector network analyzers, and amplifiers are examples of typical components that are used in an anechoic chamber. While one could certainly manually control these components, it is more efficient to automate the measurement procedure. This saves time and increases repeatability of measurements. This thesis presents a complete software design for automated antenna measurement system for use in anechoic chambers. This developed software is both modular and flexible, which allows for easy adaptation for new equipment over time and allows the system to run in a simulation mode if some hardware components are not present. The system has also proven its capability by successfully measuring the radiation pattern of a dipole antenna, even in an anechoic chamber lacking wall-to-wall absorbers.

  8. Application of Phosphor Thermometry to a Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.; Allison, S.W.; Andrews, W.H.; Cates, M.R.; Grann, E.B.; Manges, W.W.; McIntyre, T.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Simpson, M.L.; Childs, R.M.; Vehec, J.; Zhang, L.

    1999-06-01

    The Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System (GTMS) was developed for the American Iron and Steel Institute by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through a partnership with the National Steel Midwest Division in Portage, Indiana. The GTMS provides crucial on-line thermal process control information during the manufacturing of galvanneal steel. The system has been used with the induction furnaces to measure temperatures ranging from 840 to 1292 F with an accuracy of better than {+-}9 F. The GTMS provides accurate, reliable temperature information thus ensuring a high quality product, reducing waste, and saving energy. The production of uniform, high-quality galvanneal steel is only possible through strict temperature control.

  9. Electronic system for Langmuir probe measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, M.; Bankova, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Tutulkov, K.; Djermanova, N.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Popov, Tsv K.

    2012-03-01

    A newly developed Langmuir probe system for measurements of current-voltage (IV) characteristics in the tokamak divertor area is presented and discussed. The system is partially controlled by a computer allowing simultaneous and independent feeding and registration of signals. The system is mounted in the COMPASS tokamak, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The new electronic circuit boards include also active low-pass filters which smooth the signal before recording by the data acquisition system (DAQ). The signal is thus less noisy and the data processing is much easier. We also designed and built a microcontroller-driven waveform generator with resolution of 1 Ms/s. The power supply is linear and uses a transformer. We avoided the use of a switching power supply because of the noise that it could generate. Examples of measurements of the IV characteristics by divertor probes in the COMPASS tokamak and evaluation of the EEDF are presented.

  10. A correction method of encoder bias in satellite laser ranging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Peiyuan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a satellite laser ranging telescope system, well-aligned encoders of the elevation and azimuth axes are essential for tracking objects. However, it is very difficult and time-consuming to correct the bias between the absolute-position indices of the encoders and the astronomical coordinates, especially in the absence of a finder scope for our system. To solve this problem, a method is presented based on the phenomenon that all stars move anti-clockwise around Polaris in the northern hemisphere. Tests of the proposed adjustment procedure in a satellite laser ranging (SLR system demonstrated the effectiveness and the time saved by using the approach, which greatly facilitates the optimization of a tracking system.

  11. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzewicz, C D; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  12. Comparison of repeated measurements of methane production in sheep over 5 years and a range of measurement protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Hegarty, R S; Oddy, V H

    2015-10-01

    Emissions of 710 ewes at pasture were measured for 1 h (between 09:00-16:30 h) in batches of 15 sheep in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) after an overnight fast continuing until 2 h before measurement, when the sheep had access to baled hay for 1 h. The test was used to identify a group of 104 low emitters (I-Low) and a group of 103 high emitters (I-Hi) for methane emissions adjusted for liveweight (CHawt). The 207 ewes selected at the initial study were remeasured in 5 repeat tests from 2009 through 2014 at another location. The first repeat used the original measurement protocol. Two modified protocols, each used in 2 yr, drafted unfasted sheep on the morning of the test into a yard or holding paddock until measurement. Emissions of the I-Hi sheep were higher (102-112%) than I-Low sheep in all subsequent PAC tests, with statistical significance ( sheep were measured in respiration chambers (RC); 10 high (Hi-10) and 10 low (Low-10) sheep were chosen, representing extremes (top and bottom 6.25%) for methane yield (MY; g CH/kg DMI). The Hi-10 group emitted 14% more methane (adjusted for feed intake) in a follow-up RC test, but Low-10 and Hi-10 sheep differed in only 1 of the 5 PAC tests, when Hi-10 sheep emitted less CHawt than Low-10 sheep ( = 0.002) and tended to eat less in the feeding opportunity ( = 0.085). Compared with their weight on good pasture, Low-10 sheep were proportionately lighter than Hi-10 sheep in the relatively poor pasture conditions of the initial test. Sheep identified as low emitters by PAC tests using the initial protocol did not produce less CH (mg/min) when fed a fixed level of intake in RC. Correlations between estimates of an animal's CHawt measured in PAC and CH adjusted for feed intake in RC were quite low ( = 0-19%) and significant ( sheep. With moderate repeatability over the 5 yr, PAC tests of CHawt could be a viable way to select for reduced emissions of grazing sheep. As well as exploiting any variation in MY, selecting for

  13. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, Joffray; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Šmíd, Radek [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic); Alexandre, Christophe [Centre d’Études et de Recherche en Informatique et Communications (CEDRIC), Cnam, 292 rue St-Martin, 75003 Paris (France)

    2016-07-15

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  14. Reactivity Measurement and Analysis System (RMAS-7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper tries to describe the Reactivity Measurement and Analysis System 7 (RMAS-7), which is an Areva’s hardware and software solution capable of accomplishing the physic startup tests in a work shift. RMAS-7 is a modular solution designed to be a powerful, convenient data collection and analysis system based on Ethernet communication network. This last feature allows RMAS-7 to have a distributed architecture. (Author)

  15. S-band radar calibration test of the Lightning Detection and Ranging system (LDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    A calibration and an accuracy assessment of the Lightning Detection and Ranging System (LDAR) were attempted through a simultaneous track of an S Band radar transponder and a lightning simulator carried by the NASA 6 airplane on a test flight. Included in the report are the results of the calibration test, error analyses of the radar, and the LDAR systems, and recommendations for future calibration tests.

  16. Characterization of short-pulse oscillators by means of a high-dynamic-range autocorrelation measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A; Rudd, J V; Cheng, H; Mourou, G; Kopf, D; Jung, I D; Weingarten, K J; Keller, U

    1995-09-15

    A high-dynamic-range autocorrelation technique was used to characterize the temporal pulse shape of ultrashort laser pulses produced from four separate oscillators. These lasers included two Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillators as well as a Nd:glass and a Ti:sapphire oscillator, each passively mode locked by an antiresonant Fabry-Perot semiconductor saturable absorber. It was shown that the Nd:glass oscillator supported a pulse that was temporally clean over 8 orders of magnitude.

  17. A measurement of auroral electrons in the 1–10 MeV range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.N. van; Beek, H.F. van; Fetter, L.D. de; Hendrickx, R.V.

    Particle fluxes have been measured by means of shielded Geiger-Müller telescopes mounted m a rocket, which was launched from ESRANGE(Kiruna) into a diffuse aurora. The analysis of the dependence of the counting rates on altitude indicates that a weak flux of energetic electrons, 1–10 MeV, has been

  18. Quantifying uncertainty of measuring gully morphological evolution with close-range digital photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of geomorphic change may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in a variety of fields including geology, geomorphology, hydrology, engineering, and soil science. Landscapes are often represented by digital elevation models. Surface models generated of the same landscape over a ...

  19. Pilot Signal Design and Direct Ranging Methods for Radio Localization Using OFDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Lishuai

    Having accurate localization capability is becoming important for existing and future terrestrial wireless communication systems, in particular for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, such as WiMAX, wireless local area network, long-term evolution (LTE) and its extension LTE......-Advanced. To obtain accurate position estimates, not only advanced estimation algorithms are needed but also the transmitted signals should be scrutinized. In this dissertation, we investigate how to design OFDM pilot signals and propose and evaluate high accuracy ranging techniques with tractable computational....... For scenarios where the number of path components is unknown and these components are not necessary separable, we propose a direct ranging technique using the received frequency-domain OFDM pilot signals. Compared to conventional (two-step) ranging methods, which estimate intermediate parameters...

  20. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  1. Functional framework and hardware platform for dependability study in short range wireless embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senouci, B.; Annema, Anne J.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    A new direction in short-range wireless applications has appeared in the form of high-speed data communication devices for distances of a few meters. Behind these embedded applications, a complex Hardware/Software architecture is built. Dependability is one of the major challenges in these systems.

  2. Non-destructive testing principles and accurate evaluation of the hydraulic measure impact range using the DC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Shen, Rongxi; Song, Dazhao; Wang, Enyuan; Liu, Zhentang; Niu, Yue; Jia, Haishan; Xia, Shankui; Zheng, Xiangxin

    2017-12-01

    An accurate and non-destructive evaluation method for the hydraulic measure impact range in coal seams is urgently needed. Aiming at the application demands, a theoretical study and field test are presented using the direct current (DC) method to evaluate the impact range of coal seam hydraulic measures. We firstly analyzed the law of the apparent resistivity response of an abnormal conductive zone in a coal seam, and then investigated the principle of non-destructive testing of the coal seam hydraulic measure impact range using the DC method, and used an accurate evaluation method based on the apparent resistivity cloud chart. Finally, taking hydraulic fracturing and hydraulic flushing as examples, field experiments were carried out in coal mines to evaluate the impact ranges. The results showed that: (1) in the process of hydraulic fracturing, coal conductivity was enhanced by high-pressure water in the coal seam, and after hydraulic fracturing, the boundary of the apparent resistivity decrease area was the boundary impact range. (2) In the process of hydraulic flushing, coal conductivity was reduced by holes and cracks in the coal seam, and after hydraulic flushing, the boundary of the apparent resistivity increase area was the boundary impact range. (3) After the implementation of the hydraulic measures, there may be some blind zones in the coal seam; in hydraulic fracturing blind zones, the apparent resistivity increased or stayed constant, while in hydraulic flushing blind zones, the apparent resistivity decreased or stayed constant. The DC method realized a comprehensive and non-destructive evaluation of the impact range of the hydraulic measures, and greatly reduced the time and cost of evaluation.

  3. Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refshauge Kathryn M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active inversion and eversion ankle range of motion (ROM is widely used to evaluate treatment effect, however the error associated with the available measurement protocols is unknown. This study aimed to establish the reliability of goniometry as used in clinical practice. Methods 30 subjects (60 ankles with a wide variety of ankle conditions participated in this study. Three observers, with different skill levels, measured active inversion and eversion ankle ROM three times on each of two days. Measurements were performed with subjects positioned (a sitting and (b prone. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1] were calculated to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability. Results Within session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.82 to 0.96 and between session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.42 to 0.80. Reliability was similar for the sitting and the prone positions, however, between sessions, inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Within session inter-observer measurements in sitting were more reliable than in prone and inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Conclusion Our findings show that ankle inversion and eversion ROM can be measured with high to very high reliability by the same observer within sessions and with low to moderate reliability by different observers within a session. The reliability of measures made by the same observer between sessions varies depending on the direction, being low to moderate for eversion measurements and moderate to high for inversion measurements in both positions.

  4. Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menadue, Collette; Raymond, Jacqueline; Kilbreath, Sharon L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Adams, Roger

    2006-07-28

    Active inversion and eversion ankle range of motion (ROM) is widely used to evaluate treatment effect, however the error associated with the available measurement protocols is unknown. This study aimed to establish the reliability of goniometry as used in clinical practice. 30 subjects (60 ankles) with a wide variety of ankle conditions participated in this study. Three observers, with different skill levels, measured active inversion and eversion ankle ROM three times on each of two days. Measurements were performed with subjects positioned (a) sitting and (b) prone. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1]) were calculated to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability. Within session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.82 to 0.96 and between session intra-observer reliability ranged from ICC[2,1] 0.42 to 0.80. Reliability was similar for the sitting and the prone positions, however, between sessions, inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Within session inter-observer measurements in sitting were more reliable than in prone and inversion measurements were more reliable than eversion measurements. Our findings show that ankle inversion and eversion ROM can be measured with high to very high reliability by the same observer within sessions and with low to moderate reliability by different observers within a session. The reliability of measures made by the same observer between sessions varies depending on the direction, being low to moderate for eversion measurements and moderate to high for inversion measurements in both positions.

  5. Distance Measures for Information System Reengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, G.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Wangler, B.; Bergman, L.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to assess the magnitude and impact of information system reengineering caused by business process change. This approach is based on two concepts: object-oriented business modeling and distance measurement. The former concept is used to visualize changes in the business layer

  6. Linear heating system for measurement of thermoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    scence intensity is monitored. The theory of TL usually assumes that the sample temperature varies linearly with time, although more general theories have been formu- lated and calculations made for non-linear heating system. Previous descriptions of apparatus for the measurement of TL have been published elsewhere ...

  7. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43...

  8. Interaction Free Measurement of Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Onofrio; Jiang, Liang

    2012-02-01

    A measurement of the state of a physical system always causes some degree of disturbance in the system. When the scaling consists of nano or smaller quantities, measurements can cause severe changes in the information contained in the system. Noteworthy are the quantum computing elements, or qubits, used operationally and as memory. The main and foremost concern for the quantum computing elements is decoherence which is exacerbated by the measuring process. We propose to overcome these obstacles using an intriguing quantum mechanical interaction free measurement (IFM) method. High-efficiency IFM has been demonstrated by combining quantum interference and the quantum Zeno effect [P. G. Kwiat, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4725 (1999)]. In addition, IFM can be useful for quantum information processing, because it eliminates photon absorbing/scattering processes, which often are responsible for undesired information loss and decoherence in neighboring atoms. This is manifested in optical lattices, dephasing of proximal nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, etc. We further propose and investigate using IFM to replace conventional optical readouts for specific quantum systems with the advantage of elimination of undesired decoherence.

  9. Measuring Pulse Rate Variability using Long-Range, Non-Contact Imaging Photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Photoplethysmography (PPG), first pioneered in the 1930’s, is a low cost , noninvasive method of detecting changes in blood volume using variations in...glasses, piercings, and use of skin or beauty products were recorded but not otherwise used for analysis or screening purposes. C. Experimental Design...and Lei Wang. A review of non-contact, low- cost physiological information measurement based on photoplethysmographic imaging. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE

  10. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1992-01-01

    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  11. Angstrom-range optical path-length measurement with a high-speed scanning heterodyne optical interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

    2003-05-01

    A highly accurate method of optical path-length measurement is introduced by use of a scanning heterodyne optical interferometer with no moving parts. The instrument has demonstrated the potential to measure optical path length at angstrom resolution over continuous thickness in the micrometer range. This optical path length can be used to calculate the thickness of any material if the refractive index is known or to measure the refractive index of the material if the thickness is known. The instrument uses a single acousto-optic device in an in-line ultra-stable reflective geometry to implement rapid scanning in the microsecond domain for thickness measurements of the test medium.

  12. New Satellite Laser Ranging TRF and EOP Series for Mass Transport Studies in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    2001-12-01

    The new millennium has started on the right note for geodesy. We finally see a series of gravity mapping missions materialize. What now becomes important is that well-established geodetic techniques rise to the challenge of validating and complementing the data these new missions will deliver. An area where this is likely to be important is the temporal variations in the zonal gravitational field and its very low degree and order components in general. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has for a long time monitored the continuous redistribution of mass within the Earth system through concomitant changes in the Stokes' coefficients of the terrestrial gravity field. Secular changes in J2 due to post-glacial relaxation have been observed since many years and similar changes in J3, J4 J5, etc. are attributed to changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Seasonal changes in these coefficients have also been closely correlated with mass transfer in the atmosphere and oceans. JCET's latest analysis of the 1993-present SLR data set from LAGEOS and LAGEOS 2 data for the IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) development, includes the weekly monitoring of such compound changes in the low degree and order harmonics. This latest solution (2001) incorporates several important changes in the modeling of SLR data with resulting improvements in the geophysical products. Along with the static parameters of the TRF we have determined a time series of variations of its origin with respect to the center of mass of the Earth system (geocenter). These estimates provide a measure of the total motion due to all sources of mass transport within the Earth system and can be used to either complement the estimates from the future missions or to validate them through comparisons with their estimates for the same quantities. The data were reduced using NASA Goddard's GEODYN/SOLVE II software, resulting to a final RMS error of ~8 mm - close to the

  13. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, William

    2014-01-01

    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  14. Sustainable Food Security Measurement: A Systemic Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findiastuti, W.; Singgih, M. L.; Anityasari, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable food security measures how a region provides food for its people without endangered the environment. In Indonesia, it was legally measured in Food Security and Vulnerability (FSVA). However, regard to sustainable food security policy, the measurement has not encompassed the environmental aspect. This will lead to lack of environmental aspect information for adjusting the next strategy. This study aimed to assess Sustainable Food security by encompassing both food security and environment aspect using systemic eco-efficiency. Given existing indicator of cereal production level, total emission as environment indicator was generated by constructing Causal Loop Diagram (CLD). Then, a stock-flow diagram was used to develop systemic simulation model. This model was demonstrated for Indonesian five provinces. The result showed there was difference between food security order with and without environmental aspect assessment.

  15. A modular, programmable measurement system for physiological and spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Miles, Christopher J.

    1993-02-01

    The NASA-Ames Sensors 2000] Program has developed a small, compact, modular, programmable, sensor signal conditioning and measurement system, initially targeted for Life Sciences Spaceflight Programs. The system consists of a twelve-slot, multi-layer, distributed function backplane, a digital microcontroller/memory subsystem, conditioned and isolated power supplies, and six application-specific, physiological signal conditioners. Each signal condition is capable of being programmed for gains, offsets, calibration and operate modes, and, in some cases, selectable outputs and functional modes. Presently, the system has the capability for measuring ECG, EMG, EEG, Temperature, Respiration, Pressure, Force, and Acceleration parameters, in physiological ranges. The measurement system makes heavy use of surface-mount packaging technology, resulting in plug in modules sized 125x55 mm. The complete 12-slot system is contained within a volume of 220x150x70mm. The system's capabilities extend well beyond the specific objectives of NASA programs. Indeed, the potential commercial uses of the technology are virtually limitless. In addition to applications in medical and biomedical sensing, the system might also be used in process control situations, in clinical or research environments, in general instrumentation systems, factory processing, or any other applications where high quality measurements are required.

  16. "Calibration" system for spectral measurements and its experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchkouskaya, Sviatlana I.; Katkovsky, Leonid V.; Belyaev, Boris I.; Malyshev, Vladislav B.

    2017-04-01

    "Calibration" system has been developed at A. N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. It was designed for measuring the characteristics of spectral reflectance of all types of natural surfaces (test sites) in ground conditions or on board of aircraft carriers and has the following components: - Photospectroradiometr (PhSR) of high resolution with a range of 400-900 nm, equipped with a digital time-lapse video system; - Two-channel modular spectroradiometer (TMS) with a range of 400-900 nm, designed for simultaneous measurements of reflected light brightness of the underlying surface and the incident radiation from the upper hemisphere; - Two portable spectroradiometers (PSR-700 and PSR-1300) with a spectral range 800-1500 nm; 1200-2500 nm; - Scanning solar spectropolarimeter (SSP-600) with a range of 350-950 nm for measurements of direct sunlight and scattered by the atmosphere at different angles; "Calibration" system provides spectral resolution of 5.2 nm in a range of 400-900 nm, 10 nm in a range of 800-1500 nm and 15 nm in a range of 1200-2500 nm. Measurements of the optical characteristics of solar radiation (for determining parameters of the atmosphere) and that of underlying surface are synchronous. There is also a set of special nozzles for measurements of spectral brightness coefficients, polarization characteristics and spectral albedo. Spectra and images are geotagged to the navigation data (time, GPS). For the measurements of spectral reflection dependencies within "Monitoring-SG" framework expeditions to the Kuril Islands, Kursk aerospace test site and Kamchatka Peninsula were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The spectra of different underlying surfaces have been obtained: soils, plants and water objects, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These surveys are a valuable material for further researches and selection of test facilities for flight calibration of space imaging systems. Information obtained

  17. Intercomparison of spectral-UV-radiation measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckmeyer, G; Thiel, S; Blumthaler, M; Fabian, P; Gerber, S; Gugg-Helminger, A; Häder, D P; Huber, M; Kettner, C; Köhler, U; Köpke, P; Maier, H; Schäfer, J; Suppan, P; Tamm, E; Thomalla, E

    1994-11-20

    The results of what is to our knowledge the first intercomparison of seven independent spectroradiometers measuring solar UV irradiances are presented. The intercomparison was carried out in the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (near Munich, Germany), on 13 July 1990. The spectroradiometric measurements were supplemented by other meteorological, optical, and chemical measurements at the same time. As this day was cloudless, the data can be compared with the measurements taken by Bener in Switzerland in the 1960's and with the results of radiative transfer models. The measured irradiances at noon differed by factors of up to 100. These large differences demonstrate the great difficulties with this type of measurement. Some instrument systems, however, ranged within tolerances of ±10%, thus allowing us to make recommendations for the spectroradiometry of solar UV irradiances.

  18. The Ansel Adams zone system: HDR capture and range compression by chemical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2010-02-01

    We tend to think of digital imaging and the tools of PhotoshopTM as a new phenomenon in imaging. We are also familiar with multiple-exposure HDR techniques intended to capture a wider range of scene information, than conventional film photography. We know about tone-scale adjustments to make better pictures. We tend to think of everyday, consumer, silver-halide photography as a fixed window of scene capture with a limited, standard range of response. This description of photography is certainly true, between 1950 and 2000, for instant films and negatives processed at the drugstore. These systems had fixed dynamic range and fixed tone-scale response to light. All pixels in the film have the same response to light, so the same light exposure from different pixels was rendered as the same film density. Ansel Adams, along with Fred Archer, formulated the Zone System, staring in 1940. It was earlier than the trillions of consumer photos in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was much more sophisticated than today's digital techniques. This talk will describe the chemical mechanisms of the zone system in the parlance of digital image processing. It will describe the Zone System's chemical techniques for image synthesis. It also discusses dodging and burning techniques to fit the HDR scene into the LDR print. Although current HDR imaging shares some of the Zone System's achievements, it usually does not achieve all of them.

  19. Lightning Detection and Ranging system LDAR system description and performance objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.; Lennon, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The instruments used at the six remote stations to measure both the time-of-arrival of the envelope of the pulsed 60 MHz to 80 MHz portion of the RF signal emitted by lightning, and the electric field waveforms are described as well as the two methods of transmitting the signal to the central station. Other topics discussed include data processing, recording, and reduction techniques and the software used for the 2100S, 2114, and 2116 computers.

  20. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  1. Wireless wearable range-of-motion sensor system for upper and lower extremity joints: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogaprakash; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Wangwei; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Ziyi; Li, Jingze; Hon, Benjamin; Tian-Ma Xu, Tim; Cheong, Angela; Koh, Karen; Ng, Yee-Sien; Chew, Effie; Koh, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Range-of-motion (ROM) assessment is a critical assessment tool during the rehabilitation process. The conventional approach uses the goniometer which remains the most reliable instrument but it is usually time-consuming and subject to both intra- and inter-therapist measurement errors. An automated wireless wearable sensor system for the measurement of ROM has previously been developed by the current authors. Presented is the correlation and accuracy of the automated wireless wearable sensor system against a goniometer in measuring ROM in the major joints of upper (UEs) and lower extremities (LEs) in 19 healthy subjects and 20 newly disabled inpatients through intra (same) subject comparison of ROM assessments between the sensor system against goniometer measurements by physical therapists. In healthy subjects, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of differences goniometry, with 95% of the differences being < 20° and 25° for most movements in the major joints of UE and LE, respectively. PMID:26609398

  2. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics Part I: One-dimensional Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2010-01-01

    of the wake meandering, as well as the instantaneous wake expansion expressed in a meandering frame of reference. The experiment was conducted primarily to test the simple hypothesis that the wake deficit is advected passively by the larger-than-rotor-size eddies in the atmospheric flow, and that the wake...... at the same time widens gradually, primarily because of mixing caused by small-scale atmospheric eddies. In this first paper, we focus on our new measurement technique, and test if the wake meandering follows the wind direction fluctuations, i.e. if it is advected passively in the lateral direction...

  3. Shock initiation of nano-Al/Teflon: High dynamic range pyrometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-launched flyer plates (25 μm thick Cu) were used to impact-initiate reactive materials consisting of 40 nm Al particles embedded in TeflonAF polymer (Al/Teflon) on sapphire substrates at a stoichiometric concentration (2.3:1 Teflon:Al), as well as one-half and one-fourth that concentration. A high dynamic range emission spectrometer was used to time and spectrally resolve the emitted light and to determine graybody temperature histories with nanosecond time resolution. At 0.5 km s-1, first light emission was observed from Teflon, but at 0.6 km s-1, the emission from Al/Teflon became much more intense, so we assigned the impact threshold for Al/Teflon reactions to be 0.6 (±0.1) km s-1. The flyer plates produced a 7 ns duration steady shock drive. Emission from shocked Al/Teflon above threshold consisted of two bursts. At the higher impact velocities, the first burst started 15 ns after impact, peaked at 25 ns, and persisted for 75 ns. The second burst started at a few hundred nanoseconds and lasted until 2 μs. The 15 ns start time was exactly the time the flyer plate velocity dropped to zero after impact with sapphire. The first burst was associated with shock-triggered reactions and the second, occurring at ambient pressure, was associated with combustion of leftover material that did not react during shock. The emission spectrum was found to be a good fit to a graybody at all times, allowing temperature histories to be extracted. At 25 ns, the temperature at 0.7 km s-1 and the one-fourth Al load was 3800 K. Those temperatures increased significantly with impact velocity, up to 4600 K, but did not increase as much with Al load. A steady combustion process at 2800 (±100) K was observed in the microsecond range. The minimal dependence on Al loading indicates that these peak temperatures arise primarily from Al nanoparticles reacting almost independently, since the presence of nearby heat sources had little influence on the peak temperatures.

  4. SRB Measures for Lattice Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, M

    2003-01-01

    For weakly coupled expanding maps on the unit circle, Bricmont and Kupiainen showed that the Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen (SRB) measure exists as a Gibbs state. Via thermodynamic formalism, we prove that this SRB measure is indeed the unique equilibrium state for a H\\"older continuous potential function on the infinite dimensional phase space. For a more general class of lattice systems that are small perturbations of the uncoupled map lattice, we present the variational principle, the entropy formula, and the formula for the potential function for the SRB measures. For coupled map lattices with nearest neighbor interactions, we give an explicit formula of the potential function for the SRB measure and consequently, obtain the entropy in terms of coupling parameters.

  5. Spin segregation via dynamically induced long-range interactions in a system of ultracold fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebling, Ulrich [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Eckardt, Andre [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Avenida Carl Friedrich Gauss, 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    We investigate theoretically the time evolution of a one-dimensional system of spin-1/2 fermions in a harmonic trap after, initially, a spiral spin configuration far from equilibrium is created. We predict a spin segregation building up in time already for weak interaction under realistic experimental conditions. The effect relies on the interplay between exchange interaction and the harmonic trap, and it is found for a wide range of parameters. It can be understood as a consequence of an effective, dynamically induced long-range interaction that is derived by integrating out the rapid oscillatory dynamics in the trap.

  6. Effective-range parameters and vertex constants for Λ-nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakityansky, S. A.; Gopane, I. M.

    For a wide range of the core-nuclei (6 ≤ A ≤ 207), the scattering lengths, effective radii, and the other effective-range parameters (up to the order ˜ k8) for the angular momentum ℓ = 0, 1, 2 are calculated within a two-body ΛA-model. For the same hypernuclear systems, the S-matrix residues as well as the corresponding Nuclear-Vertex and Asymptotic-Normalization constants (NVC’s and ANC’s) for the bound states are also found.

  7. Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, III: ranges and other measures of statistical dispersion, their interrelations and taxonomic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Williams

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the third of a series of papers examining the taxonomic relevance of some statistical treatments of measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Actiniaria. Some cnida lengths from fresh tissue samples (column ectoderm, tentacles or acontia from Nematostella vectensis, Haliplanella lineata, Sagartia elegans, Metridium senile, Cereus pedunculatus, Sagartia troglodytes, Anthopleura thallia, Urticina eques and Sagartiogeton lacerates were measured. Five measures of statistical dispersion (sample standard deviation, coefficient of variation, observed sample range, standard range, and 99% probable maximum value of the standard range were calculated, and their interrelations and potential applications were appraised. It has long been the convention to use the largest and smallest cnida sizes (observed sample range from tissue samples in attempts to establish differences between actiniarian taxa. However, such data do not reflect the true extremes of a population range. In the present study, the 99% probable maximum value of the standard range for a standard abundance of 1,000 gave the greatest and, therefore, the most cautious estimate of a population range of cnida sizes for a species. This maximum standard range is the only measure of dispersion of cnida sizes that may be used validly to demonstrate that anemone specimens are of different species, and then only if there is no overlap between the extreme cnida sizes being compared. However, partial or complete overlaps of cnida size extremes do not necessarily indicate that specimens are conspecific; other taxonomic characters must also be considered. Coefficients of variation may provide valuable clues as to the homogeneity or heterogeneity of samples of cnida measurements. This paper should be read in conjunction with the first two in this series, which address the taxonomic relevance of differences between mean cnida sizes (Williams, 1996, Sci. Mar., 60: 339-351; 1998, Sci. Mar., 62: 361-372.

  8. Design, Manufacture and Testing of Capacitive Pressure Sensors for Low-Pressure Measurement Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Mitrakos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design, manufacture and testing of a capacitive pressure sensor with a high, tunable performance to low compressive loads (<10 kPa and a resolution of less than 0.5 kPa. Such a performance is required for the monitoring of treatment efficacy delivered by compression garments to treat or prevent medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, leg ulcers, varicose veins or hypertrophic scars. Current commercial sensors used in such medical applications have been found to be either impractical, costly or of insufficient resolution. A microstructured elastomer film of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS blend with a tunable Young’s modulus was used as the force-sensing dielectric medium. The resulting 18 mm × 18 mm parallel-plate capacitive pressure sensor was characterised in the range of 0.8 to 6.5 kPa. The microstructuring of the surface morphology of the elastomer film combined with the tuning of the Young’s modulus of the PDMS blend is demonstrated to enhance the sensor performance achieving a 0.25 kPa pressure resolution and a 10 pF capacitive change under 6.5 kPa compressive load. The resulting sensor holds good potential for the targeted medical application.

  9. Analysis of the properties of targets used in digital close-range photogrammetric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Timothy A.

    1994-10-01

    It is common to use some form of targeting in close range photogrammetry as there are seldom enough points on the surface of an object with sufficient contrast. Targets which have been used include: light emitting diodes; black circles on a white background; retro-reflective film; projected laser beams; projected `white light' slides; feature encoded targets; and color targets. This paper discusses the characteristics of targets. In particular the established retro- reflective target and the promising projected laser target are considered as they both offer high signal-to-noise ratios together with optimum target sizes. The performance of the targets are analyzed by use of laboratory tests, for example: (1) a retro-reflective target was placed on a rotating mount with the center of the target located on the axis of rotation and the target monitored by a CCD camera under varying conditions; and (2) a laser target was analyzed by experiments which were designed to indicate the effect of speckle by moving a flat object in a direction perpendicular to the laser beam.

  10. Nanocomposite-Based Microstructured Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Low-Pressure Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Mitrakos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive pressure sensors capable of detecting ranges of low compressive stresses have been successfully fabricated and characterised. The 5.5 × 5 × 1.6 mm3 sensors consist of a planar aluminium top electrode and a microstructured bottom electrode containing a two-by-two array of truncated pyramids with a piezoresistive composite layer sandwiched in-between. The responses of two different piezocomposite materials, a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT-elastomer composite and a Quantum Tunneling Composite (QTC, have been characterised as a function of applied pressure and effective contact area. The MWCNT piezoresistive composite-based sensor was able to detect pressures as low as 200 kPa. The QTC-based sensor was capable of detecting pressures as low as 50 kPa depending on the contact area of the bottom electrode. Such sensors could find useful applications requiring the detection of small compressive loads such as those encountered in haptic sensing or robotics.

  11. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C.; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. Purpose: 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. Methods: The study was designed in a randomi...

  12. Measures of range of motion and strength among healthy women with differing quality of lower extremity movement during the lateral step-down test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    Cross-sectional. To determine the association between hip and ankle range-of-motion measures, as well as measures of hip muscle strength, with measures of quality of lower extremity movement, as assessed visually during the lateral step-down test in healthy women. Altered lower extremity movement pattern consisting of excessive femoral adduction and internal rotation, leading to excessive knee valgus alignment, is associated with increased risk of knee ligament injury, as well as patellofemoral pain syndrome. Previous investigations of lower extremity kinematics, using 3-dimensional motion analysis systems, document an inconsistent association between hip muscle strength and lower extremity movement pattern. Currently, it is unknown whether differences in hip muscle strength or other physical measures exist among women with differing quality of lower extremity movement as assessed by visual observation. Two physical therapists assessed the quality of movement during the lateral step-down among 29 healthy women (mean ± SD age, 24.3 ± 3.2 years). Subjects were instructed on the optimal movement pattern prior to performing the test. The quality of movement was categorized as "good" or "moderate," based on a previously established 6-point scale. Several measures of hip strength (handheld dynamometer) and hip and ankle range of motion (fluid-filled inclinometer and universal goniometer) were also assessed. Differences in strength and range-of-motion measures between women with good and women with moderate quality of movement were assessed with a Mann-Whitney U test. Both examiners found decreased ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, as measured with the knee bent (Pdorsiflexion range of motion compared to women with a good quality of movement. Clinicians should consider evaluating ankle dorsiflexion range of motion when observing an altered lower extremity movement pattern during the lateral step-down test.

  13. Communications System for Down-Hole Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijarez-Castro Rito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressively deeper and hotter oil wells have driven design modification that enhances the performance in sensors and downhole electronic instruments. Oil reservoirs in Mexico are located at mean depths of 6,000 m; as a consequence, the requirements for measuring thermodynamic and geophysical parameters are challenging. This paper describes a bidirectional communication system that exchanges data from a down-hole high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT measurement tool to the surface installation. The communication medium is a 7 km mono-conductor 1K22 logging cable used also as a power supply transmission line. The system consists of a proprietary downhole measurement tool, composed of a HT/HP sensor and a high temperature DSP-based electronic device, and a data acquisition equipment located in the surface installation. The system employs a communication algorithm that automatically changes the carrier frequency of the modulation technique employed, to avoid issues derived from noise interference, cable attenuation and thermal drift of the front end passive elements. The laboratory tests results provide a firm basis for testing and evaluating the system in the field.

  14. High fidelity imager emulator of measured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, David P.; Teaney, Brian P.

    2017-05-01

    Characterizing an imaging system through the use of linear transfer functions allows prediction of the output for an arbitrary input. Through careful measurement of the systems transfer function, imaging effects can then be applied to desired imagery in order to conduct subjective comparison, image based analysis, or evaluate algorithm performance. The Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) currently utilizes a two-dimensional linear model of the systems transfer function to emulate the systems response and additive signal independent noise. In this correspondence, we describe how a two-dimensional MTF can be obtained through correct interpolation of one-dimensional measurements. We also present a model for the signal dependent noise (additive and multiplicative) and the details of its calculation from measurement. Through modeling of the experimental setup, we demonstrate how the emulated sensor replicates the observed objective performance in resolution, sampling, and noise. In support of the reproducible research effort, many of the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  15. Long ranged interactions in computer simulations and for quasi-2D systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial, E-mail: Martial.Mazars@th.u-psud.f

    2011-03-15

    Taking correctly into account long ranged interactions in molecular simulations of molecular models based on classical atomistic representations are essential to obtain reliable results on model systems and in simulations of biological systems. A lot of numerical methods have been developed to this end; the most important of them are reviewed in this paper. Particular attention is paid to the analytical relations between the methods, this allows comparisons on efficiency and accuracy between them and also to proceed to precise implementations of these techniques. While most of the methods have been developed for Coulomb interactions, we give also some analytical details to apply these methods to screened Coulomb (Yukawa interactions), inverse power law and dipolar interactions. Particular types of systems, the quasi-2D systems, are also considered in this paper. Quasi-2D systems represent a large class of physical systems where the spatial extension in one direction of the space is very small by comparison to the other two. These representations are very useful to describe the properties of interfaces, surfaces, fluids confined in slab geometry, etc. In computer simulations, these systems are studied with partial periodic boundary conditions: periodic boundary conditions are taken in directions where spatial extensions are large and some other boundary conditions are taken in directions with smaller extensions. In this review, we describe also the numerical methods developed to handle long ranged interactions in numerical simulations of quasi-2D systems. The properties of quasi-2D systems depend strongly on interactions between components; more specifically electrostatic and magnetic interactions and interactions with external fields are of particular interest in these systems.

  16. Reliability and validity of a weight-bearing measure of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Martin D; Birmingham, Trevor B; Brown, Janet; Macdermid, Joy; Chesworth, Bert M

    2012-01-01

    To examine reliability and validity of the Lunge Test (LT) of dorsiflexion range of motion and determine the impact of different approaches to obtain a score on these parameters. Fifty-three patients with ankle injury/dysfunction provided initial assessment data for cross-sectional convergent and known-groups validity analysis with the Pearson coefficient (r) and paired t-test, respectively; data after 4-8 weeks of treatment for longitudinal validity analysis with coefficient r; and data 3 days later for test-retest reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC). LT scores were determined for the affected leg only (LTAff) and for the difference between the two limbs (LTDiff). Two strategies were used to calculate LT scores: a single series and the mean of three series of lunges. LTs were correlated with the Lower Extremity Functional Scale and Global Foot and Ankle Scale. Reliability coefficients were high (ICC=0.93-0.99). The MDC=1.0/1.5 cm, LTAff/LTDiff, respectively. Cross-sectional validity was confirmed for LTDiff (r=-0.40 to -0.50). Between-limb differences (p<0.05) supported known-groups validity. Longitudinal validity was supported for both LT change scores (r=0.39-0.63). The number of series of lunges used did not impact results. A single series of lunges produces a reliable LT score. From a validity perspective, clinicians should use LTDiff on initial assessment and either LT to assess change.

  17. Computer-aided measurement system analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feliks

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Product analysis with the alternative method is commonly used, especially where the direct or indirect measurement taken as a numerical value of the interesting feature of the product is infeasible, difficult or too expensive. Such an analysis results in deciding whether a given product meets the specified requirements or not. The product may also be analysed in several categories. Neither the measurement itself, nor its result provides information on the extent to which the requirements are met with respect to the analysed feature. The measurement only supports the decision whether to accept the part inspected as ‘good’ or reject and deem it ‘bad’ (made improperly. Several analysis methods for systems of this type have been described in the literature: the Analytic Method, the Signal Detection Method, Cohen’s Kappa (Cross Tab Method. The paper discusses selected methods of measurement system analysis for alternative parameters in the scope of requirements related to the application of statistical process control and quality control. The feasibility is presented of using the MSExcel® package to procedure implementation and result analysis for measurement experiments.

  18. Validation of a short-range ensemble precipitation prediction system over the Iberian Peninsula and Balearics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Muñoz, D.; Martin, M. L.; Valero, F.; Luna, M. Y.; Morata, A.; Sebastian, L. I.

    2009-09-01

    A short-range ensemble precipitation forecast system has been constructed over the Iberian Peninsula and Balearics by means of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Model (MM5). The ensemble system consists of ten members, each run with a different combination of two different initial conditions from global models, IFS-ECMWF and GFS-NCEP, and five different subgrid-scale physics configurations for three months period of 2006. The mesoscale verification is made by using observational precipitation data of the Spanish Climatic Network. To ensure the quality individual members the forecast distribution of each member has been studied, showing good agreement with the observed precipitation distribution. The created short-range ensemble shows high spread-skill correlation values for daily precipitation. However, the asymmetric shape of the rank histogram indicates some underdispersion, suggesting an under-forecasting behaviour. Talagrand diagrams have been created for different precipitation thresholds to analyze more deeply the system calibration, showing a nearly flat shape on the lower bins and a clear accumulation on the higher interval, indicating that the system is well bias affected. The Relative Operating Characteristic curves show a very outstanding area indicating the good discrimination capacity for each of the thresholds. The reliability diagrams are also indicative of the good reliability of the forecasting system, depicting in general good agreement between forecast probability and the mean observed frequency. Because of that, the verification proves the usefulness of the forecasting system over the study area.

  19. Radio channel measurement and modelling for future mobile radio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdenli, E.; Huish, P. W.

    1989-12-01

    Digital mobile radio systems will require planning methods that provide accurate predictions of signal strength, distortion, and interference for situations ranging from very small cells in dense urban locations to large rural cells. Topographic and land usage data bases will find increasing use to enhance the accuracy of prediction models. The implications of these issues are discussed and the work in progress at British Telecommunications Research Laboratories on land mobile radio propagation modeling and wide-band channel measurements is presented.

  20. Vibration measurements on the Phalanx electro-optical stabilization system

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, James E.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The installation of the new PHALANX Surface Mode (PSUM) upgrade will enable the PHALANX to handle a wider range of threats, such as a small boat approaching the ship. The objective of the research described in this thesis was to measure the vibration of a prototype forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera stabilizer system during live-fire tests to evaluate its performance. Uniaxial, triaxial, and angular accelerometers were mounted at 1...

  1. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  2. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  3. Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, J.; Nocente, M.; Binda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe the p...

  4. Reliability of the spin-T cervical goniometer in measuring cervical range of motion in an asymptomatic Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shabnam; Allison, Garry T; Singer, Kevin P

    2005-09-01

    To examine the intratester reliability of the Spin-T goniometer, a cervical range of motion device, in a normal Indian population. Subjects comprised 30 healthy adults with mean age of 34 years (range, 18-65 years). The subjects were stabilized in the sitting position and the Spin-T goniometer mounted on the head of the subject. The study design was a within-subject repeated intratester reliability trial conducted for cervical range of motion in 6 directions of movement. Three measurements were taken in each direction (flexion, extension lateral flexion, and lateral rotation) per participant. Reliability coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients, and 95% confidence interval were derived from repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Where differences in ANOVA were detected, a paired t test was conducted and the typical error values and coefficient of variance were calculated. All repeated measures showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (all >0.96, P goniometer proved to be a reliable measuring instrument for cervical range of movement in an Indian population. The use of a laser pointer fixed to the instrument ensured a consistent neutral start position.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of a Micelle-Based pH Nanosensor with an Unprecedented Broad Measurement Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Feldborg, Lise N.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    ) carboxyfluorescein and a reference fluorophore Alexa 633 to the PAEMA shell region of the micelles. Fluorescence measurements show that these pH nanosensors are sensitive in a surprisingly broad pH range of 3.4–8.0, which is hypothesized to be due to small differences in the individual fluorophores’ local...

  6. Reproducibility of range of motion and muscle strength measurements in patients with hip osteoarthritis – an interrater study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Erik; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Penny, Jeannette Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Assessment of range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength is fundamental in the clinical diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis (OA) but reproducibility of these measurements has mostly involved clinicians from secondary care and has rarely reported agreement parameters. Therefore, t...

  7. Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions : II. Measurements of the linear viscoelastic behavior of emulsions in the kilohertz range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, M.; Mellema, J.; Lopulissa, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions in shear deformation in the kilohertz range is demonstrated experimentally. In order to avoid complications due to inertia effects, emulsions with small droplet sizes are studied. The preliminary measurements are interpreted as being the result of droplet

  8. Relative Orbital Element Estimation and Observability Analysis for Formation Flying Satellites using Inter-Satellite Range Measurements Only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent the relative orbital elements of two satellites flying in formation can be estimated making use of inter-satellite range measurements only. Since the determination of relative orbital elements does not require the orientation of the relative orbit with respect

  9. Muon momentum measurement in ICARUS-T600 LAr-TPC via multiple scattering in few-GeV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, M.; Baibussinov, B.; Bellini, V.; Benetti, P.; Boffelli, F.; Bubak, A.; Calligarich, E.; Centro, S.; Cervi, T.; Cesana, A.; Cieslik, K.; Cocco, A. G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dermenev, A.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Janik, M.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Scaramelli, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Spanu, M.; Stefan, D.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Torti, M.; Tortorici, F.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K.

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of muon momentum by Multiple Coulomb Scattering is a crucial ingredient to the reconstruction of νμ CC events in the ICARUS-T600 liquid argon TPC in absence of magnetic field, as in the search for sterile neutrinos at Fermilab where ICARUS will be exposed to ~ 1 GeV Booster neutrino beam. A sample of ~ 1000 stopping muons produced by charged current interactions of CNGS νμ in the surrounding rock at the INFN Gran Sasso underground Laboratory provides an ideal benchmark in the few-GeV range since their momentum can be directly and independently obtained by the calorimetric measurement. Stopping muon momentum in the 0.5-4.5 GeV/c range has been reconstructed via Multiple Coulomb Scattering with resolution ranging from 10 to 25% depending on muon energy, track length and uniformity of the electric field in the drift volume.

  10. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-4 - Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation range system. 1.167(l)-4 Section 1.167(l)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-4 Public utility property; election to use asset depreciation range system. (a) Application of section 167(l) to certain property subject to asset depreciation range system...

  11. Selecting among competing models of electro-optic, infrared camera system range performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan M.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Range performance is often the key requirement around which electro-optical and infrared camera systems are designed. This work presents an objective framework for evaluating competing range performance models. Model selection based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) is presented for the type of data collected during a typical human observer and target identification experiment. These methods are then demonstrated on observer responses to both visible and infrared imagery in which one of three maritime targets was placed at various ranges. We compare the performance of a number of different models, including those appearing previously in the literature. We conclude that our model-based approach offers substantial improvements over the traditional approach to inference, including increased precision and the ability to make predictions for some distances other than the specific set for which experimental trials were conducted.

  12. TH-C-19A-07: Output Factor Dependence On Range and Modulation for a New Proton Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B; Zhao, T; Grantham, K; Goddu, S; Santanam, L; Klein, E [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Proton treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and do not calculate monitor units (MU) for proton fields. Output factors (cGy/MU) for patient-specific fields are usually measured in phantoms or modeled empirically. The purpose of this study is to predict the output factors (OFs) for a given proton (R90) and modulation width (Mod) for the first Mevion S250 proton therapy system. Methods: Using water phantoms and a calibrated ionization chamber-electrometer, over 100 OFs were measured for various R90 and Mod combinations for 24 different options. OFs were measured at the center of the Mod, which coincided with the isocenter. The measured OFs were fitted using an analytic model developed by Kooy (Phys.Med.Biol. 50, 2005) for each option and a derived universal empirical-based polynomial as a function of R90 and Mod for all options. Options are devised for ranges of R90 and Mod. The predicted OFs from both models were compared to measurements. Results: Using the empirical-based model, the values could be predicted to within 3% for at least 90% of measurements and within 5% for 98% of the measurements. Using the analytic model to fit each option with the same effective source position, the prediction is much more accurate. The maximal uncertainty between measured and predicted is within 2% and the averaged root-mean-square is 1.5%. Conclusion: Although the measured data was not exhaustive, both models predicted OFs within acceptable uncertainty. Both models are currently used for a sanity check of our continual patient field OF measurements. As we acquire more patient-field OFs, the model will be refined with an ultimate goal of eliminating the time-consuming patient-specific OF measurements.

  13. Pose and Shape Reconstruction of a Noncooperative Spacecraft Using Camera and Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Volpe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in on-orbit proximity operations has pushed towards the development of autonomous GNC strategies. In this sense, optical navigation enables a wide variety of possibilities as it can provide information not only about the kinematic state but also about the shape of the observed object. Various mission architectures have been either tested in space or studied on Earth. The present study deals with on-orbit relative pose and shape estimation with the use of a monocular camera and a distance sensor. The goal is to develop a filter which estimates an observed satellite’s relative position, velocity, attitude, and angular velocity, along with its shape, with the measurements obtained by a camera and a distance sensor mounted on board a chaser which is on a relative trajectory around the target. The filter’s efficiency is proved with a simulation on a virtual target object. The results of the simulation, even though relevant to a simplified scenario, show that the estimation process is successful and can be considered a promising strategy for a correct and safe docking maneuver.

  14. The Design Concept of the First Mobile Satellite Laser Ranging System (ARGO-M in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI launched the development project of two satellite laser ranging (SLR systems in early 2008 after the government fund approval of the SLR systems in 2007. One mobile SLR system and one permanent SLR station will be developed with the completion of the project. The main objectives of these systems will be focused on the Space Geodetic researches. A system requirement review was held in the second half of the same year. Through the following system design review meeting and other design reviews, many unsolved technical and engineering issues would be discussed and resolved. However, the design of the mobile SLR system is a corner stone of whole project. The noticeable characteristics of Korea’s first SLR system are 1 use of light weight main mirror, 2 design of compact optical assembly, 3 use of KHz laser pulse, 4 use of commercial laser generator, 5 remote operation capability, 6 automatic tracking, 7 state of art operation system, etc. In this paper, the major user requirement and pre-defined specification are presented and discussed.

  15. Fluorescent sensors for the basic metabolic panel enable measurement with a smart phone device over the physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awqatty, Becker; Samaddar, Shayak; Cash, Kevin J; Clark, Heather A; Dubach, J Matthew

    2014-10-21

    The advanced functionality of portable devices such as smart phones provides the necessary hardware to potentially perform complex diagnostic measurements in any setting. Recent research and development have utilized cameras and data acquisition properties of smart phones to create diagnostic approaches for a variety of diseases or pollutants. However, in concentration measurements, such as blood glucose, the performance of handheld diagnostic devices depends largely on the sensing mechanism. To expand measurements to multiple components, often necessary in medical tests, with a single diagnostic device, robust platform based sensors are needed. Here, we developed a suite of dual wavelength fluorescent sensors with response characteristics necessary to measure each component of a basic metabolic panel, a common clinical measurement. Furthermore, the response of these sensors could be measured with a simple optical setup to convert a smart phone into a fluorescence measurement instrument. This approach could be used as a mobile basic metabolic panel measurement system for point of care diagnostics.

  16. An adiabatic calorimeter for heat capacity measurements of polyurethane foam with blowing agent of HFC245fa in the temperature range 60-290K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.G.; Xu, L.; Zhang, L.Q.; Chen, N. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-06-15

    In order to meet the urgent need of heat insulating materials used under low temperature in the area of aerospace, a new polyurethane (PU) foam with HFC245fa as blowing agent was developed. In this paper, the heat capacity in the temperature range of 60-290K of the new material was measured through an automated adiabatic calorimeter, which was composed of a heat insulation system, a power measuring system, a vacuum pumping system and a cooling system. The sample cell of the calorimeter was equipped with a miniature platinum thermometer surrounded by two adiabatic shields and housed in a high vacuum can. The temperature differences among the sample cell and the inner and outer adiabatic shields could be adjusted automatically to less than 0.05K, all which ensure there was no heat exchange between the sample and surroundings. Under these conditions, the mathematical formulation of the sample with the physical model was given. Through measuring the heat capacity of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is a standard reference material, a relatively high reliability with a deviation of +/-2.5% of this adiabatic calorimeter was shown compared with the standard data. The results indicate that the newly developed PU foam has a higher heat capacity compared with other heat insulating materials, and there is no obvious sign of any phase transition or thermal anomaly in the entire temperature range. That is to say, the material is thermodynamically stable when used in the low temperature range. (author)

  17. An adiabatic calorimeter for heat capacity measurements of polyurethane foam with blowing agent of HFC245fa in the temperature range 60-290 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.G. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: chunguang_yang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xu, L. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, L.Q. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Chen, N. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-06-15

    In order to meet the urgent need of heat insulating materials used under low temperature in the area of aerospace, a new PU foam with HFC245fa as blowing agent was developed. In this paper, the heat capacity in the temperature range of 60-290 K of the new material was measured through an automated adiabatic calorimeter, which was composed of a heat insulation system, a power measuring system, a vacuum pumping system and a cooling system. The sample cell of the calorimeter was equipped with a miniature platinum thermometer surrounded by two adiabatic shields and housed in a high vacuum can. The temperature differences among the sample cell and the inner and outer adiabatic shields could be adjusted automatically to less than 0.05 K, all which ensure there was no heat exchange between the sample and surroundings. Under these conditions, the mathematical formulation of the sample with the physical model was given. Through measuring the heat capacity of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is a standard reference material, a relatively high reliability with a deviation of {+-}2.5% of this adiabatic calorimeter was shown compared with the standard data. The results indicate that the newly developed PU foam has a higher heat capacity compared with other heat insulating materials, and there is no obvious sign of any phase transition or thermal anomaly in the entire temperature range. That is to say, the material is thermodynamically stable when used in the low temperature range.

  18. Extending the frequency range of free-field reciprocity calibration of measurement microphones to frequencies up to 150 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Measurement microphones are typically calibrated in a free field at frequencies up to 50 kHz. This is a sufficiently high frequency for the most sound measurement applications related with noise assessment. However, other applications such as the measurement of noise emitted by ultrasound cleaning...... machines and failure detection in aeronautic structures require that the sensitivity of the microphone is known at frequencies up to 150 kHz. Another area of particular interest is the investigation of the perception mechanisms of ultrasound. In any of these applications, it is of fundamental importance...... to establish a well-defined traceability chain to support the measurement results. In order to extend the frequency range of free-field calibration the measurement system and measurement methods must undergo a series of changes and adaptations including the type of excitation signal, techniques for eliminating...

  19. Continuous Symmetry Breaking in 1D Long-Range Interacting Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2017-07-01

    Continuous symmetry breaking (CSB) in low-dimensional systems, forbidden by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for short-range interactions, may take place in the presence of slowly decaying long-range interactions. Nevertheless, there is no stringent bound on how slowly interactions should decay to give rise to CSB in 1D quantum systems at zero temperature. Here, we study a long-range interacting spin chain with U (1 ) symmetry and power-law interactions V (r )˜1 /rα. Using a number of analytical and numerical techniques, we find CSB for α smaller than a critical exponent αc(≤3 ) that depends on the microscopic parameters of the model. Furthermore, the transition from the gapless X Y phase to the gapless CSB phase is mediated by the breaking of conformal and Lorentz symmetries due to long-range interactions, and is described by a universality class akin to, but distinct from, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Signatures of the CSB phase should be accessible in existing trapped-ion experiments.

  20. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  1. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Fang, Wen, E-mail: fangwen@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Economics and Management, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  2. Long-range order between the planets in the Solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    The Solar System is investigated for positional correlations between the planets using a logarithmic distance scale. The pair correlation function for the logarithm of the semimajor axis shows a regular distribution with 5-7 consecutive peaks, and the Fourier transform hereof shows reciprocal peaks...... of first and second order. A procedure involving random permutations for the shuffling of the inter--logarithmic distances is employed to check for the significance of the presence of order of longer range than neighbor planets correlations. The use of permutations is a particular helpful analysis when...... the number of data points is small. The pair correlation function of the permutated planets lacks the sequence of equidistant peaks and its Fourier transform has no second order peak. This analysis demonstrates the existence of longer ranged correlations in the Solar System....

  3. Analog VLSI Models of Range-Tuned Neurons in the Bat Echolocation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat echolocation is a fascinating topic of research for both neuroscientists and engineers, due to the complex and extremely time-constrained nature of the problem and its potential for application to engineered systems. In the bat's brainstem and midbrain exist neural circuits that are sensitive to the specific difference in time between the outgoing sonar vocalization and the returning echo. While some of the details of the neural mechanisms are known to be species-specific, a basic model of reafference-triggered, postinhibitory rebound timing is reasonably well supported by available data. We have designed low-power, analog VLSI circuits to mimic this mechanism and have demonstrated range-dependent outputs for use in a real-time sonar system. These circuits are being used to implement range-dependent vocalization amplitude, vocalization rate, and closest target isolation.

  4. Measuring cell identity in noisy biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Kussell, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression measurements are increasingly obtained as a function of cell type, spatial position within a tissue and other biologically meaningful coordinates. Such data should enable quantitative analysis of the cell-type specificity of gene expression, but such analyses can often be confounded by the presence of noise. We introduce a specificity measure Spec that quantifies the information in a gene's complete expression profile regarding any given cell type, and an uncertainty measure dSpec, which measures the effect of noise on specificity. Using global gene expression data from the mouse brain, plant root and human white blood cells, we show that Spec identifies genes with variable expression levels that are nonetheless highly specific of particular cell types. When samples from different individuals are used, dSpec measures genes’ transcriptional plasticity in each cell type. Our approach is broadly applicable to mapped gene expression measurements in stem cell biology, developmental biology, cancer biology and biomarker identification. As an example of such applications, we show that Spec identifies a new class of biomarkers, which exhibit variable expression without compromising specificity. The approach provides a unifying theoretical framework for quantifying specificity in the presence of noise, which is widely applicable across diverse biological systems. PMID:21803789

  5. A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-02-22

    For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA).

  6. Enhancing an enterprise's innovation performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Ljiljana; Novićević, Blagoje; Đukić, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Business conditions under which modern enterprises operate are becoming more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused not only by external but also by internal factors, which imposes the need for turnover in management focus. The turnover is reflected primarily in the change of business models. The changes are evident at all management stages. Development and enhancement of business performance measurement system is the area where the changes are most evident con...

  7. A Single-Phase Boost Rectifier System for Wide Range of Load Variations

    OpenAIRE

    R Ghosh; Narayanan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Converters operated in discontinuous-conduction-mode (DCM)and in continuous-conduction-mode (CCM) are suitable for lighter and higher loads, respectively. A new, constant switching frequency based single-phase rectifier system is proposed, which operates in DCM and in CCM for outputs less than and greater than 50% rated load, respectively, covering a wide range of load variation. The power circuit and the control circuit of the proposed rectifier are easily configurable for DCM and CCM operat...

  8. High density, multi-range analog output Versa Module Europa board for control system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Das, Ajit Lal

    2014-01-01

    A new VMEDAC64, 12-bit 64 channel digital-to-analog converter, a Versa Module Europa (VME) module, features 64 analog voltage outputs with user selectable multiple ranges, has been developed for control system applications at Inter University Accelerator Centre. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is the module's core, i.e., it implements the DAC control logic and complexity of VMEbus slave interface logic. The VMEbus slave interface and DAC control logic are completely designed and implemented on a single FPGA chip to achieve high density of 64 channels in a single width VME module and will reduce the module count in the control system applications, and hence will reduce the power consumption and cost of overall system. One of our early design goals was to develop the VME interface such that it can be easily integrated with the peripheral devices and satisfy the timing specifications of VME standard. The modular design of this module reduces the amount of time required to develop other custom modules for control system. The VME slave interface is written as a single component inside FPGA which will be used as a basic building block for any VMEbus interface project. The module offers multiple output voltage ranges depending upon the requirement. The output voltage range can be reduced or expanded by writing range selection bits in the control register. The module has programmable refresh rate and by default hold capacitors in the sample and hold circuit for each channel are charged periodically every 7.040 ms (i.e., update frequency 284 Hz). Each channel has software controlled output switch which disconnects analog output from the field. The modularity in the firmware design on FPGA makes the debugging very easy. On-board DC/DC converters are incorporated for isolated power supply for the analog section of the board.

  9. Development of a long-range naval gun :a system engineering appproach

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, James D.

    1995-01-01

    The U. S. Navy needs a medium-caliber (5-inch) ship-mounted gun that can deliver a payload to a range five times farther than the present capability. Such an increase in performance requires major design changes to both the gun and its ammunition. A gun which can shoot beyond the visible horizon needs additional support from subsystems which provide targeting information and assessment of battle damage to the intended target. A system engineering approach to the fulfillment of ...

  10. Designing an accurate system for temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochan Orest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of compensation of changes in temperature field along the legs of inhomogeneous thermocouple, which measures a temperature of an object, is considered in this paper. This compensation is achieved by stabilization of the temperature field along the thermocouple. Such stabilization does not allow the error due to acquired thermoelectric inhomogeneity to manifest itself. There is also proposed the design of the furnace to stabilize temperature field along the legs of the thermocouple which measures the temperature of an object. This furnace is not integrated with the thermocouple mentioned above, therefore it is possible to replace this thermocouple with a new one when it get its legs considerably inhomogeneous.. There is designed the two loop measuring system with the ability of error correction which can use simultaneously a usual thermocouple as well as a thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field. The latter can be used as a reference sensor for the former.

  11. An interactive system for creating object models from range data based on simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, W.A.; Hood, F.W.; King, R.H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Robotics and Intelligent Systems

    1997-05-01

    In hazardous applications such as remediation of buried waste and dismantlement of radioactive facilities, robots are an attractive solution. Sensing to recognize and locate objects is a critical need for robotic operations in unstructured environments. An accurate 3-D model of objects in the scene is necessary for efficient high level control of robots. Drawing upon concepts from supervisory control, the authors have developed an interactive system for creating object models from range data, based on simulated annealing. Site modeling is a task that is typically performed using purely manual or autonomous techniques, each of which has inherent strengths and weaknesses. However, an interactive modeling system combines the advantages of both manual and autonomous methods, to create a system that has high operator productivity as well as high flexibility and robustness. The system is unique in that it can work with very sparse range data, tolerate occlusions, and tolerate cluttered scenes. The authors have performed an informal evaluation with four operators on 16 different scenes, and have shown that the interactive system is superior to either manual or automatic methods in terms of task time and accuracy.

  12. Polarized Imaging Lidar Using Underwater Range Gating in a Multifunctional Remote Sensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, G.; Trees, C.

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the design of a compact imaging underwater polarized LIDAR system using a new modular laser beam shaping technology, which ensures eye safe operation at significant optical power levels that were previously unattainable in such an eye safe mode. The system is based on an existing battery powered high efficiency compact range-gated system which can be operated from a variety of underwater vehicles including AUV's. A detailed analysis is presented of the procedure required to successfully extract information on the depth distribution of the inherent optical properties along with the shape of the phase function in the near forward direction. The effect of polarization in helping to constrain and improve the retrieval of these fundamental optical properties of the water column is also discussed. The LIDAR mode is shown to be only one of the many functionalities useful to oceanographic research, which can be implemented using the beam shaping technology described above. Beyond the improvement in range and image quality of gated imaging over conventional imaging in turbid waters, the application of gated-structured imaging can be shown to significantly improve range and precision of 3D bottom mapping near the turbid seabed environment. We will show that the spatial precision that is available is sufficient for seabed habitat mapping and litter identification required for an environmental impact evaluation.

  13. A Static Displacement Monitoring System for VLBI Antenna Using Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukgil Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a static displacement monitoring program was developed to maintain the accurate performance of a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI antenna by monitoring its structural stability. The monitoring program was designed to measure static displacement, among the many displacements of the antenna’s main reflector, which can directly affect its performance. The program measures the position of a monitored object with mm-level accuracy through close-range photogrammetry that uses high-resolution Charge Coupled Device (CCD cameras. The developed program will be used to evaluate the structural soundness of an antenna based on continuous displacement measurements, which can also be used as basic data for repair and reinforcement work in the future.

  14. The method for potato root system measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Głuska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracting of a root system from the soil without losses is the main difficulty in investigations of the potato root system. In the years 1992-1998 at The Potato Research Institute, Jadwisin (Poland an original method for potato root system investigation was developed.A special pot (40 cm in diameter, 100 cm high made of zinc coated steel sheet 0,8 mm was constructed. This device may be opened lengthwise to obtain the whole intact root system of potato plant. Soil profile in the pot is formed in 10 horizontal layers separated by circles made of plastic mesh which enable distinguishing of roots related to certain soil horizons. The method described makes possible (in a relatively easy way taking measurements of weight and length of roots in every 10-cm layer of soil up to depth of 1 meter, so as to assess: the weight of fresh and/or dry matter and length of the whole potato plant root system and its distribution in the soil profile. This method might be useful also for investigation of root systems of another species.

  15. A Multi-hop Topology Control Based on Inter-node Range Measurement for Wireless Sensor Networks Node Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Husein ALASIRY

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In centralized range-based localization techniques, sufficiency of inter-node range information received by the base station strongly affects node position estimation results. Successful data aggregation is influenced by link stability of each connection of routes, especially in a multi-hop topology model. In general, measuring the inter-node range is only performed for position determination purposes. This research introduces the use of inter-node range measurement information for link selection in a multi-hop route composition in order to increase the rate of data aggregation. Due to irregularity problems of wireless media, two areas of node communication have been considered. The regular communication area is the area in which other nodes are able to perform symmetrical communication to the node without failure. The irregular area is the area in which other nodes are seldom able to communicate. Due to its instability, some existing methods tried to avoid the irregular area completely. The proposed method, named Virtual Boundaries (VBs prioritizes these areas. The regular communication area’s nodes have high priority to be selected as link vertices; however, when there is no link candidate inside this area, nodes within the irregular area will be selected with respect to their range to the parent node. This technique resulted in a more robust multi-hop topology that can reduce isolated node numbers and increase the percentage of data collected by the base station accordingly.

  16. Vision system for measuring wagon buffers’ lateral movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarović Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision system designed for measuring horizontal and vertical displacements of a railway wagon body. The model comprises a commercial webcam and a cooperative target of an appropriate shape. The lateral buffer movement is determined by calculating target displacement in real time by processing the camera image in a LabVIEW platform using free OpenCV library. Laboratory experiments demonstrate an accuracy which is better than ±0.5 mm within a 50 mm measuring range.

  17. Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, M.; Tamaddon Jahromi, H. R.; Stading, M.; Webster, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    the shear-thinning LPTT model. This would indicate a modest impact of shear in the flow since such a pressure drop decline is relatively small. It is particularly noteworthy that the increase in pressure drop gathered from the experimental measurements is relatively high despite the low Deborah number range explored.

  18. Polymeric nanosensors for measuring the full dynamic pH range of endosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Honghao; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki

    2009-01-01

    as pH sensitive dyes, which gave a dynamic pH measurement range from 4.1-7.5. Thus, the sensors cover the pH range of almost all intracellular compartments in mammalian cells. Both neutral and cationic polyacrylamide particles were synthesized where (3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride...... was used to introduce a net positive charge in the cationic particles. It was found that the positively charged particle sensors were internalized spontaneously by HepG2 cancer cells. These new pH nanosensors are potential tools in time resolved quantification of pH in the endocytic pathway of living cells....

  19. SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, Y; Penchev, P; Ringbaek, T Printz [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); Brons, S [Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, U [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. Methods: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2.25 mm2 and different lengths was developed and manufactured with rapid prototyping technique. The form of the 3D range-modulator was optimised for a spherical target volume with 5 cm diameter placed at 25 cm in a water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA package were carried out to evaluate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and simulate the resulting dose distribution. The fine and complicated contour form of the 3D range-modulator was taken into account by a specially programmed user routine. Additionally FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To verify the simulation results dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with a 400.41 MeV 12C beam. Results: The high resolution measurements show that the 3D range-modulator is capable of producing homogeneous 3D conformal dose distributions, simultaneously reducing significantly irradiation time. Measured dose is in very good agreement with the previously conducted FLUKA simulations, where slight differences were traced back to minor manufacturing deviations from the perfect optimised form. Conclusion: Combined with the advantages of very short treatment time the 3D range-modulator could be an alternative to treat small to medium sized tumours (e.g. lung metastasis) with the same conformity as full raster-scanning treatment. Further simulations and measurements of more complex cases will be conducted to investigate the full potential of the 3D

  20. A Proposal for an Out-of-Range Glycemic Population Health Safety Measure for Older Adults With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogach, Leonard; Tseng, Chin-Lin; Soroka, Orysya; Maney, Miriam; Aron, David

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate patient-level glycemic control and facility variation of a proposed out-of-range (OOR) measure (overtreatment [OT] [HbA1c 9% (75 mmol/mol)]) compared with the standard measure (SM) (HbA1c 75 years. The 47.4% of patients 65-75 years met the OOR measure (33.4% OT, 14% UT), and 65.7% met the SM. For patients aged >75 years, rates were 48.1% for OOR (39.2% OT; 8.9% UT) and 73.2% for SM. Facility-level rates for OOR for patients aged 65-75 years ranged from 33.7 to 60.4% (median 47.4%), with a strong inverse correlation (ρ = -0.41) between SM and OOR performance rankings. Among the best-performing 20% facilities on the SM, 14 of 28 ranked in the worst-performing 20% on the OOR measure; 12 of 27 of the worst-performing 20% facilities on the SM ranked in the best-performing 20% on the OOR measure. Facility rankings that are based on an SM (potential benefits) and OOR measure (potential risks) differ substantially. An OOR for high-risk populations can focus quality improvement on individual patient evaluation to reduce the risk for short-term harms. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. An Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Prediction System for Alpine Catchments in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monhart, Samuel; Bogner, Konrad; Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark A.; Zappa, Massimiliano; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    In recent years meteorological ensemble prediction systems have increasingly be used to feed hydrological models in order to provide probabilistic streamflow forecasts. Such hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have been analyzed for different lead times from short-term to seasonal predictions and are used for different applications. Especially at longer lead times both such forecasts exhibit systematic biases which can be removed by applying bias correction techniques to both the meteorological and/or the hydrological output. However, it is still an open question if pre- or post-processing techniques or both should be applied. We will present first results of the analysis of pre- and post-processed extended-range hydrometeorological forecasts. In a first step the performance of bias corrected and downscaled (using quantile mapping) extended-range meteorological forecasts provided by the ECMWF is assessed for approximately 1000 ground observation sites across Europe. Generally, bias corrected meteorological forecasts show positive skill in terms of CRPSS up to three (two) weeks for weekly mean temperature (precipitation) compared to climatological forecasts. For the Alpine region the absolute skill is generally lower but the relative gain in skill resulting from the bias correction is larger. These pre-processed meteorological forecasts of one year of ECMWF extended-range forecasts and corresponding hindcasts are used to feed a hydrological model for a selected catchment in the Alpine area in Switzerland. Furthermore, different post-processing techniques are tested to correct the resulting streamflow forecasts. This will allow to determine the relative effect of pre- and post-processing of extended-range hydrometeorological predictions in Alpine catchments. Future work will include the combination of these corrected streamflow forecasts with electricity price forecasts to optimize the operations and revenues of hydropower systems in the Alps.

  2. SpectraCAM SPM: a camera system with high dynamic range for scientific and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S.; Baiko, D.; Lungu, G.; Pilon, M.; VanGorden, S.

    2005-08-01

    A scientific camera system having high dynamic range designed and manufactured by Thermo Electron for scientific and medical applications is presented. The newly developed CID820 image sensor with preamplifier-per-pixel technology is employed in this camera system. The 4 Mega-pixel imaging sensor has a raw dynamic range of 82dB. Each high-transparent pixel is based on a preamplifier-per-pixel architecture and contains two photogates for non-destructive readout of the photon-generated charge (NDRO). Readout is achieved via parallel row processing with on-chip correlated double sampling (CDS). The imager is capable of true random pixel access with a maximum operating speed of 4MHz. The camera controller consists of a custom camera signal processor (CSP) with an integrated 16-bit A/D converter and a PowerPC-based CPU running a Linux embedded operating system. The imager is cooled to -40C via three-stage cooler to minimize dark current. The camera housing is sealed and is designed to maintain the CID820 imager in the evacuated chamber for at least 5 years. Thermo Electron has also developed custom software and firmware to drive the SpectraCAM SPM camera. Included in this firmware package is the new Extreme DRTM algorithm that is designed to extend the effective dynamic range of the camera by several orders of magnitude up to 32-bit dynamic range. The RACID Exposure graphical user interface image analysis software runs on a standard PC that is connected to the camera via Gigabit Ethernet.

  3. Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS): systems, procedures and sensitivity (1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyns, P K

    1976-07-01

    This report describes the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS) designed and operated by EG and G, Inc., for the Energy Research and Development Administration's (ERDA) Division of Operational Safety with the cooperation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Designed to rapidly survey large areas for low-level man-made radiation, the ARMS has also proven extremely useful in locating lost radioactive sources of relatively low activity. The system consists of sodium iodide scintillation detectors, data formatting and recording equipment, positioning equipment, meteorological instruments, direct readout hardware, and data analysis equipment. The instrumentation, operational procedures, data reduction techniques and system sensitivities are described, together with their applications and sample results.

  4. Tilted Magnetic Levitation Enables Measurement of the Complete Range of Densities of Materials with Low Magnetic Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Soh, Siowling; Kwok, Sen Wai; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-02-03

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) of diamagnetic or weakly paramagnetic materials suspended in a paramagnetic solution in a magnetic field gradient provides a simple method to measure the density of small samples of solids or liquids. One major limitation of this method, thus far, has been an inability to measure or manipulate materials outside of a narrow range of densities (0.8 g/cm(3) levitated magnetically. Tilting the MagLev device relative to the gravitational vector enables the magnetic force to be decreased (relative to the magnetic force) along the axis of measurement. This approach enables many practical measurements over the entire range of densities observed in matter at ambient conditions-from air bubbles (ρ ≈ 0) to osmium and iridium (ρ ≈ 23 g/cm(3)). The ability to levitate, simultaneously, objects with a broad range of different densities provides an operationally simple method that may find application to forensic science (e.g., for identifying the composition of miscellaneous objects or powders), industrial manufacturing (e.g., for quality control of parts), or resource-limited settings (e.g., for identifying and separating small particles of metals and alloys).

  5. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple-Station Range Target System Operations Manual, Annex 2: Flying Target System Operations and Maintenance Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    in. music wire, threaded) "Expanded scale voltmeter used for measuring receiver and transmitter battery voltages " 12V DC battery and battery charger...32 oz (Iid) oS zt (%id) ENDURANCC AT MAX SPEED 30m 30min 14 min SPEED 35-110 MPH 40-95 MPH 15-75 MPH PAYLOAD 20 I1s 15 rs 6 Ibo CONTROL RANGE 15 km...100 MPH 15490 MPH PAYLOAD 25 Ibo 20 I#b 6 Ibm CONTR0L RANGE 18 km 3 km 2 km Figure A-6. Su-25 Frogfoot. A-3 , ,i SPECIFICATIONS C 15SU 17(3 C17SU 17(3

  7. Improvement an enterprises marketing performance measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business conditions in which modern enterprises do business are more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused by activities of external and internal factors, which imposes the need for the turn in management focus. One of key turns is related to the need of adaptation and development of new business performance evaluation systems. The evaluation of marketing contribution to business performance is very important however a complex task as well. The marketing theory and practice indicates the need for developing adequate standards and systems for evaluating the efficiency of marketing decisions. The better understanding of marketing standards and ways that managers use is a very important factor that affects the efficiency of strategic decision-making. The paper presents the results of researching the way in which managers perceive and apply marketing performance measures. The data that were received through the field research sample enabled the consideration of the managers' attitudes on practical ways of implementing marketing performance measurement and identifying measures that managers imply as used mostly in business practice.

  8. White noise analysis of Phycomyces light growth response system. I. Normal intensity range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, E D

    1975-10-01

    The Wiener-Lee-Schetzen method for the identification of a nonlinear system through white gaussian noise stimulation was applied to the transient light growth response of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces. In order to cover a moderate dynamic range of light intensity I, the imput variable was defined to be log I. The experiments were performed in the normal range of light intensity, centered about I0 = 10(-6) W/cm2. The kernels of the Wierner functionals were computed up to second order. Within the range of a few decades the system is reasonably linear with log I. The main nonlinear feature of the second-order kernel corresponds to the property of rectification. Power spectral analysis reveals that the slow dynamics of the system are of at least fifth order. The system can be represented approximately by a linear transfer function, including a first-order high-pass (adaptation) filter with a 4 min time constant and an underdamped fourth-order low-pass filter. Accordingly a linear electronic circuit was constructed to simulate the small scale response characteristics. In terms of the adaptation model of Delbrück and Reichardt (1956, in Cellular Mechanisms in Differentiation and Growth, Princeton University Press), kernels were deduced for the dynamic dependence of the growth velocity (output) on the "subjective intensity", a presumed internal variable. Finally the linear electronic simulator above was generalized to accommodate the large scale nonlinearity of the adaptation model and to serve as a tool for deeper test of the model.

  9. SLR2000: a microlaser-based single photoelectron satellite laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, John J.; McGarry, Jan F.

    1998-01-01

    SLR2000 is an autonomous and eyesafe satellite laser ranging (SLR) station with an expected single shot range precision of about one centimeter and a normal point (time-averaged) precision better than 3 mm. The system wil provide continuous 24 hour tracking coverage for a constellation of over twenty artificial satellites. Replication costs are expected to be roughly an order of magnitude less than current operational systems, and the system will be about 75% less expensive to operate and maintain relative to manned systems. Computer simulations have predicted a daylight tracking capability to GPS and lower satellites with telescope apertures of 40 cm and have demonstrated the ability of our current autotracking algorithm to extract mean signal strengths below .001 photoelectrons per pulse from daytime background noise. The dominant cost driver in present SLR systems is the onsite and central infrastructure manpower required to operate the system, to service and maintain the complex subsystems, and to ensure that the transmitted laser beam is not a hazard to onsite personnel or to overflying aircraft. To keep development, fabrication, and maintenance costs at a minimum, we adopted the following design philosophies: (1) use off the shelf commercial components wherever possible; this allows rapid component replacement and "outsourcing" of engineering support; (2) use smaller telescopes (less than 50 cm) since this constrains the cost, size, and weight of the telescope and tracking mount; and (3) for low maintenance and failsafe reliability, choose simple versus complex technical approaches and, where possible, use passive techniques and components rather than active ones. Adherence to these philosophies has led to the SLR2000 design described here.

  10. Development of Algorithms and Error Analyses for the Short Baseline Lightning Detection and Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Stanley O.

    1998-01-01

    NASA, at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), developed and operates a unique high-precision lightning location system to provide lightning-related weather warnings. These warnings are used to stop lightning- sensitive operations such as space vehicle launches and ground operations where equipment and personnel are at risk. The data is provided to the Range Weather Operations (45th Weather Squadron, U.S. Air Force) where it is used with other meteorological data to issue weather advisories and warnings for Cape Canaveral Air Station and KSC operations. This system, called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), provides users with a graphical display in three dimensions of 66 megahertz radio frequency events generated by lightning processes. The locations of these events provide a sound basis for the prediction of lightning hazards. This document provides the basis for the design approach and data analysis for a system of radio frequency receivers to provide azimuth and elevation data for lightning pulses detected simultaneously by the LDAR system. The intent is for this direction-finding system to correct and augment the data provided by LDAR and, thereby, increase the rate of valid data and to correct or discard any invalid data. This document develops the necessary equations and algorithms, identifies sources of systematic errors and means to correct them, and analyzes the algorithms for random error. This data analysis approach is not found in the existing literature and was developed to facilitate the operation of this Short Baseline LDAR (SBLDAR). These algorithms may also be useful for other direction-finding systems using radio pulses or ultrasonic pulse data.

  11. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  12. S3 HMBC hetero: Spin-State-Selective HMBC for accurate measurement of long-range heteronuclear coupling constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Casper; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.; Sørensen, Ole W.

    2017-02-01

    A novel method, Spin-State-Selective (S3) HMBC hetero, for accurate measurement of heteronuclear coupling constants is introduced. The method extends the S3 HMBC technique for measurement of homonuclear coupling constants by appending a pulse sequence element that interchanges the polarization in 13C-1H methine pairs. This amounts to converting the spin-state selectivity from 1H spin states to 13C spin states in the spectra of long-range coupled 1H spins, allowing convenient measurement of heteronuclear coupling constants similar to other S3 or E.COSY-type methods. As usual in this type of techniques, the accuracy of coupling constant measurement is independent of the size of the coupling constant of interest. The merits of the new method are demonstrated by application to vinyl acetate, the alkaloid strychnine, and the carbohydrate methyl β-maltoside.

  13. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  14. Dynamics and thermodynamics of systems with long-range dipole-type interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenas, Boris; Curilef, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    A Hamiltonian mean field model, where the potential is inspired by dipole-dipole interactions, is proposed to characterize the behavior of systems with long-range interactions. The dynamics of the system remains in quasistationary states before arriving at equilibrium. The equilibrium is analytically derived from the canonical ensemble and coincides with that obtained from molecular dynamics simulations (microcanonical ensemble) at only long time scales. The dynamics of the system is characterized by the behavior of the mean value of the kinetic energy. The significance of the results, compared to others in the recent literature, is that two plateaus sequentially emerge in the evolution of the model under the special considerations of the initial conditions and systems of finite size. The first plateau decays to a different second one before the system reaches equilibrium, but the dynamics of the system is expected to have only one plateau when the thermodynamics limit is reached because the difference between them tends to disappear as N tends to infinity. Hence, the first plateau is a type of quasistationary state the lifetime of which depends on a power law of N and the second seems to be a true quasistationary state as reported in the literature. We characterize the general behavior of the model according to its dynamics and thermodynamics.

  15. Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, M; Fieberg, S; Waasem, N; Kühnemann, F; Buse, K; Breunig, I

    2015-08-24

    We employ three highly sensitive spectrometers: a photoacoustic spectrometer, a photothermal common-path interferometer and a whispering-gallery-resonator-based absorption spectrometer, for a comparative study of measuring the absorption coefficient of nominally transparent undoped, congruently grown lithium niobate for ordinarily and extraordinarily polarized light in the wavelength range from 390 to 3800 nm. The absorption coefficient ranges from below 10(-4) cm(-1) up to 2 cm(-1). Furthermore, we measure the absorption at the Urbach tail as well as the multiphonon edge of the material by a standard grating spectrometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, providing for the first time an absorption spectrum of the whole transparency window of lithium niobate. The absorption coefficients obtained by the three highly sensitive and independent methods show good agreement.

  16. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  17. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (ACS delivers photons to the APOLLO detector at exquisitely well-defined time intervals as a ‘truth’ input against which APOLLO’s timing performance may be judged and corrected. Preliminary analysis indicates no inaccuracies in APOLLO data beyond the  ∼3 mm level, suggesting that historical APOLLO data are of high quality and motivating continued work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  18. Bounding the Failure Probability Range of Polynomial Systems Subject to P-box Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliability analysis framework for systems subject to multiple design requirements that depend polynomially on the uncertainty. Uncertainty is prescribed by probability boxes, also known as p-boxes, whose distribution functions have free or fixed functional forms. An approach based on the Bernstein expansion of polynomials and optimization is proposed. In particular, we search for the elements of a multi-dimensional p-box that minimize (i.e., the best-case) and maximize (i.e., the worst-case) the probability of inner and outer bounding sets of the failure domain. This technique yields intervals that bound the range of failure probabilities. The offset between this bounding interval and the actual failure probability range can be made arbitrarily tight with additional computational effort.

  19. A numerical investigation on the efficiency of range extending systems using Advanced Vehicle Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Scott; Same, Adam; Remillard, Jesse; Park, Jae Wan

    2011-03-01

    Series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles of varying engine configuration and battery capacity are modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The performance of these vehicles is analyzed on the bases of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel paths. Both city and highway driving conditions are considered during the simulation. When simulated on the well-to-wheel path, it is shown that the range extender with a Wankel rotary engine consumes less energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to the other systems with reciprocating engines during many driving cycles. The rotary engine has a higher power-to-weight ratio and lower noise, vibration and harshness compared to conventional reciprocating engines, although performs less efficiently. The benefits of a Wankel engine make it an attractive option for use as a range extender in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

  20. Reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device for measuring the range of motion in the dart-throwing motion plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasubuchi, Kenji; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Takahiko

    2018-02-26

    Dart-throwing motion (DTM) is an important component of wrist function and, consequently, has the potential to become an evaluation tool in rehabilitation. However, no measurement method is currently available to reliably measure range of motion (ROM) of the wrist in the DTM plane. To determine the reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device to measure wrist ROM in the DTM plane. ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured in 70 healthy participants. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the relative reliability of measurement, and a Bland-Altman analysis conducted to establish its absolute reliability, including the 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA). The standard error of the measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) were calculated as measures of responsiveness. The intra-rater ICC was 0.87, and an inter-rater ICC of 0.71. There was no evidence of a fixed or proportional bias. For intra- and inter-rater reliability, 95% LOA ranged from -13.83 to 11.12 and from -17.75 to 16.19, respectively. The SEM and MDC 95 were 4.5° and 12.4°, respectively, for intra-rater reliability, and 6.0° and 16.6°, respectively, for inter-rater reliability. The ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured with fair-to-good reliability and responsiveness and, therefore, has the potential to become an evaluation tool for rehabilitation.

  1. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were 6 km.

  2. A Comparison of Antenna Measurements in a Near-Field Range and a Newly Renovated Short-Tapered Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Research Laboratory’s (ARL) near-field range (NFR) and tapered anechoic chamber, which has been newly renovated with absorber material . ARL would like...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to quantify and compare electromagnetic device (i.e., antenna) measurements using the US Army...to know the performance levels with the NFR and the newly renovated, slightly different absorber layout configuration laid out and designed by the

  3. A Low Cost Automatic Detection and Ranging System for Space Surveillance in the Medium Earth Orbit Region and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Turcu, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    The space around the Earth is filled with man-made objects, which orbit the planet at altitudes ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of kilometers. Keeping an eye on all objects in Earth's orbit, useful and not useful, operational or not, is known as Space Surveillance. Due to cost considerations, the space surveillance solutions beyond the Low Earth Orbit region are mainly based on optical instruments. This paper presents a solution for real-time automatic detection and ranging of space objects of altitudes ranging from below the Medium Earth Orbit up to 40,000 km, based on two low cost observation systems built using commercial cameras and marginally professional telescopes, placed 37 km apart, operating as a large baseline stereovision system. The telescopes are pointed towards any visible region of the sky, and the system is able to automatically calibrate the orientation parameters using automatic matching of reference stars from an online catalog, with a very high tolerance for the initial guess of the sky region and camera orientation. The difference between the left and right image of a synchronized stereo pair is used for automatic detection of the satellite pixels, using an original difference computation algorithm that is capable of high sensitivity and a low false positive rate. The use of stereovision provides a strong means of removing false positives, and avoids the need for prior knowledge of the orbits observed, the system being able to detect at the same time all types of objects that fall within the measurement range and are visible on the image. PMID:24521941

  4. A low-power tool for measuring acceleration, pressure, and temperature (APT) with wide dynamic range and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Paros, Jerome; Johnson, Greg; Meldrum, Robert; Scherwath, Martin; Mihaly, Steven

    2017-04-01

    We present a new tool that facilitates the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a temperature compensated tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc., a pressure sensor built by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter developed by Bennest Enterprises Ltd. and built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors are housed in a 7 cm o.d. titanium pressure case designed for use to full ocean depths (withstands more than 20 km of water pressure). Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.08 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 130 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW average at 1 sample per min). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of autonomous and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., pressure equivalent to 4000 m water depth, acceleration = +/- 3 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.3 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient down to a level of roughly 2 cm, and variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt down to a level of 0.03 μrad. With the large dynamic ranges, high sensitivities and broad bandwidth (6 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms, strong and weak seismic ground motion, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation - all normally studied using disparate instruments - can be observed with a single tool. Installation in the marine environment is accomplished by pushing the tool roughly 1 m vertically below the seafloor with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, with no profile remaining above the seafloor to cause current-induced noise. The weight of the tool is designed to match the sediment it displaces to

  5. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  6. Material permeance measurement system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-05-08

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  7. Turbidity Measurement Using An Optical Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallehuddin Bin Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity is used to describe water quality and it can be caused by the presence of suspended particles and organic matter such as algae, clay and silt. The measurement of turbidity level of water is vital to domestic water supplies since it is related to public health and water treatment process. This paper presents an investigation on an optical tomography system to estimate the turbidity level in a sample of water. The optical sensors consist of infrared light-emitting diodes (LED as transmitters and photodiodes as the receivers where the projections of the sensors are designed in fan beam mode. The system was tested using a vertical flow pipe. The Independent Component Analysis (ICA method was used to display the concentration profile. Results obtained proved that the technique can provide the concentration profile representing the turbidity level of water.

  8. The Value of Motion: Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Are Correlated With Range of Motion in Total Ankle Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Travis J; Hamid, Kamran S; Federer, Andrew E; Steele, John R; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A; Adams, Samuel B

    2017-12-01

    The proposed benefit of total ankle replacement (TAR) over ankle fusion is preserved ankle motion, thus we hypothesized that an increase in range of motion (ROM) is positively correlated with validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in individuals receiving TAR. Patients undergoing TAR at a single academic medical center between 2007 and 2013 were evaluated in this study. In addition to a minimum of 2-year follow-up, complete preoperative and postoperative outcome measures for the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI), Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) Bother and Function Indices, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were requisite for inclusion. Standardized weightbearing maximum dorsiflexion and plantarflexion sagittal radiographs were obtained and previously described ankle and foot measurements were performed to determine ankle ROM. Eighty-eight patients met inclusion criteria (33 INBONE, 18 Salto-Talaris, 37 STAR). Mean time to final ROM radiographs was 43.8 months (range 24-89 months). All aforementioned PROMs improved between preoperative evaluation and most recent follow-up (  P dorsiflexion was positively associated with FADI, SF-36 MCS, and SMFA Function (  P motion was positively correlated with multiple PROMs. Disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life PROMs demonstrated improvement postoperatively in all domains when evaluating final total range of motion. Patients who undergo TAR for end-stage osteoarthritis with improvement in ROM demonstrate a direct correlation with improved patient-centric metrics and outcome scores. Level III: Retrospective comparative study.

  9. Conduction of Complex Elements of Vacuum Systems in a Wide Range of Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Shemarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a statistical mathematical model of a rarefied gas flow based on the method of particles in cells. This approach enables to define basic parameters of gas flow and vacuum systems in a wide range of pressures, including such an important parameter as conductivity of the vacuum system.Key assumptions in designing a mathematical model are: describing the collision of the molecules as hard spheres of elastic collision; considering the collisions to be paired and instant; the molecules velocity distribution corresponding to the Maxwell distribution. The essential feature is simulation of waiting time for the next collision. It depends on the state of the entire system of particles and is independent of what pair is involved in collision.The paper presents a detailed algorithm for implementation of a mathematical model to calculate conductivity. It includes three main stages. The first stage simulates only collisions of particles within the fixed cell of grid. The second stage simulates displacement of particles in accordance with their speed and time step, as well as interaction with the internal surfaces of the vacuum system. The final stage determines system conductivity.As an example, numerical experiments were conducted to determine conductivity of the long cylindrical channel in a wide range of pressures and conductivity of chevron screens too. Obtained data are compared with experimental data, and an error is evaluated. In molecular and transient conditions of gas flow the method of particles in cells gives high accuracy. In the viscous conditions the accuracy decreases because of originating region of continuous medium.This model can be used not only to determine conductivity of vacuum systems, but also to calculate gas flow parameters in systems with large flows (no restrictions for the flow rate value for the channels and profiles with geometry of any complexity. An important feature is that it allows taking into account

  10. HiRes camera and LIDAR ranging system for the Clementine mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T. [and others

    1995-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a space-qualified High Resolution (HiRes) imaging LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for use on the DoD Clementine mission. The Clementine mission provided more than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth, and stars, including the first ever complete systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to near-infrared spectral regions. This article describes the Clementine HiRes/LIDAR system, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. The LIDAR receiver system consists of a High Resolution (HiRes) imaging channel which incorporates an intensified multi-spectral visible camera combined with a Laser ranging channel which uses an avalanche photo-diode for laser pulse detection and timing. The receiver was bore sighted to a light-weight McDonnell-Douglas diode-pumped ND:YAG laser transmitter that emmitted 1.06 {micro}m wavelength pulses of 200 mJ/pulse and 10 ns pulse-width, The LIDAR receiver uses a common F/9.5 Cassegrain telescope assembly. The optical path of the telescope is split using a color-separating beamsplitter. The imaging channel incorporates a filter wheel assembly which spectrally selects the light which is imaged onto a custom 12 mm gated image intensifier fiber-optically-coupled into a 384 x 276 pixel frame transfer CCD FPA. The image intensifier was spectrally sensitive over the 0.4 to 0.8 {micro}m wavelength region. The six-position filter wheel contained 4 narrow spectral filters, one broadband and one blocking filter. At periselene (400 km) the HiRes/LIDAR imaged a 2.8 km swath width at 20-meter resolution. The LIDAR function detected differential signal return with a 40-meter range accuracy, with a maximum range capability of 640 km, limited by the bit counter in the range return counting clock.

  11. Accurate and stable equal-pressure measurements of water vapor transmission rate reaching the 10-6 g m-2 day-1 range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Yoshida, Hajime; Shimada, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a gas barrier coating is a critically important parameter for flexible organic device packaging, but its accurate measurement without mechanical stress to ultrathin films has been a significant challenge in instrumental analysis. At the current stage, no reliable results have been reported in the range of 10-6 g m-2 day-1 that is required for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, we describe a solution for this difficult, but important measurement, involving enhanced sensitivity by a cold trap, stabilized temperature system, pumped sealing and calibration by a standard conductance element.

  12. Chaotic dynamics and thermodynamics of periodic systems with long-range forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj

    Gravitational and electromagnetic interactions form the backbone of our theoretical understanding of the universe. While, in general, such interactions are analytically inexpressible for three-dimensional infinite systems, one-dimensional modeling allows one to treat the long-range forces exactly. Not only are one-dimensional systems of profound intrinsic interest, physicists often rely on one-dimensional models as a starting point in the analysis of their more complicated higher-dimensional counterparts. In the analysis of large systems considered in cosmology and plasma physics, periodic boundary conditions are a natural choice and have been utilized in the study of one dimensional Coulombic and gravitational systems. Such studies often employ numerical simulations to validate the theoretical predictions, and in cases where theoretical relations have not been mathematically formulated, numerical simulations serve as a powerful method in characterizing the system's physical properties. In this dissertation, analytic techniques are formulated to express the exact phase-space dynamics of spatially-periodic one-dimensional Coulombic and gravitational systems. Closed-form versions of the Hamiltonian and the electric field are derived for single-component and two-component Coulombic systems, placing the two on the same footing as the gravitational counterpart. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a three-body variant of the spatially-periodic Coulombic or gravitational system may be reduced isomorphically to a periodic system of a single particle in a two-dimensional rhombic potential. The analytic results are utilized for developing and implementing efficient computational tools to study the dynamical and the thermodynamic properties of the systems without resorting to numerical approximations. Event-driven algorithms are devised to obtain Lyapunov spectra, radial distribution function, pressure, caloric curve, and Poincare surface of section through an N

  13. Beyond health gain: the range of health system benefits expressed by social groups in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, M A; Sandiford, P; Ruiz, J A; Rovira, J

    2001-05-01

    Current health reform proposals in most developing countries stress health gain as the chief evaluation criterion. Essential service packages are formulated using cost-effectiveness methods for the selection of interventions without sufficient regard for other factors that are significant for successful implementation and acceptance by the needy. This paper presents the results of research undertaken in Mexico and Central America to test the hypothesis that population groups view health gain as only one among several benefits derived from health systems. The goal at this stage was two-fold: (a) to identify through qualitative methods the range of benefits that are significant for a wide cross-section of social groups and (b) to classify such benefits in types amenable to be used in the development of instruments to measure the benefits intended and actually produced by health systems. Fourteen focus groups were undertaken in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Nicaragua representing diverse age, gender, occupation and social conditions. Six major types of health system benefits were identified besides health gain: reassurance/uncertainty reduction, economic security, confidence in health system quality, financial benefits derived from the system, health care process utility and health system fairness. Benefits most often mentioned can be classed under health care process utility and confidence in system quality. They also have the most consensus across social groups. Other benefits mentioned have an affinity with social conditions. Human resource-derived utility stands out by its frequency in the range of benefits mentioned. Health systems and health sector reform proposals must emphasise those aspects of quality related to human resources to be in accord with population expectations.

  14. Close Range Photogrammetry in Space - Measuring the On-Orbit Clearance between Hardware on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2017-01-01

    real clearance between the ammonia lines and expected position of the thruster bell using existing on-orbit imagery. Imagery of the area of interest, taken several years earlier from the Space Shuttle during a fly-around of the ISS, was found and used to set a stereo pair. Space Vision System Targets and Handrail bolts measured in the ISS analytical coordinate system (ISSACS) prior to launch, were used to obtain an absolute orientation so all photogrammetric measurement's would be in the ISSACS coordinate system. Coordinates for the design location of the edges of the thruster bell, when the cargo vehicle was fully berthed to the ISS, were displayed in 3-D relative to the as-installed ammonia lines. This immediately revealed a positive clearance, which was later quantified to be a minimum of 10" +/0.5". The analysis was completed over a single weekend by a single analyst. Using updated imagery, acquired from the station's robotic arm, a complete as-installed model of the coolant lines was generated from stereo photography and replaced the design model in the master ISS CAD database.

  15. UCMS - A new signal parameter measurement system using digital signal processing techniques. [User Constraint Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Su, Y. T.

    1986-01-01

    The User Constraint Measurement System (UCMS) is a hardware/software package developed by NASA Goddard to measure the signal parameter constraints of the user transponder in the TDRSS environment by means of an all-digital signal sampling technique. An account is presently given of the features of UCMS design and of its performance capabilities and applications; attention is given to such important aspects of the system as RF interface parameter definitions, hardware minimization, the emphasis on offline software signal processing, and end-to-end link performance. Applications to the measurement of other signal parameters are also discussed.

  16. Study on the Key Technologies of Optical Coordinate Measuring System and Software Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J G; Wang, X; Wang, D W; Ye, S H [State key laboratory of precision measuring technology and instruments, Tianjin University, 300072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    The Optical Coordinate Measuring System studied in this paper is based upon the digital Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) technology. This measuring system is suitable for on-field large-scale measurement because of its wide measuring volume, high precision and great efficiency. From the requirement of on-field large-scale measurement, we analyze the principle of binocular vision and the model of general coordinate measuring. We also analyze the software of the system base on the measuring requirement and the working flow of the system. As more and more widely the CAD is used in the industry, the author designs the coordinate measuring software base on the CAD model. The measuring precision of the system is near to {+-}0.1mm/m. For the moment, the system has been built up, and can measure the typical figures. The precision of the system and the degree of the automatization are satisfied.

  17. Advanced wavefront measurement and analysis of laser system modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Auerback, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    High spatial resolution measurements of the reflected or transmitted wavefronts of large aperture optical components used in high peak power laser systems is now possible. These measurements are produced by phase shifting interferometry. The wavefront data is in the form of 3-D phase maps that reconstruct the wavefront shape. The emphasis of this work is on the characterization of wavefront features in the mid-spatial wavelength range (from 0.1 to 10.0 mm) and has been accomplished for the first time. Wavefront structure from optical components with spatial wavelengths in this range are of concern because their effects in high peak power laser systems. At high peak power, this phase modulation can convert to large magnitude intensity modulation by non-linear processes. This can lead to optical damage. We have developed software to input the measured phase map data into beam propagation codes in order to model this conversion process. We are analyzing this data to: (1) Characterize the wavefront structure produced by current optical components, (2) Refine our understanding of laser system performance, (3) Develop a database from which future optical component specifications can be derived.

  18. A wide-frequency range AC magnetometer to measure the specific absorption rate in nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garaio, E., E-mail: eneko.garayo@ehu.es [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Collantes, J.M. [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Garcia, J.A. [Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Elektrizitatea eta Elektronika Saila, UPV/EHU, P.K. 644, Bilbao (Spain); Mornet, S. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux, UPR 9048 CNRS / Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Couillaud, F. [Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques, UMR 5536 CNRS / Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Sandre, O., E-mail: olivier.sandre@enscbp.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques, UMR 5629 CNRS / Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-11-15

    Measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to assert their potential for magnetic hyperthermia. To perform this task, calorimetric methods are widely used. However, those methods are not very accurate and are difficult to standardize. In this paper, we present AC magnetometry results performed with a lab-made magnetometer that is able to obtain dynamic hysteresis-loops in the AC magnetic field frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz and intensities up to 24 kA m{sup −1}. In this work, SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in water are measured by AC magnetometry. The so-obtained values are compared with the SAR measured by calorimetric methods. Both measurements, by calorimetry and magnetometry, are in good agreement. Therefore, the presented AC magnetometer is a suitable way to obtain SAR values of magnetic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We propose AC magnetometry as a method to measure the specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles suitable for magnetic hyperthermia therapy. • We have built a lab-made AC magnetometer, which is able to measure magnetic dynamic hysteresis-loops of nanoparticle dispersions. • The device works with AC magnetic field intensities up to 24 kA m{sup −1} in a frequency range from 75 kHz to 1 MHz. • The SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles around 12 nm in magnetic diameter dispersed in water are measured by the lab-made magnetometer and different calorimetric methods. • Although all methods are in good agreement, several factors (probe location, thermal inertia, losses, etc.) make calorimetric method less accurate than AC magnetometry.

  19. Impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hahn

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Transverse coupling impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS beam extraction system were performed and the results are here reported. The SNS beam extraction system is composed from 14 subsystems, each of which consists of a vertical kicker magnet plus a pulse forming network (PFN. Impedance bench measurements were performed on one large and one small aperture magnet, stand-alone as well as assembled with the first-article production PFN. The impedance measuring methods to cover the interesting frequency range from below 1 to 100 MHz are described in considerable detail. The upper frequency range is properly covered by the conventional twin-wire method but it had to be supplemented at the low-frequency end by a direct input impedance measurement at the magnet busbar. Required modifications of the PFN to maintain the impedance budget are discussed. The total impedance estimate was finally obtained by quadratic scaling with vertical aperture from the two tested kicker subsystems.

  20. Polarization Diversity Image-Reject Homodyne Receiver for Directional Radial Velocity Measurements in Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved method and a LIDAR system comprising an emitter for emission of a coherent electromagnetic EM signal and a transmitting optical arrangement configured to transmit the electromagnetic signal towards a measurement area. By the method and system, detectio...... of both the polarized and depolarized backscattered EM signal is obtained, whereby an improved signal-to-noise ratio is obtained....