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Sample records for range limits derived

  1. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  2. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  3. Continuous limit of discrete systems with long-range interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2006-01-01

    Discrete systems with long-range interactions are considered. Continuous medium models as continuous limit of discrete chain system are defined. Long-range interactions of chain elements that give the fractional equations for the medium model are discussed. The chain equations of motion with long-range interaction are mapped into the continuum equation with the Riesz fractional derivative. We formulate the consistent definition of continuous limit for the systems with long-range interactions. In this paper, we consider a wide class of long-range interactions that give fractional medium equations in the continuous limit. The power-law interaction is a special case of this class

  4. Photonic limiters with enhanced dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Rodion; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos; Anisimov, Igor; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Chabanov, Andrey

    2018-02-01

    Optical limiters transmit low intensity input light while blocking input light with the intensity exceeding certain limiting threshold. Conventional passive limiters utilize nonlinear optical materials, which are transparent at low light intensity and turn absorptive at high intensity. Strong nonlinear absorption, though, can result in over- heating and destruction of the limiter. Another problem is that the limiting threshold provided by the available optical material with nonlinear absorption is too high for many applications. To address the above problems, the nonlinear material can be incorporated in a photonic structure with engineered dispersion. At low intensity, the photonic structure can display resonant transmission via localized mode(s), while at high intensity the resonant transmission can disappear, and the entire stack can become highly re ective (not absorptive) within a broad frequency range. In the proposed design, the transition from the resonant transmission at low intensity to nearly total re ectivity at high intensity does not rely on nonlinear absorption; instead, it requires only a modest change in the refractive index of the nonlinear material. The latter implies a dramatic increase in the dynamic range of the limiter. The main idea is to eliminate the high-intensity resonant transmission by decoupling the localized (resonant) modes from the input light, rather than suppressing those modes using nonlinear absorption. Similar approach can be used for light modulation and switching.

  5. Limited Range Sesame EOS for Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burakovsky, Leonid [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-30

    A new Sesame EOS table for Ta has been released for testing. It is a limited range table covering T ≤ 26, 000 K and ρ ≤ 37.53 g/cc. The EOS is based on earlier analysis using DFT phonon calculations to infer the cold pressure from the Hugoniot. The cold curve has been extended into compression using new DFT calculations. The present EOS covers expansion into the gas phase. It is a multi-phase EOS with distinct liquid and solid phases. A cold shear modulus table (431) is included. This is based on an analytic interpolation of DFT calculations.

  6. Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.

  7. A Passive Optical Location with Limited Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We know active and passive methods of a location. This article deals only with a passive location of dynamic targets. The passive optics location is suitable just for tracking of targets with mean velocity which is limited by the hardware basis. The aim of this work is to recognize plasma, particles etc. It is possible to propose such kind of evaluation methods which improve the capture probability markedly. Suggested method is dealing with the short-distance evaluation of targets. We suppose the application of three independent principles how to recognize an object in a scanned picture. These principles use similar stochastic functions in order to evaluate an object location by means of simple mathematical operations. Methods are based on direct evaluation of picture sequence by the help of the histogram and frequency spectrum. We find out the probability of unidentified moving object in pictures. If the probability reaches a setting value we will get a signal.

  8. Derived limits and their practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarik, F.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is devoted to the approach and methodological procedure in determining derived limits for surface contamination with special regard to external exposure of hands, inhalation of resuspended activity, contamination of the skin and with regard to ingestion of radioactive material from the skin. In the practical part of the article, results are given of measuring contamination by radionuclides 134 Cs, 133 Cs and 60 Co, and the resulting annual equivalent dose rates and their comparison with derived air contamination in the sense of ICRP Publ. No. 30. (author)

  9. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for iodine-125,129,131,132,133,134,135 in selected materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for iodine radionuclides in water, soil, grass, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for iodine radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  10. On Dynamic Range Limitations of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    frequency band and for the situation where the conveyor is used over the full bandwidth achievable. Finally, the optimisation of the current input range is related to the distortion characteristics and it is pointed out that to a first order approximation the distortion is independent of the current range.......This paper is concerned with the dynamic range of continuous time CMOS current mode circuits. As a representative current mode device a class AB current conveyor is examined. First, the voltage input range of the high impedance Y input is investigated. Next, the current input range of the low...... impedance X input is investigated. It is compared to the thermal noise in the X to Z signal path in order to evaluate the dynamic range, and the dependencies of the dynamic range on the supply voltage and the transistor lay-out is derived, both for the situation where the conveyor is used over a narrow...

  11. Long range forces and limits on unparticle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Jiang Jing

    2008-01-01

    Couplings between standard model particles and unparticles from a nontrivial scale invariant sector can lead to long range forces. If the forces couple to quantities such as baryon or lepton (electron) number, stringent limits result from tests of the gravitational inverse square law. These limits are much stronger than from collider phenomenology and astrophysics

  12. 76 FR 4751 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... saleable by long traders at its market value in normal cash marketing channels at the derivative contract's... Association, Futures Industry Association, GDF Suez Energy, Morgan Stanley, and NextEra Energy Power Marketing...

  13. The Bouguer Correction Algorithm for Gravity with Limited Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Jian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bouguer correction is an important item in gravity reduction, while the traditional Bouguer correction, whether the plane Bouguer correction or the spherical Bouguer correction, exists approximation error because of far-zone virtual terrain. The error grows as the calculation point gets higher. Therefore gravity reduction using the Bouguer correction with limited range, which was in accordance with the scope of the topographic correction, was researched in this paper. After that, a simplified formula to calculate the Bouguer correction with limited range was proposed. The algorithm, which is innovative and has the value of mathematical theory to some extent, shows consistency with the equation evolved from the strict integral algorithm for topographic correction. The interpolation experiment shows that gravity reduction based on the Bouguer correction with limited range is prior to unlimited range when the calculation point is taller than 1000 m.

  14. 78 FR 75679 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... practices for compliance with Designated Contract Market (``DCM'') core principle 5 and Swap Execution Facility (``SEF'') core principle 6 in respect of exchange- set speculative position limits and position... To Become Guidance on and Acceptable Practices for Compliance with DCM Core Principle 5 3. The CFTC...

  15. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  16. The Bouguer Correction Algorithm for Gravity with Limited Range

    OpenAIRE

    MA Jian; WEI Ziqing; WU Lili; YANG Zhenghui

    2017-01-01

    The Bouguer correction is an important item in gravity reduction, while the traditional Bouguer correction, whether the plane Bouguer correction or the spherical Bouguer correction, exists approximation error because of far-zone virtual terrain. The error grows as the calculation point gets higher. Therefore gravity reduction using the Bouguer correction with limited range, which was in accordance with the scope of the topographic correction, was researched in this paper. After that, a simpli...

  17. Reproduction in moose at their southern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Joel S.; Hersey, Kent R.; Hafen, Konrad; Monteith, Kevin L.; DeCesare, Nicholas J.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical fitness component in large herbivores. Biogeographic models predict that populations occurring at the edges of the range may have compromised reproductive rates because of inferior habitat at range peripheries. When reproductive rates are chronically low, ungulate populations may lack the resiliency to rebound quickly after periods of environmental stress, and this effect may be greatest for heat-sensitive organisms at their southern range limit. To assess the demographic vulnerability of moose ( Alces alces ), we studied relationships between reproductive rates, maternal age, and rump fat in the southernmost naturally occurring moose population in North America. For prime-aged moose in our study, pregnancy rates were high (92%), but moose aged 9 years had low pregnancy rates (32% and 38%, respectively). The relationship between rump fat and pregnancy was nonlinear such that a threshold of at least 2mm of rump fat yielded a high probability of being pregnant midwinter. In contrast, among pregnant moose, the probability of both producing a calf and recruiting it until spring increased linearly with rump fat. We also conducted a meta-analysis of pregnancy and twinning rates for adult (≥ 2 years) moose across a latitudinal gradient to compare reproductive rates from our study to other populations in North America. Moose living at southern latitudes tended to have lower reproductive rates than those living in the core of moose range, implying that southern moose populations may be demographically more vulnerable than northern moose populations.

  18. Reduced pollinator service and elevated pollen limitation at the geographic range limit of an annual plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, David A; Geber, Monica A; Eckhart, Vincent M; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Mutualisms are well known to influence individual fitness and the population dynamics of partner species, but little is known about whether they influence species distributions and the location of geographic range limits. Here, we examine the contribution of plant-pollinator interactions to the geographic range limit of the California endemic plant Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana. We show that pollinator availability declined from the center to the margin of the geographic range consistently across four years of study. This decline in pollinator availability was caused to a greater extent by variation in the abundance of generalist rather than specialist bee pollinators. Climate data suggest that patterns of precipitation in the current and previous year drove variation in bee abundance because of its effects on cues for bee emergence in the current year and the abundance of floral resources in the previous year. Experimental floral manipulations showed that marginal populations had greater outcross pollen limitation of reproduction, in parallel with the decline in pollinator abundance. Although plants are self-compatible, we found no evidence that autonomous selfing contributes to reproduction, and thus no evidence that it alleviates outcross pollen limitation in marginal populations. Furthermore, we found no association between the distance to the range edge and selfing rate, as estimated from sequence and microsatellite variation, indicating that the mating system has not evolved in response to the pollination environment at the range periphery. Overall, our results suggest that dependence on pollinators for reproduction may be an important constraint limiting range expansion in this system.

  19. Proposal for derivation of limit values for skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1985-04-01

    From the primary limit value for the skin dose secondary limit values are derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. In analogy to the secondary limit value for the maximum permissible body burden in case of incorporation, limit values for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' are calculated with the help of dose factors for application in case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. Considering that the skin is exposed to contamination but temporarily, in analogy to the annual limit on intake in case of incorporation a 'limit value of skin contamination' is derived for immediately removable contaminations and for one day of exposure, whereas with respect to non-removable contamination and taking into account the renewal of the skin, a limit value of annual skin contamination is defined for non-removable skin contaminations. An investigation level for skin contamination is assumed as a threshold above which defined measures must be taken. Regarding these measures not more than three times appropriate washing is recommended with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The respective limit values are indicated for some radionuclides selected as examples (C-14, Co-60, Sr-90, Y-90, I-131, Cs-137, Ce-141, Pu-239). (orig./HP) [de

  20. Proposed derivation of skin contamination and skin decontamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    From the primary dose limits for the skin, secondary dose limits were derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. Analogous to the secondary dose limit for the maximum permissible body burden in the case of incorporation, dose limits for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' were calculated, with the help of dose factors, for application in the case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. For conditions in which the skin is exposed to temporary contamination, a limit of skin contamination was derived for immediately removable contamination and for one day of exposure. For non-removable contamination a dose limit of annual skin contamination was defined, taking into account the renewal of the skin. An investigation level for skin contamination was assumed, as a threshold, above which certain measures must be taken; these to include appropriate washing not more than three times, with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The dose limits are indicated for selected radionuclides. (author)

  1. Determination of the range of control limits in radioimmunoassay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, A.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    A grouping technique is proposed for control limits in radioimmunoassay measurements. It has the advantage of working with control limits of 99.7% without the inconvenience of the confidence intervals. The method is practical and simple. It provides considerable flexibility for the processing of data. As the number of samples increases, the control limits become better defined. (author) [es

  2. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain: their derivation and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.C.; Colsher, C.S.; Thompson, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed

  3. Derived release limits for airborne effluents at TRIGA - INR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Hirica, O.; Mihai, S.; Oprea, I.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning from fulfilling the purposes of dose limitation system recommended by ICRP, and now accepted in radiation protection, this paper presents an environmental transfer model to calculate derived release limits for airborne and gaseous radioactive effluents at TRIGA-INR, 14 MW Steady State Reactor, in function on INR-Pitesti site. The methodology consists in determination of the principal exposure pathways for different groups of population and dose calculations for each radionuclide. The characterization of radionuclides transfer to environment was made using the compartmental model. The parameter transfer concept was used to describe the distribution of radionuclides between the different compartments. Atmospheric dispersion was very carefully treated, because it is the primary mechanism of the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and it determines all exposure pathways. Calculation of the atmospheric dispersion was made using ORION-II computer code based on the Gaussian plume model which takes account of site's specific climate and relief conditions. Default values recommended by literature were used to calculate some of the parameters when specific site values were not available. After identification of all transfer parameters which characterize the most important exposure pathways, the release rate corresponding to the individual dose rate limit was calculated. This maximum release rate is the derived release limit for each radionuclide and source. In the paper, the derived release limits are calculated for noble gases, radioiodine and other airborne particulate radionuclides, which can be released on the TRIGA-INR reactor stack, and are important to radiation protection. (authors)

  4. Widespread range expansions shape latitudinal variation in insect thermal limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Lesley T.

    2016-06-01

    Current anthropogenic impacts, including habitat modification and climate change, may contribute to a sixth mass extinction. To mitigate these impacts and slow further losses of biodiversity, we need to understand which species are most at risk and identify the factors contributing to current and future declines. Such information is often obtained through large-scale, comparative and biogeographic analysis of lineages or traits that are potentially sensitive to ongoing anthropogenic change--for instance to predict which regions are most susceptible to climate change-induced biodiversity loss. However, for this approach to be generally successful, the underlying causes of identified geographical trends need to be carefully considered. Here, I augment and reanalyse a global data set of insect thermal tolerances, evaluating the contribution of recent and contemporary range expansions to latitudinal variation in thermal niche breadth. Previous indications that high-latitude ectotherms exhibit broad thermal niches and high warming tolerances held only for species undergoing range expansions or invasions. In contrast, species with stable or declining geographic ranges exhibit latitudinally decreasing absolute thermal tolerances and no latitudinal variation in tolerance breadths. Thus, non-range-expanding species, particularly insular or endemic species, which are often of highest conservation priority, are unlikely to tolerate future climatic warming at high latitudes.

  5. Maintaining Limited-Range Connectivity Among Second-Order Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    we consider ad-hoc networks of robotic agents with double integrator dynamics. For such networks, the connectivity maintenance problems are: (i) do...connectivity-maintaining controls in a distributed fashion? The proposed solution is based on three contributions. First, we define and characterize...hoc networks of mobile autonomous agents. This loose ter- minology refers to groups of robotic agents with limited mobility and communica- tion

  6. Optical limiting properties of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Peiji; Ye, Cheng; Liu, Hongwei; Xi, Fu

    2001-06-01

    The optical limiting properties of four optically active phthalocyanine derivatives in chloroform solutions and epoxy resin thin plates were measured at 532 nm with 10 ns pulses. The excited state absorption cross-section σex and refractive-index cross-section σr were determined with the Z-scan technique. These chromophores possess larger σex than the ground state absorption cross-section σ0, indicating that they are the potential materials for reverse saturable absorption (RSA). The negative σr values of these chromophores add to the thermal contribution, producing a larger defocusing effect, which may be helpful in further enhancing their optical limiting performance. The optical limiting responses of the thin plate samples are stronger than those of the chloroform solutions.

  7. An estimation on the derived limits of effluent water concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Yasuharu; Kobayashi, Katuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    The values of Derived Limits of Effluent Water Concentration, (DLEC)sub(w), have been estimated in accordance with the principles of the recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The (DLEC)sub(w)'s were derived from the Annual Limits on Intake for individual members of the public (ALIsub(p)), considering realistic models of exposure pathways and annual intake rates of foods. The ALIsub(p)'s were decided after consideration of body organ mass and other age dependent parameters. We assumed that the materials which brought exposure to the public were drinking water, fish, seaweed, invertebrate and seashore. The age dependence of annual intake rate of food might be proportional to a person's energy expenditure rate. The following results were obtained. Infants were the critical group of the public at the time of derivation of (DLEC)sub(w). The ALIsub(p)'s for the infants were about one-hundredth of those for workers and their (DLEC)sub(w)'s were about one-third of those for the adult members of the public. (author)

  8. Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy Metric Spaces Satisfying -Contractive Condition with Common Limit Range Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces. Some illustrative examples are furnished which demonstrate the validity of the hypotheses and degree of utility of our results. We derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. As an application to our main result, we prove an integral-type fixed point theorem in fuzzy metric space. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in Imdad et al. (2012.

  9. Employing Common Limit Range Property to Prove Unified Metrical Common Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imdad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in metric spaces satisfying an implicit function essentially due to the paper of Ali and Imdad (2008. As an application to our main result, we derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in the paper of Ali and Imdad (2008. We also furnish some illustrative examples to support our main results.

  10. Fitness declines towards range limits and local adaptation to climate affect dispersal evolution during climate‐induced range shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, Anna; Bailey, Susan; Laird, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal ability will largely determine whether species track their climatic niches during climate change, a process especially important for populations at contracting (low-latitude/low-elevation) range limits that otherwise risk extinction. We investigate whether dispersal evolution....... We simulate a species distributed continuously along a temperature gradient using a spatially explicit, individual-based model. We compare range-wide dispersal evolution during climate stability vs. directional climate change, with uniform fitness vs. fitness that declines towards range limits (RLs...... at contracting range limits is facilitated by two processes that potentially enable edge populations to experience and adjust to the effects of climate deterioration before they cause extinction: (i) climate-induced fitness declines towards range limits and (ii) local adaptation to a shifting climate gradient...

  11. Predicting Long-Range Traversability from Short-Range Stereo-Derived Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmon, Michael; Tang, Benyang; Howard, Andrew; Brjaracharya, Max

    2010-01-01

    Based only on its appearance in imagery, this program uses close-range 3D terrain analysis to produce training data sufficient to estimate the traversability of terrain beyond 3D sensing range. This approach is called learning from stereo (LFS). In effect, the software transfers knowledge from middle distances, where 3D geometry provides training cues, into the far field where only appearance is available. This is a viable approach because the same obstacle classes, and sometimes the same obstacles, are typically present in the mid-field and the farfield. Learning thus extends the effective look-ahead distance of the sensors.

  12. Herbivory and pollen limitation at the upper elevational range limit of two forest understory plants of eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, Sébastien; Vellend, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Studies of species' range limits focus most often on abiotic factors, although the strength of biotic interactions might also vary along environmental gradients and have strong demographic effects. For example, pollinator abundance might decrease at range limits due to harsh environmental conditions, and reduced plant density can reduce attractiveness to pollinators and increase or decrease herbivory. We tested for variation in the strength of pollen limitation and herbivory by ungulates along a gradient leading to the upper elevational range limits of Trillium erectum (Melanthiaceae) and Erythronium americanum (Liliaceae) in Mont Mégantic National Park, Québec, Canada. In T. erectum, pollen limitation was higher at the range limit, but seed set decreased only slightly with elevation and only in one of two years. In contrast, herbivory of T. erectum increased from 60% at the upper elevational range limit. In E. americanum , we found no evidence of pollen limitation despite a significant decrease in seed set with elevation, and herbivory was low across the entire gradient. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential for relatively strong negative interactions (herbivory) and weak positive interactions (pollination) at plant range edges, although this was clearly species specific. To the extent that these interactions have important demographic consequences-highly likely for herbivory on Trillium , based on previous studies-such interactions might play a role in determining plant species' range limits along putatively climatic gradients.

  13. Tree range expansion in eastern North America fails to keep pace with climate warming at northern range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittaro, Fabian; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian; Nock, Charles A

    2017-08-01

    Rising global temperatures are suggested to be drivers of shifts in tree species ranges. The resulting changes in community composition may negatively impact forest ecosystem function. However, long-term shifts in tree species ranges remain poorly documented. We test for shifts in the northern range limits of 16 temperate tree species in Quebec, Canada, using forest inventory data spanning three decades, 15° of longitude and 7° of latitude. Range shifts were correlated with climate warming and dispersal traits to understand potential mechanisms underlying changes. Shifts were calculated as the change in the 95th percentile of latitudinal occurrence between two inventory periods (1970-1978, 2000-2012) and for two life stages: saplings and adults. We also examined sapling and adult range offsets within each inventory, and changes in the offset through time. Tree species ranges shifted predominantly northward, although species responses varied. As expected shifts were greater for tree saplings, 0.34 km yr -1 , than for adults, 0.13 km yr -1 . Range limits were generally further north for adults compared to saplings, but the difference diminished through time, consistent with patterns observed for range shifts within each life stage. This suggests caution should be exercised when interpreting geographic range offsets between life stages as evidence of range shifts in the absence of temporal data. Species latitudinal velocities were on average climate change and were mostly unrelated to dispersal traits. Finally, our results add to the body of evidence suggesting tree species are mostly limited in their capacity to track climate warming, supporting concerns that warming will negatively impact the functioning of forest ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Leandria C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV, named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS, transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI, and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility.

  15. High-resolution surface analysis for extended-range downscaling with limited-area atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei; Fernig, David

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution limited-area model (LAM) simulations are frequently employed to downscale coarse-resolution objective analyses over a specified area of the globe using high-resolution computational grids. When LAMs are integrated over extended time frames, from months to years, they are prone to deviations in land surface variables that can be harmful to the quality of the simulated near-surface fields. Nudging of the prognostic surface fields toward a reference-gridded data set is therefore devised in order to prevent the atmospheric model from diverging from the expected values. This paper presents a method to generate high-resolution analyses of land-surface variables, such as surface canopy temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, to be used for the relaxation of lower boundary conditions in extended-range LAM simulations. The proposed method is based on performing offline simulations with an external surface model, forced with the near-surface meteorological fields derived from short-range forecast, operational analyses, and observed temperatures and humidity. Results show that the outputs of the surface model obtained in the present study have potential to improve the near-surface atmospheric fields in extended-range LAM integrations.

  16. Derivation of recommended limits for radionuclide contamination of foods by the FAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Mueller, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, USSR, various countries defined limits for radioactive contamination of foods at different levels. These limits ranged from a few Bq iodine 131 or cesium 134 + 137/kg (Malaysia and Canada) to more than 1000 Bq/kg (Great Britain and France). These variations in limits hindered the movement of foods in international trade. For this reason the FAO convened an Expert Consultation to derive 'action levels' below which neither intervention nor constraint would be justified in terms of international movement and trade in food and drink. These limits are to find application in cases of widespread environmental contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides. They are not to be applied in cases of local release, e.g. in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. The derivation of 'action levels' by the FAO was based on the recommendations issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) in May 1985. According to this recommendation the committed dose equivalent for the whole body should not exceed 5 mSv in the first and 1 mSv in the consecutive years. For radionuclides that preferentially irradiate individual organs, e.g. I131 in the thyroid, the dose equivalent to a specified organ may be used to derive limiting values. For individual organs limiting doses of 50 mSv/a and 10 mSv/a respectively were chosen

  17. Derivation of recommended limits for radionuclide contamination of foods by the FAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, E; Mueller, M K [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Health Office, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1986-07-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, USSR, various countries defined limits for radioactive contamination of foods at different levels. These limits ranged from a few Bq iodine 131 or cesium 134 + 137/kg (Malaysia and Canada) to more than 1000 Bq/kg (Great Britain and France). These variations in limits hindered the movement of foods in international trade. For this reason the FAO convened an Expert Consultation to derive 'action levels' below which neither intervention nor constraint would be justified in terms of international movement and trade in food and drink. These limits are to find application in cases of widespread environmental contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides. They are not to be applied in cases of local release, e.g. in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. The derivation of 'action levels' by the FAO was based on the recommendations issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) in May 1985. According to this recommendation the committed dose equivalent for the whole body should not exceed 5 mSv in the first and 1 mSv in the consecutive years. For radionuclides that preferentially irradiate individual organs, e.g. I131 in the thyroid, the dose equivalent to a specified organ may be used to derive limiting values. For individual organs limiting doses of 50 mSv/a and 10 mSv/a respectively were chosen.

  18. Critical Limits for Hg(II) in soils, derived from chronic toxicity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Lofts, S.; Hooper, H.; Frey, B.; Spurgeon, D.; Svendsen, C.

    2010-01-01

    Published chronic toxicity data for Hg(II) added to soils were assembled and evaluated to produce a data set comprising 52 chronic end-points, five each for plants and invertebrates and 42 for microbes. With end-points expressed in terms of added soil Hg(II) contents, Critical Limits were derived from the 5th percentiles of species sensitivity distributions, values of 0.13 μg (g soil) -1 and 3.3 μg (g soil organic matter) -1 being obtained. The latter value exceeds the currently recommended Critical Limit, used to determine Hg(II) Critical Loads in Europe, of 0.5 μg (g soil organic matter) -1 . We also applied the WHAM/Model VI chemical speciation model to estimate concentrations of Hg 2+ in soil solution, and derived an approximate Critical Limit Function (CLF) that includes pH; log [Hg 2+ ] crit = -2.15 pH -17.10. Because they take soil properties into account, the soil organic matter-based limit and the CLF provide the best assessment of toxic threat for different soils. For differing representative soils, each predicts a range of up to 100-fold in the dry weight-based content of mercury that corresponds to the Critical Limit. - Published laboratory toxicity data and chemical speciation modelling are used to derive Critical Limits expressed as either soil Hg(II) content or Hg 2+ concentration.

  19. Population genetics and the evolution of geographic range limits in an annual plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, David A; Geber, Monica A; Tiffin, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Abstract Theoretical models of species' geographic range limits have identified both demographic and evolutionary mechanisms that prevent range expansion. Stable range limits have been paradoxical for evolutionary biologists because they represent locations where populations chronically fail to respond to selection. Distinguishing among the proposed causes of species' range limits requires insight into both current and historical population dynamics. The tools of molecular population genetics provide a window into the stability of range limits, historical demography, and rates of gene flow. Here we evaluate alternative range limit models using a multilocus data set based on DNA sequences and microsatellites along with field demographic data from the annual plant Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana. Our data suggest that central and peripheral populations have very large historical and current effective population sizes and that there is little evidence for population size changes or bottlenecks associated with colonization in peripheral populations. Whereas range limit populations appear to have been stable, central populations exhibit a signature of population expansion and have contributed asymmetrically to the genetic diversity of peripheral populations via migration. Overall, our results discount strictly demographic models of range limits and more strongly support evolutionary genetic models of range limits, where adaptation is prevented by a lack of genetic variation or maladaptive gene flow.

  20. Critical Limits for Hg(II) in soils, derived from chronic toxicity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E., E-mail: et@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hooper, H. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Frey, B. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Spurgeon, D.; Svendsen, C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Published chronic toxicity data for Hg(II) added to soils were assembled and evaluated to produce a data set comprising 52 chronic end-points, five each for plants and invertebrates and 42 for microbes. With end-points expressed in terms of added soil Hg(II) contents, Critical Limits were derived from the 5th percentiles of species sensitivity distributions, values of 0.13 {mu}g (g soil){sup -1} and 3.3 {mu}g (g soil organic matter){sup -1} being obtained. The latter value exceeds the currently recommended Critical Limit, used to determine Hg(II) Critical Loads in Europe, of 0.5 {mu}g (g soil organic matter){sup -1}. We also applied the WHAM/Model VI chemical speciation model to estimate concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} in soil solution, and derived an approximate Critical Limit Function (CLF) that includes pH; log [Hg{sup 2+}]{sub crit} = -2.15 pH -17.10. Because they take soil properties into account, the soil organic matter-based limit and the CLF provide the best assessment of toxic threat for different soils. For differing representative soils, each predicts a range of up to 100-fold in the dry weight-based content of mercury that corresponds to the Critical Limit. - Published laboratory toxicity data and chemical speciation modelling are used to derive Critical Limits expressed as either soil Hg(II) content or Hg{sup 2+} concentration.

  1. Why is joint range of motion limited in patients with cerebral palsy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, M.; Smeulders, M. J. C.; Kreulen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with spastic cerebral palsy of the upper limb typically present with various problems including an impaired range of motion that affects the positioning of the upper extremity. This impaired range of motion often develops into contractures that further limit functioning of the spastic hand

  2. Frequency limitations on reactor release derived from radiological criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1976-05-01

    Acceptable frequencies are suggested with which a number of defined individual and collective dose criteria are met. This has enabled a relationship to be proposed between the frequency and any event leading to release of radioactive material and the dose commitment to the hypothetical individual at the site boundary. The philosphy developed is generally applicable, but in this instance it has been demonstrated for an SGHW Reactor located at Sizewell. The results are derived on the basis of an acceptable level of risk of fatality to the most exposed individual and the application of the methodology to other reactor types and sites is demonstrated. (author)

  3. Drought stress limits the geographic ranges of two tree species via different physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Leander D L; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2016-03-01

    Range shifts are among the most ubiquitous ecological responses to anthropogenic climate change and have large consequences for ecosystems. Unfortunately, the ecophysiological forces that constrain range boundaries are poorly understood, making it difficult to mechanistically project range shifts. To explore the physiological mechanisms by which drought stress controls dry range boundaries in trees, we quantified elevational variation in drought tolerance and in drought avoidance-related functional traits of a widespread gymnosperm (ponderosa pine - Pinus ponderosa) and angiosperm (trembling aspen - Populus tremuloides) tree species in the southwestern USA. Specifically, we quantified tree-to-tree variation in growth, water stress (predawn and midday xylem tension), drought avoidance traits (branch conductivity, leaf/needle size, tree height, leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio), and drought tolerance traits (xylem resistance to embolism, hydraulic safety margin, wood density) at the range margins and range center of each species. Although water stress increased and growth declined strongly at lower range margins of both species, ponderosa pine and aspen showed contrasting patterns of clinal trait variation. Trembling aspen increased its drought tolerance at its dry range edge by growing stronger but more carbon dense branch and leaf tissues, implying an increased cost of growth at its range boundary. By contrast, ponderosa pine showed little elevational variation in drought-related traits but avoided drought stress at low elevations by limiting transpiration through stomatal closure, such that its dry range boundary is associated with limited carbon assimilation even in average climatic conditions. Thus, the same climatic factor (drought) may drive range boundaries through different physiological mechanisms - a result that has important implications for process-based modeling approaches to tree biogeography. Further, we show that comparing intraspecific patterns of

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity data for peracetic acid in deriving occupational exposure limits: a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechacek, Nathan; Osorio, Magdalena; Caudill, Jeff; Peterson, Bridget

    2015-02-17

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a peroxide-based chemistry that is highly reactive and can produce strong local effects upon direct contact with the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Given its increasing prominence in industry, attention has focused on health hazards and associated risks for PAA in the workplace. Occupational exposure limits (OEL) are one means to mitigate risks associated with chemical hazards in the workplace. A mini-review of the toxicity data for PAA was conducted in order to determine if the data were sufficient to derive health-based OELs. The available data for PAA frequently come from unpublished studies that lack sufficient study details, suffer from gaps in available information and often follow unconventional testing methodology. Despite these limitations, animal and human data suggest sensory irritation as the most sensitive endpoint associated with inhalation of PAA. Rodent RD50 data (the concentration estimated to cause a 50% depression in respiratory rate) were selected as the critical studies in deriving OELs. Based on these data, a range of 0.36-0.51mg/m(3) (0.1-0.2ppm) was calculated for a time-weighted average (TWA), and 1.2-1.7mg/m(3) (0.4-0.5ppm) as a range for a short-term exposure limit (STEL). These ranges compare favorably to other published OELs for PAA. Considering the applicable health hazards for this chemistry, a joint TWA/STEL OEL approach for PAA is deemed the most appropriate in assessing workplace exposures to PAA, and the selection of specific values within these proposed ranges represents a risk management decision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the structural properties of small-world networks with range-limited shortcut links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

    2013-12-01

    We explore a new variant of Small-World Networks (SWNs), in which an additional parameter (r) sets the length scale over which shortcuts are uniformly distributed. When r=0 we have an ordered network, whereas r=1 corresponds to the original Watts-Strogatz SWN model. These limited range SWNs have a similar degree distribution and scaling properties as the original SWN model. We observe the small-world phenomenon for r≪1, indicating that global shortcuts are not necessary for the small-world effect. For limited range SWNs, the average path length changes nonmonotonically with system size, whereas for the original SWN model it increases monotonically. We propose an expression for the average path length for limited range SWNs based on numerical simulations and analytical approximations.

  6. Methods for the calculation of derived working limits for surface contamination by low-toxicity radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Surface contamination is often measured as an indication of the general spread of radioactive contamination in a particular place. Derived working limits, (DWLs) for surface contamination provide figures against which to assess the significance of measurements. Derived working limits for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry. They were designed to cope with a wide range of unspecified radionuclides and were therefore based on the assumption that the contamination was due to the presence of the most hazardous radionuclides, e.g. 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 239 Pu. While this assumption may still be appropriate when the radionuclide mixture is unknown, there are now many specialized uses of particular low-toxicity radionuclides in universities, hospitals and general industry. If it is known that only a particular radionuclide is present, the general DWL can be replaced by a more specific value. The methods for calculating DWLs for some of the more commonly employed low-toxicity radionuclides are described. The exposure pathways considered are (a) external radiation of the skin and inhalation of airborne material from contaminated surfaces in active areas; (b) external irradiation of the skin and ingestion from contaminated skin. Some consideration is given to the effect of the revised dose equivalent limits in the most recent recommendations of ICRP. (author)

  7. Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with working memory capacity limitations in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Johnson, Nathan F

    2017-11-01

    Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60-77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased seedling establishment via enemy release at the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urli, Morgane; Brown, Carissa D; Narváez Perez, Rosela; Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Vellend, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The enemy release hypothesis is frequently invoked to explain invasion by nonnative species, but studies focusing on the influence of enemies on natural plant range expansion due to climate change remain scarce. We combined multiple approaches to study the influence of plant-enemy interactions on the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in southeastern Québec, Canada, where a previous study had demonstrated intense seed predation just beyond the range limit. Consistent with the hypothesis of release from natural enemies at the range limit, data from both natural patterns of regeneration and from seed and seedling transplant experiments showed higher seedling densities at the range edge than in the core of the species' distribution. A growth chamber experiment manipulating soil origin and temperature indicated that this so-called "happy edge" was not likely caused by temperature (i.e., the possibility that climate warming has made high elevation temperatures optimal for sugar maple) or by abiotic soil factors that vary along the elevational gradient. Finally, an insect-herbivore-exclusion experiment showed that insect herbivory was a major cause of seedling mortality in the core of sugar maple's distribution, whereas seedlings transplanted at or beyond the range edge experienced minimal herbivory (i.e., enemy release). Insect herbivory did not completely explain the high levels of seedling mortality in the core of the species' distribution, suggesting that seedlings at or beyond the range edge may also experience release from pathogens. In sum, while some effects of enemies are magnified beyond range edges (e.g., seed predation), others are dampened at and beyond the range edge (e.g., insect herbivory), such that understanding the net outcome of different biotic interactions within, at and beyond the edge of distribution is critical to predicting species' responses to global change. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Computer Programming in Understanding Limits and Derivatives in a Secondary Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the development of student's conceptual understandings of limit and derivative when utilizing specifically designed computational tools. Fourteen students from a secondary Advanced Placement Calculus AB course learned and explored the limit and derivative concepts from differential calculus using visualization tools in the…

  10. Site occupancy of brown-headed nuthatches varies with habitat restoration and range-limit context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Stanton; Frank R. Thompson; Dylan C. Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about species’ responses to habitat restoration can inform subsequent management and reintroduction planning. We used repeated call-response surveys to study brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) patch occupancy at the current limits of its apparently expanding range in an area with active habitat restoration. We fit a probit occupancy...

  11. Least limiting water range of Udox soil under degraded pastures on different sun-exposed faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Renato Ribeiro; Marciano da Costa, Liovando; Rodrigues de Assis, Igor; Santos, Danilo Andrade; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Guimarães, Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata; Andrade, Felipe Vaz

    2017-07-01

    The efficient use of water is increasingly important and proper soil management, within the specificities of each region of the country, allows achieving greater efficiency. The South and Caparaó regions of Espírito Santo, Brazil are characterized by relief of `hill seas' with differences in the degree of pasture degradation due to sun exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the least limiting water range in Udox soil under degraded pastures with two faces of exposure to the sun and three pedoenvironments. In each pedoenvironment, namely Alegre, Celina, and Café, two areas were selected, one with exposure on the North/West face and the other on the South/East face. In each of these areas, undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth to determine the least limiting water range. The exposed face of the pasture that received the highest solar incidence (North/West) presented the lowest values in least limiting water range. The least limiting water range proved to be a physical quality indicator for Udox soil under degraded pastures.

  12. On the transition from short-range diffusion-limited to collision-limited growth in alloy solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.J.; Boettinger, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Short-range diffusion-limited growth, collision-limited growth, and the transition between the two regimes are explained as natural consequences of a single model for the kinetics of alloy solidification. Analytical expressions are developed for the velocity-undercooling function of a planar interface during dilute alloy solidification, using Turnbull's collision-limited growth model and the Continuous Growth Solute Trapping Model of Aziz and Kaplan both with and without a solute drag effect. The interface mobility, -dv/dT, is shown to be very high (proportional to the speed of sound) if the alloy is sufficiently dilute or if the growth rate is sufficiently rapid for nearly complete solute trapping. The interface mobility is reduced by the three orders of magnitude (becoming proportional to the diffusive speed) at intermediate growth rates where partial solute trapping occurs. Differences in low velocity predictions of the models with and without solute drag are also discussed. Comparison of the results of the analytical expressions to numerical solutions of the non-dilute kinetic model for Al-Be alloys shows that the dilute approximation breaks down at melt compositions on the order of 10 at.%. Similar variations in the interface mobility are shown for the disorder-trapping model of Boettinger and Aziz

  13. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards.

  14. Limits of deuterium pressure range with neutron production in plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouzo, J.; Milanese, M.; Piriz, R.; Cortazar, D.; Moroso, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we present the experimental curves of neutron yield (Y) respect to the deuterium filling pressure (p) obtained in our plasma focuses device PACO. Y increases with the focus current (I f ) according with the scaling law Y ∼I 4-5 f , but it presents a limited range of p beyond which Y drastically decreases. The higher pressure limit is coincident with recently reported limit due to the energy available to maintain the ionization rate of the neutral gas during the roll-off stage. The lower pressure limit is here explained, through experimental evidences, in terms of a phenomenon connected with the dynamics of the current sheath (cs) during the roll-off stage. (author). 8 refs, 11 figs

  15. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  16. Distributed Algorithm for Voronoi Partition of Wireless Sensor Networks with a Limited Sensing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenlong; Feng, Zuren; Ren, Zhigang

    2018-02-03

    For Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), the Voronoi partition of a region is a challenging problem owing to the limited sensing ability of each sensor and the distributed organization of the network. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for each sensor having a limited sensing range to compute its limited Voronoi cell autonomously, so that the limited Voronoi partition of the entire WSN is generated in a distributed manner. Inspired by Graham's Scan (GS) algorithm used to compute the convex hull of a point set, the limited Voronoi cell of each sensor is obtained by sequentially scanning two consecutive bisectors between the sensor and its neighbors. The proposed algorithm called the Boundary Scan (BS) algorithm has a lower computational complexity than the existing Range-Constrained Voronoi Cell (RCVC) algorithm and reaches the lower bound of the computational complexity of the algorithms used to solve the problem of this kind. Moreover, it also improves the time efficiency of a key step in the Adjust-Sensing-Radius (ASR) algorithm used to compute the exact Voronoi cell. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the BS algorithm. The distributed realization of the BS combined with a localization algorithm in WSNs is used to justify the WSN nature of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    criteria for disposal of radioactive wastes to near surface facilities. These criteria are qualitative in nature and, for example, they do not address limitations on radionuclide content of waste, waste packages or the facility as a whole. This publication is to present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and to illustrate its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in near surface disposal facilities. The approach makes use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities both during the operational and post-closure periods. The scope of this publication covers the use of safety assessment methodology to calculate total and specific activities limits for radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities. It is used to evaluate the potential operational and post-closure radiological impact of solid and solidified radioactive waste in near surface facilities. The radioactive waste types used to illustrate the approach range from waste containing radionuclides used for medical, industrial and research purposes to waste arising from nuclear fuel cycle activities. They also include waste arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The focus of the publication is on using of safety assessment methodology in derivation of quantitative radioactivity limits. This report deals with the role of activity limits in disposal system safety (Section 2), the relevant radiation protection criteria (Section 3), the approach to derive activity limits (Section 4), illustrations of the application of this approach (Section 5), and guidance on the use of the approach (Section 6)

  18. Dosimetric quantities and basic data for the evaluation of generalised derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The procedures, dosimetric quantities and basic data to be used for the evaluation of Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) in environmental materials and of Generalised Derived Limits for discharges to atmosphere are described. The dosimetric considerations and the appropriate intake rates for both children and adults are discussed. In most situations in the nuclear industry and in those institutions, hospitals and laboratories which use relatively small quantities of radioactive material, the Generalised Derived Limits provide convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared, and atmospheric discharges can be assessed. They are intended for application when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the Generalised Derived Limit; above this level, it will usually be necessary to undertake a more detailed site-specific assessment. (author)

  19. Generalized oscillator strength and its first derivative for helium in the optical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.U.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Radojevic, V.; Zivanovic, D.

    1976-01-01

    Generalized oscillator strengths and their first derivatives for zero momentum transfer (i.e. in the optical limit) are calculated for the helium atom in the framework of the random phase approximation with exchange. (author)

  20. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Reddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theoretically, each species’ ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species’ range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. Methods: We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. Results: There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana’s preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM, appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Discussion: Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit.

  1. A modified discrete algebraic reconstruction technique for multiple grey image reconstruction for limited angle range tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiting; Guan, Yong; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiangyu; Li, Fahu; Guo, Pengfei; Tian, Yangchao

    2016-03-01

    The `missing wedge', which is due to a restricted rotation range, is a major challenge for quantitative analysis of an object using tomography. With prior knowledge of the grey levels, the discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) is able to reconstruct objects accurately with projections in a limited angle range. However, the quality of the reconstructions declines as the number of grey levels increases. In this paper, a modified DART (MDART) was proposed, in which each independent region of homogeneous material was chosen as a research object, instead of the grey values. The grey values of each discrete region were estimated according to the solution of the linear projection equations. The iterative process of boundary pixels updating and correcting the grey values of each region was executed alternately. Simulation experiments of binary phantoms as well as multiple grey phantoms show that MDART is capable of achieving high-quality reconstructions with projections in a limited angle range. The interesting advancement of MDART is that neither prior knowledge of the grey values nor the number of grey levels is necessary.

  2. TLD personnel monitoring dose estimation- extending the upper limit of the dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, K.L.; Sathian, Deepa; Divakaran, T.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    TLD personnel monitoring was introduced in the year 1975 in India and at present nearly 41,000 radiation workers are being monitored by 13 monitoring laboratories all over India. The BARC- TLD being used for personnel monitoring is based on CaSO 4 :Dy embedded in PTFE and semi-automatic TL reader using hot N 2 Gas for heating the dosimeters. This reader has the range to measure γ dose from ten μSv to 3 μSv and x-ray dose form 1 μ Sv to 0.3 Sv due to the higher sensitivity of CaSO 4 : Dy to lower energy photons (20keV-50 keV) generated by diagnostic x-ray units. The x-ray radiation workers are at present nearly 35% of the total radiation workers monitored and this number is expected to grow as more and more number of x-ray workers are covered under this service. The upper limit of the x-ray dose range of the instrument is 0.3 Sv, whereas in the past one year it has been observed that at least 25% of the total overexposures reported in case of x-ray workers have recorded the dose more than 0.3 Sv. This paper presents the technique developed to extend the upper limit of the range from 0.3 Sv to 1 Sv for x-rays and 10 Sv for γ rays

  3. Novel cytokinin derivatives do not show negative effects on root growth and proliferation in submicromolar range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Podlešáková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When applied to a nutrition solution or agar media, the non-substituted aromatic cytokinins caused thickening and shortening of the primary root, had an inhibitory effect on lateral root branching, and even showed some negative effects on development of the aerial part at as low as a 10 nanomolar concentration. Novel analogues of aromatic cytokinins ranking among topolins substituted on N9-atom of adenine by tetrahydropyranyl or 4-chlorobutyl group have been prepared and tested in standardized cytokinin bioassays [1]. Those showing comparable activities with N(6-benzylaminopurine were further tested in planta. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The main aim of the study was to explain molecular mechanism of function of novel cytokinin derivatives on plant development. Precise quantification of cytokinin content and profiling of genes involved in cytokinin metabolism and perception in treated plants revealed several aspects of different action of m-methoxytopolin base and its substituted derivative on plant development. In contrast to standard cytokinins, N9- tetrahydropyranyl derivative of m-topolin and its methoxy-counterpart showed the negative effects on root development only at three orders of magnitude higher concentrations. Moreover, the methoxy-derivative demonstrates a positive effect on lateral root branching and leaf emerging in a nanomolar range of concentrations, in comparison with untreated plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tetrahydropyranyl substitution at N9-position of cytokinin purine ring significantly enhances acropetal transport of a given cytokinins. Together with the methoxy-substitution, impedes accumulation of non-active cytokinin glucoside forms in roots, allows gradual release of the active base, and has a significant effect on the distribution and amount of endogenous isoprenoid cytokinins in different plant tissues. The utilization of novel aromatic cytokinin derivatives can distinctively improve expected

  4. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  5. Dispersal limitation at the expanding range margin of an evergreen tree in urban habitats?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Linda Agerbo; Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal limitations contribute to shaping plant distribution patterns and thus are significant for biodiversity conservation and urban ecology. In fleshy-fruited plants, for example, any preference of frugivorous birds affects dispersal capacities of certain fruit species. We conducted a removal...... landscapes. The results should be included in urban forestry and planting of potentially invasive ornamental species. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved....... experiment with fruits of Ilex aquifolium, a species that is currently expanding its range margin in northern Europe in response to climate change. The species is also a popular ornamental tree and naturalization has been observed in many parts of its range. Fruits of native I. aquifolium and of three...

  6. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  7. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H

    2015-12-18

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  8. Potential climate change favored expansion of a range limited species, Haematostaphis barteri Hook f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Koundouonon Moutouama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding impact of climate change on range breadth of rare species can improve the ability to anticipate their decline or expension and take appropriate conservation measures. Haematatostaphis barteri is an agroforestry species of the Sudanian centre of endemism in Africa. We investigeted impact of climate change on range of suitable habitats for this species in Benin,using the Maximum Entropy algorithm under R software. Five environmental variables were used with the regional climate model under the new Representation Concentration Pathways (RCP. Moisture Index of the Moist Quarter and Slope variability had the greatest predictive importance for the range of suitable habitats for H. barteri. Its Potential breadth was found to be currently limited to the Atacora Mountain Chain (AMC and covers 0.51% of national territory. Climate change was projected to favor expansion of suitable habitats for H. barteri by 0.12% and 0.05%, respectively for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. These habitats were however mostly out of the local protected areas network. Climate change would extend range of habitats for H. barteri. Observed protection gaps suggest need for integrating this species into formal in situ, on-farm or ex situ conservation schemes.

  9. Know your limits? Climate extremes impact the range of Scots pine in unexpected places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio Camarero, J; Gazol, Antonio; Sancho-Benages, Santiago; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Although extreme climatic events such as drought are known to modify forest dynamics by triggering tree dieback, the impact of extreme cold events, especially at the low-latitude margin ('rear edge') of species distributional ranges, has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of one such extreme cold event on a population of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the species' European southern rear-edge range limit and to determine how such events can be incorporated into species distribution models (SDMs). A combination of dendrochronology and field observation was used to quantify how an extreme cold event in 2001 in eastern Spain affected growth, needle loss and mortality of Scots pine. Long-term European climatic data sets were used to contextualize the severity of the 2001 event, and an SDM for Scots pine in Europe was used to predict climatic range limits. The 2001 winter reached record minimum temperatures (equivalent to the maximum European-wide diurnal ranges) and, for trees already stressed by a preceding dry summer and autumn, this caused dieback and large-scale mortality. Needle loss and mortality were particularly evident in south-facing sites, where post-event recovery was greatly reduced. The SDM predicted European Scots pine distribution mainly on the basis of responses to maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, but in comparison with this the observed effects of the 2001 cold event at the southerly edge of the range limit were unforeseen. The results suggest that in order to better forecast how anthropogenic climate change might affect future forest distributions, distribution modelling techniques such as SDMs must incorporate climatic extremes. For Scots pine, this study shows that the effects of cold extremes should be included across the entire distribution margin, including the southern 'rear edge', in order to avoid biased predictions based solely on warmer climatic scenarios. © The Author 2015. Published by

  10. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-01-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)

  11. Derived limits for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Si Young; Lee, Byung Soo

    2000-01-01

    In Korea the dose limits are reduced and are set at the ICRP-60 limits. However, derived limits tabulated as MPC in air and water are sill specified in Notice Nol 98-12. There are some discrepancies between the primary dose limits and MPCs in air and water. Therefore, in order to accept ICRP-60 recommendations fully, derived limits such as ALI, DAC, ECL for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations were calculated using modified methods of those of 10 CFR part 20, dose limits and committed effective dose coefficients of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA. The derived limits in this study were also compared with those prescribed in 10 CFR part 20 as well as MPCs of Notice No.98-12 in order to analyze the impact of implementing derived limits on nuclear facilities. ECLs in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment in this study are shown to have lower values (i.e. more conservative), for most part, than those in Notice No. 98-12. Especially, for uranium elements, ECLs in water are approximately a magnitude in the order of two lower than those in Notice No. 98-12. (author)

  12. Derivation of muon range spectrum under rock from the recent primary spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The muon range spectra under Mont Blanc Tunnel and Kolar Gold Field rocks have been calculated from the recently measured primary cosmic ray spectrum. The scaling hypothesis of Feynman has been used for the calculation of pion and kaon spectra in the atmosphere. The meson atmospheric diffusion equation has been solved by following the method of Bugaev et al. The derived muon energy spectrum has been found to be in good agreement with the measured data of the Kiel, Durham, DEIS, and Moscow University groups. The calculated muon energy spectra at large polar angles have been compared with the different experimental results. The integral muon spectrum up to 20 TeV supports the MARS burst data favourably. Using the procedure of Kobayakawa, the muon energy loss in rock due to ionization, pair production, and bremsstrahlung and nuclear interactions from Bezrukov and Bugaev, we have constructed the range-energy relation in Mont Blanc and Kolar Gold Field rocks. The estimated range spectra have been corrected for range fluctuations and have been compared with the Mont Blanc Tunnel data of Castagnoli et al., Bergamasco et al., and Sheldon et al. and the Kolar Gold Field data compilation by Krishnaswamy et al

  13. Effect of Drought on Herbivore-Induced Plant Gene Expression: Population Comparison for Range Limit Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunbharpur Singh Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low elevation “trailing edge” range margin populations typically face increases in both abiotic and biotic stressors that may contribute to range limit development. We hypothesize that selection may act on ABA and JA signaling pathways for more stable expression needed for range expansion, but that antagonistic crosstalk prevents their simultaneous co-option. To test this hypothesis, we compared high and low elevation populations of Boechera stricta that have diverged with respect to constitutive levels of glucosinolate defenses and root:shoot ratios; neither population has high levels of both traits. If constraints imposed by antagonistic signaling underlie this divergence, one would predict that high constitutive levels of traits would coincide with lower plasticity. To test this prediction, we compared the genetically diverged populations in a double challenge drought-herbivory growth chamber experiment. Although a glucosinolate defense response to the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua was attenuated under drought conditions, the plastic defense response did not differ significantly between populations. Similarly, although several potential drought tolerance traits were measured, only stomatal aperture behavior, as measured by carbon isotope ratios, was less plastic as predicted in the high elevation population. However, RNAseq results on a small subset of plants indicated differential expression of relevant genes between populations as predicted. We suggest that the ambiguity in our results stems from a weaker link between the pathways and the functional traits compared to transcripts.

  14. A simplified Excel® algorithm for estimating the least limiting water range of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Tairone Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The least limiting water range (LLWR of soils has been employed as a methodological approach for evaluation of soil physical quality in different agricultural systems, including forestry, grasslands and major crops. However, the absence of a simplified methodology for the quantification of LLWR has hampered the popularization of its use among researchers and soil managers. Taking this into account this work has the objective of proposing and describing a simplified algorithm developed in Excel® software for quantification of the LLWR, including the calculation of the critical bulk density, at which the LLWR becomes zero. Despite the simplicity of the procedures and numerical techniques of optimization used, the nonlinear regression produced reliable results when compared to those found in the literature.

  15. Putnam-Fuglede theorem and the range-kernel orthogonality of derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Duggal

    2001-01-01

    space H into itself. Let d=δ or Δ, where δAB:ℬ(H→ℬ(H is the generalized derivation δAB(S=AS−SB and ΔAB:ℬ(H→ℬ(H is the elementary operator ΔAB(S=ASB−S. Given A,B,S∈ℬ(H, we say that the pair (A,B has the property PF(d(S if dAB(S=0 implies dA∗B∗(S=0. This paper characterizes operators A,B, and S for which the pair (A,B has property PF(d(S, and establishes a relationship between the PF(d(S-property of the pair (A,B and the range-kernel orthogonality of the operator dAB.

  16. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gel derived from phosphonium borate can absorb a wide range of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Sokuro; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2018-01-24

    Herein, we demonstrate a polyelectrolyte gel which can absorb a wide range of organic solvents from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, permittivity: ε = 47.0) to tetrahydrofuran (ε = 5.6). The gel consists of polystyrene chains with small amounts (∼5 mol%) of lipophilic electrolytes derived from triphenylphosphonium tetraaryl borate. The swelling ability of the polyelectrolyte gel was higher than that of the alkyl ammonium tetraaryl borate previously reported by us, and this is attributed to the higher compatibility with organic solvents, as well as the higher dissociating ability, of the triphenyl phosphonium salt. The role of the ionic moieties was additionally confirmed by post modification of the polyelectrolyte gel via a conventional Wittig reaction, resulting in a nonionic gel. Our findings introduced here will lead to a clear-cut molecular design for polyelectrolyte gels which absorb all solvents.

  17. Development of derived limits for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. Y.; Lee, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Derived limits such as the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), Derived Air Concentration (DAC) and Effluent Concentration Limit (ECL) for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations were calculated using dose limits and committed effective dose coefficients of the basic Safety Standards of IAEA (i.e. safety series 115; BSS-96). Derived limits regarding occupational exposure were derived using methodologies of ICRP-61 and dose limit stated in ICRP -60. ECL in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment were derived using methodologies of 10 CFR part 20 and dose limit stated in ICRP-60. In order to analyze the impact of implementing derived limits on nuclear facilities, the derived values in this study were compared with those prescribed in 10 CFR part 20 as well as the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of Notice No. 98-12 of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). According to the comparison results, ECLs in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment in this study are shown to have lower values (i.e. more conservative), for most part, than those in Notice No. 98-12. These differences are due to the reduction of dose limit, adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, and application of new respiratory tract model and bio-kinetics model. Especially, for uranium elements (i.e., 235 U, 238 U, etc.), which are governing ones in the nuclear fuel industries, ECLs in water are approximately a magnitude in the order of two lower than those in Notice No. 98-12. These are attributable to the adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, newly recommended dose coefficients for ingestion pathway, and reduction of dose limit. It was found out that the differences in ECLs in water for uranium elements originated mostly from ingestion dose coefficients recommended by BSS-96. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2017-06-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  19. A derivation of the classical limit of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanapon, P.

    1985-01-01

    Instead of regarding the classical limit as the h → 0, an alternative view based on the physical interpretation of the elements of the density matrix is proposed. According to this alternative view, taking the classical limit corresponds to taking the diagonal elements and ignoring the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. As illustrations of this alternative approach, the classical limits of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics are derived. The derivation is carried out in two stages. First, the statistical classical limit is derived. Then with an appropriate initial condition, the deterministic classical limit is obtained. In the case of quantum mechanics, it is found that the classical limit of Schroedinger's wave mechanics is at best statistical, i.e., Schroedinger's wave mechanics does not reduce to deterministic (Hamilton's or Newton's) classical mechanics. In order to obtain the latter, it is necessary to start out initially with a mixture at the level of statistical quantum mechanics. The derivation hinges on the use of the Feynman path integral rigorously defined with the aid of nonstandard analysis. Nonstandard analysis is also applied to extend the method to the case of quantum electrodynamics. The fundamental decoupling problem arising form the use of Grassmann variables is circumvented by the use of c-number electron fields, but antisymmetrically tagged. The basic classical (deterministic) field equations are obtained in the classical limit with appropriate initial conditions. The result raises the question as to what the corresponding classical field equations obtained in the classical limit from the renormalized Lagrangian containing infinite counterterms really mean

  20. Least limiting water range in assessing compaction in a Brazilian Cerrado latosol growing sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the south-central region of Brazil, there is a trend toward reducing the sugarcane inter-harvest period and increasing traffic of heavy harvesting machinery on soil with high water content, which may intensify the compaction process. In this study, we assessed the structural changes of a distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol by monitoring soil water content as a function of the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR and quantified its effects on the crop yield and industrial quality of the first ratoon crop of sugarcane cultivars with different maturation cycles. Three cultivars (RB 83-5054, RB 84-5210 and RB 86-7515 were subjected to four levels of soil compaction brought about by a differing number of passes of a farm tractor (T0 = soil not trafficked, T2 = 2 passes, T10 = 10 passes, and T20 = 20 passes of the tractor in the same place in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement with three replications. The deleterious effects on the soil structure from the farm machinery traffic were limited to the surface layer (0-10 cm of the inter-row area of the ratoon crop. The LLWR dropped to nearly zero after 20 tractor passes between the cane rows. We detected differences among the cultivars studied; cultivar RB 86-7515 stood out for its industrial processing quality, regardless of the level of soil compaction. Monitoring of soil moisture in the crop showed exposure to water stress conditions, although soil compaction did not affect the production variables of the sugarcane cultivars. We thus conclude that the absence of traffic on the plant row maintained suitable soil conditions for plant development and may have offset the harmful effects of soil compaction shown by the high values for bulk density between the rows of the sugarcane cultivars.

  1. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  2. Potential of satellite-derived ecosystem functional attributes to anticipate species range shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Lomba, Angela; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Nieto-Lugilde, Diego; Alves, Paulo; Georges, Damien; Vicente, Joana R.; Honrado, João P.

    2017-05-01

    In a world facing rapid environmental changes, anticipating their impacts on biodiversity is of utmost relevance. Remotely-sensed Ecosystem Functional Attributes (EFAs) are promising predictors for Species Distribution Models (SDMs) by offering an early and integrative response of vegetation performance to environmental drivers. Species of high conservation concern would benefit the most from a better ability to anticipate changes in habitat suitability. Here we illustrate how yearly projections from SDMs based on EFAs could reveal short-term changes in potential habitat suitability, anticipating mid-term shifts predicted by climate-change-scenario models. We fitted two sets of SDMs for 41 plant species of conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula: one calibrated with climate variables for baseline conditions and projected under two climate-change-scenarios (future conditions); and the other calibrated with EFAs for 2001 and projected annually from 2001 to 2013. Range shifts predicted by climate-based models for future conditions were compared to the 2001-2013 trends from EFAs-based models. Projections of EFAs-based models estimated changes (mostly contractions) in habitat suitability that anticipated, for the majority (up to 64%) of species, the mid-term shifts projected by traditional climate-change-scenario forecasting, and showed greater agreement with the business-as-usual scenario than with the sustainable-development one. This study shows how satellite-derived EFAs can be used as meaningful essential biodiversity variables in SDMs to provide early-warnings of range shifts and predictions of short-term fluctuations in suitable conditions for multiple species.

  3. A model for the derivation of new transport limits for non-fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Lorenz, B.; Hesse, J.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material contain requirements for contamination limits on packages and conveyances used for the transport of radioactive material. Current contamination limits for packages and conveyances under routine transport conditions have been derived from a model proposed by Fairbairn more than 40 years ago. This model has proven effective if used with pragmatism, but is based on very conservative as well as extremely simple assumptions which is in no way appropriate any more and which is not compatible with ICRP recommendations regarding radiation protection standards. Therefore, a new model has now been developed which reflects all steps of the transport process. The derivation of this model has been fostered by the IAEA by initiating a Co-ordinated Research Project. The results of the calculations using this model could be directly applied as new nuclide specific transport limits for the non-fixed contamination

  4. A model for the derivation of new transport limits for non-fixed contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Lorenz, B. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearservice, Essen (Germany); Hesse, J. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material contain requirements for contamination limits on packages and conveyances used for the transport of radioactive material. Current contamination limits for packages and conveyances under routine transport conditions have been derived from a model proposed by Fairbairn more than 40 years ago. This model has proven effective if used with pragmatism, but is based on very conservative as well as extremely simple assumptions which is in no way appropriate any more and which is not compatible with ICRP recommendations regarding radiation protection standards. Therefore, a new model has now been developed which reflects all steps of the transport process. The derivation of this model has been fostered by the IAEA by initiating a Co-ordinated Research Project. The results of the calculations using this model could be directly applied as new nuclide specific transport limits for the non-fixed contamination.

  5. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    OpenAIRE

    Alsdurf, Jacob D.; Ripley, Tayler J.; Matzner, Steven L.; Siemens, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. L?ve &...

  6. Quantification of the least limiting water range in an oxisol using two methodological strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Henrique Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The least limiting water range (LLWR has been used as an indicator of soil physical quality as it represents, in a single parameter, the soil physical properties directly linked to plant growth, with the exception of temperature. The usual procedure for obtaining the LLWR involves determination of the water retention curve (WRC and the soil resistance to penetration curve (SRC in soil samples with undisturbed structure in the laboratory. Determination of the WRC and SRC using field measurements (in situ is preferable, but requires appropriate instrumentation. The objective of this study was to determine the LLWR from the data collected for determination of WRC and SRC in situ using portable electronic instruments, and to compare those determinations with the ones made in the laboratory. Samples were taken from the 0.0-0.1 m layer of a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Oxisol. Two methods were used for quantification of the LLWR: the traditional, with measurements made in soil samples with undisturbed structure; and in situ , with measurements of water content (θ, soil water potential (Ψ, and soil resistance to penetration (SR through the use of sensors. The in situ measurements of θ, Ψ and SR were taken over a period of four days of soil drying. At the same time, samples with undisturbed structure were collected for determination of bulk density (BD. Due to the limitations of measurement of Ψ by tensiometer, additional determinations of θ were made with a psychrometer (in the laboratory at the Ψ of -1500 kPa. The results show that it is possible to determine the LLWR by the θ, Ψ and SR measurements using the suggested approach and instrumentation. The quality of fit of the SRC was similar in both strategies. In contrast, the θ and Ψ in situ measurements, associated with those measured with a psychrometer, produced a better WRC description. The estimates of the LLWR were similar in both methodological strategies. The quantification of

  7. Correlation of shoulder range of motion limitations at discharge with limitations in activities and participation one year later in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriks-Hoogland, Inge E; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W M; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2011-02-01

    To study the correlation between limited shoulder range of motion in persons with spinal cord injury at discharge and the performance of activities, wheeling performance, transfers and participation one year later. Multicentre prospective cohort study. A total of 146 newly injured subjects with spinal cord injury. Shoulder range of motion was measured at discharge. One year later, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), transfer ability, wheelchair circuit and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) were assessed. Corrections were made for possible confounding factors (age, gender, level and completeness of injury, time since injury and shoulder pain). All subjects with limited shoulder range of motion at discharge had a lower FIM motor score and were less likely (total group 5 times, and subjects with tetraplegia 10 times less likely) to be able to perform an independent transfer one year later. Subjects with limited shoulder range of motion in the total group needed more time to complete the wheelchair circuit. No significant associations with the PASIPD were found in either group. Persons with spinal cord injury and limited shoulder range of motion at discharge are more limited in their activities one year later than those without limited shoulder range of motion.

  8. Limited-area short-range ensemble predictions targeted for heavy rain in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sattler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherent uncertainties in short-range quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF from the high-resolution, limited-area numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (LAM are addressed using two different approaches to creating a small ensemble of LAM simulations, with focus on prediction of extreme rainfall events over European river basins. The first ensemble type is designed to represent uncertainty in the atmospheric state of the initial condition and at the lateral LAM boundaries. The global ensemble prediction system (EPS from ECMWF serves as host model to the LAM and provides the state perturbations, from which a small set of significant members is selected. The significance is estimated on the basis of accumulated precipitation over a target area of interest, which contains the river basin(s under consideration. The selected members provide the initial and boundary data for the ensemble integration in the LAM. A second ensemble approach tries to address a portion of the model-inherent uncertainty responsible for errors in the forecasted precipitation field by utilising different parameterisation schemes for condensation and convection in the LAM. Three periods around historical heavy rain events that caused or contributed to disastrous river flooding in Europe are used to study the performance of the LAM ensemble designs. The three cases exhibit different dynamic and synoptic characteristics and provide an indication of the ensemble qualities in different weather situations. Precipitation analyses from the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD are used as the verifying reference and a comparison of daily rainfall amounts is referred to the respective river basins of the historical cases.

  9. Adopted levels and derived limits for Ra-226 and the decision making processes concerning TENORM releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A fraction of a primary dose limit can be, in general, agreed upon as a dose related level to be adopted in decision-making processes. In the case of TENORM releases, fractions of primary dose levels for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Po may be of particular importance to establish adopted levels for 226 Ra could be adopted at the highest portion of the natural background variation. Above such level, intervention and remedial action levels could also be adopted. All those levels would be fractions of the primary level, but translated in terms of derived limits expressed in practical units. Derived limits would then be calculated by using environmental models. In such approach 'critical groups' would have to be carefully defined and identified. In addition, the size of a critical group would be chosen to be used in environmental modeling. Site specific environmental models and parameters are desirable, though unavailable, or very difficult to obtain, in most cases. Thus, mathematical models and parameters of more generic nature are often used. A sensitive parametric analysis can make a ranking of the parameters used in a model, allowing one to choose how important each parameter will be for the model output. The paper will point out that when using the adopted levels and derived limits, as suggested above, the uncertainties and importance of the parameters entering an environmental model can make the difference for decision makers to take the right or wrong decision, as far as radiological protection is concerned. (author)

  10. Adopted levels and derived limits for Ra-226 and the decision making processes concerning TENORM releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A fraction of a primary dose limit can be, in general, agreed upon as a dose related level to be adopted in decision-making processes. In the case of TENORM releases, fractions of primary dose levels for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Po may be of particular importance to establish adopted levels and derived limits to guide decision making processes. Thus, for example, a registration level for 226 Ra could be adopted at the highest portion of the natural background variation. Above such level, intervention and remedial action levels could also be adopted. All those levels would be fractions of the primary level, but translated in terms of derived limits expressed in practical units. Derived limits would then be calculated by using environmental models. In such approach 'critical groups' would have to be carefully defined and identified. In addition, the size of a critical group would be chosen to be used in environmental modeling. Site specific environmental models and parameters are desirable, though unavailable, or very difficult to obtain, in most cases. Thus, mathematical models and parameters of more generic nature are often used. A sensitive parametric analysis can make a ranking of the parameters used in a model, allowing one to choose how important each parameter will be for the model output. The paper will point out that when using the adopted levels and derived limits, as suggested above, the uncertainties and importance of the parameters entering an environmental model can make the difference for decision makers to take the right or wrong decision, as far as radiological protection is concerned. (author)

  11. Natural and manipulated populations of the treehole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, at its northernmost range limit in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Dudley; MacKay, Sarah E; Verdonschot, Ralf C M; Tacchino, Pierre J P

    2007-12-01

    Ochlerotatus triseriatus, the eastern treehole mosquito, reaches its northernmost range limit in the extreme southeast of Canada. As a known vector of West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses and a potential vector of eastern equine encephalitis, its population biology is of interest. In southern Ontario, high larval densities occur in urban woodlots within sugar maple and American beech treehole communities comprising rotifers, nematode worms, mites, other dipterans, and scirtid beetles. Treehole water was characterized by low dissolved oxygen levels and seasonally variable pH and temperature, with the latter being most influential on local populations. Densities were significantly higher (up to 503 larvae 100 ml(-1)) in tree holes close to the forest floor (holes seeded with autumn-shed maple leaves as opposed to leaves of black oak and beech. In this locality, weekly sampling showed Oc. triseriatus to be multivoltine, with mass egg hatching beginning under coldwater (hole, population losses of Oc. triseriatus due to washout during major rainfall events were negligible despite high flowthrough of water derived from stemflow.

  12. The Economic Role and Limitations of Cooperatives: An Investment Cash Flow Derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, H. Christopher

    1992-01-01

    The economic role and limitations of cooperatives are derived using an approach based on investment cash flows and net present value. Cooperatives are viewed as an option for member investment as well as an option for member patronage. The investment approach yields results similar to the traditional paradigms that focus on patronage. In addition, the approach makes more explicit the impact of member investment on cooperative existence, valuation, performance measurement, and strategy options.

  13. Stochastic approach to the derivation of emission limits for wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, D; Kabelkova, I; Bares, V

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic approach to the derivation of WWTP emission limits meeting probabilistically defined environmental quality standards (EQS) is presented. The stochastic model is based on the mixing equation with input data defined by probability density distributions and solved by Monte Carlo simulations. The approach was tested on a study catchment for total phosphorus (P(tot)). The model assumes input variables independency which was proved for the dry-weather situation. Discharges and P(tot) concentrations both in the study creek and WWTP effluent follow log-normal probability distribution. Variation coefficients of P(tot) concentrations differ considerably along the stream (c(v)=0.415-0.884). The selected value of the variation coefficient (c(v)=0.420) affects the derived mean value (C(mean)=0.13 mg/l) of the P(tot) EQS (C(90)=0.2 mg/l). Even after supposed improvement of water quality upstream of the WWTP to the level of the P(tot) EQS, the WWTP emission limits calculated would be lower than the values of the best available technology (BAT). Thus, minimum dilution ratios for the meaningful application of the combined approach to the derivation of P(tot) emission limits for Czech streams are discussed.

  14. Derived limits for occupational exposure to uranium mine and mill dusts in the air and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Limits are derived for the concentration of uranium mine and mill dusts in the air based on ICRP30 and assumptions regarding the isotopic make up of the dusts. From these limits using a resuspension factor, limits for surface contamination are derived. Calculations are presented of the dose to the basal layer of the skin from mine and mill dusts on the skin. From these calculations limits for skin contamination are derived. A calculation of a limit based on direct ingestion is also presented. Exposure limits for the public are not considered

  15. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 100-600 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in the entire mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  16. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-150 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in in the low mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  17. Impacts of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics on species range limits: a case study of Liriodendron chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aihong; Dick, Christopher W; Yao, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongwen

    2016-05-10

    Species ranges are influenced by past climate oscillations, geographical constraints, and adaptive potential to colonize novel habitats at range limits. This study used Liriodendron chinense, an important temperate Asian tree species, as a model system to evaluate the roles of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics in determining range limits. We examined the demographic history and genetic diversity of 29 L. chinense populations using both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Significant phylogeographic structure was recovered with haplotype clusters coinciding with major mountain regions. Long-term demographical stability was suggested by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests, and ecological niche models (ENM) and suggested the existence of LGM refuges within mountain regions. Differences in genetic diversity between central and marginal populations were not significant for either genomic region. However, asymmetrical gene flow was inferred from central populations to marginal populations, which could potentially limit range adaptation and expansion of L. chinense.

  18. Hydrothermal germination models: Improving experimental efficiency by limiting data collection to the relevant hydrothermal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal models used to predict germination response in the field are usually parameterized with data from laboratory experiments that examine the full range of germination response to temperature and water potential. Inclusion of low water potential and high and low-temperature treatments, how...

  19. Range and nummer-of-levels effects in derived and stated attribute importances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Wittink, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  20. Range and number-of-levels effects in derived and stated measures of attribute importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, PWJ; Schifferstein, HNJ; Wittink, DR

    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all

  1. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict.

  2. Correlation of shoulder range of motion limitations at discharge with limitations in activities and participation one year later in persons with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriks-Hoogland, Inge E.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To study the correlation between limited shoulder range of motion in persons with spinal cord injury at discharge and the performance of activities, wheeling performance, transfers and participation one year later. Design: Multicentre prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 146

  3. Limitations in determining enantiomeric excess of alcohols by 31 P-NMR of the phosphonate derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverde Junior, Antonio; Conceicao, Jelson J.A. da; Pilli, Ronaldo A.; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Miranda, Domingos S. de; Schirmer, Heiko; Meijere, Armin de

    1999-01-01

    The use of diastereomeric alcohol dialkyl-phosphonate derivatives to determine the enantiomeric excesses via 31 P-NMR signal ratios of anisochronous meso and threo isomers was successfully applied to secondary alcohols (Feringa's method). Expansion of the methodology to primary alcohols processing the hydroxyl groups tethered to the stereogenic centers by two or more methylene groups proved the method to be inefficient. The comparison between the coupled and decoupled spectra is important in order to identify the signals corresponding to the dialkyl-phosphonates. Nevertheless the methodology should be applied whenever the amount of the alcohol and its structure are not the limiting factors. (author)

  4. On the limiting resolution of silicon detectors for short-range particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E M; Eremin, V K; Malyarenko, A M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L

    1986-10-20

    The transition to planar tecnology has lead to substantial improvement of energy resolution of Si detectors of strongly ionizing nuclear radiations. For 5 MeV ..cap alpha..-particles the resolution (delta/sub ..cap alpha../) is equal 9.2 keV. The application of the method of local diffusion permitted to attain delta/sub ..cap alpha../=8.1-8.4 keV. The comparison of the new resolution level with the theoretical limit is carried out. It is shown that the combination of partial contributions of fluctuations caused by fundamental mechanisms practically determined delta/sub ..cap alpha../ of obtained detectors.

  5. Derivation of release limits for a typical uranium mining and milling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report develops guidelines for calculating derived release limits (DRLs) for releases of each radionuclide belonging to the uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay chains to atmosphere, surface water and groundwater from uranium mining and milling operations in Canada. DRLs are defined as calculated limits on releases from the facility that result in radiation exposures through all environmental pathways equal to the annual effective dose equivalent limit of 0.005 Sv for stochastic effects or the annual dose equivalent limit of 0.05 Sv for non-stochastic effects in the critical group. By definition, DRLs apply to controllable radionuclide emissions which occur during the operational phase of mine/mill facilities. The report develops a steady-state environmental transfer model to determine environmental dilution and dispersion in atmosphere, surface water and groundwater between the sources at the mine and mill and the critical group receptor. Exposure pathways incorporated in the model include external exposure from immersion in the airborne plume, immersion in water, contaminated ground and contaminated shoreline sediments. Internal exposure pathways include inhalation of contaminated air and ingestion of contaminated water and terrestrial and aquatic foods

  6. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  7. Gametogenesis of an intertidal population of Mytilus trossulus in NW Greenland: not a limitation for potential Arctic range expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Jensen, Kurt Thomas; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2017-01-01

    is found in north Greenland, an area characterised by low temperature, prolonged winters and a short productive period. This population, therefore, provides a unique opportunity to study whether a temperate bivalve species can sustain a population near its pole-ward distribution limit through reproduction...... characterized by limited food supply and sub-zero water temperatures for 9 mo of the year. Instead, for this marine invertebrate with a larval life-stage, oceanographic conditions and dispersal barriers, rather than physiological constraints, could be more important in determining the northern range limit....

  8. Upper limit on a stochastic background of gravitational waves from seismic measurements in the range 0.05-1 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

    2014-03-14

    In this Letter, we present an upper limit of ΩGW<1.2×108 on an isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background integrated over a year in the frequency range 0.05-1 Hz, which improves current upper limits from high-precision laboratory experiments by about 9 orders of magnitude. The limit is obtained using the response of Earth itself to GWs via a free-surface effect described more than 40 years ago by Dyson. The response was measured by a global network of broadband seismometers selected to maximize the sensitivity.

  9. The quasi-classical limit of scattering amplitude - L2-approach for short range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, K.; Vienna Univ.

    1984-01-01

    We are concerned with the asymptotic behaviour as Planck's constant h → 0 of the scattering operator Ssup(h) associated with the pair of Schroedinger equations i h/2π delta u/delta t = - ((h/2π) 2 /2m)Δu + V(x) u equivalent to Hsup(h)u and i h/2π delta u/delta t = - ((h/2π) 2 /2m)Δu equivalent to Hsup(h) 0 u. We shall show under certain conditions that the scattering matrix S-circumflexsup(h)(p,q), the distribution kernel of Ssup(h) in momentum representation, may be expressed in terms of a Fourier integral operator. Then applying the stationary phase method to it, we shall prove that S-circumflexsup(h) has an asymptotic expansion in powers of h/2π up to any order in L 2 -space and that the limit as h → 0 of the total cross section is twice the one of classical mechanics, in generic. (Author)

  10. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  11. Dare County Gunnery Range, North Carolina. Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    AIR wEATHER SERVICE/MAC--) STATION NUMBER: ?4695C STATIOK NAME: DARE COUNTY GUNNERY RANGE NC PERIOD OF PECORD: 7887 MONTH: JAN HOURSILSTi: ISO -1700...25D01 776 89.7 87.1 88.2 88.2 88.2 88.2 88.2 88.2 8.2 88.2 88:2 88.2 88.2 88.2 C GE 27001 78.8 85.9 88.2 89.4 89.4 89.9 89.4 89.4 90.6 97.6 93.6 90.6...78.6 81 .9 83. 4 83.4 85. 1 85 .7 86. 7 86.7 86.7 86.9 87.8 C)GE 27001 5 1.9 65.1 73.8 80.4 80.6 83 .9 85. 3 65.3 87.3 87.8 87.8 88.8 88.8 89.2 90. 1 G

  12. Resistance to alveolar shape change limits range of force propagation in lung parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Smith, Bradford J; Bates, Jason H T

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that if the lung parenchyma is modeled in 2 dimensions as a network of springs arranged in a pattern of repeating hexagonal cells, the distortional forces around a contracting airway propagate much further from the airway wall than classic continuum theory predicts. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this occurs because of the negligible shear modulus of a hexagonal spring network. We simulated the narrowing of an airway embedded in a hexagonal network of elastic alveolar walls when the hexagonal cells of the network offered some resistance to a change in shape. We found that as the forces resisting shape change approach about 10% of the forces resisting length change of an individual spring the range of distortional force propagation in the spring network fell of rapidly as in an elastic continuum. We repeated these investigations in a 3-dimensional spring network composed of space-filling polyhedral cells and found similar results. This suggests that force propagation away from a point of local parenchymal distortion also falls off rapidly in real lung tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intermediate modeling between kinetic equations and hydrodynamic limits: derivation, analysis and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work is dedicated study of a problem resulting from plasma physics: the thermal transfer of electrons in a plasma close to equilibrium Maxwellian. Firstly, a dimensional study of the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell system is performed, allowing one hand to identify a physically relevant parameter of scale and also to define mathematically the contours of validity domain. The asymptotic regime called Spitzer-Harm is studied for a relatively general class of collision operator. The following part of this work is devoted to the derivation and study of the hydrodynamic limit of the system of Vlasov-Maxwell-Landau outside the strictly asymptotic. A model proposed by Schurtz and Nicolais located in this context and analyzed. The particularity of this model lies in the application of a delocalization operation in the heat flux. The link with non-local models of Luciani and Mora is established as well as mathematics properties as the principle of maximum and entropy dissipation. Then a formal derivation from the Vlasov equations with a simplified collision operator, is proposed. The derivation, inspired by the recent work of D. Levermore, involves decomposition methods according to the spherical harmonics and methods of closing called diffusion methods. A hierarchy of intermediate models between the kinetic equations and the hydrodynamic limit is described. In particular a new hydrodynamic system integro-differential by nature, is proposed. The Schurtz and Nicolai model appears as a simplification of the system resulting from the derivation, assuming a steady flow of heat. The above results are then generalized to account for the internal energy dependence which appears naturally in the equation establishment. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the nonstationary system are established in a simplified framework. The last part is devoted was the implementation of a specific numerical scheme to solve these models. We propose a finite volume approach can be

  14. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  15. A procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hallam, J; Jones, J A

    1983-01-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere are evaluated using parameter values to ensure that the exposure of the critical group is unlikely to be underestimated significantly. Where the discharge is greater than about 5% of the GDL, a more rigorous estimate of the derived limit may be warranted. This report describes a procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for discharges of radioactivity to the atmosphere taking into account the conditions of the release and the location and habits of the exposed population. A worksheet is provided to assist in carrying out the required calculations.

  16. A new polyethyleneglycol-derivatized hemoglobin derivative with decreased oxygen affinity and limited toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolog, Oana; Mot, Augustin; Deac, Florina; Roman, Alina; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol is described for derivatization of hemoglobin with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via reaction of the unmodified native hemoglobin with an activated amine-reacting polyethylene glycol derivative which, unlike protocols previously described, leads to formation of a peptide bond between hemoglobin and PEG. Dioxygen binding and peroxide reactivities of the derivatized hemoglobin are examined, and found to be within reasonable limits, with the particular observation that, unlike with a few other derivatization protocols, the dioxygen affinity is slightly lower than that of native Hb. In cell culture tests (human umbilical vein epithelial cells, HUVEC), the derivatization protocol induces no toxic effect. These results show promise towards applicability for production of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

  17. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timzing Miri-Dashe

    Full Text Available Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women.Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4% males, 125 (32.6% non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2% with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC, Hemoglobin (HB and Hematocrit (HCT had significant gender difference (p = 0.000 but not for total white blood count (p>0.05 which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000. Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001 but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001 with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05 but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3, Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p0.05.Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  18. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Monday Tokdung Nenbammun; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash'le

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (pchemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p0.05). Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  19. Derivation of Burn Scar Depths with Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) in Indonesian Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, U.; Siegert, F.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical deforestation and forest degradation contribute to about 20% of the global greenhouse gas emissions and Indonesia is a leading emitter. Forests are certainly critical; but the peat soils beneath can store 30 times more carbon than the trees above. Indonesia has the fourth-largest area of peatland in the world, ranging from 30 to 45 million ha, which is approximately 10 - 12% of the global peatland resource. Fire has a long tradition in Indonesian land clearing, where almost all fires are related to human activities. The 1997 - 1998 fires throughout Indonesia caused significant haze and smoke-related health problems across Southeast Asia. Strong and weak El Niño events in 1998 and 2002 accelerated burning as soil was parched. Green house gas emissions from the fires were the source of 60% of all anomalies globally for 1997 - 2000, particularly from drained peatlands. In 2007/08 we participated in a study conducted by the World Wildlife Fund which focused on Sumatra's 8.3 million ha province of Riau, along the island's northeastern coastline. In this study CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, peat decomposition and burning over 17 years from 1990 - 2007 were estimated. Fire hotspot data for the years 1997 - 2000 from the NOAA AVHRR and MODIS sensors was used to identify burned peatland. Based on soil water availability the depths of peat burns were estimated. El Nino years with a water table of lower than 1.5 m propel intense burning so that a peat burn depth of 0.50 m was assumed, while normally only a peat burn depth of 0.15 m. Total emissions for the 1990 - 2007 period were estimated at 3.66 Gt CO2, composed of 1.17 Gt CO2 from deforestation, 0.32 Gt CO2 from forest degradation, 0.78 Gt CO2 from peat decomposition, and 1.39 Gt CO2 from peat burning. Average annual CO2 emissions were 0.22 Gt, equal to 58% of Australia's total CO2 annual emissions (including emissions/removals from LULUCF, in 2005); between 1990 and 2007, Riau produced

  20. Highly accurate nuclear and electronic stopping cross sections derived using Monte Carlo simulations to reproduce measured range data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaack, Klaus; Mutzke, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We have examined and confirmed the previously unexplored concept of using Monte Carlo calculations in combination with measured projected ranges of ions implanted in solids to derive a quantitative description of nuclear interaction and electronic stopping. The study involved 98 ranges of 11B in Si between 1 keV and 8 MeV, contained in 12 sets of 10 different groups. Systematic errors by up to ±8% were removed to establish a refined data base with 93 ranges featuring only statistical uncertainties (±1.8%). The Monte Carlo calculations could be set up to reproduce the refined ranges with a mean ratio 1.002 ± 1.7%. The input parameters required for this very high level of agreement are as follows. Nuclear interaction is best described by the Kr-C potential, but in obligatory combination with the Lindhard-Scharff (LS) screening length. Up to 300 keV, the electronic stopping cross section is proportional to the projectile velocity, Se = kSe,LS, with k = 1.46 ± 0.01. At higher energies, Se falls progressively short of kSe,LS. Around the Bragg peak, i.e., between 0.8 and 10 MeV, Se is modeled by an adjustable function serving to tailor the peak shape properly. Calculated and measured isotope effects for ranges of 10B and 11B in Si agree within the experimental uncertainty (±0.25%). The range-based Se,R(E) reported here predicts the scarce experimental data derived from the energy loss in projectile transmission through thin Si foils to within 2% or better. By contrast, Se(E) data of available stopping power tables exhibit deviations from Se,R(E) between -40% and +14%.

  1. Microspatial ecotone dynamics at a shifting range limit: plant-soil variation across salt marsh-mangrove interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yando, E S; Osland, M J; Hester, M W

    2018-05-01

    Ecotone dynamics and shifting range limits can be used to advance our understanding of the ecological implications of future range expansions in response to climate change. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, the salt marsh-mangrove ecotone is an area where range limits and ecotone dynamics can be studied in tandem as recent decreases in winter temperature extremes have allowed for mangrove expansion at the expense of salt marsh. In this study, we assessed aboveground and belowground plant-soil dynamics across the salt marsh-mangrove ecotone quantifying micro-spatial patterns in horizontal extent. Specifically, we studied vegetation and rooting dynamics of large and small trees, the impact of salt marshes (e.g. species and structure) on mangroves, and the influence of vegetation on soil properties along transects from underneath the mangrove canopy into the surrounding salt marsh. Vegetation and rooting dynamics differed in horizontal reach, and there was a positive relationship between mangrove tree height and rooting extent. We found that the horizontal expansion of mangrove roots into salt marsh extended up to eight meters beyond the aboveground boundary. Variation in vegetation structure and local hydrology appear to control mangrove seedling dynamics. Finally, soil carbon density and organic matter did not differ within locations across the salt marsh-mangrove interface. By studying aboveground and belowground variation across the ecotone, we can better predict the ecological effects of continued range expansion in response to climate change.

  2. Microspatial ecotone dynamics at a shifting range limit: plant–soil variation across salt marsh–mangrove interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yando, Erik S.; Osland, Michael J.; Hester, Mark H.

    2018-01-01

    Ecotone dynamics and shifting range limits can be used to advance our understanding of the ecological implications of future range expansions in response to climate change. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, the salt marsh–mangrove ecotone is an area where range limits and ecotone dynamics can be studied in tandem as recent decreases in winter temperature extremes have allowed for mangrove expansion at the expense of salt marsh. In this study, we assessed aboveground and belowground plant–soil dynamics across the salt marsh–mangrove ecotone quantifying micro-spatial patterns in horizontal extent. Specifically, we studied vegetation and rooting dynamics of large and small trees, the impact of salt marshes (e.g. species and structure) on mangroves, and the influence of vegetation on soil properties along transects from underneath the mangrove canopy into the surrounding salt marsh. Vegetation and rooting dynamics differed in horizontal reach, and there was a positive relationship between mangrove tree height and rooting extent. We found that the horizontal expansion of mangrove roots into salt marsh extended up to eight meters beyond the aboveground boundary. Variation in vegetation structure and local hydrology appear to control mangrove seedling dynamics. Finally, soil carbon density and organic matter did not differ within locations across the salt marsh-mangrove interface. By studying aboveground and belowground variation across the ecotone, we can better predict the ecological effects of continued range expansion in response to climate change.

  3. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. An approach to the derivation of radionuclide intake limits for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The modification of occupational exposure limits for application to general populations is discussed. First, the permitted radiation dose needs to be modified from that considered appropriate for occupational exposure, to that considered appropriate for the particular general population exposure of concern. This is a problem of optimization and is considered only briefly. The second modification allows for the different physical, biological, and societal parameters applicable to general populations as contrasted with occupational populations. These differences derive from the heterogeneity of the general population particularly in terms of age and state-of-health, as these affect radionuclide deposition, absorption, distribution, and retention, and as they affect basic sensitivity to the development of detrimental effects. Environmental factors will influence physical availability and may alter the chemical and physical form of the radionuclide, and hence biological availability to the general population. Societal factors may modify the potential for exposure of different segments of the general population. This complex modifying factor will be different for each radioelement. The suggested approach is illustrated using plutonium as an example. (H.K.)

  5. Leapfrogging of tree species provenances? Interaction of microclimate and genetics on upward shifts in tree species' range limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K.; Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The elevation limit of tree growth (alpine treeline) is considered to be constrained by environmental (i.e., thermal) and genetic (i.e., inability to adapt to climatic conditions) limitations to growth. Warming conditions due to climate change are predicted to cause upward shifts in the elevation of alpine treelines, through relief of cold-induced physiological limitations on seedling recruitment beyond current treeline boundaries. To determine how genetics and climate may interact to affect seedling establishment, we transplanted recently germinated seedlings from high- and low-elevation provenances (HI and LO, respectively) of Pinus flexilis in common gardens arrayed along an elevation and canopy gradient from subalpine forest into the alpine zone at Niwot Ridge, CO. We compared differences in microclimate and seedling ecophysiology among sites and between provenances. During the first summer of growth, frequently cloudy skies resulted in similar solar radiation incidence and air and soil temperatures among sites, despite nearly a 500 m-span in elevation across all sites. Preliminary findings suggest that survival of seedlings was similar between the lowest and highest elevations, with greater survival of LO (60%) compared to HI (40%) seedlings at each of these sites. Photosynthesis, carbon balance (photosynthesis/respiration), and conductance increased more than 2X with elevation for both provenances, and were 35-77% greater in LO seedlings compared to HI seedlings. There were no differences in dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) among sites or between provenances. However, in a common-garden study at low elevation, we observed no differences in carbon or water relations between two naturally-germinated mitochondrial haplotypes of P. flexilis (of narrow and wide-ranging distributions). We did observe water-related thresholds on seedling carbon balance and survival that occurred when soil volumetric water content dropped below 10% and seedling water

  6. Alteration of sexual reproduction and genetic diversity in the kelp species Laminaria digitata at the southern limit of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Valeria Oppliger

    Full Text Available Adaptation to marginal habitats at species range-limits has often been associated with parthenogenetic reproduction in terrestrial animals and plants. Laboratory observations have shown that brown algae exhibit a high propensity for parthenogenesis by various mechanisms. The kelp Laminaria digitata is an important component of the ecosystem in Northern European rocky intertidal habitats. We studied four L. digitata populations for the effects of marginality on genetic diversity and sexual reproduction. Two populations were marginal: One (Locquirec, in Northern Brittany was well within the geographic range, but was genetically isolated from other populations by large stretches of sandy beaches. Another population was at the range limits of the species (Quiberon, in Southern Brittany and was exposed to much higher seasonal temperature changes. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that these populations showed decreased genetic and allelic diversity, consistent with marginality and genetic isolation. Sporophytes from both marginal populations showed greatly diminished spore-production compared to central populations, but only the southern-limit population (Quiberon showed a high propensity for producing unreduced (2N spores. Unreduced 2N spores formed phenotypically normal gametophytes with nuclear area consistent with ≥2N DNA contents, and microsatellite studies suggested these were produced at least in part by automixis. However, despite this being the dominant path of spore production in Quiberon sporophyte individuals, the genetic evidence indicated the population was maintained mostly by sexual reproduction. Thus, although spore production and development showed the expected tendency of geographical parthenogenesis in marginal populations, this appeared to be a consequence of maladaptation, rather than an adaptation to, life in a marginal habitat.

  7. Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

  8. The distribution and habitat preferences of the declining species Orobanche arenaria Borkh at the northern limit of its geographical range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new sites of Orobanche arenaria were discovered during floristic investigations in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland in central Poland. The new localities are concentrated in the Ponidzie area (Garb Pińczowski ridge and Niecka Połaniecka basin and form the northern limit of the geographical range of O. arenaria. The paper presents information on the distribution of Orobanche arenaria in Poland, the abundance at the sites and habitats occupied by the species.

  9. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  10. Derived release limits for airborne effluents at TRIGA-INR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Hirica, O.; Mihai, S.; Ana, E.

    2001-01-01

    determine the maximum permissible release rate (Q M ) for the radionuclide from the particular source. Finally, the smallest Q M values are identified. The minimum value of Q M will be the Derived Release Limits (DRL) for that radionuclide and source. The exposed group for which the minimum applies is the 'critical group'. The DRL then represents an upper limit to the rate of release of a radionuclide from a single source. Description are given for the following environmental transfer pathways: - Immersion, i.e., external exposure while being immersed in a cloud of radioactive noble gases from airborne effluents; - Standing on contaminated ground; - Inhalation; - Vegetable ingestion; - Milk ingestion; - Meat ingestion. As an example, DRL assessment for inhalation pathway is presented. Using a mathematical model, DRLs were calculated for significant radionuclides in gaseous emissions of the TRIGA reactor. For every radionuclide, organ doses were calculated for every contamination pathway as well as external doses for both skin an whole body

  11. Multi-source analysis reveals latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in range of Ixodes ricinus at its northern distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffersen Anja B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for a latitudinal and altitudinal shift in the distribution range of Ixodes ricinus. The reported incidence of tick-borne disease in humans is on the rise in many European countries and has raised political concern and attracted media attention. It is disputed which factors are responsible for these trends, though many ascribe shifts in distribution range to climate changes. Any possible climate effect would be most easily noticeable close to the tick's geographical distribution limits. In Norway- being the northern limit of this species in Europe- no documentation of changes in range has been published. The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of I. ricinus in Norway and to evaluate if any range shifts have occurred relative to historical descriptions. Methods Multiple data sources - such as tick-sighting reports from veterinarians, hunters, and the general public - and surveillance of human and animal tick-borne diseases were compared to describe the present distribution of I. ricinus in Norway. Correlation between data sources and visual comparison of maps revealed spatial consistency. In order to identify the main spatial pattern of tick abundance, a principal component analysis (PCA was used to obtain a weighted mean of four data sources. The weighted mean explained 67% of the variation of the data sources covering Norway's 430 municipalities and was used to depict the present distribution of I. ricinus. To evaluate if any geographical range shift has occurred in recent decades, the present distribution was compared to historical data from 1943 and 1983. Results Tick-borne disease and/or observations of I. ricinus was reported in municipalities up to an altitude of 583 metres above sea level (MASL and is now present in coastal municipalities north to approximately 69°N. Conclusion I. ricinus is currently found further north and at higher altitudes than described in

  12. Normal limits of the electrocardiogram derived from a large database of Brazilian primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palhares, Daniel M F; Marcolino, Milena S; Santos, Thales M M; da Silva, José L P; Gomes, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Leonardo B; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-13

    Knowledge of the normal limits of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is mandatory for establishing which patients have abnormal ECGs. No studies have assessed the reference standards for a Latin American population. Our aim was to establish the normal ranges of the ECG for pediatric and adult Brazilian primary care patients. This retrospective observational study assessed all the consecutive 12-lead digital electrocardiograms of primary care patients at least 1 year old in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, recorded between 2010 and 2015. ECGs were excluded if there were technical problems, selected abnormalities were present or patients with selected self-declared comorbidities or on drug therapy. Only the first ECG from patients with multiple ECGs was accepted. The University of Glasgow ECG analysis program was used to automatically interpret the ECGs. For each variable, the 1st, 2nd, 50th, 98th and 99th percentiles were determined and results were compared to selected studies. A total of 1,493,905 ECGs were recorded. 1,007,891 were excluded and 486.014 were analyzed. This large study provided normal values for heart rate, P, QRS and T frontal axis, P and QRS overall duration, PR and QT overall intervals and QTc corrected by Hodges, Bazett, Fridericia and Framingham formulae. Overall, the results were similar to those from other studies performed in different populations but there were differences in extreme ages and specific measurements. This study has provided reference values for Latinos of both sexes older than 1 year. Our results are comparable to studies performed in different populations.

  13. New approaches to deriving limits of the release of radioactive material into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1977-01-01

    During the last few years, new principles have been developed for the limitation of the release of radioactive material into the environment. It is no longer considered appropriate to base the limitation on limits for the concentrations of the various radionuclides in air and water effluents. Such limits would not prevent large amounts of radioactive material from reaching the environment should effluent rates be high. A common practice has been to identify critical radionuclides and critical pathways and to base the limitation on authorized dose limits for local ''critical groups''. If this were the only limitation, however, larger releases could be permitted after installing either higher stacks or equipment to retain the more short-lived radionuclides for decay before release. Continued release at such limits would then lead to considerably higher exposure at a distance than if no such installation had been made. Accordingly there would be no immediate control of overlapping exposures from several sources, nor would the system guarantee control of the future situation. The new principles described in this paper take the future into account by limiting the annual dose commitments rather than the annual doses. They also offer means of controlling the global situation by limiting not only doses in critical groups but also global collective doses. Their objective is not only to ensure that individual dose limits will always be respected but also to meet the requirement that ''all doses be kept as low as reasonably achievable''. The new approach is based on the most recent recommendations by the ICRP and has been described in a report by an IAEA panel (Procedures for establishing limits for the release of radioactive material into the environment). It has been applied in the development of new Swedish release regulations, which illustrate some of the problems which arise in the practical application

  14. New approaches to deriving limits of the release of radioactive material into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1977-01-01

    During the last few years, new principles have been developed for the limitation of the release of radioactive material into the environment. It is no longer considered appropriate to base the limitation on limits for the concentrations of the various radionuclides in air and water effluents. Such limits would not prevent large amounts of radioactive material from reaching the environment should effluent rates be high. A common practice has been to identify critical radionuclides and critical pathways and to base the limitation on authorized dose limits for local ''critical groups''. If this were the only limitation, however, larger releases could be permitted after installing either higher stacks or equipment to retain the more shortlived radionuclides for decay before release. Continued release at such limits would then lead to considerably higher exposure at a distance than if no such installation had been made. Accordingly there would be no immediate control of overlapping exposures from several sources, nor would the system guarantee control of the future situation. The new principles described in this paper take the future into account by limiting the annual dose commitments rather than the annual doses. They also offer means of controlling the global situation by limiting not only doses in critical groups but also global collective doses. Their objective is not only to ensure that individual dose limits will always be respected but also to meet the requirement that ''all doses be kept as low as reasonably achievable''. The new approach is based on the most recent recommendations by the ICRP and has been described in a report by an IAEA panel (Procedures for Establishing Limits for the Release of Radioactive Material into the Environment). It has been applied in the development of new Swedish release regulations, which illustrate some of the problems which arise in the practical application. (author)

  15. Long-range correlations of different EEG derivations in rats: sleep stage-dependent generators may play a key role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guangzhan; Xia, Yang; Lai, Yongxiu; You, Zili; Yao, Dezhong

    2010-01-01

    For the electroencephalogram (EEG), topographic differences in the long-range temporal correlations would imply that these signals might be affected by specific mechanisms related to the generation of a given neuronal process. So the properties of the generators of various EEG oscillations might be investigated by their spatial differences of the long-range temporal correlations. In the present study, these correlations were characterized with respect to their topography during different vigilance states by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The results indicated that (1) most of the scaling exponents acquired from different EEG derivations for various oscillations were significantly different in each vigilance state; these differences might be resulted from the different quantities and different locations of sleep stage-dependent generators of various neuronal processes; (2) there might be multiple generators of delta and theta over the brain and many of them were sleep stage-dependent; (3) the best site of the frontal electrode in a fronto-parietal bipolar electrode for sleep staging might be above the anterior midline cortex. We suggest that DFA analysis can be used to explore the properties of the generators of a given neuronal oscillation, and the localizations of these generators if more electrodes are involved

  16. Deep-learning derived features for lung nodule classification with limited datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasorn, P.; Wu, W.; Pierce, L. A.; Pipavath, S. N.; Lampe, P. D.; Houghton, A. M.; Haynor, D. R.; Chaovalitwongse, W. A.; Kinahan, P. E.

    2018-02-01

    Only a few percent of indeterminate nodules found in lung CT images are cancer. However, enabling earlier diagnosis is important to avoid invasive procedures or long-time surveillance to those benign nodules. We are evaluating a classification framework using radiomics features derived with a machine learning approach from a small data set of indeterminate CT lung nodule images. We used a retrospective analysis of 194 cases with pulmonary nodules in the CT images with or without contrast enhancement from lung cancer screening clinics. The nodules were contoured by a radiologist and texture features of the lesion were calculated. In addition, sematic features describing shape were categorized. We also explored a Multiband network, a feature derivation path that uses a modified convolutional neural network (CNN) with a Triplet Network. This was trained to create discriminative feature representations useful for variable-sized nodule classification. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated for multiple machine learning algorithms using texture, shape, and CNN features. In the CT contrast-enhanced group, the texture or semantic shape features yielded an overall diagnostic accuracy of 80%. Use of a standard deep learning network in the framework for feature derivation yielded features that substantially underperformed compared to texture and/or semantic features. However, the proposed Multiband approach of feature derivation produced results similar in diagnostic accuracy to the texture and semantic features. While the Multiband feature derivation approach did not outperform the texture and/or semantic features, its equivalent performance indicates promise for future improvements to increase diagnostic accuracy. Importantly, the Multiband approach adapts readily to different size lesions without interpolation, and performed well with relatively small amount of training data.

  17. Contributions of biarticular myogenic components to the limitation of the range of motion after immobilization of rat knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle atrophy caused by immobilization in the shortened position is characterized by a decrease in the size or cross-sectional area (CSA) of myofibers and decreased muscle length. Few studies have addressed the relationship between limitation of the range of motion (ROM) and the changes in CSA specifically in biarticular muscles after atrophy because of immobilization. We aimed to determine the contribution of 2 distinct muscle groups, the biarticular muscles of the post thigh (PT) and those of the post leg (PL), to the limitation of ROM as well as changes in the myofiber CSAs after joint immobilization surgery. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, the left knee was surgically immobilized by external fixation for 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks (n = 5 each) and sham surgery was performed on the right knee. The rats in the control groups (n = 3 per time point) did not undergo surgery. After the indicated immobilization periods, myotomy of the PT or PL biarticular muscles was performed and the ROM was measured. The hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles from the animals operated for 1 or 16 weeks were subjected to morphological analysis. Results In immobilized knees, the relative contribution of the PT biarticular myogenic components to the total restriction reached 80% throughout the first 4 weeks and decreased thereafter. The relative contribution of the PL biarticular myogenic components remained contracture did not significantly change during the experimental period. However, the ratio of hamstrings CSAs to the sham side was larger than the ratio of medial gastrocnemius CSAs to the sham side after complete atrophy because of immobilization. PMID:25001065

  18. A novel approach to derive halo-independent limits on dark matter properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Francesc; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method that allows to place an upper limit on the dark matter elastic scattering cross section with nucleons which is independent of the velocity distribution. Our approach combines null results from direct detection experiments with indirect searches at neutrino telescopes, and goes beyond previous attempts to remove astrophysical uncertainties in that it directly constrains the particle physics properties of the dark matter. The resulting halo-independent upper limits on the sc...

  19. Structural changes in latosols of the cerrado region: I - relationships between soil physical properties and least limiting water range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Severiano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural potential of Latosols of the Brazilian Cerrado region is high, but when intensively cultivated under inappropriate management systems, the porosity can be seriously reduced, leading to rapid soil degradation. Consequently, accelerated erosion and sedimentation of springs and creeks have been observed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate structural changes of Latosols in Rio Verde, Goiás, based on the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR, and relationships between LLWR and other physical properties. Soil samples were collected from the B horizons of five oxidic Latosols representing the textural variability of the Latosols of the Cerrado biome. LLWR and other soil physical properties were determined at various soil compaction degrees induced by uniaxial compression. Soil compaction caused effects varying from enhanced plant growth due to higher water retention, to severe restriction of edaphic functions. Also, inverse relationships were observed between clay content and bulk density values (Bd under different structural conditions. Bd values corresponding to critical soil macroporosity (BdcMAC were more restrictive to a sustainable use of the studied Latosols than the critical Bd corresponding to LLWR (BdcLLWR. The high tolerable compression potential of these oxidic Latosols was related to the high aeration porosity associated to the granular structure.

  20. Oxidation limited lifetime of Ni-Base metal foams in the temperature range 700-900 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrkin, Anton; Singheiser, Lorenz; Quadakkers, Willem Joseph [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEF-2, Juelich (Germany); Schulze, Sebastian Leif; Bleck, Wolfgang [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Piron-Abellan, Javier [Vallourec Mannesmann Tubes, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    INCONEL 625 metal foams produced from alloy powder by the slip-reaction-foam-sinter-process are tested in respect to cyclic oxidation behavior in air in the temperature range 700-900 C. The structure of the oxide scales formed on the foam particles is characterized using optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analysis. Main emphasis is put on studying the oxidation limited lifetimes of the foams as function of temperature and foam microstructure. It is shown that mechanical disintegration during long term oxidation at the highest test temperatures is caused by a critical depletion of the Cr content in the alloy as a result of the growth of the initially formed surface chromia layer. This results in chemical breakaway due to accelerated oxide growth of voluminous Ni-rich oxide on chromium exhausted alloy particles. Lifetime modeling based on calculation of Cr-depletion in the alloy at the oxide/metal interface of each individual foam particle using the DICTRA software is in good agreement with the experimentally determined values of the time to breakaway. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart; Jugo chart jo deno kyokuchi gensho jikan contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T

    1997-05-27

    Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart is examined for further improvement on the result of the ultimate interpretation in the seismic reflection survey. The policy is made clear from the beginning that local phenomena are to be discussed, and data prior CMP stacking is interpreted in detail. For this purpose, it is effective to make use of the time contour expression in the midpoint-offset plane simultaneously with the CMP and COP panels. For the review of data prior to CMP stacking, it is convenient to use the CMP (CDP) stacking chart in which the data is arranged methodically. In this chart, all the channels which are crude data prior to stacking are plotted on midpoint-offset coordinates, which plane is called the MOD (Midpoint Offset Domain) panel. Various panels can be chosen unrestrictedly, and their mutual relations can be easily grasped. When data points are given a time axis, they can be expressed in a time contour. Studies are conducted about the underground structure, multiple reflection paths divided by it, and characteristics of detour reflection attributable to faults. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Derivation of Authorized Limits for Land Transfer at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perona, Ralph [Neptune and Company, Inc., Bellingham, WA (United States); Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-14

    This report documents the calculation of Authorized Limits for radionuclides in soil to be used in the transfer of property by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Authorized Limits support the evaluation process to clear land for release under different uses even though the soil contains small residual amounts of radioactivity. The Authorized Limits are developed for four exposure scenarios: residential, commercial/industrial, construction worker, and recreational. Exposure to radionuclides in soil under these scenarios is assessed for exposure routes that include incidental ingestion of soil; inhalation of soil particulates; ingestion of homegrown produce (residential only); and external irradiation from soil. Inhalation and dermal absorption of tritiated water vapor in air are also assessed.

  3. Impact and Limitations Deriving from Basel II within the Context of the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Miruna DĂNILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Banking sector risk management framework, geared towards maintaining a solid capital adequacy level, has witnessed a permanent evolution, determined by the global economic and financial reality.Basel II has brought an improvement of the risk management framework by adding minimum capital levels corresponding to market and operational risk and by the introduction of internal rating models. However the current crisis has brought forward some adverse effects as well as limitations.This paper analyses the evolution of prudential rules and regulations introduced by Basel II and their impact on the banking system together with outlining certain limitations.

  4. Inviscid incompressible limit under mild stratification: a rigorous derivation of the Euler-Boussinesq system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2014), s. 279-307 ISSN 0095-4616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Keywords : compressible fluids * Navier-Stokes equations * singular limits Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.591, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00245-014-9243-7

  5. Spinal fusion limits upper body range of motion during gait without inducing compensatory mechanisms in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewijn, R M; Kingma, I; de Kleuver, M; Schimmel, J J P; Keijsers, N L W

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies show a limited alteration of gait at normal walking speed after spinal fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), despite the presumed essential role of spinal mobility during gait. This study analyses how spinal fusion affects gait at more challenging walking speeds. More specifically, we investigated whether thoracic-pelvic rotations are reduced to a larger extent at higher gait speeds and whether compensatory mechanisms above and below the stiffened spine are present. 18 AIS patients underwent gait analysis at increasing walking speeds (0.45 to 2.22m/s) before and after spinal fusion. The range of motion (ROM) of the upper (thorax, thoracic-pelvic and pelvis) and lower body (hip, knee and ankle) was determined in all three planes. Spatiotemporal parameters of interest were stride length and cadence. Spinal fusion diminished transverse plane thoracic-pelvic ROM and this difference was more explicit at higher walking speeds. Transversal pelvis ROM was also decreased but this effect was not affected by speed. Lower body ROM, step length and cadence remained unaffected. Despite the reduction of upper body ROM after spine surgery during high speed gait, no altered spatiotemporal parameters or increased compensatory ROM above or below the fusion (i.e. in the shoulder girdle or lower extremities) was identified. Thus, it remains unclear how patients can cope so well with such major surgery. Future studies should focus on analyzing the kinematics of individual spinal levels above and below the fusion during gait to investigate possible compensatory mechanisms within the spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Opportunities and limitations related to the application of plant-derived lipid molecular proxies in soil science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lipids in soils as molecular proxies, also often referred to as biomarkers, has dramatically increased in the last decades. Applications range from inferring changes in past vegetation composition, climate, and/or human presence to unraveling the input and turnover of soil organic matter (SOM. The molecules used are extractable and non-extractable lipids, including ester-bound lipids. In addition, the carbon or hydrogen isotopic composition of such molecules is used. While holding great promise, the application of soil lipids as molecular proxies comes with several constraining factors, the most important of which are (i variability in the molecular composition of plant-derived organic matter both internally and between individual plants, (ii variability in (the relative contribution of input pathways into the soil, and (iii the transformation and/or (selective degradation of (some of the molecules once present in the soil. Unfortunately, the information about such constraining factors and their impact on the applicability of molecular proxies is fragmented and scattered. The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review of the current state of knowledge with respect to the applicability of molecular proxies in soil science, specifically focusing on the factors constraining such applicability. Variability in genetic, ontogenetic, and environmental factors influences plant n-alkane patterns in such a way that no unique compounds or specific molecular proxies pointing to, for example, plant community differences or environmental influences, exist. Other components, such as n-alcohols, n-fatty acids, and cutin- and suberin-derived monomers, have received far less attention in this respect. Furthermore, there is a high diversity of input pathways offering both opportunities and limitations for the use of molecular proxies at the same time. New modeling approaches might offer a possibility to unravel such mixed input

  7. Interministerial decree of 10 February 1988 fixing the derived limits of the air concentration and the annual intake limit and the values of the quality factor and the neutron fluence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This decree establishes the derived concentration limits in the air and annual inhalation limits for the radioisotopes and the values of the quality factors and the conversion factors fluence/dose equivalent for neutrons and protons

  8. Limitations and problems in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the problems in determining the cancer risk of low-level radiation from studies of exposed groups are reviewed and applied to the study of Hanford workers by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale. Problems considered are statistical limitations, variation of cancer rates with geography and race, the ''healthy worker effect,'' calendar year and age variation of cancer mortality, choosing from long lists, use of proportional mortality rates, cigarette smoking-cancer correlations, use of averages to represent data distributions, ignoring other data, and correlations between radiation exposure and other factors that may cause cancer. The current status of studies of the Hanford workers is reviewed

  9. Derived release limits (DRL's) for airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories during normal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    Derived release limits (DRL's), based on regulatory dose limits, have been calculated for routine discharges of radioactivity in airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Three types of sources of airborne effluents were considered: the NRX/NRU stack, the 61 m stack connected to the 99 Mo production facility, and a roof vent typical of those installed on several buildings on the site. Sources of liquid effluents to the Ottawa River were treated as a single source from the site as a whole. Various exposure pathways to workers on the site and to members of the public outside the site boundary were considered in the calculations. The DRL's represent upper limits for routine emissions of radioactivity from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to the surrounding environment. Actual releases are regulated by Administrative Levels, set lower than the DRL's, and are confirmed by monitoring. (author)

  10. Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jais, Alexander; Solas, Maite; Backes, Heiko; Chaurasia, Bhagirath; Kleinridders, André; Theurich, Sebastian; Mauer, Jan; Steculorum, Sophie M; Hampel, Brigitte; Goldau, Julia; Alber, Jens; Förster, Carola Y; Eming, Sabine A; Schwaninger, Markus; Ferrara, Napoleone; Karsenty, Gerard; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-05-05

    High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces rapid reprogramming of systemic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that HFD feeding of mice downregulates glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 expression in blood-brain barrier (BBB) vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and reduces brain glucose uptake. Upon prolonged HFD feeding, GLUT1 expression is restored, which is paralleled by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in macrophages at the BBB. In turn, inducible reduction of GLUT1 expression specifically in BECs reduces brain glucose uptake and increases VEGF serum concentrations in lean mice. Conversely, myeloid-cell-specific deletion of VEGF in VEGF(Δmyel) mice impairs BBB-GLUT1 expression, brain glucose uptake, and memory formation in obese, but not in lean mice. Moreover, obese VEGF(Δmyel) mice exhibit exaggerated progression of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation on an Alzheimer's disease background. These experiments reveal that transient, HFD-elicited reduction of brain glucose uptake initiates a compensatory increase of VEGF production and assign obesity-associated macrophage activation a homeostatic role to restore cerebral glucose metabolism, preserve cognitive function, and limit neurodegeneration in obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Can nutrient limitations explain low and declining white spruce growth near the Arctic treeline in the eastern Brooks Range, Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, S.; Sullivan, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The position of the Arctic treeline is of critical importance for global carbon cycling and surface energy budgets. However, controls on tree growth at treeline remain uncertain. In the Alaskan Brooks Range, 20th century warming has caused varying growth responses among treeline trees, with trees in the west responding positively, while trees in the east have responded negatively. The prevailing explanation of this trend ascribes the negative growth response to warming-induced drought stress in the eastern Brooks Range. However, recent measurements of carbon isotope discrimination in tree rings, xylem sap flow and needle gas exchange suggest that drought stress cannot explain these regional growth declines. Additionally, evidence from the western Brooks Range suggests that nutrient availability, rather than drought stress, may be the proximate control on tree growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that low and declining growth of eastern Brooks Range trees is due to low and declining soil nutrient availability, which may continue to decrease with climate change as soils become drier and microbial activity declines. We compared microclimate, tree performance, and a wide range of proxies for soil nutrient availability in four watersheds along a west-east transect in the Brooks Range during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We hypothesized that soil nutrient availability would track closely with the strong west-east precipitation gradient, with higher rainfall and greater soil nutrient availability in the western Brooks Range. We expected to find that soil water contents in the west are near optimum for nitrogen mineralization, while those in the east are below optimum. Needle nitrogen concentration, net photosynthesis, branch extension growth, and growth in the main stem are expected to decline with the hypothesized decrease in soil nutrient availability. The results of our study will elucidate the current controls on growth of trees near the

  12. New calculation of derived limits for the 1960 radiation protection guides reflecting updated models for dosimetry and biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Watson, S.B.; Nelson, C.B.; Nelson, D.R.; Richardson, A.C.B.; Sullivan, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents revised values for the radioactivity concentration guides (RCGs), based on the 1960 primary radiation protection guides (RPGs) for occupational exposure (FRC 1960) and for underground uranium miners (EPA 1971a) using the updated dosimetric models developed to prepare ICRP Publication 30. Unlike the derived quantities presented in Publication 30, which are based on limitation of the weighted sum of doses to all irradiated tissues, these RCGs are based on the ''critical organ'' approach of the 1960 guidance, which was a single limit for the most critically irradiated organ or tissue. This report provides revised guides for the 1960 Federal guidance which are consistent with current dosimetric relationships. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Which benefits and limits derive from ESA membership for European Countries owning ;medium-sized; space agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Giorgio; Bigliardi, Barbara; Galati, Francesco; Petroni, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the benefits and limits deriving from membership with ESA of six medium-sized space agencies in terms of strengthening and development (or not) of space technologies, as well as their contribution to the growth of productive activities and to the increase of services for citizens. This research contributes to the more general issue of the usefulness of space activities, not only for scientific or military-political purposes but also for economic and social development. Results show that, on the one hand, the membership with ESA has allowed smaller Countries to access space programs, to develop advanced technologies and to support the growth of their firms in some significant markets, but, on the other hand, the membership has also limited the access to space to few companies, without encouraging the broad dissemination of technological knowledge.

  14. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  15. Geometric Energy Derivatives at the Complete Basis Set Limit: Application to the Equilibrium Structure and Molecular Force Field of Formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W James; Matthews, Devin A; Ringholm, Magnus; Agarwal, Jay; Gong, Justin Z; Ruud, Kenneth; Allen, Wesley D; Stanton, John F; Schaefer, Henry F

    2018-03-13

    Geometric energy derivatives which rely on core-corrected focal-point energies extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit of coupled cluster theory with iterative and noniterative quadruple excitations, CCSDTQ and CCSDT(Q), are used as elements of molecular gradients and, in the case of CCSDT(Q), expansion coefficients of an anharmonic force field. These gradients are used to determine the CCSDTQ/CBS and CCSDT(Q)/CBS equilibrium structure of the S 0 ground state of H 2 CO where excellent agreement is observed with previous work and experimentally derived results. A fourth-order expansion about this CCSDT(Q)/CBS reference geometry using the same level of theory produces an exceptional level of agreement to spectroscopically observed vibrational band origins with a MAE of 0.57 cm -1 . Second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) and variational discrete variable representation (DVR) results are contrasted and discussed. Vibration-rotation, anharmonicity, and centrifugal distortion constants from the VPT2 analysis are reported and compared to previous work. Additionally, an initial application of a sum-over-states fourth-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT4) formalism is employed herein, utilizing quintic and sextic derivatives obtained with a recursive algorithmic approach for response theory.

  16. Recombinant PrPSc shares structural features with brain-derived PrPSc: Insights from limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Alejandro M; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Younas, Neelam; Wang, Fei; R Elezgarai, Saioa; Bravo, Susana; Vázquez-Fernández, Ester; Rosa, Isaac; Eraña, Hasier; Gil, David; Veiga, Sonia; Vidal, Enric; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L; Guitián, Esteban; Silva, Christopher J; Nonno, Romolo; Ma, Jiyan; Castilla, Joaquín; R Requena, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Very solid evidence suggests that the core of full length PrPSc is a 4-rung β-solenoid, and that individual PrPSc subunits stack to form amyloid fibers. We recently used limited proteolysis to map the β-strands and connecting loops that make up the PrPSc solenoid. Using high resolution SDS-PAGE followed by epitope analysis, and mass spectrometry, we identified positions ~116/118, 133-134, 141, 152-153, 162, 169 and 179 (murine numbering) as Proteinase K (PK) cleavage sites in PrPSc. Such sites likely define loops and/or borders of β-strands, helping us to predict the threading of the β-solenoid. We have now extended this approach to recombinant PrPSc (recPrPSc). The term recPrPSc refers to bona fide recombinant prions prepared by PMCA, exhibiting infectivity with attack rates of ~100%. Limited proteolysis of mouse and bank vole recPrPSc species yielded N-terminally truncated PK-resistant fragments similar to those seen in brain-derived PrPSc, albeit with varying relative yields. Along with these fragments, doubly N- and C-terminally truncated fragments, in particular ~89/97-152, were detected in some recPrPSc preparations; similar fragments are characteristic of atypical strains of brain-derived PrPSc. Our results suggest a shared architecture of recPrPSc and brain PrPSc prions. The observed differences, in particular the distinct yields of specific PK-resistant fragments, are likely due to differences in threading which result in the specific biochemical characteristics of recPrPSc. Furthermore, recombinant PrPSc offers exciting opportunities for structural studies unachievable with brain-derived PrPSc.

  17. Genetic diversity of a clonal angiosperm near its range limit: The case of Cymodocea nodosa at the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, Filipe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrao, Ester Álvares

    2006-01-01

    The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa forms a unique community in the Canary Islands, where it is classified as an endangered species. Biogeographic theory predicts that clonal species on islands near their distributional limits might show lower proportions of sexual (versus clonal) reproduction, lower genetic diversity, and higher differentiation. We addressed these hypotheses by comparing the genetic structure of C. nodosa from 10 meadows in the 4 main Canary Islands with 2 Iberian sites (Atlantic ...

  18. Can the soil fauna of boreal forests recover from lead-derived stress in a shooting range area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Setälä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    The responses of soil faunal communities to lead (Pb) contamination in a shooting range area and the recovery of these fauna after range abandonment were studied by comparing the communities at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a control site, locating in the same forest. Despite the similar overall Pb pellet load at the shooting ranges, reaching up to 4 kg m(-2), Pb concentrations in the top soil of the abandoned range has decreased due to the accumulation of detritus on the soil surface. As a consequence, soil animal communities were shown to recover from Pb-related disturbances by utilizing the less contaminated soil layer. Microarthropods showed the clearest signs of recovery, their numbers and community composition being close to those detected at the control site. However, in the deepest organic soil layer, the negative effects of Pb were more pronounced at the abandoned than at the active shooting range, which was detected as altered microarthropod and nematode community structures, reduced abundances of several microarthropod taxa, and the total absence of enchytraeid worms. Thus, although the accumulation of fresh litter on soil surface can promote the recovery of decomposer communities in the top soil, the gradual release of Pb from corroding pellets may pose a long-lasting risk for decomposer taxa deeper in the soil.

  19. Double isotope method for the determination of catecholamines, serotonin, and other amines in the picomole range as their dansyl derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recasens, M.; Zwiller, J.; Mack, G.; Zanetta, J.P.; Mandel, P.

    1977-01-01

    A method based on thin-layer chromatographic separation of radioactive products is described for the determination and the quantification of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), normetanephrine (NMN), and serotonin (5HT) in small samples of brain tissue. In this method the amines are converted to [ 14 C]dansyl derivatives by reaction with [ 14 C]dansyl chloride [ 14 C]Dans-Cl) and 3 H-labeled amines are used as internal standards to determine variations in yield

  20. High Dynamic Range Imaging at the Quantum Limit with Single Photon Avalanche Diode-Based Image Sensors †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli Della Rocca, Francescopaolo

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines methods to best exploit the High Dynamic Range (HDR) of the single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) in a high fill-factor HDR photon counting pixel that is scalable to megapixel arrays. The proposed method combines multi-exposure HDR with temporal oversampling in-pixel. We present a silicon demonstration IC with 96 × 40 array of 8.25 µm pitch 66% fill-factor SPAD-based pixels achieving >100 dB dynamic range with 3 back-to-back exposures (short, mid, long). Each pixel sums 15 bit-planes or binary field images internally to constitute one frame providing 3.75× data compression, hence the 1k frames per second (FPS) output off-chip represents 45,000 individual field images per second on chip. Two future projections of this work are described: scaling SPAD-based image sensors to HDR 1 MPixel formats and shrinking the pixel pitch to 1–3 µm. PMID:29641479

  1. Use of radar QPE for the derivation of Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves in a range of climatic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are widely used in flood risk management because they provide an easy link between the characteristics of a rainfall event and the probability of its occurrence. Weather radars provide distributed rainfall estimates with high spatial and temporal resolutions and overcome the scarce representativeness of point-based rainfall for regions characterized by large gradients in rainfall climatology. This work explores the use of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) for the identification of IDF curves over a region with steep climatic transitions (Israel) using a unique radar data record (23 yr) and combined physical and empirical adjustment of the radar data. IDF relationships were derived by fitting a generalized extreme value distribution to the annual maximum series for durations of 20 min, 1 h and 4 h. Arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean climates were explored using 14 study cases. IDF curves derived from the study rain gauges were compared to those derived from radar and from nearby rain gauges characterized by similar climatology, taking into account the uncertainty linked with the fitting technique. Radar annual maxima and IDF curves were generally overestimated but in 70% of the cases (60% for a 100 yr return period), they lay within the rain gauge IDF confidence intervals. Overestimation tended to increase with return period, and this effect was enhanced in arid climates. This was mainly associated with radar estimation uncertainty, even if other effects, such as rain gauge temporal resolution, cannot be neglected. Climatological classification remained meaningful for the analysis of rainfall extremes and radar was able to discern climatology from rainfall frequency analysis.

  2. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    MODIS-derived snow cover measured on 30 April in any given year explains approximately 89 % of the variance in stream discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in that year. Observed changes in streamflow appear to be related to increasing maximum air temperatures over the last four decades causing lower spring snow-cover extent. The majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western United States comes from snowmelt, thus analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and resulting declining stream discharge) has important implications for streamflow management in the drought-prone western U.S.

  3. DEM ASSESSMENT DERIVED FROM CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY: A CASE STUDY FROM KADAVUR AREA, KARUR DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbarasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet. (Matthews, N.A, 2008. Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000 DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002. In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

  4. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.

  5. Thermal tolerance and preference of exploited turbinid snails near their range limit in a global warming hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Roslizawati Ab; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Bucher, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Predicted global climate change has prompted numerous studies of thermal tolerances of marine species. The upper thermal tolerance is unknown for most marine species, but will determine their vulnerability to ocean warming. Gastropods in the family Turbinidae are widely harvested for human consumption. To investigate the responses of turbinid snails to future conditions we determined critical thermal maxima (CTMax) and preferred temperatures of Turbo militaris and Lunella undulata from the tropical-temperate overlap region of northern New South Wales, on the Australian east coast. CTMax were determined at two warming rates: 1°C/30min and 1°C/12h. The number of snails that lost attachment to the tank wall was recorded at each temperature increment. At the faster rate, T. militaris had a significantly higher CTMax (34.0°C) than L. undulata (32.2°C). At the slower rate the mean of both species was lower and there was no significant difference between them (29.4°C for T. militaris and 29.6°C for L. undulata). This is consistent with differences in thermal inertia possibly allowing animals to tolerate short periods at higher temperatures than is possible during longer exposure times, but other mechanisms are not discounted. The thermoregulatory behaviour of the turban snails was determined in a horizontal thermal gradient. Both species actively sought out particular temperatures along the gradient, suggesting that behavioural responses may be important in ameliorating short-term temperature changes. The preferred temperatures of both species were higher at night (24.0°C and 26.0°C) than during the day (22.0°C and 23.9°C). As the snails approached their preferred temperature, net hourly displacement decreased. Preferred temperatures were within the average seasonal seawater temperature range in this region. However, with future predicted water temperature trends, the species could experience increased periods of thermal stress, possibly exceeding CTMax and

  6. The reintroduction of boreal caribou as a conservation strategy: A long-term assessment at the southern range limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Hugues St-Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal caribou were extirpated from the Charlevoix region (Québec in the 1920s because of hunting and poaching. In 1965, the Québec government initiated a caribou reintroduction program in Charlevoix. During the winters of 1966 and 1967, a total of 48 boreal caribou were captured, translocated by plane, and released within enclosures; only their offspring (82 individuals were released in the wild. Between 1967 and 1980, a wolf control program was applied to support caribou population growth. The caribou population, however, remained relatively stable at 45–55 individuals during this period. During the 1980s, the population grew slowly at a rate of approximately 5% each year to reach a peak of 126 individuals in 1992. At that time, Bergerud & Mercer (1989 reported that the Charlevoix experiment was the only successful attempt at caribou reintroduction in the presence of predators (in North America. Afterwards, the population declined and since then it has been relatively stable at about 80 individuals. Here we reviewed the literature regarding the ecology and population dynamics of the Charlevoix caribou herd since its reintroduction, in an attempt to critically assess the value of reintroduction as a conservation tool for this species. Indeed, the Charlevoix caribou herd is now considered at very high risk of extinction mostly because of its small size, its isolation from other caribou populations, and low recruitment. The Charlevoix region has been heavily impacted by forestry activities since the early 1980s. Recent studies have indicated that these habitat modifications may have benefited populations of wolves and black bears—two predators of caribou—and that caribou range fidelity may have exposed caribou to higher predation risk via maladaptive habitat selection. As females are ageing, and females and calves suffer high predation pressure from wolves and bears respectively, we suggest that the future of this reintroduced herd is in

  7. Transport methods: general. 6. A Flux-Limited Diffusion Theory Derived from the Maximum Entropy Eddington Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Chukai; Su, Bingjing

    2001-01-01

    The Minerbo's maximum entropy Eddington factor (MEEF) method was proposed as a low-order approximation to transport theory, in which the first two moment equations are closed for the scalar flux f and the current F through a statistically derived nonlinear Eddington factor f. This closure has the ability to handle various degrees of anisotropy of angular flux and is well justified both numerically and theoretically. Thus, a lot of efforts have been made to use this approximation in transport computations, especially in the radiative transfer and astrophysics communities. However, the method suffers numerical instability and may lead to anomalous solutions if the equations are solved by certain commonly used (implicit) mesh schemes. Studies on numerical stability in one-dimensional cases show that the MEEF equations can be solved satisfactorily by an implicit scheme (of treating δΦ/δx) if the angular flux is not too anisotropic so that f 32 , the classic diffusion solution P 1 , the MEEF solution f M obtained by Riemann solvers, and the NFLD solution D M for the two problems, respectively. In Fig. 1, NFLD and MEEF quantitatively predict very close results. However, the NFLD solution is qualitatively better because it is continuous while MEEF predicts unphysical jumps near the middle of the slab. In Fig. 2, the NFLD and MEEF solutions are almost identical, except near the material interface. In summary, the flux-limited diffusion theory derived from the MEEF description is quantitatively as accurate as the MEEF method. However, it is more qualitatively correct and user-friendly than the MEEF method and can be applied efficiently to various steady-state problems. Numerical tests show that this method is widely valid and overall predicts better results than other low-order approximations for various kinds of problems, including eigenvalue problems. Thus, it is an appealing approximate solution technique that is fast computationally and yet is accurate enough for a

  8. Some fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in Non-Archimedean Menger probabilistic metric spaces via common limit range property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize the notion of common limit range property in Non-Archimedean Menger PM-spaces and prove some fixed point theorems for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings. Some illustrative examples are furnished to support our results. As an application to our main result, we present a common fixed point theorem for four finite families of self mappings. Our results improve and extend several known results existing in the literature.

  9. Least Limiting Water Range and Load Bearing Capacity of Soil under Types of Tractor-Trailers for Mechanical Harvesting of Green Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higino Frederico Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of the sugarcane industry in Brazil has intensified the mechanization of agriculture and caused effects on the soil physical quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting water range and soil bearing capacity of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox under the influence of different tractor-trailers used in mechanical sugarcane harvesting. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of green sugarcane harvesting with: harvester without trailer (T1; harvester with two trailers with a capacity of 10 Mg each (T2; harvester with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (T3 and harvester and truck with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (10 Mg per compartment (T4. The least limiting water range and soil bearing capacity were evaluated. The transport equipment to remove the harvested sugarcane from the field (trailer at harvest decreased the least limiting water range, reducing the structural soil quality. The truck trailer caused the greatest impact on the soil physical properties studied. The soil load bearing capacity was unaffected by the treatments, since the pressure of the harvester (T1 exceeded the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil.

  10. A Comprehensive Prediction Model of Hydraulic Extended-Reach Limit Considering the Allowable Range of Drilling Fluid Flow Rate in Horizontal Drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue

    2017-06-08

    Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min  ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min  ≤ Q r  ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min  drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.

  11. Ranges of operators and derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guirao, A. J.; Hájek, Petr Pavel; Montesinos, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 367, č. 1 (2010), s. 29-33 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA AV ČR IAA100190801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Banach-space * smooth Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.174, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X09010051

  12. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; Dijk, Lisanne V. van; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I.; Sasai, Keisuke; Veld, Aart A. van't; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Korevaar, Erik W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D_2 − D_9_8, where D_2 and D_9_8 are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. Results: The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to 98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects have limited impact on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and

  13. Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, Sivan, E-mail: sivan.isaacs@gmail.com; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering and TheIlse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); NEW CREATE Programme, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 CREATE Way, Research Wing, #02-06/08, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-05-11

    Using an insulator-metal-insulator structure with dielectric having refractive index (RI) larger than the analyte, long range surface plasmon (SP) resonance exhibiting ultra-high penetration depth is demonstrated for sensing applications of large bioentities at wavelengths in the visible range. Based on the diverging beam approach in Kretschmann-Raether configuration, one of the SP resonances is shown to shift in response to changes in the analyte RI while the other is fixed; thus, it can be used as a built in reference. The combination of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth and self-reference using the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth, self-reference, and the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected using large number of camera pixels with a smart algorithm for sub-pixel resolution, a sensor with ultra-low detection limit is demonstrated suitable for large bioentities.

  14. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahtab [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung [Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Han [Division of Plant Environment Research, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service, Jinju 660-360 (Korea, Republic of); Al-Wabel, Mohammad I [Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Lee, Sung-Eun, E-mail: selpest@knu.ac.kr [School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Soo, E-mail: sslee97@kangwon.ac.kr [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Biochar immobilizes Pb and Cu in a contaminated shooting range soil. • Soybean stover-biochar is an efficient metal immobilizer than pine needle-biochar. • Biochar produced at 700 °C showed significant potential of sequestering C in soil. • Biochar showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass. - Abstract: Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700 °C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals’ (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  15. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Young Han; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar immobilizes Pb and Cu in a contaminated shooting range soil. • Soybean stover-biochar is an efficient metal immobilizer than pine needle-biochar. • Biochar produced at 700 °C showed significant potential of sequestering C in soil. • Biochar showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass. - Abstract: Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700 °C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals’ (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  16. The range of variation of the mass of the most massive star in stellar clusters derived from 35 million Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M., E-mail: bogdan.popescu@uc.edu, E-mail: margaret.hanson@uc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210011, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A growing fraction of simple stellar population models, in an aim to create more realistic simulations capable of including stochastic variation in their outputs, begin their simulations with a distribution of discrete stars following a power-law function of masses. Careful attention is needed to create a correctly sampled initial mass function (IMF), and here we provide a solid mathematical method, called MASSCLEAN IMF Sampling, for doing so. We use our method to perform 10 million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo stellar cluster simulations to determine the most massive star in a mass distribution as a function of the total mass of the cluster. We find that a maximum mass range is predicted, not a single maximum mass. This range is (1) dependent on the total mass of the cluster and (2) independent of an upper stellar mass limit, M{sub limit} , for unsaturated clusters and emerges naturally from our IMF sampling method. We then turn our analysis around, starting with our new database of 25 million simulated clusters, to constrain the highest mass star from the observed integrated colors of a sample of 40 low-mass Large Magellanic Cloud stellar clusters of known age and mass. Finally, we present an analytical description of the maximum mass range of the most massive star as a function of the cluster's total mass and present a new M{sub max} -M{sub cluster} relation.

  17. The range of variation of the mass of the most massive star in stellar clusters derived from 35 million Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    A growing fraction of simple stellar population models, in an aim to create more realistic simulations capable of including stochastic variation in their outputs, begin their simulations with a distribution of discrete stars following a power-law function of masses. Careful attention is needed to create a correctly sampled initial mass function (IMF), and here we provide a solid mathematical method, called MASSCLEAN IMF Sampling, for doing so. We use our method to perform 10 million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo stellar cluster simulations to determine the most massive star in a mass distribution as a function of the total mass of the cluster. We find that a maximum mass range is predicted, not a single maximum mass. This range is (1) dependent on the total mass of the cluster and (2) independent of an upper stellar mass limit, M limit , for unsaturated clusters and emerges naturally from our IMF sampling method. We then turn our analysis around, starting with our new database of 25 million simulated clusters, to constrain the highest mass star from the observed integrated colors of a sample of 40 low-mass Large Magellanic Cloud stellar clusters of known age and mass. Finally, we present an analytical description of the maximum mass range of the most massive star as a function of the cluster's total mass and present a new M max -M cluster relation.

  18. Influence of northern limit range on genetic diversity and structure in a widespread North American tree, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graignic, Noémie; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves

    2018-03-01

    Due to climate change, the ranges of many North American tree species are expected to shift northward. Sugar maple ( Acer saccharum Marshall) reaches its northern continuous distributional limit in northeastern North America at the transition between boreal mixed-wood and temperate deciduous forests. We hypothesized that marginal fragmented northern populations from the boreal mixed wood would have a distinct pattern of genetic structure and diversity. We analyzed variation at 18 microsatellite loci from 23 populations distributed along three latitudinal transects (west, central, and east) that encompass the continuous-discontinuous species range. Each transect was divided into two zones, continuous (temperate deciduous) and discontinuous (boreal mixed wood), based on sugar maple stand abundance. Respective positive and negative relationships were found between the distance of each population to the northern limit (D_north), and allelic richness ( A R ) and population differentiation ( F ST ). These relations were tested for each transect separately; the pattern (discontinuous-continuous) remained significant only for the western transect. structure analysis revealed the presence of four clusters. The most northern populations of each transect were assigned to a distinct group. Asymmetrical gene flow occurred from the southern into the four northernmost populations. Southern populations in Québec may have originated from two different postglacial migration routes. No evidence was found to validate the hypothesis that northern populations were remnants of a larger population that had migrated further north of the species range after the retreat of the ice sheet. The northernmost sugar maple populations possibly originated from long-distance dispersal.

  19. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tatsuya [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Widder, Joachim; Dijk, Lisanne V. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Takegawa, Hideki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Anneyuko I. [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sasai, Keisuke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Veld, Aart A. van' t; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Korevaar, Erik W., E-mail: e.w.korevaar@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D{sub 2} − D{sub 98}, where D{sub 2} and D{sub 98} are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. Results: The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to <98% (clinical threshold) in 3 of 10 patients for robust 5-mm evaluations. However, the TC remained >98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range

  20. Beating the odds: The poisson distribution of all input cells during limiting dilution grossly underestimates whether a cell line is clonally-derived or not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yizhou; Shaw, David; Lam, Cynthia; Tsukuda, Joni; Yim, Mandy; Tang, Danming; Louie, Salina; Laird, Michael W; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2017-09-23

    Establishing that a cell line was derived from a single cell progenitor and defined as clonally-derived for the production of clinical and commercial therapeutic protein drugs has been the subject of increased emphasis in cell line development (CLD). Several regulatory agencies have expressed that the prospective probability of clonality for CHO cell lines is assumed to follow the Poisson distribution based on the input cell count. The probability of obtaining monoclonal progenitors based on the Poisson distribution of all cells suggests that one round of limiting dilution may not be sufficient to assure the resulting cell lines are clonally-derived. We experimentally analyzed clonal derivatives originating from single cell cloning (SCC) via one round of limiting dilution, following our standard legacy cell line development practice. Two cell populations with stably integrated DNA spacers were mixed and subjected to SCC via limiting dilution. Cells were cultured in the presence of selection agent, screened, and ranked based on product titer. Post-SCC, the growing cell lines were screened by PCR analysis for the presence of identifying spacers. We observed that the percentage of nonclonal populations was below 9%, which is considerably lower than the determined probability based on the Poisson distribution of all cells. These results were further confirmed using fluorescence imaging of clonal derivatives originating from SCC via limiting dilution of mixed cell populations expressing GFP or RFP. Our results demonstrate that in the presence of selection agent, the Poisson distribution of all cells clearly underestimates the probability of obtaining clonally-derived cell lines. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Casimir force, excess free energy and C-function in O(n) systems with long-range interactions in the n → ∞ limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamati, H.; Dantchev, D.M.

    2004-06-01

    We present exact results on the behavior of the thermodynamic Casimir force and the excess free energy and the C-function in the framework of the d-dimensional spherical model with a power law long-range interaction decaying at large distances r as r -d- σ, where σ c , as well as for T > Tc and T c . The universal finite-size scaling function governing the behavior of the force in the critical region is derived and its asymptotics are investigated. While in the critical and under -d -d-, critical region the force is of the order of L -d , for T > T c it decays as L -dσ , where L is the thickness of the film. We consider both the case of a finite system that has no phase transition of its own, when d - σ when one observes a dimensional crossover from d to a d - 1 dimensional critical behavior. The behavior of the force along the phase coexistence line for a magnetic field H = 0 and T c . is also derived. We have proven analytically that the excess free energy is always negative ad monotonically increasing function of T and H, while the C-function is always non-negative and monotonically decreasing function of T and H. For the Casimir force we have demonstrated that for any σ > it is everywhere negative, i.e. an attraction between the surfaces bounding the system is to be observed. At T = T c the force is an increasing function of T for σ > 1 and a decreasing one for σ c is always achieved at some H ≠ 0 . (author)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 266 - Health-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste-Derived Residues* VII Appendix VII to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VII Appendix VII to Part 266—Health...

  3. A revision of distribution and the ecological description of Orobanche picridis (Orobanchaceae at the NE limit of its geographical range from Poland and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche picridis in Poland and Ukraine, within the Polish borders in the interwar period, based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The largest number of its localities is in S and SE Poland in the Wyżyna Śląsko-Krakowska, Wyżyna Małopolska, Wyżyna Lubelska uplands, Middle Roztocze, Small Polesie, the Pogórze Przemyskie foreland and in the former Tarnopol province (W Ukraine. These are the north-easternmost sites known for the species and extend its limit range. A map of its distribution in Poland and Ukraine is included. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology of O. picridis are also discussed.

  4. What Limits the Distribution of Liriomyza huidobrensis and Its Congener Liriomyza sativae in Their Native Niche: When Temperature and Competition Affect Species' Distribution Range in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, G; MacVean, C; Cardona, C; Hof, A R

    2017-07-01

    Factors limiting distribution range for most species are generally unknown regardless of whether they are native or invasive. We studied factors that could enable or restrict the distribution of two cosmopolitan invasive leafminer fly species, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) in their native niche. In order to test which ecological and environmental factors affect leafminer distribution we conducted thermal tolerance assays, sampled along elevation gradients and modeled species distribution. Findings from the field and rearing chambers showed a physiological restriction due to high temperatures for L. huidobrensis at 28-29 °C, above which adult emergence is compromised. We also found that maximum temperatures below 22 °C, typical of tropical highlands, favored L. huidobrensis. L. sativae was found across a wider temperature range (i.e., from 21 to 36 °C) in Guatemala. Our finding of a physiological threshold in temperature for L. huidobrensis may enable us to predict its invasive risk when combined with the environmental conditions at horticultural ports of entry and the global agricultural landscape. Further, it strengthens our predictions on shifts in distribution of the leafminer fly under future climate. We also found a temperature mediated competitive exclusion interaction between the two herbivore species, where L. sativae occurred at temperatures < 22 °C only in the absence of L. huidobrensis. We show that parasitoids had a negative effect on the leafminer flies, which varied with host plant. Finally, we show the importance of taking a multiaspect approach when investigating what limits distribution and invasiveness of a species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  5. The Cu-MOF-199/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol with extended linear ranges and lower detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Xi; Yang, Linlin; Yan, Songlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Dan; Chen, Qi; Dong, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Cai, Weiquan; Zhang, Chaocan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-MOF-199 [Cu-MOF-199 = Cu 3 (BTC) 2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylicacid)] and SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). The modification procedure was carried out through casting SWCNTs on the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and followed by the electrodeposition of Cu-MOF-199 on the SWCNTs modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to characterize the electrochemical performance and surface characteristics of the as-prepared sensor. The composite electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity with increased electrochemical signals towards the oxidation of HQ and CT, owing to the synergistic effect of SWCNTs and Cu-MOF-199. Under the optimized condition, the linear response range were from 0.1 to 1453 μmol L −1 (R HQ  = 0.9999) for HQ and 0.1–1150 μmol L −1 (R CT  = 0.9990) for CT. The detection limits for HQ and CT were as low as 0.08 and 0.1 μmol L −1 , respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode presented the good reproducibility and the excellent anti-interference performance. The analytical performance of the developed sensor for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CT had been evaluated in practical samples with satisfying results. - Highlights: • Cu-MOF-199/SWCNTs/GCE was facilely fabricated by the electrodeposition on SWCNTs/GCE. • An electrochemical sensor for detecting HQ and CT was constructed based on this modified electrode. • The proposed electrochemical sensor showed an extended linear range and lower detection limits. • The proposed electrochemical sensor had an excellent stability and reproducibility.

  6. Altered Knee and Ankle Kinematics During Squatting in Those With Limited Weight-Bearing–Lunge Ankle-Dorsiflexion Range of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karli E.; Begalle, Rebecca L.; Frank, Barnett S.; Zinder, Steven M.; Padua, Darin A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ankle-dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) may influence movement variables that are known to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading, such as knee valgus and knee flexion. To our knowledge, researchers have not studied individuals with limited or normal ankle DF-ROM to investigate the relationship between those factors and the lower extremity movement patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objective: To determine, using 2 different measurement techniques, whether knee- and ankle-joint kinematics differ between participants with limited and normal ankle DF-ROM. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty physically active adults (20 with limited ankle DF-ROM, 20 with normal ankle DF-ROM). Main Outcome Measure(s): Ankle DF-ROM was assessed using 2 techniques: (1) nonweight-bearing ankle DF-ROM with the knee straight, and (2) weight-bearing lunge (WBL). Knee flexion, knee valgus-varus, knee internal-external rotation, and ankle DF displacements were assessed during the overhead-squat, single-legged squat, and jump-landing tasks. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were performed to determine whether differences in knee- and ankle-joint kinematics existed between the normal and limited groups for each assessment. Results: We observed no differences between the normal and limited groups when classifying groups based on nonweight-bearing passive-ankle DF-ROM. However, individuals with greater ankle DF-ROM during the WBL displayed greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement and peak knee flexion during the overhead-squat and single-legged squat tasks. In addition, those individuals also demonstrated greater knee-varus displacement during the single-legged squat. Conclusions: Greater ankle DF-ROM assessed during the WBL was associated with greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement during both squatting tasks as well as greater knee-varus displacement during

  7. Landslide-susceptibility analysis using light detection and ranging-derived digital elevation models and logistic regression models: a case study in Mizunami City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jie; Sawada, Kazuhide; Moriguchi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    To mitigate the damage caused by landslide disasters, different mathematical models have been applied to predict landslide spatial distribution characteristics. Although some researchers have achieved excellent results around the world, few studies take the spatial resolution of the database into account. Four types of digital elevation model (DEM) ranging from 2 to 20 m derived from light detection and ranging technology to analyze landslide susceptibility in Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, are presented. Fifteen landslide-causative factors are considered using a logistic-regression approach to create models for landslide potential analysis. Pre-existing landslide bodies are used to evaluate the performance of the four models. The results revealed that the 20-m model had the highest classification accuracy (71.9%), whereas the 2-m model had the lowest value (68.7%). In the 2-m model, 89.4% of the landslide bodies fit in the medium to very high categories. For the 20-m model, only 83.3% of the landslide bodies were concentrated in the medium to very high classes. When the cell size decreases from 20 to 2 m, the area under the relative operative characteristic increases from 0.68 to 0.77. Therefore, higher-resolution DEMs would provide better results for landslide-susceptibility mapping.

  8. Internal variability of fine-scale components of meteorological fields in extended-range limited-area model simulations with atmospheric and surface nudging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Internal variability (IV) in dynamical downscaling with limited-area models (LAMs) represents a source of error inherent to the downscaled fields, which originates from the sensitive dependence of the models to arbitrarily small modifications. If IV is large it may impose the need for probabilistic verification of the downscaled information. Atmospheric spectral nudging (ASN) can reduce IV in LAMs as it constrains the large-scale components of LAM fields in the interior of the computational domain and thus prevents any considerable penetration of sensitively dependent deviations into the range of large scales. Using initial condition ensembles, the present study quantifies the impact of ASN on IV in LAM simulations in the range of fine scales that are not controlled by spectral nudging. Four simulation configurations that all include strong ASN but differ in the nudging settings are considered. In the fifth configuration, grid nudging of land surface variables toward high-resolution surface analyses is applied. The results show that the IV at scales larger than 300 km can be suppressed by selecting an appropriate ASN setup. At scales between 300 and 30 km, however, in all configurations, the hourly near-surface temperature, humidity, and winds are only partly reproducible. Nudging the land surface variables is found to have the potential to significantly reduce IV, particularly for fine-scale temperature and humidity. On the other hand, hourly precipitation accumulations at these scales are generally irreproducible in all configurations, and probabilistic approach to downscaling is therefore recommended.

  9. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuca, C.; Stochioiu, A.; Sahagia, M.; Gurau, D.; Dragusin, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes. - Highlights: • The DELs for gaseous and liquid effluents in decommissioning were studied. • The impact on the environment and critical group was assessed. • Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine the radionuclide composition. • Based on the dosimetry models, the values of conservative DELs were calculated. • The DELs are compliant for gases, not for liquids; require the treatment as rad-waste

  10. Annual limits on intake for members of the public and derived reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A proposal is presented recommending the introduction in Australia of Annual Limits on Intake of radionuclides for members of the public and of corresponding reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The proposal is related to recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and draft recommendations under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  11. Intervalo hídrico ótimo num nitossolo vermelho distroférrico irrigado Least limiting water range of an irrigated dystroferric red nitosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Blainski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da irrigação tem-se baseado no controle do potencial da água no solo (Ψ como fator limitante do crescimento das plantas. Entretanto, outras variáveis podem influenciar a cultura mesmo que o Ψ não seja limitante. O Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO é um conceito de disponibilidade de água no solo que leva em consideração a porosidade de aeração e a resistência do solo à penetração em adição ao Ψ. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar o IHO num Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico irrigado e utilizá-lo no estabelecimento de critérios para o manejo de água e do solo em áreas irrigadas. A resistência do solo à penetração foi a variável que limitou o IHO com maior frequência, diminuindo sua magnitude com o aumento da densidade do solo (Ds. Com o aumento da Ds, ocorreu redução na frequência com que θ manteve-se dentro dos limites do IHO. A Ds crítica (Dsc foi de 1,40 Mg m-3, indicando severa degradação física do solo para Ds > Dsc. Para Ds 2,0 MPa; para 1,28 -800 hPa visando ao controle da RP. Para áreas em que Ds > Dsc, medidas que visem a redução da Ds poderiam ser tomadas em função da severa degradação física do solo.The establishment of irrigation management has been based on the soil water potential (Ψ as a limiting factor for plant growth. However, other variables can affect crop growth even when Ψ is not limiting. The least limiting water range (LLWR is a concept of available water that take account the influence of aeration and soil resistance to penetration (SR in addition to Ψ. The objective of this study was to quantify the LLWR in an irrigated Dystroferric Red Nitosol and to use it to determine the soil and water management for irrigated areas. Soil penetration resistance limited LLRW most often, reducing its magnitude with the increase of soil bulk density (Bd. Therefore, the higher Bd, the less often θ was inside the limits of LLWR. The critical Bd (Bdc was 1.40 Mg m-3, indicating

  12. H.E.S.S. Limits on Linelike Dark Matter Signatures in the 100 GeV to 2 TeV Energy Range Close to the Galactic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Andersson, T; Angüner, E O; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Devin, J; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J-P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J-P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Leser, E; Liu, R; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; O'Brien, P; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Öttl, S; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perennes, C; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Settimo, M; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tibaldo, L; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-10-07

    A search for dark matter linelike signals iss performed in the vicinity of the Galactic Center by the H.E.S.S. experiment on observational data taken in 2014. An unbinned likelihood analysis iss developed to improve the sensitivity to linelike signals. The upgraded analysis along with newer data extend the energy coverage of the previous measurement down to 100 GeV. The 18 h of data collected with the H.E.S.S. array allow one to rule out at 95% C.L. the presence of a 130 GeV line (at l=-1.5°, b=0° and for a dark matter profile centered at this location) previously reported in Fermi-LAT data. This new analysis overlaps significantly in energy with previous Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. No significant excess associated with dark matter annihilations was found in the energy range of 100 GeV to 2 TeV and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux and the velocity weighted annihilation cross section are derived adopting an Einasto dark matter halo profile. Expected limits for present and future large statistics H.E.S.S. observations are also given.

  13. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  14. B cell-derived transforming growth factor-β1 expression limits the induction phase of autoimmune neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadóttir, Kristbjörg; Benkhoucha, Mahdia; Merkler, Doron; Weber, Martin S; Payne, Natalie L; Bernard, Claude C A; Molnarfi, Nicolas; Lalive, Patrice H

    2016-10-06

    Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), have shown that regulatory B cells modulate the course of the disease via the production of suppressive cytokines. While data indicate a role for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression in regulatory B cell functions, this mechanism has not yet been tested in autoimmune neuroinflammation. Transgenic mice deficient for TGF-β1 expression in B cells (B-TGF-β1 -/- ) were tested in EAE induced by recombinant mouse myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rmMOG). In this model, B-TGF-β1 -/- mice showed an earlier onset of neurologic impairment compared to their littermate controls. Exacerbated EAE susceptibility in B-TGF-β1 -/- mice was associated with augmented CNS T helper (Th)1/17 responses. Moreover, selective B cell TGF-β1-deficiency increased the frequencies and activation of myeloid dendritic cells, potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), suggesting that B cell-derived TGF-β1 can constrain Th1/17 responses through inhibition of APC activity. Collectively our data suggest that B cells can down-regulate the function of APCs, and in turn encephalitogenic Th1/17 responses, via TGF-β1, findings that may be relevant to B cell-targeted therapies.

  15. Singular inextensible limit in the vibrations of post-buckled rods: Analytical derivation and role of boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    2014-02-01

    In-plane vibrations of an elastic rod clamped at both extremities are studied. The rod is modeled as an extensible planar Kirchhoff elastic rod under large displacements and rotations. Equilibrium configurations and vibrations around these configurations are computed analytically in the incipient post-buckling regime. Of particular interest is the variation of the first mode frequency as the load is increased through the buckling threshold. The loading type is found to have a crucial importance as the first mode frequency is shown to behave singularly in the zero thickness limit in the case of prescribed axial displacement, whereas a regular behavior is found in the case of prescribed axial load. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 210Pb-derived ages for the reconstruction of terrestrial contaminant history into the Mexican Pacific coast: Potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2009-01-01

    210 Pb is widely used for dating recent sediments in the aquatic environment; however, our experiences working in shallow coastal environments in the Pacific coast of Mexico have demonstrated that the potential of 210 Pb for reliable historical reconstructions might be limited by the low 210 Pb atmospheric fallout, sediment mixing, abundance of coarse sediments and the lack of 137 Cs signal for 210 Pb corroboration. This work discusses the difficulties in obtaining adequate sedimentary records for geochronological reconstruction in such active and complex settings, including examples of 210 Pb geochronologies based on sediment profiles collected in two contrasting areas coastal areas (mudflats associated to coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State and the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec), in which geochemical data was used to support the temporal frame established and the changes in sediment supply recorded in the sediment cores which were related to the development of land-based activities during the last century.

  17. Derived release limits for radionuclides in airborne and liquid effluents for the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, A.E.

    1989-08-01

    Radionuclides released to the environment may cause external and internal radiation exposure to man via a number of potential pathways. The resulting radiation dose due to such releases from any operating facility must be kept below dose limits specified in the regulations issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. At the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), there is one primary source of liquid effluent to the Winnipeg River via the process water outfall. There are five sources of gaseous effluents: the WR-1 stack; the incinerator stack in the waste management area; the active laboratories building (including the hot cells); the Active-Liquid Waste Treatment Centre; and the compactor-baler in the Waste Management Area. This report presents the methodology and models used to calculate the maximum permissible release rates of radionuclides for each of these sources

  18. A lower limit to the accretion disc radius in the low-luminosity AGN NGC 1052 derived from high-angular resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Lennart; Fernández-Ontiveros, Juan A.; Prieto, M. Almudena; Dolag, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the central sub-arcsec region of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus NGC 1052, using a high-angular resolution dataset that covers 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. This allows us to infer the continuum emission within the innermost ˜17 pc around the black hole to be of non-thermal, synchrotron origin and to set a limit to the maximum contribution of a standard accretion disc. Assuming the canonical 10 per cent mass-light conversion efficiency for the standard accretion disc, its inferred accretion power would be too low by one order of magnitude to account for the observed continuum luminosity. We thus introduce a truncated accretion disc and derive a truncation radius to mass-light conversion efficiency relation, which we use to reconcile the inferred accretion power with the continuum luminosity. As a result we find that a truncated disc providing the necessary accretion power must be truncated at rtr ≳ 26 rg, consistent with the inner radius derived from the observations of the Fe Kα line in the X-ray spectrum of this nucleus. This is the first time to derive a limit on the truncation radius of the accretion disc from high-angular resolution data only.

  19. Vertical profile of tropospheric ozone derived from synergetic retrieval using three different wavelength ranges, UV, IR, and microwave: sensitivity study for satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro O.; Sato, Takao M.; Sagawa, Hideo; Noguchi, Katsuyuki; Saitoh, Naoko; Irie, Hitoshi; Kita, Kazuyuki; Mahani, Mona E.; Zettsu, Koji; Imasu, Ryoichi; Hayashida, Sachiko; Kasai, Yasuko

    2018-03-01

    We performed a feasibility study of constraining the vertical profile of the tropospheric ozone by using a synergetic retrieval method on multiple spectra, i.e., ultraviolet (UV), thermal infrared (TIR), and microwave (MW) ranges, measured from space. This work provides, for the first time, a quantitative evaluation of the retrieval sensitivity of the tropospheric ozone by adding the MW measurement to the UV and TIR measurements. Two observation points in East Asia (one in an urban area and one in an ocean area) and two observation times (one during summer and one during winter) were assumed. Geometry of line of sight was nadir down-looking for the UV and TIR measurements, and limb sounding for the MW measurement. The retrieval sensitivities of the ozone profiles in the upper troposphere (UT), middle troposphere (MT), and lowermost troposphere (LMT) were estimated using the degree of freedom for signal (DFS), the pressure of maximum sensitivity, reduction rate of error from the a priori error, and the averaging kernel matrix, derived based on the optimal estimation method. The measurement noise levels were assumed to be the same as those for currently available instruments. The weighting functions for the UV, TIR, and MW ranges were calculated using the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), and the Advanced Model for Atmospheric Terahertz Radiation Analysis and Simulation (AMATERASU), respectively. The DFS value was increased by approximately 96, 23, and 30 % by adding the MW measurements to the combination of UV and TIR measurements in the UT, MT, and LMT regions, respectively. The MW measurement increased the DFS value of the LMT ozone; nevertheless, the MW measurement alone has no sensitivity to the LMT ozone. The pressure of maximum sensitivity value for the LMT ozone was also increased by adding the MW measurement. These findings indicate that better information on LMT ozone can be obtained by adding constraints

  20. Vertical profile of tropospheric ozone derived from synergetic retrieval using three different wavelength ranges, UV, IR, and microwave: sensitivity study for satellite observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Sato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a feasibility study of constraining the vertical profile of the tropospheric ozone by using a synergetic retrieval method on multiple spectra, i.e., ultraviolet (UV, thermal infrared (TIR, and microwave (MW ranges, measured from space. This work provides, for the first time, a quantitative evaluation of the retrieval sensitivity of the tropospheric ozone by adding the MW measurement to the UV and TIR measurements. Two observation points in East Asia (one in an urban area and one in an ocean area and two observation times (one during summer and one during winter were assumed. Geometry of line of sight was nadir down-looking for the UV and TIR measurements, and limb sounding for the MW measurement. The retrieval sensitivities of the ozone profiles in the upper troposphere (UT, middle troposphere (MT, and lowermost troposphere (LMT were estimated using the degree of freedom for signal (DFS, the pressure of maximum sensitivity, reduction rate of error from the a priori error, and the averaging kernel matrix, derived based on the optimal estimation method. The measurement noise levels were assumed to be the same as those for currently available instruments. The weighting functions for the UV, TIR, and MW ranges were calculated using the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM, and the Advanced Model for Atmospheric Terahertz Radiation Analysis and Simulation (AMATERASU, respectively. The DFS value was increased by approximately 96, 23, and 30 % by adding the MW measurements to the combination of UV and TIR measurements in the UT, MT, and LMT regions, respectively. The MW measurement increased the DFS value of the LMT ozone; nevertheless, the MW measurement alone has no sensitivity to the LMT ozone. The pressure of maximum sensitivity value for the LMT ozone was also increased by adding the MW measurement. These findings indicate that better information on LMT ozone can be obtained by adding

  1. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of fullerene, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene and their derivatives with oxygen-containing functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Li, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical properties (NLO) and optical limiting effect of fullerene (C 60 ), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and their oxygenated derivatives were investigated by open-aperture Z-scan technique with nanosecond pulses at 532 nm. C 60 functionalized by oxygen-containing functional groups exhibits weaker NLO properties than that of pristine C 60 . Graphene oxide (GO) with many oxygen-containing functional groups also shows weaker NLO properties than that of RGO. That can be attributed to the disruption of conjugative structures of C 60 and graphene by oxygen-containing functional groups. However, MWNTs and their oxygenated derivatives exhibit comparable NLO properties due to the small weight ratio of these oxygen-containing groups. To investigate the correlation between structures and NLO response for these carbon nanomaterials with different dimensions, nonlinear scattered signal spectra versus input fluence were also measured. (paper)

  2. Radiological safety aspects in the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel elements. [Derived working limits in air and water for plutonium, enriched uranium and their mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthi, T.N.; Janardhanan, S.; Soman, S.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    The problems of radiological safety in the fabrication of (U, Pu)O/sub 2/ fuel assemblies for fast reactors utilising high exposure plutonium are discussed. Derived working limits for plutonium as a function of the burn-up of RAPS (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station) fuel, external gamma and neutron exposures from feed product batches, finished fuel pins and assemblies are presented. Shielding requirements for the various glove box operations are also indicated. In general, high exposure plutonium handling calls for remote fabrication and automation at various stages would play a key role in minimising exposures to personnel in a large production plant.

  3. Intervalo hídrico óptimo en suelos argiudoles plantados con Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Least limiting water range in argiudoll soils under eucalyptus dunnii maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El Intervalo Hídrico Óptimo (IHO es el rango de agua del suelo dentro del cual el crecimiento de la planta está menos limitado por el potencial de agua, la aireación y la resistencia del suelo a la penetración de raíces. El IHO es a menudo determinado en cultivos, pero su aplicación en estudios de plantaciones forestales son escasos. Los objetivos fueron: a estimar el IHO del suelo en plantaciones de Eucalyptus dunnii joven y adulto usando funciones de edafo-transferencia; b relacionar funcionalmente la frecuencia de humedad observada localizada fuera del IHO (p fuera con el IHO y determinar si la relación es influenciada por el tipo de suelo y las condiciones meteorológicas del período de crecimiento. Se estimó el IHO en suelos Argiudoles Típico y Abrúptico, usando funciones de edafo-transferencia (FT de retención hídrica y resistencia del suelo. La frecuencia de humedad observada fuera del rango del IHO (p fuera fue evaluada estadísticamente usando el modelo PROC CATMOD. El IHO aumentó de 0,009 cm³ cm-³ (horizonte Bt arcillo limoso a 0,207 cm³ cm-3 (horizonte C franco limoso. El modelo de regresión logística muestra que pfuera se relacionó negativamente con el IHO (R² = 0,83***. La pendiente del modelo (b1 = -30,5475 no varió por condiciones climáticas pero la ordenada al origen resultó influenciada por este parámetro (b o seco = 5,0083; b o húmedo = 3,5207. El modelo fundamental-empírico sostuvo al IHO como un indicador de calidad física del suelo apto para evaluar factores climáticos que inciden sobre el consumo de agua en eucaliptos.The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR integrates water potential, aeration and mechanical resistance conditions that can be limiting to plant growth. The LLWR was often determined in field crops, but studies performed under tree plantations are scarce. In this study, soil LLWR was determined in young and mature Eucalyptus dunnii plantations using pedo-transfer functions. Frequency

  4. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather including earlier snowmelt has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for streamflow management. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud- gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from six streams in the WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed using MODIS snow-cover maps within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period. MODIS-derived snow cover (percent of basin covered) measured on 30 April explains over 89% of the variance in discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in the decade of the 2000s using Spearman rank correlation analysis. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek Above Bull Lake from 1970 to 2009; a statistically-significant end toward reduced stream power was found (significant at the 90% confidence level). Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured during the 40-year study period. The

  5. Statement from the 1983 meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Protection: annual limits for intakes (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The limitation of the committed effective dose equivalent for members of the public is sufficient to provide compliance over a lifetime with the limit for single organs, thus avoiding non-stochastic effects. Relative values for infants and adults of the committed dose equivalent in a number of tissues per unit intake for each of a few radionuclides have been given: the values for infants are just more than 1 up to 100 times greater than those for adult workers. In each of these cases the appropriate annual dose-equivalent limits recommended by the Commission for members of the public are 10 times less than the corresponding values for workers; the resulting ALI for infants aged six months will be smaller than the values given in ICRP Publication 30 for limiting stochastic effects in workers by factors that range from just more than 10 (for caesium-137) to 1,000 (for ingested plutonium-239). Intermediate factors would apply for older members of the public. The magnitude of the range emphasises the need to consider each situation carefully, with particular reference to children and women. (author)

  6. Comparison of detection limits in environmental analysis--is it possible? An approach on quality assurance in the lower working range by verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, S; Einax, J W

    2001-07-01

    Detection limit, reporting limit and limit of quantitation are analytical parameters which describe the power of analytical methods. These parameters are used for internal quality assurance and externally for competing, especially in the case of trace analysis in environmental compartments. The wide variety of possibilities for computing or obtaining these measures in literature and in legislative rules makes any comparison difficult. Additionally, a host of terms have been used within the analytical community to describe detection and quantitation capabilities. Without trying to create an order for the variety of terms, this paper is aimed at providing a practical proposal for answering the main questions for the analysts concerning quality measures above. These main questions and related parameters were explained and graphically demonstrated. Estimation and verification of these parameters are the two steps to get real measures. A rule for a practical verification is given in a table, where the analyst can read out what to measure, what to estimate and which criteria have to be fulfilled. In this manner verified parameters detection limit, reporting limit and limit of quantitation now are comparable and the analyst himself is responsible to the unambiguity and reliability of these measures.

  7. Cam Deformities and Limited Hip Range of Motion Are Associated With Early Osteoarthritic Changes in Adolescent Athletes: A Prospective Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Cody C; Norambuena, Germán A; Howe, Benjamin M; Larson, Dirk R; Levy, Bruce A; Yuan, Brandon J; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J

    2017-11-01

    The natural history of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains incompletely understood. In particular, there is limited documentation of joint damage in adolescent patients with limited range of motion (LROM) of the hip, which is commonly associated with FAI. To evaluate changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and clinical examinations over 5 years in a group of athletes from a wide variety of sports with asymptomatic LROM of the hip compared with matched controls. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The authors screened 226 male and female athletes aged 12 to 18 years presenting for preparticipation sports physical examinations. Using a goniometer, we identified 13 participants with at least one hip having internal rotation hip flexed to 90°. Overall, 21 of 26 hips (81%) had internal rotation 10°. At the time of enrollment, all participants were asymptomatic and underwent a complete hip examination and radiographic imaging with radiographs (anteroposterior [AP] and von Rosen views) and non-arthrogram MRI. Participants returned at 5-year follow-up and underwent repeat hip examinations, imaging (AP and lateral radiographs and non-arthrogram MRI), and hip function questionnaires. MRI scans were classified as "normal" versus "abnormal" based on the presence of any of 13 scored chondral, labral, or osseous abnormalities. Comparisons between the LROM group and control group were performed using generalized linear models (either linear, logistic, or log-binomial regression as appropriate for the outcome) with generalized estimating equations to account for the within-participant correlation due to patients having both hips included. Relative risk (RR) estimates are reported with 95% CIs. At the time of study enrollment, 16 of 26 hips (62%) in the LROM group had abnormal MRI findings within the acetabular labrum or cartilage compared with 8 of 26 hips (31%) in the control group (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.95-4.2; P = .067). The mean alpha angle

  8. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; van Dijk, Lisanne V; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I; Sasai, Keisuke; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Korevaar, Erik W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans

  9. Landscape biology of western white pine: implications for conservation of a widely-distributed five-needle pine at its southern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Maloney; Andrew Eckert; Detlev Vogler; Camille Jensen; Annette Delfino Mix; David Neale

    2016-01-01

    Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics...

  10. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new, simple, rapid, wide applicable range and reliable second derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cyclophosphamide (CP) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Calibration graph is linear in the concentration range of 25 - 200 μg/ml of CP with 10 μg/ml of detection limit and ...

  11. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  12. Landscape Biology of Western White Pine: Implications for Conservation of a Widely-Distributed Five-Needle Pine at Its Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Maloney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics and genetic diversity in 10 populations of western white pine in upper montane forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin. We documented negative population trends for three of the 10 populations. These populations exhibited low estimated growth rates (λ, moderate to high incidences of WPBR and mountain pine beetle (MPB, and high levels of mortality. In contrast, seven populations appear to be stable (λ ≥ 1.0, with low to moderate disease and insect incidence, and evidence for genetic resistance to WPBR. Genetic diversity (HE for a set of 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms was in the range of 0.245–0.272 across populations, and population-specific estimates of FST ranged from 0.0062 to 0.0244. Allele frequency of the Cr2 gene, which confers complete resistance to C. ribicola in western white pine, was low, averaging 0.009 for all populations sampled. However, a low frequency of pollen receptors (i.e., susceptible maternal parents pollinated by a local resistant parent was found in nine of 10 populations. A moderate and negative relationship was found between the frequency of pollen receptors in a population and the incidence of WPBR (r2 = 0.32. In the context of an introduced pathogen, climate driven outbreaks of MPB, fire exclusion, and prolonged drought, conservation and management strategies are warranted for this species in the Lake Tahoe Basin and likely other locations in California. These strategies include gene conservation of western white pine, WPBR resistance screening, and forest restoration treatments.

  13. A model used to derive hazardous waste concentration limits aiming at the reduction of toxic and hazardous wastes. Applications to illustrate the discharge of secondary categories types B and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes a model which may be used to derive hazardous waste concentration limits in order to prevent ground water pollution from a landfill disposal. First the leachate concentration limits are determined taking into account the attenuation capacity of the landfill-site as a whole; waste concentrations are then derived by an elution model which assumes a constant ratio between liquid-solid concentrations. In the example two types of landfill have been considered and in each case concentration limits have been calculated for some hazardous substances and compared with the corresponding regulatory limits. (author)

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell.

  16. Seasonal timing of diapause induction limits the effective range of Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Keller, Julie C

    2007-02-01

    The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brullé subspecies deserticola Chen, collected in northwestern China, has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). While beetle establishment and saltcedar defoliation have been noted at northern study sites, this species has not established at latitudes south of the 38th parallel. Critical daylength for diapause induction was measured in the laboratory and ranged between 14 h 50 min to 15 h 08 min, depending on temperature, and adults were shown to cease reproduction and enter diapause at daylengths of 14 h 30 min or less. Critical daylength in the field was measured at approximately 14 h 39 min and occurred 13 d before 50% of the population reached diapause. South of 36 degrees 20' N, the longest days of the year are shorter than 14 h 39 min, making the beetles univoltine in the southern United States. North of 36 degrees 20' N, a window of reproductive activity opens 13 d after the critical daylength is reached in the spring and closes 13 d after it is passed in the summer, allowing at least a partial second summer generation. It is predicted that south of the 38th parallel, premature diapause will increase mortality and disrupt synchrony between the life cycle of the beetle and host plant availability. This could hinder establishment and help explain the failure of this population south of the 38th parallel, providing a rationale for testing other populations of D. elongata in the southern range of Tamarix in North America.

  17. Estimation of the limit of detection with a bootstrap-derived standard error by a partly non-parametric approach. Application to HPLC drug assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors......Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors...

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Nielsen, Martin KF; Simonsen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12 weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... included 47 older men and women: n = 22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7 ± 5.4 years, 55% women) and n = 25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2 ± 4.5 years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of m...

  19. Partial molar volumes of proteins: amino acid side-chain contributions derived from the partial molar volumes of some tripeptides over the temperature range 10-90 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häckel, M; Hinz, H J; Hedwig, G R

    1999-11-15

    The partial molar volumes of tripeptides of sequence glycyl-X-glycine, where X is one of the amino acids alanine, leucine, threonine, glutamine, phenylalanine, histidine, cysteine, proline, glutamic acid, and arginine, have been determined in aqueous solution over the temperature range 10-90 degrees C using differential scanning densitometry . These data, together with those reported previously, have been used to derive the partial molar volumes of the side-chains of all 20 amino acids. The side-chain volumes are critically compared with literature values derived using partial molar volumes for alternative model compounds. The new amino acid side-chain volumes, along with that for the backbone glycyl group, were used to calculate the partial specific volumes of several proteins in aqueous solution. The results obtained are compared with those observed experimentally. The new side-chain volumes have also been used to re-determine residue volume changes upon protein folding.

  20. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 suppresses cold thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acids in brown adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1, a BAT-enriched long chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase, is upregulated by cold and downregulated by warm ambient temperatures. Them1−/− mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and resistance to diet-induced obesity and diabetes, but the mechanistic contribution of Them1 to the regulation of cold thermogenesis remains unknown. Methods: Them1−/− and Them1+/+ mice were subjected to continuous metabolic monitoring to quantify the effects of ambient temperatures ranging from thermoneutrality (30 °C to cold (4 °C on energy expenditure, core body temperature, physical activity and food intake. The effects of Them1 expression on O2 consumption rates, thermogenic gene expression and lipolytic protein activation were determined ex vivo in BAT and in primary brown adipocytes. Results: Them1 suppressed thermogenesis in mice even in the setting of ongoing cold exposure. Without affecting thermogenic gene transcription, Them1 reduced O2 consumption rates in both isolated BAT and primary brown adipocytes. This was attributable to decreased mitochondrial oxidation of endogenous but not exogenous fatty acids. Conclusions: These results show that Them1 may act as a break on uncontrolled heat production and limit the extent of energy expenditure. Pharmacologic inhibition of Them1 could provide a targeted strategy for the management of metabolic disorders via activation of brown fat. Keywords: Energy expenditure, Fatty acyl-CoA, Acyl-CoA thioesterase, Mitochondria, Obesity

  1. New natural shapes of non-Gaussianity from high-derivative interactions and their optimal limits from WMAP 9-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the fantastic experimental effort, it is important to thoroughly explore the signature space of inflationary models. The fact that higher derivative operators do not renormalize lower derivative ones allows us to find a large class of technically natural single-clock inflationary models where, in the context of the Effective Field Theory of Inflation, the leading interactions have many derivatives. We systematically explore the 3-point function induced by these models and their overlap with the standard equilateral and orthogonal templates. We find that in order to satisfactorily cover the signature space of these models, two new additional templates need to be included. We then perform the optimal analysis of the WMAP 9-year data for the resulting four templates, finding that the overall significance of a non-zero signal is between 2–2.5σ, depending on the choice of parameter space, partially driven by the preference for nonzero f NL orth in WMAP9

  2. Spectroscopic and calorimetric investigation of short and intermediate-range structures and energetics of amorphous SiCO, SiCN, and SiBCN polymer-derived ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgeon, Scarlett J.

    Polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) are a new class of amorphous ceramics in the Si-B-C-N system that are synthesized by the pyrolysis of silicon-based organic polymers. PDCs are lightweight and are resistant to creep, crystallization, and oxidation at temperatures near 1800 K making them ideal for a variety of high temperature applications. In spite of being X-ray amorphous, these materials display structural heterogeneity at the nanometer length scale. Their structure and resulting properties can be drastically altered by the utilization of preceramic polymers with differing chemistry and architectures. Fundamental understanding of the atomic structure is critical in deciphering the structure-property relationships and ultimately in controlling their properties for specific engineering applications. The short-range atomic structure has been extensively investigated using a variety of techniques, however, the structures at length scales beyond next-nearest neighbors remained highly controversial. Here we report the results of a spectroscopic and calorimetric study of short and intermediate -range structure and energetic of SiOC and SiBCN PDCs derived from a wide variety of precursors. SiOC PDCs with different carbon contents were synthesized from polysiloxane precurors and their structures were studied using high-resolution 13C and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results suggest that these PDCs consists of a continuous mass fractal backbone of corner-shared SiC xO4-x tetrahedral units with "voids" occupied by sp 2-hybridized graphitic carbon. The oxygen-rich SiCxO 4-x units are located at the interior of this backbone with a mass fractal dimension of ~ 2.5, while the carbon-rich units occupy the two-dimensional interface between the backbone and the free carbon nanodomains. Such fractal topology is expected to give rise to unusual mechanical and transport properties characteristic of fractal percolation networks. For example, elastic moduli and

  3. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  4. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vukovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. Results PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7. Conclusions New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI, represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL.

  5. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa) and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, I; Djordjevic, D; Bojanic, N; Babic, U; Soldatovic, I

    2017-01-01

    To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA) and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI) in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC) in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA) and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7). New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI), represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  6. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Winslow, S.L.; Moeller, M.P.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms

  7. Selection of protease for increased solubilization of protein-derived thiols during mashing with limited release of free amino acids in beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Lunde, Christina; Lund, Marianne Nissen

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of protein-derived thiols by protease treatment during mashing for improvement of flavor stability in beer has previously been shown to cause concomitant increase in free amino acid concentrations and thereby increased levels of unwanted Maillard reaction products during aging. The pre......Extraction of protein-derived thiols by protease treatment during mashing for improvement of flavor stability in beer has previously been shown to cause concomitant increase in free amino acid concentrations and thereby increased levels of unwanted Maillard reaction products during aging...... of a protease with a higher temperature optimum dosed at only 3 mg of enzyme/kg of malt, it is possible to increase thiol concentrations in wort by 30% and with only a maximum 10% increase in amino acid concentration compared with a control. Pilot brewing showed that beer brewed with addition of protease...... stability during storage could not be evaluated. Overall, similar brewing and sensory characteristics were obtained compared with a control beer brewed without addition of protease. Foam stability was decreased by protease treatment, and formation of haze was reduced by protease treatment....

  8. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta; Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  9. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta [University of Gdansk, Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Environmental and Human Health Protection (Poland); Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor [Jackson State University, Interdisciplinary Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biotechnology (Greece); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Jackson State University, Interdisciplinary Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Puzyn, Tomasz, E-mail: t.puzyn@qsar.eu.org [University of Gdansk, Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Environmental and Human Health Protection (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  10. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  11. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Models for the Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Humans, in Support of Application to Occupational Exposure Limit Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    The subjects ranged in age from 16-47, with a mean age of 29 years, with an average number of 3 pregnancies ; on average, blood was collected...presented by Vork et al. (2013), Table B-3, a plot of BLL vs. workplace air Pb predictions for the Leggett+ (MATLAB) model could be constructed, and was...excluded subjects all had the highest estimated exposures as well, but this was not the case; 6 of the excluded subjects had workplace air exposures

  12. Nonlinear absorption, optical limiting behavior and structural study of a new chalcone derivative-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new third order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one (4DPMS) belonging to chalcone family has been crystallized in acetone solution. The 4DPMS crystals are characterized by CHNS analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectral and thermal techniques. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4DPMS crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The linear optical absorption spectrum revealed that the 4DPMS crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. Thermogravimetric data shows absence of phase transition before melting point and from differential scanning calorimetry analysis the melting point of the crystal is found to be 106 °C. Third order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment on 4DPMS was carried out using open aperture Z-scan technique with Nd: YAG laser operating at 532 nm. It was found that the calculated values of excited state absorption cross section for 4DPMS molecules is much greater than the ground state absorption cross section. A decrease in effective nonlinear absorption coefficient was observed with increase in the input irradiance of laser. The observed optical limiting property in 4DPMS is attributed to reverse saturable absorption.

  13. Mitigating Satellite-Based Fire Sampling Limitations in Deriving Biomass Burning Emission Rates: Application to WRF-Chem Model Over the Northern sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yi; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Zeng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Largely used in several independent estimates of fire emissions, fire products based on MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua polar-orbiting satellites have a number of inherent limitations, including (a) inability to detect fires below clouds, (b) significant decrease of detection sensitivity at the edge of scan where pixel sizes are much larger than at nadir, and (c) gaps between adjacent swaths in tropical regions. To remedy these limitations, an empirical method is developed here and applied to correct fire emission estimates based on MODIS pixel level fire radiative power measurements and emission coefficients from the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) biomass burning emission inventory. The analysis was performed for January 2010 over the northern sub-Saharan African region. Simulations from WRF-Chem model using original and adjusted emissions are compared with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from MODIS and AERONET as well as aerosol vertical profile from CALIOP data. The comparison confirmed an 30-50% improvement in the model simulation performance (in terms of correlation, bias, and spatial pattern of AOD with respect to observations) by the adjusted emissions that not only increases the original emission amount by a factor of two but also results in the spatially continuous estimates of instantaneous fire emissions at daily time scales. Such improvement cannot be achieved by simply scaling the original emission across the study domain. Even with this improvement, a factor of two underestimations still exists in the modeled AOD, which is within the current global fire emissions uncertainty envelope.

  14. VITAL NMR: using chemical shift derived secondary structure information for a limited set of amino acids to assess homology model accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Anna E.; Hallock, Michael J. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States); Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology (United States); Tang Ming [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States); Harris, Jason; Baudry, Jerome [University of Tennessee, Department of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology (United States); Schuler, Mary A. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology (United States); Rienstra, Chad M., E-mail: rienstra@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  15. VITAL NMR: Using Chemical Shift Derived Secondary Structure Information for a Limited Set of Amino Acids to Assess Homology Model Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, Michael C [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Nesbitt, Anna E [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hallock, Michael J [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Tang, Ming [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Harris, Jason B [ORNL; Baudry, Jerome Y [ORNL; Schuler, Mary A [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rienstra, Chad M [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2011-01-01

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., (13)C-(13)C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  16. Rigorous Derivation of a Nonlinear Diffusion Equation as Fast-Reaction Limit of a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Carrillo, J. A.; Desvillettes, L.; Fellner, K.

    2009-01-01

    Weak solutions of the spatially inhomogeneous (diffusive) Aizenmann-Bak model of coagulation-breakup within a bounded domain with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are shown to converge, in the fast reaction limit, towards local equilibria determined by their mass. Moreover, this mass is the solution of a nonlinear diffusion equation whose nonlinearity depends on the (size-dependent) diffusion coefficient. Initial data are assumed to have integrable zero order moment and square integrable first order moment in size, and finite entropy. In contrast to our previous result [5], we are able to show the convergence without assuming uniform bounds from above and below on the number density of clusters. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  17. Rigorous Derivation of a Nonlinear Diffusion Equation as Fast-Reaction Limit of a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Carrillo, J. A.

    2009-10-30

    Weak solutions of the spatially inhomogeneous (diffusive) Aizenmann-Bak model of coagulation-breakup within a bounded domain with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are shown to converge, in the fast reaction limit, towards local equilibria determined by their mass. Moreover, this mass is the solution of a nonlinear diffusion equation whose nonlinearity depends on the (size-dependent) diffusion coefficient. Initial data are assumed to have integrable zero order moment and square integrable first order moment in size, and finite entropy. In contrast to our previous result [5], we are able to show the convergence without assuming uniform bounds from above and below on the number density of clusters. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Urlić, Branimir; Jukić Špika, Maja; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Krumbein, Angelika; Baldermann, Susanne; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Perica, Slavko; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants' response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM), either in full or reduced (-50%) radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis.

  19. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Urlić, Branimir; Jukić Špika, Maja; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Krumbein, Angelika; Baldermann, Susanne; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Perica, Slavko; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants’ response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM), either in full or reduced (-50%) radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis. PMID:26569488

  20. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Becker

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants' response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM, either in full or reduced (-50% radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis.

  1. SMARTER THAN YOUR AVERAGE SENSOR: AIS SENSOR THAT INTELLIGENTLY RE-TRANSMITS MEANINGFUL INFORMATION DERIVED FROM RAWAIS DATA IN NETWORK LIMITED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. V. Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIS is a transponder based, anti-collision system used by the majority of ocean traffic. Ships regularly transmit their identity, position and speed. The information used to populate the AIS fields come from ship based sensors, such as GPS, and user populated fields, such as the vessels name and MMSI number. These fields are susceptible to spoofing and can be changed to hide the identity or location of a vessel. This is often done to disguise the vessel as a different class to avoid inspections or to enter a protected area without raising alarms. The AIS system has found great utility in monitoring global shipping trends and traffic but this was never intended when the protocol was designed. Docked vessels still transmit messages regularly that contain no new information. These, and other redundant messages, are still transmitted and stored. In situations where a sensor is remote and has limited access to the Internet this can become costly. The Smart-AIS sensor records all incoming messages locally and makes a decision on whether the message is of special interest or not. Messages of interest are re-transmitted to an external AIS database.

  2. Intervalo hídrico ótimo em um latossolo vermelho distroférrico sob diferentes sistemas de produção Least limiting water range in a distroferric red latossol under different growing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milson E. Serafim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar sistemas de cultivo quanto à qualidade estrutural do solo para o desenvolvimento de plantas por meio da determinação do Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO. O estudo foi realizado com amostras indeformadas de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, sob os sistemas de cultivo convencional, direto e integração lavoura-pecuária, no município de Dourados - MS. Em cada sistema de cultivo, foram amostrados 28 pontos, nas camadas de 0-0,05 m, 0,05-0,10 m, e 0,10-0,20 m, totalizando 84 amostras por sistema, que foram utilizadas para a determinação da curva de retenção de água no solo, da curva de resistência do solo à penetração e da porosidade. No sistema de cultivo convencional e no direto, a menor limitação ao desenvolvimento radicular foi na camada de 0-0,05 m, e na integração, a limitação foi menor na camada de 0,10-0,20 m. Na camada de 0-0,05 m do convencional, o IHO foi igual à capacidade de água disponível. Nos sistemas direto e integração, a resistência à penetração foi limitante. A resistência à penetração foi o principal fator limitante do IHO na maioria das situações estudadas.The objective of this work was to characterize the growing systems related to the structural soil quality for plants development by the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR. The study was developed using soil samples with preserved structure of a Distroferric Red Latossol under the conventional, no tillage and integrated growing systems in de county of Dourados-MS, Brazil. In each system 28 points were sampled, in 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m deep layers, ending up with 84 samples by system which was used to adjust the water retention curve in the soil, soil resistance to penetration curve and porosity determination, all of them necessary to the LLWR determination. In the conventional and no-tillage systems the smallest restriction to de roots development was in the 0-0.05 m layer, while in

  3. Robust test limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the

  4. Long-range correlated percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrib, A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a study of the percolation problem with long-range correlations in the site or bond occupations. An extension of the Harris criterion for the relevance of the correlations is derived for the case that the correlations decay as x/sup -a/ for large distances x. For a d the correlations are relevant if dν-2<0. Applying this criterion to the behavior that results when the correlations are relevant, we argue that the new behavior will have ν/sub long/ = 2/a. It is shown that the correlated bond percolation problem is equivalent to a q-state Potts model with quenched disorder in the limit q→1. With the use of this result, a renormalization-group study of the problem is presented, expanding in epsilon = 6-d and in delta = 4-a. In addition to the normal percolation fixed point, we find a new long-range fixed point. The crossover to this new fixed point follows the extended Harris criterion, and the fixed point has exponents ν/sub long/ = 2/a (as predicted) and eta/sub long/ = (1/11)(delta-epsilon). Finally, several results on the percolation properties of the Ising model at its critical point are shown to be in agreement with the predictions of this paper

  5. Intervalo hídrico ótimo na avaliação de sistemas de pastejo contínuo e rotacionado Least limiting water range in the evaluation of continuous and short-duration grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Leão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade física do solo sob sistemas de pastejo contínuo e rotacionado foi avaliada pelo Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO. A amostragem foi realizada na área experimental da Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foi estudado um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram avaliados quatro piquetes, sendo dois no sistema de pastejo contínuo e dois no sistema de pastejo rotacionado. No sistema de pastejo contínuo, implementado com a espécie Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, foram retiradas 30 amostras por piquete, não tendo um dos piquetes recebido adubação de manutenção (Cs, enquanto o outro havia recebido adubação bianual de manutenção (Cc. No sistema de pastejo rotacionado, implementado com a espécie Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, foram retiradas 30 amostras por piquete; em um dos piquetes, o resíduo pós-pastejo era mantido entre 2,0 e 2,5 t ha-1 de matéria seca total (MST (R1, enquanto no outro era mantido entre 3,0 e 3,5 t ha-1 MST (R2. As amostras foram submetidas a um gradiente de tensão de água e, posteriormente, utilizadas nas determinações da densidade do solo (Ds, resistência do solo à penetração (RP, umidade volumétrica (tetav e do IHO. O sistema de pastejo rotacionado apresentou piores condições físicas do solo para o crescimento vegetal, avaliadas pelo critério do IHO. Os maiores valores de Ds e menor IHO foram observados no R1, o que foi atribuído às taxas de lotação mais elevadas aplicadas neste piquete.Soil physical quality in continuous and short-duration rotational cattle grazing systems was evaluated using the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR approach. Soil samples were collected on an experimental site at the Embrapa - Beef Cattle Research Center (Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. The studied soil was a Typic Acrudox. Four sampling sites were selected: two under a short-duration continuous grazing system and two under intensive short-duration rotational grazing system. Thirty soil cores were collected in each site

  6. Least limiting water range and physical quality of soil under groundcover management systems in citrus Intervalo hídrico ótimo e qualidade física do solo em sistemas de manejo nas entrelinhas de citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Machinery-based farming operations used for perennial fruit crops often damage soils, particularly if the soil is wet and prone to compaction. We hypothesized that perennial vegetation growing in the interrows of orange orchards can mitigate the soil physical degradation from machinery traffic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different groundcover management systems on the soil physical quality indicators including the least limiting water range (LLWR. An experiment was started in 1993 in a Typic Paleudult to evaluate three groundcover management systems: Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum with mowing, perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi, and natural regrowth in which weeds were controlled by herbicide. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. In May 2003, 216 undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-0.15-m depths under and between wheel tracks in the orchard interrows. The soil bulk density, soil organic carbon content, resistance to penetration, soil water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration curve were determined in order to estimate the LLWR. The higher LLWR under wheel tracks in Bahia grass compared to perennial peanut or natural regrowth suggest that a better soil physical quality was achieved with Bahia grass.Operações motomecanizadas utilizadas no manejo das entrelinhas dos pomares de frutas com freqüência causam a degradação física do solo, especialmente quando realizadas com o solo úmido e suscetível à compactação. A hipótese desse estudo é que a manutenção da vegetação permanente nas entrelinhas do pomar pode mitigar a degradação física do solo causada pelo tráfego de máquinas. O objetivo desse estudo é verificar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo da cobertura permanente das entrelinhas sobre o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO e a qualidade física do solo. Um experimento foi iniciado em 1993 num Argissolo Vermelho distr

  7. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  8. The limitation and modification of flux-limited diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan; Huang Wenkai

    1986-01-01

    The limitation of various typical flux-limited diffusion theory and advantages of asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant are analyzed and compared. The conclusions are as following: Though the flux-limited problem in neutron diffusion theory are theoretically solved by derived flux-limited diffusion equation, it's going too far to limit flux due to the inappropriate assumption in deriving flux-limited diffusion equation. The asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant has eliminated the above-mentioned limitation, and it is more accurate than flux-limited diffusion theory in describing neutron transport problem

  9. Imaging performance of annular apertures. VI - Limitations by optical surface deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschunko, Hubert F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of optical systems is limited by imperfect optical surfaces that degrade the images below the level set by wave theoretical limits. The central irradiance functions are derived for slit and circular apertures with five distributions of wavefront errors and for a range of maximal wavefront deviations. For practical frequency of occurrence distributions of wavefront deviations, the point spread and the image energy integral functions are determined. Practical performances of optical systems are derived and performance limits discussed.

  10. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  11. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    . Peromyscus generally used and maintained several or many different home sites and refuges in various parts of their home ranges, and frequently shifted about so that their principal activities centered on different sets of holes at different times. Once established, many Peromyscus remained in the same general area for a long time, perhaps for the duration of their lives. Extent of their travels in different directions and intensity of use of different portions of their home ranges varied within a general area in response to habitat changes, loss of neighbors, or other factors. Various authors have obtained both direct and indirect evidence of territoriality, in some degree, among certain species of Peromyscus. Young mice dispersed from their birth sites to establish home ranges of their own. Adults also sometimes left their home areas; some re-established elsewhere; others returned after exploratory travels. Most populations contained a certain proportion of transients; these may have been wanderers or individuals exploring out from established home ranges or seeking new ones. When areas were depopulated by removal trapping, other Peromyscus invaded. Invasion rates generally followed seasonal trends of reproduction and population density. Peromyscus removed from their home areas and released elsewhere returned home from various distances, but fewer returned from greater distances than from nearby; speed of return increased with successive trials. The consensus from present evidence is that ho-ming is made possible by a combination of random wandering and familiarity with a larger area than the day-to-day range. Records of juvenile wanderings during the dispersal phase and of adult explorations very nearly encompassed the distances over which any substantial amount of successful homing occurred. Methods of measuring sizes of home ranges and the limitations of these measurements were discussed in brief synopsis. It was co

  12. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  13. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  14. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  15. Laser-limiting materials for medical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgaetsky, Vitaly M.; Kopylova, Tat'yana N.; Tereshchenko, Sergey A.; Reznichenko, Alexander V.; Selishchev, Sergey V.

    2004-03-01

    The important problem of modern laser medicine is the decrease of an exposure of biological tissues outside of an operational field and can be solved by optical radiation limiting. Organic dyes with reversibly darkening can be placed onto surfaces of irradiated tissues or can be introduced in solder for laser welding of vessels. The limiting properties of a set of nontoxic organic compounds were investigated. Nonlinear optical properties of dyes having reverse saturable absorption (pyran styryl derivatives, cyanine and porphyrine compounds) were studied under XeCl and YAG:Nd (II harmonics) lasers excitation. The effect of attenuation of a visible laser radiation is obtained for ethanol solutions of cyanines: radiation attenuation coefficient ( AC) = 25-35 at N/S = 100-250 MW/cm2. In water solutions of such compounds in UV spectrum range AC ~ 10. The spectral characteristics of compounds appeared expedient enough to operational use in laser limiters (broad passband in visible range of a spectrum). Under the data of Z-scanning (the scheme F/10) value AC ~ 70 was reached. The limiting of power laser radiation in visible (λ = 532 nm) and UV- (λ = 308 nm) spectral region and nanosecond pulse duration (7 -13 ns) across porphyrine solutions and their complexes with some metals (13 compounds) was investigated too. The comparative study of optical limiting dependence on intensity of laser radiation, solvent type and concentration of solutions was carried out for selecte wavelength. There was shown a possible use of pyran styryl derivatives DCM as limiters of visual laser radiation. To understand a mechanism of laser radiation limitation the light induced processes were experimentally and theoretically studied in organic molecules. The quantum-chemical investigation of one cyanine compound was carried out. There were noted the perspectives of laser radiation limiting by application of inverted schemes of traditional laser shutters. Usage of phenomena of light -induced

  16. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  17. AIRBORNE LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LIDAR DERIVED DEFORMATION FROM THE MW 6.0 24 AUGUST, 2014 SOUTH NAPA EARTHQUAKE ESTIMATED BY TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD CHANGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Lyda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing via LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging has proven extremely useful in both Earth science and hazard related studies. Surveys taken before and after an earthquake for example, can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of land deformation that offer better spatial coverage of the near field rupture zone than other geodetic methods (e.g., InSAR, GNSS, or alignment array. In this study, we compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from different pre and post-event airborne laser scanning (ALS data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection algorithms, Iterative Control Point (ICP and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The ICP algorithm is a closest point based registration algorithm that can iteratively acquire three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. By employing a newly proposed partition scheme, “moving window,” to handle the large spatial scale point cloud over the earthquake rupture area, the ICP process applies a rigid registration of data sets within an overlapped window to enhance the change detection results of the local, spatially varying surface deformation near-fault. The other algorithm, PIV, is a well-established, two dimensional image co-registration and correlation technique developed in fluid mechanics research and later applied to geotechnical studies. Adapted here for an earthquake with little vertical movement, the 3D point cloud is interpolated into a 2D DTM image and horizontal deformation is determined by assessing the cross-correlation of interrogation areas within the images to find the most likely deformation between two areas. Both the PIV process and the ICP algorithm are further benefited by a presented, novel use of urban geodetic markers. Analogous to the persistent scatterer technique employed with differential radar observations, this new LiDAR application exploits a classified point cloud dataset to assist the change detection

  18. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  19. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  20. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  1. Photon-Limited Information in High Resolution Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    received photon ( bpp ) as a metric. This project emphasizes the use of non-brief-pulse transmit waveforms and in particular Frequency Modulated... bpp ) as a metric. This project emphasizes the use of non-brief-pulse transmit waveforms and in particular Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW...Theoretical and experimental Photon Information Efficieny (PIE) as a function of mean signal photoelectron level measured in bit per photon ( bpp

  2. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  3. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  4. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  5. Lifting Term Rewriting Derivations in Constructor Systems by Using Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Riesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrowing is a procedure that was first studied in the context of equational E-unification and that has been used in a wide range of applications. The classic completeness result due to Hullot states that any term rewriting derivation starting from an instance of an expression can be "lifted" to a narrowing derivation, whenever the substitution employed is normalized. In this paper we adapt the generator- based extra-variables-elimination transformation used in functional-logic programming to overcome that limitation, so we are able to lift term rewriting derivations starting from arbitrary instances of expressions. The proposed technique is limited to left-linear constructor systems and to derivations reaching a ground expression. We also present a Maude-based implementation of the technique, using natural rewriting for the on-demand evaluation strategy.

  6. Thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2014-09-01

    The spatial coherence of solar beam radiation is a key constraint in solar rectenna conversion. Here, we present a derivation of the thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion - an expansion of Landsberg's elegant basic bound, originally limited to incoherent converters at maximum flux concentration. First, we generalize Landsberg's work to arbitrary concentration and angular confinement. Then we derive how the values are further lowered for coherence-limited converters. The results do not depend on a particular conversion strategy. As such, they pertain to systems that span geometric to physical optics, as well as classical to quantum physics. Our findings indicate promising potential for solar rectenna conversion.

  7. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  8. Limits of Spalling of Fire-Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    on the nature of spalling, add the latest findings from the research of the author, and derives limits within which spalling should not take place. Some guidelines are formulated based on experience from research and practise for reducing the spalling risk for constructions beyond the safe design limits....... The limits provided are those, which can be stated at present, but further research is in progress, identifying more precisely the range of materials susceptible to spalling and contributing to the full understanding of the phenomenon....

  9. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  10. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  11. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  12. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  13. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  14. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  15. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  16. Mass limit for the lightest neutralino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Quyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignain, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emerya, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1996-12-01

    Indirect limits on the mass of the lightest neutralino are derived from the results of searches for charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons performed with data taken by the ALEPH Collaboration at centre-of-mass energies near the Z peak and at 130 and 136 GeV. Within the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and whenM_{tilde ν } ≥slant 200 GeV/c^2 , the bound M x > 12.8 GeV/ c 2 at the 95% confidence level applies for any tan β. The impact of lighter sneutrinos is presented in the framework of SUSY grand unified theories; a massless neutralino is allowed only for a narrow range of tan β, μ, and the scalar mass parameter m 0. Finally, by including Higgs mass constraints and requiring that radiative electroweak symmetry breaking occur, more stringent bounds on M x as a function of tan β are derived.

  17. The combinatorial derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Protasov

    2013-09-01

    $\\Delta(A=\\{g\\in G:|gA\\cap A|=\\infty\\}$. The mapping $\\Delta:\\mathcal{P}_G\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_G$, $A\\mapsto\\Delta(A$, is called a combinatorial derivation and can be considered as an analogue of the topological derivation $d:\\mathcal{P}_X\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_X$, $A\\mapsto A^d$, where $X$ is a topological space and $A^d$ is the set of all limit points of $A$. Content: elementary properties, thin and almost thin subsets, partitions, inverse construction and $\\Delta$-trajectories,  $\\Delta$ and $d$.

  18. Limits on inelastic dark matter from ZEPLIN-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, D.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Araujo, H.M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Barnes, E.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Belov, V.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bewick, A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Burenkov, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cashmore, R. [Brasenose College, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Chepel, V. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Currie, A., E-mail: alastair.currie08@imperial.ac.u [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Davidge, D.; Dawson, J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Durkin, T.; Edwards, B. [Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Horn, M.; Howard, A.S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, A.J. [Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Jones, W.G. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Kalmus, G.E. [Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-30

    We present limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section for inelastic dark matter from a reanalysis of the 2008 run of ZEPLIN-III. Cuts, notably on scintillation pulse shape and scintillation-to-ionisation ratio, give a net exposure of 63kgday in the range 20-80keV nuclear recoil energy, in which 6 events are observed. Upper limits on signal rate are derived from the maximum empty patch in the data. Under standard halo assumptions a small region of parameter space consistent, at 99% CL, with causing the 1.17tonyr DAMA modulation signal is allowed at 90% CL: it is in the mass range 45-60GeVc{sup -2} with a minimum CL of 87%, again derived from the maximum patch. This is the tightest constraint yet presented using xenon, a target nucleus whose similarity to iodine mitigiates systematic error from the assumed halo.

  19. Asymptotic aspect of derivations in Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiok Roh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove that every approximate linear left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra is continuous. Also, we consider linear derivations on Banach algebras and we first study the conditions for a linear derivation on a Banach algebra. Then we examine the functional inequalities related to a linear derivation and their stability. We finally take central linear derivations with radical ranges on semiprime Banach algebras and a continuous linear generalized left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra.

  20. Push-outs of derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extension as a limit of operators b ↦→ D(ba) − b.D(a), a ∈ A in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations ...

  1. Long-range contributions to double beta decay revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helo, J.C. [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Centro-Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Avenida Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Hirsch, M. [HEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular,C.S.I.C./Universitat de València Edificio Institutos de Investigacion,Parc Cientific de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Ota, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University,Shimo-Okubo 255, 338-8570 Saitama-Sakura (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the systematic decomposition of all dimension-7 (d=7) lepton number violating operators. These d=7 operators produce momentum enhanced contributions to the long-range part of the 0νββ decay amplitude and thus are severely constrained by existing half-live limits. In our list of possible models one can find contributions to the long-range amplitude discussed previously in the literature, such as the left-right symmetric model or scalar leptoquarks, as well as some new models not considered before. The d=7 operators generate Majorana neutrino mass terms either at tree-level, 1-loop or 2-loop level. We systematically compare constraints derived from the mass mechanism to those derived from the long-range 0νββ decay amplitude and classify our list of models accordingly. We also study one particular example decomposition, which produces neutrino masses at 2-loop level, can fit oscillation data and yields a large contribution to the long-range 0νββ decay amplitude, in some detail.

  2. Quantum speed limits in open system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F

    2013-02-01

    Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise.

  3. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  4. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  5. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  6. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  7. Limit lines for risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  8. Development of limiting decay heat values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotylev, V.A.; Thompson, J.W.; Gibb, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of tools are used in the assessment of decay heat during an outage of the CANDU-6. Currently, the technical basis for all of these tools is 'CANDU Channel Decay Power', Reference 1. The methods used in that document were limited to channel decay powers. However, for most outage support analysis, decay heat limits are based on bundle heats. Since the production of that document in 1977, new versions of codes, and updates of general-purpose and CANDU-specific libraries have become available. These tools and libraries have both a more formal technical basis than Reference 1, and also a more formal validation base. Using these tools it is now possible to derive decay heat with more specific input parameters, such as fuel composition, heat per unit of fuel, and irradiation history, and to assign systematically derived uncertainty allowances to such decay heat values. In particular, we sought to examine a broad range of likely bundle histories, and thus establish a set of limiting bundle decay beat values, that could serve as a bounding envelope for use in Nuclear Safety Analysis. (author)

  9. Dynamics of Tumor Heterogeneity Derived from Clonal Karyotypic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Laughney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical chromosomal instability is a ubiquitous feature of human neoplasms. Due to experimental limitations, fundamental characteristics of karyotypic changes in cancer are poorly understood. Using an experimentally inspired stochastic model, based on the potency and chromosomal distribution of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, we show that cancer cells have evolved to exist within a narrow range of chromosome missegregation rates that optimizes phenotypic heterogeneity and clonal survival. Departure from this range reduces clonal fitness and limits subclonal diversity. Mapping of the aneuploid fitness landscape reveals a highly favorable, commonly observed, near-triploid state onto which evolving diploid- and tetraploid-derived populations spontaneously converge, albeit at a much lower fitness cost for the latter. Finally, by analyzing 1,368 chromosomal translocation events in five human cancers, we find that karyotypic evolution also shapes chromosomal translocation patterns by selecting for more oncogenic derivative chromosomes. Thus, chromosomal instability can generate the heterogeneity required for Darwinian tumor evolution.

  10. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  11. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  12. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  13. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  14. Long range order and giant components of quantum random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ioffe, D

    2006-01-01

    Mean field quantum random graphs give a natural generalization of classical Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi percolation model on complete graph $G_N$ with $p =\\beta /N$. Quantum case incorporates an additional parameter $\\lambda\\geq 0$, and the short-long range order transition should be studied in the $(\\beta ,\\lambda)$-quarter plane. In this work we explicitly compute the corresponding critical curve $\\gamma_c$, and derive results on two-point functions and sizes of connected components in both short and long range order regions. In this way the classical case corresponds to the limiting point $(\\beta_c ,0) = (1,0)$ on $\\gamma_c$.

  15. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  16. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  17. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  18. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  19. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging

  20. Energy of N two-dimensional bosons with zero-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazak, B.; Petrov, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We derive an integral equation describing N two-dimensional bosons with zero-range interactions and solve it for the ground state energy B N by applying a stochastic diffusion Monte Carlo scheme for up to 26 particles. We confirm and go beyond the scaling B N ∝ 8.567 N predicted by Hammer and Son (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 250408) in the large-N limit.

  1. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  2. Comparison and Limitations of DVH-Based NTCP Models Derived From 3D-CRT and IMRT Data for Prediction of Gastrointestinal Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients by Using Propensity Score Matched Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeller, Almut [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Yan, Di, E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Marina, Ovidiu; Schulze, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Parodi, Katia [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus; Söhn, Matthias [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: This study compared normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling of chronic gastrointestinal toxicities following prostate cancer treatment for 2 treatment modalities. Possible factors causing discrepancies in optimal NTCP model parameters between 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated RT (IMRT) were analyzed and discussed, including the impact of patient characteristics, image guidance, toxicity scoring bias, and NTCP model limitations. Methods and Materials: Rectal wall dose-volume histograms of 1115 patients treated for prostate cancer under an adaptive radiation therapy protocol were used to model gastrointestinal toxicity grade ≥2 (according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). A total of 457 patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 658 with IMRT. 3D-CRT patients were matched to IMRT patients based on various patient characteristics, using a propensity score–based algorithm. Parameters of the Lyman equivalent uniform dose and cut-off dose logistic regression NTCP models were estimated for the 2 matched treatment modalities and the combined group. Results: After they were matched, the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups contained 275 and 550 patients with a large discrepancy of 28.7% versus 7.8% toxicities, respectively (P<.001). For both NTCP models, optimal parameters found for the 3D-CRT groups did not fit the IMRT patients well and vice versa. Models developed for the combined data overestimated NTCP for the IMRT patients and underestimated NTCP for the 3D-CRT group. Conclusions: Our analysis did not reveal a single definitive cause for discrepancies of model parameters between 3D-CRT and IMRT. Patient characteristics and bias in toxicity scoring, as well as image guidance alone, are unlikely causes of the large discrepancy of toxicities. Whether the cause was inherent to the specific NTCP models used in this study needs to be verified by future investigations. Because IMRT is increasingly used

  3. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  4. Force induced unzipping of DNA with long range correlated noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We derive and solve a Fokker–Planck equation for the stationary distribution of the free energy, in a model of unzipping of double-stranded DNA under external force. The autocorrelation function of the random DNA sequence can be of a general form, including long range correlations. In the case of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck noise, characterized by a finite correlation length, our result reduces to the exact result of Allahverdyan et al, with the average number of unzipped base pairs going as (X) ∼ 1/f 2 in the white noise limit, where f is the deviation from the critical force. In the case of long range correlated noise, where the integrated autocorrelation is divergent, we find that (X) is finite at f = 0, with its value decreasing as the correlations become of longer range. This shows that long range correlations actually stabilize the DNA sequence against unzipping. Our result is also in agreement with the findings of Allahverdyan et al obtained using numerical generation of the long range correlated noise

  5. Relationship between LiDAR-derived forest canopy height and Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Pascual; Antonio Garcia-Abril; Warren B. Cohen; Susana. Martin-Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The mean and standard deviation (SD) of light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived canopy height are related to forest structure. However, LiDAR data typically cover a limited area and have a high economic cost compared with satellite optical imagery. Optical images may be required to extrapolate LiDAR height measurements across a broad landscape. Different spectral...

  6. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  7. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  8. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  9. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  10. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  11. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  12. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  13. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  14. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  15. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  16. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  17. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  18. Product numerical range in a space with tensor product structure

    OpenAIRE

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Skowronek, Łukasz; Choi, Man-Duen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    We study operators acting on a tensor product Hilbert space and investigate their product numerical range, product numerical radius and separable numerical range. Concrete bounds for the product numerical range for Hermitian operators are derived. Product numerical range of a non-Hermitian operator forms a subset of the standard numerical range containing the barycenter of the spectrum. While the latter set is convex, the product range needs not to be convex nor simply connected. The product ...

  19. Rate-limiting events in hyperthermic cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, J.; Marceau, N.

    1978-01-01

    The inactivation rate of HeLa cells for temperatures ranging from 41 to 55 0 C and treatment durations varying from 2 to 300 min was analyzed in thermodynamic terms by considering the dependence of cell free energy (ΔG + ) on temperature. Within this temperature range the loss of proliferative capacity exhibits a complex temperature dependence which is characterized by entropy and enthalpy values that gradually decrease as temperature increases. This complex process of heat-induced cell killing was postulated to be the result of a series of reactions, each of them being alternatively rate limiting within a certain temperature range. From this kinetic scheme a mathematical model was derived and, in the case of HeLa cells, the use of a least-squares search parameter procedure (as applied to the derived survival regression function) demonstrated that three such sequential reactions were sufficient to explain all experimental data points obtained within the 41 to 55 0 C range. The proposed model was also shown to be adequate for explaining survival data of HeLa cells exposed to nanosecond heat pulses of infrared laser energy. Considerations of thermodynamic properties of known biochemical reactions suggest plausible rate-limiting events in hyperthermic cell killing

  20. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  1. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  2. Derivative financial instruments and nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Owhoso, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the extent of derivative financial instrument use among US nonprofit health systems and the impact of these financial instruments on their cash flows, reported operating results, and financial risks. Our examination is conducted through a case study of New Jersey hospitals and health systems. We review the existing literature on interest rate derivative instruments and US hospitals and health systems. This literature describes the design of these derivative financial instruments and the theoretical benefits of their use by large health care provider organizations. Our contribution to the literature is to provide an empirical evaluation of derivative financial instruments usage among a geographically limited sample of US nonprofit health systems. We reviewed the audited financial statements of the 49 community hospitals and multi-hospital health systems operating in the state of New Jersey. We found that 8 percent of New Jersey's nonprofit health providers utilized interest rate derivatives with an aggregate principle value of $229 million. These derivative users combine interest rate swaps and caps to lower the effective interest costs of their long-term debt while limiting their exposure to future interest rate increases. In addition, while derivative assets and liabilities have an immaterial balance sheet impact, derivative related gains and losses are a material component of their reported operating results. We also found that derivative usage among these four health systems was responsible for generating positive cash flows in the range of 1 percent to 2 percent of their total 2001 cash flows from operations. As a result of our admittedly limited samples we conclude that interest rate swaps and caps are effective risk management tools. However, we also found that while these derivative financial instruments are useful hedges against the risks of issuing long-term financing instruments, they also expose derivative users to credit, contract

  3. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  4. Computation of Mie derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bowler, Nicola

    2013-07-10

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the derivatives of Mie scattering coefficients with respect to the electrical radius of the spherical scattering particle, and to the relative permittivity and permeability of both the particle and the surrounding medium. Their corresponding approximate expressions are developed to avoid numerical overflow based on the logarithmic derivative of Riccati-Bessel functions. The analytical expressions have been verified by comparing their results with those calculated by analytical expressions developed by Mathematica. Compared with the numerical derivative, the analytical expressions and approximate expressions show a higher accuracy and are 2.0 and 2.8 times, respectively, faster in the case of a single magnetodielectric sphere. Generally, for spheres with an electrical radius in a large range, the approximate expressions can yield acceptable accuracy and computation time up to a high order. This work can be used in the design of nonmetallic metamaterials, and in the retrieval of aerosol properties from remote sensing data. An example calculation is given for the design of an optical, all-dielectric, mu-negative metamaterial consisting of a simple cubic array of tellurium nanoparticles.

  5. Limitations on blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.

    1999-01-01

    The limitations on the performance of breeding blankets in a fusion power plant are evaluated. The breeding blankets will be key components of a plant and their limitations with regard to power density, thermal efficiency and lifetime could determine to a large degree the attractiveness of a power plant. The performance of two rather well known blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European Blanket Programme is assessed and their limitations are compared with more advanced (and more speculative) concepts. An important issue is the question of which material (structure, breeder, multiplier, coatings) will limit the performance and what improvement would be possible with a 'better' structural material. This evaluation is based on the premise that the performance of the power plant will be limited by the blankets (including first wall) and not by other components, e.g. divertors, or the plasma itself. However, the justness of this premise remains to be seen. It is shown that the different blanket concepts cover a large range of allowable power densities and achievable thermal efficiencies, and it is concluded that there is a high incentive to go for better performance in spite of possibly higher blanket cost. However, such high performance blankets are usually based on materials and technologies not yet developed and there is a rather high risk that the development could fail. Therefore, it is explained that a part of the development effort should be devoted to concepts where the materials and technologies are more or less in hand in order to ensure that blankets for a DEMO reactor can be developed and tested in a given time frame. (orig.)

  6. The difference between the classical and quantum mechanical definitions of scattering cross sections and the problem of the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Basu, A.N.; Sengupta, S.

    1994-01-01

    A critical analysis of the difference between the classical and quantum mechanical definitions of scattering cross sections for particles is presented. This leads to a clarification of the classical limit problem and suggests precise criteria for its validity. In particular these criteria are derived for both finite and infinite range potentials. (orig.)

  7. Resonant tunnelling through short-range singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotaryuk, A V; Christiansen, P L; Iermakova, S V

    2007-01-01

    A three-parameter family of point interactions constructed from sequences of symmetric barrier-well-barrier and well-barrier-well rectangles is studied in the limit, when the rectangles are squeezed to zero width but the barrier height and the well depth become infinite (the zero-range limit). The limiting generalized potentials are referred to as the second derivative of Dirac's delta function ±λδ-prime(x) with a renormalized coupling constant λ > 0 or simply as ±δ-prime-like point interactions. As a result, a whole family of self-adjoint extensions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger operator is shown to exist, which results in full and partial resonant tunnelling through this class of singular potentials. The resonant tunnelling occurs for countable sets of interaction strength values in the λ-space which are the roots of several transcendental equations. The comparison with the previous results for δ'-like point interactions is also discussed

  8. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  9. Thermodynamic limits of energy harvesting from outgoing thermal radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiraju, Siddharth; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-04-17

    We derive the thermodynamic limits of harvesting power from the outgoing thermal radiation from the ambient to the cold outer space. The derivations are based on a duality relation between thermal engines that harvest solar radiation and those that harvest outgoing thermal radiation. In particular, we derive the ultimate limit for harvesting outgoing thermal radiation, which is analogous to the Landsberg limit for solar energy harvesting, and show that the ultimate limit far exceeds what was previously thought to be possible. As an extension of our work, we also derive the ultimate limit of efficiency of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  10. Precision Orbit Derived Atmospheric Density: Development and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, C.; Hiatt, A.; Lechtenberg, T.; Fattig, E.; Mehta, P.

    2012-09-01

    Precision orbit ephemerides (POE) are used to estimate atmospheric density along the orbits of CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment). The densities are calibrated against accelerometer derived densities and considering ballistic coefficient estimation results. The 14-hour density solutions are stitched together using a linear weighted blending technique to obtain continuous solutions over the entire mission life of CHAMP and through 2011 for GRACE. POE derived densities outperform the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM), Jacchia 71 model, and NRLMSISE-2000 model densities when comparing cross correlation and RMS with accelerometer derived densities. Drag is the largest error source for estimating and predicting orbits for low Earth orbit satellites. This is one of the major areas that should be addressed to improve overall space surveillance capabilities; in particular, catalog maintenance. Generally, density is the largest error source in satellite drag calculations and current empirical density models such as Jacchia 71 and NRLMSISE-2000 have significant errors. Dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) has provided measurable improvements to the empirical density models and accelerometer derived densities of extremely high precision are available for a few satellites. However, DCA generally relies on observations of limited accuracy and accelerometer derived densities are extremely limited in terms of measurement coverage at any given time. The goal of this research is to provide an additional data source using satellites that have precision orbits available using Global Positioning System measurements and/or satellite laser ranging. These measurements strike a balance between the global coverage provided by DCA and the precise measurements of accelerometers. The temporal resolution of the POE derived density estimates is around 20-30 minutes, which is significantly worse than that of accelerometer

  11. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  12. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2009-01-01

    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  13. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...... quantities of interest. To be able to utilise the evidence about the derivative it is suggested to adapt the ‘conventional’ problem statement to variational calculus and the way to do so is demonstrated. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....

  14. On the validity range of piston theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basis of linear piston theory in unsteady potential flow is used in this work to develop a quantitative treatment of the validity range of piston theory. In the limit of steady flow, velocity perturbations from Donov’s series expansion...

  15. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  16. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  17. What value, detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Specific approaches and applications of LLD's to nuclear and ''nuclear-related'' measurements are presented in connection with work undertaken for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. In this work, special attention was given to assumptions and potential error sources, as well as to different types of analysis. For the former, the authors considered random and systematic error associated with the blank and the calibration and sample preparation processes, as well as issues relating to the nature of the random error distributions. Analysis types considered included continuous monitoring, ''simple counting'' involving scalar quantities, and spectrum fitting involving data vectors. The investigation of data matrices and multivariate analysis is also described. The most important conclusions derived from this study are: that there is a significant lack of communication and compatibility resulting from diverse terminology and conceptual bases - including no-basis ''ad hoc'' definitions; that the distinction between detection decisions and detection limits is frequently lost sight of; and that quite erroneous LOD estimates follow from inadequate consideration of the actual variability of the blank, and systematic error associated with the blank, the calibration-recovery factor, matrix effects, and ''black box'' data reduction models

  18. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  19. Mangrove expansion and saltmarsh decline at mangrove poleward limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, Neil; Wilson, Nicholas C.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Rajkaran, Anusha; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the US Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru, and on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mangroves of several species have expanded in extent and replaced salt marsh where protected within mangrove reserves in Guangdong Province. In south-eastern Australia, the expansion of Avicennia marina into salt marshes is now well documented, and Rhizophora stylosa has extended its range southward, while showing strong population growth within estuaries along its southern limits in northern New South Wales. Avicennia marina has extended its range southwards in South Africa. The changes are consistent with the pole-ward extension of temperature thresholds co-incident with sea-level rise, although the specific mechanism of range extension might be complicated by limitations on dispersal or other factors. The shift from salt marsh to mangrove dominance on subtropical and temperate shorelines has important implications for ecological structure, function, and global change adaptation.

  20. Partnerships – Limited partnerships and limited liability limited partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Johan J.

    2000-01-01

    Consideration of the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000 which introduced a new corporate entity, carrying the designations “partnership” and “limited” which allow members to limit their liability whilst organising themselves internally as a partnership. Article by Professor Johan Henning (Director of the Centre for Corporate Law and Practice, IALS and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced ...

  1. Primary Paralleled Isolated Boost Converter with Extended Operating Voltage Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Sen, Gökhan; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Applications requiring wide input and output voltage range cannot often be satisfied by using buck or boost derived topologies. Primary paralleled isolated boost converter (PPIBC) [1]-[2] is a high efficiency boost derived topology. This paper proposes a new operation mode for extending the input...

  2. Derivative analyticity relations and asymptotic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of general principles of the S-matrix theory theorems are derived showing that derivative analyticity relations analogous to those of Bronzen, Kane and Sukhatme hold at asymptotic energies if the high-energy limits of certain physical quantities exist

  3. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  4. Inertial-range spectrum of whistler turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model of an inertial-range energy spectrum for homogeneous whistler turbulence. The theory is a generalization of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan concept of the inertial-range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. In the model the dispersion relation is used to derive scaling laws for whistler waves at highly oblique propagation with respect to the mean magnetic field. The model predicts an energy spectrum for such whistler waves with a spectral index −2.5 in the perpendicular component of the wave vector and thus provides an interpretation about recent discoveries of the second inertial-range of magnetic energy spectra at high frequencies in the solar wind.

  5. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  6. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  7. Anisotropic inflation with derivative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jonathan; Kanno, Sugumi; Zavala, Ivonne

    2018-05-01

    We study anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when the inflaton and its derivative couple to a vector field. This type of coupling is motivated by D-brane inflationary models, in which the inflaton, and a vector field living on the D-brane, couple disformally (derivatively). We start by studying a phenomenological model where we show the existence of anisotropic solutions and demonstrate their stability via a dynamical system analysis. Compared to the case without a derivative coupling, the anisotropy is reduced and thus can be made consistent with current limits, while the value of the slow-roll parameter remains almost unchanged. We also discuss solutions for more general cases, including D-brane-like couplings.

  8. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  9. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  10. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  11. Long-range-corrected Rung 3.5 density functional approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Proynov, Emil; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    Rung 3.5 functionals are a new class of approximations for density functional theory. They provide a flexible intermediate between exact (Hartree-Fock, HF) exchange and semilocal approximations for exchange. Existing Rung 3.5 functionals inherit semilocal functionals' limitations in atomic cores and density tails. Here we address those limitations using range-separated admixture of HF exchange. We present three new functionals. LRC-ωΠLDA combines long-range HF exchange with short-range Rung 3.5 ΠLDA exchange. SLC-ΠLDA combines short- and long-range HF exchange with middle-range ΠLDA exchange. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC incorporates a combination of HF, semilocal, and Rung 3.5 exchange in the short range, based on an adiabatic connection. We test these in a new Rung 3.5 implementation including up to analytic fourth derivatives. LRC-ωΠLDA and SLC-ΠLDA improve atomization energies and reaction barriers by a factor of 8 compared to the full-range ΠLDA. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC brings further improvement approaching the accuracy of standard long-range corrected schemes LC-ωPBE and SLC-PBE. The new functionals yield highest occupied orbital energies closer to experimental ionization potentials and describe correctly the weak charge-transfer complex of ethylene and dichlorine and the hole-spin distribution created by an Al defect in quartz. This study provides a framework for more flexible range-separated Rung 3.5 approximations.

  12. Limits on fundamental limits to computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Igor L

    2014-08-14

    An indispensable part of our personal and working lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Steady improvements in computer hardware have been supported by periodic doubling of transistor densities in integrated circuits over the past fifty years. Such Moore scaling now requires ever-increasing efforts, stimulating research in alternative hardware and stirring controversy. To help evaluate emerging technologies and increase our understanding of integrated-circuit scaling, here I review fundamental limits to computation in the areas of manufacturing, energy, physical space, design and verification effort, and algorithms. To outline what is achievable in principle and in practice, I recapitulate how some limits were circumvented, and compare loose and tight limits. Engineering difficulties encountered by emerging technologies may indicate yet unknown limits.

  13. Nucleophilic catalysis of MeON-neoglycoside formation by aniline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskot, Steven A; Zhang, Jianjun; Langenhan, Joseph M

    2013-12-06

    Neoglycosylations are increasingly being employed in the synthesis of natural products, drug candidates, glycopeptide mimics, oligosaccharide analogues, and other applications, but the efficiency of these reactions is usually limited by slow reaction times. Here, we show that aniline derivatives such as 2-amino-5-methoxybenzoic acid enhance the rate of acid-catalyzed neoglycosylation for a range of sugar substrates up to a factor of 32 relative to the uncatalyzed reaction.

  14. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paiva Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  15. Large exon size does not limit splicing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I T; Chasin, L A

    1994-03-01

    Exon sizes in vertebrate genes are, with a few exceptions, limited to less than 300 bases. It has been proposed that this limitation may derive from the exon definition model of splice site recognition. In this model, a downstream donor site enhances splicing at the upstream acceptor site of the same exon. This enhancement may require contact between factors bound to each end of the exon; an exon size limitation would promote such contact. To test the idea that proximity was required for exon definition, we inserted random DNA fragments from Escherichia coli into a central exon in a three-exon dihydrofolate reductase minigene and tested whether the expanded exons were efficiently spliced. DNA from a plasmid library of expanded minigenes was used to transfect a CHO cell deletion mutant lacking the dhfr locus. PCR analysis of DNA isolated from the pooled stable cotransfectant populations displayed a range of DNA insert sizes from 50 to 1,500 nucleotides. A parallel analysis of the RNA from this population by reverse transcription followed by PCR showed a similar size distribution. Central exons as large as 1,400 bases could be spliced into mRNA. We also tested individual plasmid clones containing exon inserts of defined sizes. The largest exon included in mRNA was 1,200 bases in length, well above the 300-base limit implied by the survey of naturally occurring exons. We conclude that a limitation in exon size is not part of the exon definition mechanism.

  16. Inertial range spectrum of field-aligned whistler turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwivedi, Navin Kumar; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    the background magnetic field is exploited to derive the inertial range scaling laws corresponding to the electric field and magnetic field fluctuations. The model is based on the concept of Iroshnikov-Kraichnan inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The present phenomenological turbulence scaling model...

  17. Homonuclear long-range correlation spectra from HMBC experiments by covariance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefberger, Wolfgang; Smrecki, Vilko; Vikić-Topić, Drazen; Müller, Norbert

    2007-07-01

    We present a new application of covariance nuclear magnetic resonance processing based on 1H--13C-HMBC experiments which provides an effective way for establishing indirect 1H--1H and 13C--13C nuclear spin connectivity at natural isotope abundance. The method, which identifies correlated spin networks in terms of covariance between one-dimensional traces from a single decoupled HMBC experiment, derives 13C--13C as well as 1H--1H spin connectivity maps from the two-dimensional frequency domain heteronuclear long-range correlation data matrix. The potential and limitations of this novel covariance NMR application are demonstrated on two compounds: eugenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and an emodin-derivative. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  19. Long-range alpha detector (LRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 7 figs

  20. Beta limits in EBT and their implications for a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Spong, D.A.; Nelson, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical models indicate limits on core beta ranging from a few percent to 10-20% depending on the models and/or assumptions. Some of the parameters that enter into these beta limits are: the ratio of the ring radial scale length to the average radius of curvature, epsilon=Δ/Rsub(c); the ratio of the cold to the hot plasma density, fsub(R)=nsub(cold)/nsub(hot); the ratios of the hot electron drift frequency to the ion cyclotron frequency, ωsub(dh)/ωsub(ci), and to the drift Alfven frequency ωsub(dh)/kVsub(A); the ratio of the ring electron temperature to the core ion temperature, Tsub(R)/Tsub(i); the ring beta βsub(R); etc. Because of uncertainties in extrapolating results of simplifield models to a reactor plasma, the above parameters that influence the beta limits cannot be determined accurately at the present time. Also, reasonable changes within the models and/or assumptions are seen to affect the core beta limits by almost an order of magnitude. Hence, at the present, these limits cannot be used as a rigid (and reliable) requirement for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor engineering considerations. However, sensitivity studies can be carried out to determine the boundaries of the operating regime and to demonstrate the effects of various modes, assumptions, and models on reactor performance (Q value). First the modes believed to limit the core β and ring plasma performance are discussed, and the simplifications and/or assumptions involved in deriving these limits are highlighted. Then, the implications of these limits for a reactor are given. (author)

  1. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  2. Brownian motion in short range random potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.H.; Romero, A.H.; Sancho, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical study of Brownian motion of noninteracting particles in random potentials is presented. The dynamics are modeled by Langevin equations in the high friction limit. The random potentials are Gaussian distributed and short ranged. The simulations are performed in one and two dimensions. Different dynamical regimes are found and explained. Effective subdiffusive exponents are obtained and commented on. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. Composition ranges and exsolution pairs for the members of the bismuthinite-aikinite series from Felbertal, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Makovicky, Emil; Paar, Werner H.

    2002-01-01

    geology, bismuthinite-aikinite derivatives, composition ranges, exsolution, replacement, miscibility gaps, scheelite deposit, Felbertal, Austria......geology, bismuthinite-aikinite derivatives, composition ranges, exsolution, replacement, miscibility gaps, scheelite deposit, Felbertal, Austria...

  4. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  5. Flow Range of Centrifugal Compressor Being Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    General Aviation will benefit from turbine engines that are both fuel-efficient and reliable. Current engines fall short of their potential to achieve these attributes. The reason is compressor surge, which is a flow stability problem that develops when the compressor is subjected to conditions that are outside of its operating range. Compressor surge can occur when fuel flow to the engine is increased, temporarily back pressuring the compressor and pushing it past its stability limit, or when the compressor is subjected to inlet flow-field distortions that may occur during takeoff and landing. Compressor surge can result in the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. Unfortunately, the most efficient operating line for the compressor is usually closer to its stability limit line than it is to the line that provides an adequate margin of safety. A wider stable flow range will permit operation along the most efficient operating line of the compressor, improving the specific fuel consumption of the engine and reducing emissions. The NASA Glenn Research Center is working to extend the stable flow range of the compressor. Significant extension has been achieved in axial compressors by injecting air upstream of the compressor blade rows. Recently, the technique was successfully applied to a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor by injecting streams of air into the diffuser. Both steady and controlled unsteady injection were used to inject air through the diffuser shroud surface and extend the range. Future work will evaluate the effect of air injection through the diffuser hub surface and diffuser vanes with the goal of maximizing the range extension while minimizing the amount of injected air that is required.

  6. Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, R.; Porto, A.; Pullin, J.

    2006-01-01

    Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations the fundamental laws of physics place on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an 'ultimate laptop' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by 10 51 . The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravitational limits that exist on time measurements. We then particularize for the case of an ultimate laptop and show that the maximum number of operations is further constrained to 10 47 per second. (authors)

  7. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  8. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  9. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  10. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  11. Scaling limit for the Derezi\\'nski-G\\'erard model

    OpenAIRE

    OHKUBO, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    We consider a scaling limit for the Derezi\\'nski-G\\'erard model. We derive an effective potential by taking a scaling limit for the total Hamiltonian of the Derezi\\'nski-G\\'erard model. Our method to derive an effective potential is independent of whether or not the quantum field has a nonnegative mass. As an application of our theory developed in the present paper, we derive an effective potential of the Nelson model.

  12. Chapman--Enskog approach to flux-limited diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levermore, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    Using the technique developed by Chapman and Enskog for deriving the Navier--Stokes equations from the Boltzmann equation, a framework is set up for deriving diffusion theories from the transport equation. The procedure is first applied to give a derivation of isotropic diffusion theory and then of a completely new theory which is naturally flux-limited. This new flux-limited diffusion theory is then compared with asymptotic diffusion theory

  13. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  14. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  15. A new tool for exploring climate change induced range shifts of conifer species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaojun; Li, Qin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Zhao, Yiheng; Liu, Shirong

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that tree species will undergo considerable range shifts in response to anthropogenic induced climate change, even in the near future. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are valuable tools in exploring general temporal trends and spatial patterns of potential range shifts. Understanding projections to future climate for tree species will facilitate policy making in forestry. Comparative studies for a large number of tree species require the availability of suitable and standardized indices. A crucial limitation when deriving such indices is the threshold problem in defining ranges, which has made interspecies comparison problematic until now. Here we propose a set of threshold-free indices, which measure range explosion (I), overlapping (O), and range center movement in three dimensions (Dx, Dy, Dz), based on fuzzy set theory (Fuzzy Set based Potential Range Shift Index, F-PRS Index). A graphical tool (PRS_Chart) was developed to visualize these indices. This technique was then applied to 46 Pinaceae species that are widely distributed and partly common in China. The spatial patterns of the modeling results were then statistically tested for significance. Results showed that range overlap was generally low; no trends in range size changes and longitudinal movements could be found, but northward and poleward movement trends were highly significant. Although range shifts seemed to exhibit huge interspecies variation, they were very consistent for certain climate change scenarios. Comparing the IPCC scenarios, we found that scenario A1B would lead to a larger extent of range shifts (less overlapping and more latitudinal movement) than the A2 and the B1 scenarios. It is expected that the newly developed standardized indices and the respective graphical tool will facilitate studies on PRS's for other tree species groups that are important in forestry as well, and thus support climate adaptive forest management.

  16. A new tool for exploring climate change induced range shifts of conifer species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Kou

    Full Text Available It is inevitable that tree species will undergo considerable range shifts in response to anthropogenic induced climate change, even in the near future. Species Distribution Models (SDMs are valuable tools in exploring general temporal trends and spatial patterns of potential range shifts. Understanding projections to future climate for tree species will facilitate policy making in forestry. Comparative studies for a large number of tree species require the availability of suitable and standardized indices. A crucial limitation when deriving such indices is the threshold problem in defining ranges, which has made interspecies comparison problematic until now. Here we propose a set of threshold-free indices, which measure range explosion (I, overlapping (O, and range center movement in three dimensions (Dx, Dy, Dz, based on fuzzy set theory (Fuzzy Set based Potential Range Shift Index, F-PRS Index. A graphical tool (PRS_Chart was developed to visualize these indices. This technique was then applied to 46 Pinaceae species that are widely distributed and partly common in China. The spatial patterns of the modeling results were then statistically tested for significance. Results showed that range overlap was generally low; no trends in range size changes and longitudinal movements could be found, but northward and poleward movement trends were highly significant. Although range shifts seemed to exhibit huge interspecies variation, they were very consistent for certain climate change scenarios. Comparing the IPCC scenarios, we found that scenario A1B would lead to a larger extent of range shifts (less overlapping and more latitudinal movement than the A2 and the B1 scenarios. It is expected that the newly developed standardized indices and the respective graphical tool will facilitate studies on PRS's for other tree species groups that are important in forestry as well, and thus support climate adaptive forest management.

  17. Empirical limits to antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.; Richter, A.

    1990-01-01

    An upper bound of one part in 10 6 /10 7 is derived for the violation of the equivalence principle for antimatter in the form of antiprotons based on existing data for bulk matter, electrons, positrons, neutrons and protons

  18. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  19. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  20. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  1. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  2. Acoustically mediated long-range interaction among multiple spherical particles exposed to a plane standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n  = −1 or −2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction. (paper)

  3. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  4. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  5. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range

  6. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  7. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  8. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  9. ITER Operating Limits and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Operating Limits and Conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which together define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER status (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components important for personnel or public safety (Safety Important Class, SIC) are identified from the overall plant safety analysis on functional importance to safety of the components. SIC classification has to be presented already inside the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing safety authority before the relevant construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits, i.e. that if exceeded could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems and the operational limits on equipment which warn from or stop a functional departure from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. The safety limits have to indicate clearly states that leave the nominal safety state of ITER; they are derived from the safety analysis of ITER. OLCs can represent in some cases few parameters grouping together. Some operational conditions, e.g. inventories, will be controlled through no real time measurements and procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants is considered at the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines to develop the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits. A few examples are reported as well as open issues on some OLCs control and measurement and the relevant R-and-D planned to solve the issues. (author)

  10. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  11. Limits of detection and decision. Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Probability density functions (PDFs) have been derived for a number of commonly used limit of detection definitions, including several variants of the Relative Standard Deviation of the Background-Background Equivalent Concentration (RSDB-BEC) method, for a simple linear chemical measurement system (CMS) having homoscedastic, Gaussian measurement noise and using ordinary least squares (OLS) processing. All of these detection limit definitions serve as both decision and detection limits, thereby implicitly resulting in 50% rates of Type 2 errors. It has been demonstrated that these are closely related to Currie decision limits, if the coverage factor, k, is properly defined, and that all of the PDFs are scaled reciprocals of noncentral t variates. All of the detection limits have well-defined upper and lower limits, thereby resulting in finite moments and confidence limits, and the problem of estimating the noncentrality parameter has been addressed. As in Parts 1-3, extensive Monte Carlo simulations were performed and all the simulation results were found to be in excellent agreement with the derived theoretical expressions. Specific recommendations for harmonization of detection limit methodology have also been made

  12. Reactor limit control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbel, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)

  13. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  14. Performance limitations at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, E.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse stability of coasting beams in the planned ISABELLE storage rings was studied. The beam--beam tune shift limitation at 0.005 can be avoided, and a computer simulation seems to show 0.005 is a pessimistic limit. For beams of reasonable smoothness on the edge, the actual limit should be somewhat higher. Some coupling effects due to the beam--beam interaction are also examined

  15. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  16. Limit analysis via creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroco, E.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author) [pt

  17. Properties of short-range and long-range correlation energy density functionals from electron-electron coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The combination of density-functional theory with other approaches to the many-electron problem through the separation of the electron-electron interaction into a short-range and a long-range contribution is a promising method, which is raising more and more interest in recent years. In this work some properties of the corresponding correlation energy functionals are derived by studying the electron-electron coalescence condition for a modified (long-range-only) interaction. A general relation for the on-top (zero electron-electron distance) pair density is derived, and its usefulness is discussed with some examples. For the special case of the uniform electron gas, a simple parametrization of the on-top pair density for a long-range only interaction is presented and supported by calculations within the ''extended Overhauser model.'' The results of this work can be used to build self-interaction corrected short-range correlation energy functionals

  18. Effects of range-wide variation in climate and isolation on floral traits and reproductive output of Clarkia pulchella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Megan; Angert, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plant mating systems and geographic range limits are conceptually linked by shared underlying drivers, including landscape-level heterogeneity in climate and in species' abundance. Studies of how geography and climate interact to affect plant traits that influence mating system and population dynamics can lend insight to ecological and evolutionary processes shaping ranges. Here, we examined how spatiotemporal variation in climate affects reproductive output of a mixed-mating annual, Clarkia pulchella. We also tested the effects of population isolation and climate on mating-system-related floral traits across the range. We measured reproductive output and floral traits on herbarium specimens collected across the range of C. pulchella. We extracted climate data associated with specimens and derived a population isolation metric from a species distribution model. We then examined how predictors of reproductive output and floral traits vary among populations of increasing distance from the range center. Finally, we tested whether reproductive output and floral traits vary with increasing distance from the center of the range. Reproductive output decreased as summer precipitation decreased, and low precipitation may contribute to limiting the southern and western range edges of C. pulchella. High spring and summer temperatures are correlated with low herkogamy, but these climatic factors show contrasting spatial patterns in different quadrants of the range. Limiting factors differ among different parts of the range. Due to the partial decoupling of geography and environment, examining relationships between climate, reproductive output, and mating-system-related floral traits reveals spatial patterns that might be missed when focusing solely on geographic position. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Plugging regime in the pump limiter throat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The plugging regime -with no outstreaming neutral flux- is studied for a closed configuration pump limiter (throat). We derive the plugging length and the neutral density build-up at the neutralizer plate. The analytical expressions are supported by numerical evidence. We find an improved efficiency related to the throat effect mainly due to neutral-sidewall interactions

  20. Mass limit for the lightest neutralino

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.N.; Nief, J.Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I.C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J.A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E.B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I.R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D.E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S.J.; Halley, A.W.; Knowles, I.G.; Lynch, J.G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J.M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R.M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Stacey, A.M.; Williams, M.D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A.P.; Bowdery, C.K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E.P.; Williams, M.I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A.M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J.J.; Bencheikh, A.M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lutjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Richter, Robert; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Hocker, Andreas; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D.W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Lutz, A.M.; Nikolic, Irina; Park, H.J.; Schune, M.H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M.A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G.A.; Bryant, L.M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J.T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Wright, A.E.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Johnson, R.P.; Kim, H.Y.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C.A.J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W.M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L.F.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, N.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.S.; Gonzales, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T.C.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nachtman, J.M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, A.M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J.M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1996-01-01

    Indirect limits on the mass of the lightest neutralino are derived from the results of searches for charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons performed with data taken by the ALEPH Collaboration at centre-of-mass energies near the Z peak and at 130 and 136 GeV. Within the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and when $M_{\\tilde\

  1. Risk and Derivative Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Osaki

    2007-01-01

    We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.

  2. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  3. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  4. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei YAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  5. The limited angle problem in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    Fast reconstruction formulae in X-ray computerized tomography demand the directions, in which the measurements are taken, to be equally distributed over the whole circle. In many applications data can only be provided in a restricted range. Here the intrinsic difficulties are studied by giving a singular value decomposition of the Radon transform in a restricted range. Practical limitations are deduced. (orig.)

  6. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  7. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  8. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  9. Advanced limiters for ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous removal of heat and particles becomes a vital necessity in future steady-state fusion devices. The pump limiter seems to be an attractive concept to combine these two tasks. On ISX, various schemes of pump limiters are being explored with the final goal to furnish the ISX--C device with a pump limiter to handle heat removal and particle control in steady state. The emphasis of the present paper is on pump limiters based on ballistic particle collection. If this concept turns out to be successful in supplying sufficient pumping efficiency, it may be possible to design pump limiters without a leading edge. Analytical calculations of the particle collection efficiency are given for various limiter configurations. Pumping efficiencies of approximately 4--10%, depending on the specific configuration, seem to be feasible and should be sufficient for steady-state operation. Initial experimental results on pump limiter studies in ISX--B confirm the calculated collection efficiencies. By measuring the ion saturation current to the limiter blade and the pressure buildup simultaneously, we found a correlation between the incident particle flux and the pressure rise that agrees well with a simple model

  10. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  11. Mitigating greenhouse: Limited time, limited options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Most human-caused climate change comes from fossil fuel combustion emissions. To avoid the risk of serious climate change, very recent research suggests that emission reductions will need to be both large and rapidly implemented. We argue that technical solutions-improving energy efficiency, use of renewable and nuclear energy, and carbon capture and sequestration-can only be of minor importance, mainly given the limited time available to take effective climate action. Only curbing energy use, perhaps through 'social efficiency' gains, particularly in the high-energy consumption countries, can provide the rapid emissions reductions needed. The social efficiency approach requires a basic rethinking in how we can satisfy our human needs with low environmental impacts. Large cuts in emissions could then occur rapidly, but only if resistance to such changes can be overcome. Particularly in transport, there are also serious potential conflicts between the technical and the social efficiency approaches, requiring a choice to be made

  12. A biased review of tau neutrino mass limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duboscq, J.E

    2001-04-01

    After a quick review of astrophysically relevant limits, I present a summary of MeV scale tau neutrino mass limits derived from accelerator based experiments. I argue that the current published limits appear to be too consistent, and that we therefore cannot conclude that the tau neutrino mass limit is as low as usually claimed. I provide motivational arguments calling into question the assumed statistical properties of the usual maximum likelihood estimators, and provide a prescription for deriving a more robust and understandable mass limit.

  13. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  14. Moving toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.

    1983-06-01

    The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)

  15. Ultrafast and Doppler-free femtosecondoptical ranging based on dispersivefrequency-modulated interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Zhang, Chunxi

    2010-03-01

    An ultrafast and Doppler-free optical ranging system based on dispersive frequency-modulated interferometry is demonstrated. The principle is similar to the conventional frequency-modulated continuous-wave interferometry where the range information is derived from the beat frequency between the object signal and the reference signal. However, a passive and static frequency scanning is performed based on the chromatic dispersion of a transform-limited femtosecond pulse in the time domain. We point out that the unbalanced dispersion introduced in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer can be optimized to eliminate the frequency chirp in the temporal interferograms pertaining to the third order dispersion of the all-fiber system, if the dynamic range being considered is small. Some negative factors, such as the polarization instability of the femtosecond pulse, the power fluctuation of the optical signal and the nonuniform gain spectrum of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier lead to an obvious envelope deformation of the temporal interferograms from the Gaussian shape. Thus a new data processing method is proposed to guarantee the range resolution. In the experiment, the vibration of a speaker is measured. A range resolution of 1.59 microm is achieved with an exposure time of 394 fs at a sampling rate of 48.6 MHz.

  16. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  17. Analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, William H , Jr

    1952-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling stability derivatives of complete airplane configurations is made by calculating the angularity of the air stream at the vertical tail due to rolling and determining the resulting forces and moments. Some of the important factors which affect the resultant angularity on the vertical tail are wing aspect ratio and sweepback, vertical-tail span, and considerations associated with angle of attack and airplane geometry. Some calculated sidewash results for a limited range of plan forms and vertical-tail sizes are presented. Equations taking into account the sidewash results are given for determining the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives. Comparisons of estimated and experimental results indicate that a consideration of wing interference effects improves the estimated values of the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives and that fair agreement with available experimental data is obtained.

  18. The frequency range of TMJ sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmalm, S E; Williams, W J; Djurdjanovic, D; McKay, D C

    2003-04-01

    There are conflicting opinions about the frequency range of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds. Some authors claim that the upper limit is about 650 Hz. The aim was to test the hypothesis that TMJ sounds may contain frequencies well above 650 Hz but that significant amounts of their energy are lost if the vibrations are recorded using contact sensors and/or travel far through the head tissues. Time-frequency distributions of 172 TMJ clickings (three subjects) were compared between recordings with one microphone in the ear canal and a skin contact transducer above the clicking joint and between recordings from two microphones, one in each ear canal. The energy peaks of the clickings recorded with a microphone in the ear canal on the clicking side were often well above 650 Hz and always in a significantly higher area (range 117-1922 Hz, P 375 Hz) or in microphone recordings from the opposite ear canal (range 141-703 Hz). Future studies are required to establish normative frequency range values of TMJ sounds but need methods also capable of recording the high frequency vibrations.

  19. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work demonstrates the following: multiple frame size and rate (MFSR) analysis provides improvement in the analysis stage, combination of mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), its temporal derivatives ( Δ , Δ Δ ) , linear prediction residual (LPR) and linear prediction residual phase (LPRP) features provides ...

  20. Empirical limits to antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, T.E.O. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (CH)); Richter, A. (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1990-02-01

    An upper bound of one part in 10{sup 6}/10{sup 7} is derived for the violation of the equivalence principle for antimatter in the form of antiprotons based on existing data for bulk matter, electrons, positrons, neutrons and protons.

  1. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  2. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  3. Thermal shock considerations for the TFCX limiter and first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Resistance to thermal shock fracture of limiter and first wall surface material candidates during plasma disruption heating conditions is evaluated. A simple, figure-of-merit type thermal shock parameter which provides a mechanism to rank material candidates is derived. Combining this figure-of-merit parameter with the parameters defining specific heating conditions yields a non-dimensional thermal shock parameter. For values of this parameter below a critical value, a given material is expected to undergo thermal shock damage. Prediction of thermal shock damage with this parameter is shown to exhibit good agreement with test data. Applying this critical parameter value approach, all materials examined in this study are expected to experience thermal shock damage for nominal TFCX plasma disruption conditions. Since the extent of this damage is not clear, tests which explore the range of expected conditions for TFCX are recommended

  4. Flux-profile relationships over a fetch limited beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of an internal boundary layer and a roughness sublayer on flux-profile relationships for momentum and sensible heat have been investigated for a closed beech forest canopy with limited fetch conditions. The influence was quantified by derivation of local scaling functions for sensible...... heat flux and momentum (phi(h) and phi(m)) and analysed as a function of atmospheric stability and fetch. For heat, the influences of the roughness sublayer and the internal boundary layer were in agreement with previous studies. For momentum, the strong vertical gradient of the flow just above...... the canopy top for some wind sectors led to an increase in phi(m), a feature that has not previously been observed. For a fetch of 500 m over the beech forest during neutral atmospheric conditions, there is no height range at the site where profiles can be expected to be logarithmic with respect to the local...

  5. Physics considerations for the FED limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1981-07-01

    The physics of the scrapeoff plasma and its interaction with a pumping limiter is reviewed. The governing equations for heat and particle transport in the scrapeoff are solved analytically with several simplifying assumptions. The assumed scrapeoff model is widely used and is presented here for completeness. From the solution, a shape for the limiter is derived which has a uniform heat loading on the front surface. The assumed crossfield transport coefficient is varied to examine the sensitivity of the heat loading to variations in plasma scrapeoff thickness. The heat flux to the limiter leading edge is an extremely sensitive function of variations in scrapeoff thickness, and we argue that uncertainties in the plasma crossfield transport preclude derivation of a believable limiter shape. We also discuss the problems involved with an edgeless, perforated limiter and with a global limiter. Finally, a solution is proposed using a flat-plate limiter with the heat flux to the leading edge controlled by major radius motion of the plasma

  6. Multiple soft limits of cosmological correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q 2 ) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure

  7. Predicting incident size from limited information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  8. Deriving Biomonitoring Equivalents for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers for public health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka; Ball, Nicholas; Hays, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Glycol ethers are a widely used class of solvents that may lead to both workplace and general population exposures. Biomonitoring studies are available that have quantified glycol ethers or their metabolites in blood and/or urine amongst exposed populations. These biomonitoring levels indicate exposures to the glycol ethers, but do not by themselves indicate a health hazard risk. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) have been created to provide the ability to interpret human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. The BE is defined as the concentration of a chemical or metabolite in a biological fluid (blood or urine) that is consistent with exposures at a regulatory derived safe exposure limit, such as a tolerable daily intake (TDI). In this exercise, we derived BEs for general population exposures for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers based on their respective derived no effect levels (DNELs). Selected DNELs have been derived as part of respective Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Regulation of Chemicals (REACh) regulation dossiers in the EU. The BEs derived here are unique in the sense that they are the first BEs derived for urinary excretion of compounds following inhalation exposures. The urinary mass excretion fractions (Fue) of the acetic acid metabolites for the E-series GEs range from approximately 0.2 to 0.7. The Fues for the excretion of the parent P-series GEs range from approximately 0.1 to 0.2, with the exception of propylene glycol methyl ether and its acetate (Fue = 0.004). Despite the narrow range of Fues, the BEs exhibit a larger range, resulting from the larger range in DNELs across GEs. The BEs derived here can be used to interpret human biomonitoring data for inhalation exposures to GEs amongst the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling percolation with limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Malte; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Sornette, Didier; Nagler, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity, or the lack thereof, is crucial for the function of many man-made systems, from financial and economic networks over epidemic spreading in social networks to technical infrastructure. Often, connections are deliberately established or removed to induce, maintain, or destroy global connectivity. Thus, there has been a great interest in understanding how to control percolation, the transition to large-scale connectivity. Previous work, however, studied control strategies assuming unlimited resources. Here, we depart from this unrealistic assumption and consider the effect of limited resources on the effectiveness of control. We show that, even for scarce resources, percolation can be controlled with an efficient intervention strategy. We derive such an efficient strategy and study its implications, revealing a discontinuous transition as an unintended side effect of optimal control.

  10. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martínez-Augustin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action.

  11. Derived ERLs for inhalation of alpha-emitting aerorols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Derived alpha action levels are expressed as dpm/m 3 and give the airborne concentration of an assumed mixture of α-emitters which if inhaled for a period of 4 hours would result in a dose commitment to members of the critical group in the exposed population equal to the emergency reference levels (ERLs) of dose recommended by the Medical Research Council (1975). The period of 4 hours is chosen as a realistic time during which an assessment of the severity of a release may be made and appropriate countermeasures instituted. The derived α ERLs are set with reference to the potential range of isotopic releases for a specific reactor system and in the case of gas-cooled magnox reactors, a value of 10 3 dpm/m 3 (170 Bqm -3 ) has been used. This level was based upon the lung and GI tract models originally recommended by ICRP 2 (1959:1964) and revised ERLs for the inhalation of α-emitters consequent upon the improved metabolic models subsequently proposed by the ICRP (1966:1972) are evaluated. It is shown that the derived α ERLs for irradiated magnox and AGR fuels are largely independent of the physico-chemical forms of the released material, while variations with cooling time of fuel are also discussed. In addition, the special limits imposed by the chemical toxicity of uranium when inhaled in a soluble, low enriched form are briefly outlined

  12. 77 FR 37265 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... from derivative transactions, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements, securities lending... derivative transaction, repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities lending transaction... derivative transaction, repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities lending transaction...

  13. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  14. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  15. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  16. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  17. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  18. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.

    1987-01-01

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources. 14 references

  19. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  20. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  1. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  2. Calculated Low-Speed Steady and Time-Dependent Aerodynamic Derivatives for Several Different Wings Using a Discrete Vortex Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Calculated numerical values for some aerodynamic terms and stability Derivatives for several different wings in unseparated inviscid incompressible flow were made using a discrete vortex method involving a limited number of horseshoe vortices. Both longitudinal and lateral-directional derivatives were calculated for steady conditions as well as for sinusoidal oscillatory motions. Variables included the number of vortices used and the rotation axis/moment center chordwise location. Frequencies considered were limited to the range of interest to vehicle dynamic stability (kb <.24 ). Comparisons of some calculated numerical results with experimental wind-tunnel measurements were in reasonable agreement in the low angle-of-attack range considering the differences existing between the mathematical representation and experimental wind-tunnel models tested. Of particular interest was the presence of induced drag for the oscillatory condition.

  3. Verifying Air Force Weather Passive Satellite Derived Cloud Analysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has developed an hourly World-Wide Merged Cloud Analysis (WWMCA) using imager data from 16 geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. The analysis product contains information on cloud fraction, height, type and various optical properties including optical depth and integrated water path. All of these products are derived using a suite of algorithms which rely exclusively on passively sensed data from short, mid and long wave imager data. The system integrates satellites with a wide-range of capabilities, from the relatively simple two-channel OLS imager to the 16 channel ABI/AHI to create a seamless global analysis in real time. Over the last couple of years, AFW has started utilizing independent verification data from active sensed cloud measurements to better understand the performance limitations of the WWMCA. Sources utilized include space based lidars (CALIPSO, CATS) and radar (CloudSat) as well as ground based lidars from the Department of Energy ARM sites and several European cloud radars. This work will present findings from our efforts to compare active and passive sensed cloud information including comparison techniques/limitations as well as performance of the passive derived cloud information against the active.

  4. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  5. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  6. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L; Suarez, P; Alvarez, A

    2010-01-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  7. Plant mutualisms with rhizosphere microbiota in introduced versus native ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shelby, Natasha; Duncan, Richard P.; van der Putten, Wim H.; McGinn, Kevin J.; Weser, Carolin; Hulme, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    * The performance of introduced plants can be limited by the availability of soil mutualists outside their native range, but how interactions with mutualists differ between ranges is largely unknown. If mutualists are absent, incompatible or parasitic, plants may compensate by investing more in root

  8. Epidemiological reference ranges for low-density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is widespread acceptance that total cholesterol (TC) value reference ranges should be based on epidemiological rather than statistical considerations, the epidemiological action limits for Iow-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are still incomplete and only statistical reference ranges for apolipoprotein B ...

  9. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  10. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  11. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  12. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  13. Towards Improved Optical Limiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huffman, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... The first approach was to synthesize and study soluble thallium phthalocyanines. Thallium, due to its proximity to lead and indium on the periodic table, should exhibit favorable optical limiting properties...

  14. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  15. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  16. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  17. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  18. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  19. ITER Experts' meeting on density limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Igitkhanov, Y.L.; Uckan, N.A.

    1989-12-01

    The necessity of achieving a prescribed wall load or fusion power essentially determines the plasma pressure in a device like ITER. The range of operation densities and temperatures compatible with this condition is constrained by the problems of power exhaust and the disruptive density limit. The maximum allowable heat loads on the divertor plates and the maximum allowable sheath edge temperature practically impose a lower limit on the operating densities, whereas the disruptive density limit imposes an upper limit. For most of the density limit scalings proposed in the past an overlap of the two constraints or at best a very narrow accessible density range is predicted for ITER. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms is therefore a crucial issue in order to provide a more reliable basis for extrapolation to ITER and to identify possible ways of alleviating the problem

  20. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  1. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let S be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimen- sional split torus Gm,S on a smooth affine S-scheme X. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor Xλ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action. 'admits a limit at 0'. We show that Xλ is representable by a smooth ...

  2. Safety and design limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L. K.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Tsyganov, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues of NPP safety ensuring at the stage of fuel load design and operation by applying special limitations for a series of parameters, that is, design limits. Two following approaches are compared: the one used by west specialists for the PWR reactor and the Russian approach employed for the WWER reactor. The closeness of approaches is established, differences that are mainly peculiarities of terms are noted (Authors)

  3. Reagent-free determination of amikacin content in amikacin sulfate injections by FTIR derivative spectroscopy in a continuous flow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Ovalles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative estimation of amikacin (AMK in AMK sulfate injection samples is reported using FTIR-derivative spectrometric method in a continuous flow system. Fourier transform of mid-IR spectra were recorded without any sample pretreatment. A good linear calibration (r>0.999, %RSD<2.0 in the range of 7.7–77.0 mg/mL was found. The results showed a good correlation with the manufacturer's and overall they all fell within acceptable limits of most pharmacopoeial monographs on AMK sulfate. Keywords: Amikacin, FTIR derivative spectrometry, Continuous flow system, Pharmaceutical preparation, Injection, Sulfate

  4. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  5. Development of Derivatives Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčochová, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to summarise the theoretical principles, concepts and considerations pertaining to accounting for and reporting of derivatives and to describe and analyse the development of major accounting standards dealing with related issues. Sections 1 and 2 provide a basic overview of derivative instruments'categorisation, mechanics, valuation and uses. Section 3 studies the principles that ensure the provision of useful financial information, with specific focus on financial instrument...

  6. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  7. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  8. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective...... and injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules....

  9. Density limit experiments on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.; Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Artaserse, G.; Belli, F.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Buratti, P.; Calabrò, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cianfarani, C.; Cocilovo, V.; Dimatteo, L.; Esposito, B.; Frigione, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Bin, W.; Granucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main problems in tokamak fusion devices concerns the capability to operate at a high plasma density, which is observed to be limited by the appearance of catastrophic events causing loss of plasma confinement. The commonly used empirical scaling law for the density limit is the Greenwald limit, predicting that the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord depends only on the average plasma current density. However, the Greenwald density limit has been exceeded in tokamak experiments in the case of peaked density profiles, indicating that the edge density is the real parameter responsible for the density limit. Recently, it has been shown on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) that the Greenwald density limit is exceeded in gas-fuelled discharges with a high value of the edge safety factor. In order to understand this behaviour, dedicated density limit experiments were performed on FTU, in which the high density domain was explored in a wide range of values of plasma current (I p = 500–900 kA) and toroidal magnetic field (B T = 4–8 T). These experiments confirm the edge nature of the density limit, as a Greenwald-like scaling holds for the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a peripheral chord passing at r/a ≃ 4/5. On the other hand, the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord does not depend on the average plasma current density and essentially depends on the toroidal magnetic field only. This behaviour is explained in terms of density profile peaking in the high density domain, with a peaking factor at the disruption depending on the edge safety factor. The possibility that the MARFE (multifaced asymmetric radiation from the edge) phenomenon is the cause of the peaking has been considered, with the MARFE believed to form a channel for the penetration of the neutral particles into deeper layers of the plasma. Finally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis has shown that also the central line

  10. Introducing a new family of short-range potentials and their numerical solutions using the asymptotic iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, I. A.; Sous, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this work is to derive a new class of short-range potentials that could have a wide range of physical applications, specially in molecular physics. The tridiagonal representation approach has been developed beyond its limitations to produce new potentials by requiring the representation of the Schrödinger wave operator to be multidiagonal and symmetric. This produces a family of Hulthén potentials that has a specific structure, as mentioned in the introduction. As an example, we have solved the nonrelativistic wave equation for the new four-parameter short-range screening potential numerically using the asymptotic iteration method, where we tabulated the eigenvalues for both s -wave and arbitrary l -wave cases in tables.

  11. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  12. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  13. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  14. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  15. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  16. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D J; Clement, S; Gottardi, N; Gowers, C; Harbour, P; Loarte, A; Horton, L; Lingertat, J; Lowry, C G; Saibene, G; Stamp, M; Stork, D [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  18. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie

    2017-06-01

    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  19. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  20. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B.

    1991-01-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect

  1. species live in a characteristic limited range of habitats and, within

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Patch dynamics and stability of some California kelp com- munities. Ecol. .... Evol. 5: 52–57. MENGE, B. A. and J. P. SUTHERLAND 1976 — Species diversity ... PALUMBI, S. R. 1984 — Measurement of intertidal wave forces. J. expl mar. Biol.

  2. Frosty pod of cacao: a disease with a limited geographic range but unlimited potential for damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mora, W; Wilkinson, M J

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Moniliophthora roreri, the cause of frosty pod rot (FP), is a specialized fungal pathogen (family Marasmiaceae) that invades only actively growing pods of cacao, Theobroma cacao, and related species of Theobroma and Herrania. FP damages pods and the commercially important seeds that some of these species produce. M. roreri was confined to northwestern South America until the 1950s. Its appearance in Panama in 1956 signaled a change in its geographic distribution. Now, it is found in 11 countries in tropical America. The fungus is currently in an active dispersal phase, possibly due to an increase in human-mediated spread. FP is more destructive than black pod (Phytophthora spp.) and more dangerous and difficult to control than witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora (Crinipellis) perniciosa. The aggressiveness of M. roreri, its capacity to survive different environmental conditions, its rapid natural dispersal, its propensity for man-mediated dispersal, and the susceptibility of most commercial cacao genotypes, all indicate that FP presents a substantial threat to cacao cultivation worldwide.

  3. Dynamic verification of newton's law and the principal limits in measuring intermediate-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosnitsyn, N.I.; Luo Jun; Melnikov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    According to the controversial results of recent experiments for fifth force, a classification of all possible types of theories leading to non-Newtonian forces is presented. The theoretical analysis shows that if the interaction potential differs from the Newton's law the interactions of macro-and micro-bodies are in general distinguishable. The calculation also shows that Long's result can be improved by several orders if the new method proposed is used

  4. A partial ensemble Kalman filtering approach to enable use of range limited observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) relies on the assumption that an observed quantity can be regarded as a stochastic variable that is Gaussian distributed with mean and variance that equals the measurement and the measurement noise, respectively. When a gauge has a minimum and/or maximum detection...

  5. An improved limit on the axion-photon coupling from the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Dafni, T.; Ferrer Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Irastorza, I.G. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Autiero, D.; Barth, K.; Davenport, M.; Di Lella, L.; Lasseur, C.; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Stewart, L.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K. [CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva 23, (Switzerland); Belov, A.; Gninenko, S. [Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Gomez, H.; Irastorza, I.G.; Luzon, G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J. [Univ Zaragoza, Inst Fis Nucl and Altas Energias, Zaragoza, (Spain); Brauninger, H.; Englhauser, J.; Friedrich, P.; Kuster, M. [Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85748 Garching, (Germany); Collar, J.I.; Miller, D.; Vieira, J. [Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst and KICP, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Dafni, T.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kuster, M.; Riege, H. [Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Kernphys, D-64289 Darmstadt, (Germany); Eleftheriadis, C.; Liolios, A.; Savvidis, I. [Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, GR-54006 Thessaloniki, (Greece); Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kousouris, K. [Natl Ctr Sci Res Demokritos, Athens, (Greece); Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Heinsius, F.H.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, K.; Vogel, J. [Univ Freiburg, Freiburg, (Germany)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    We have searched for solar axions or similar particles that couple to two photons by using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) set-up with improved conditions in all detectors. From the absence of excess x-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set an upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g{sub a{gamma}} {<=} 8.8 x 10{sup -11} GeV{sup -1} at 95% CL for m{sub a} {<=} 0.02 eV. This result is the best experimental limit over a broad range of axion masses and for m{sub a} {<=} 0.02 eV also supersedes the previous limit derived from energy-loss arguments on globular cluster stars. (authors)

  6. Scientific analysis of satellite ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.

    1994-01-01

    A network of satellite laser ranging (SLR) tracking systems with continuously improving accuracies is challenging the modelling capabilities of analysts worldwide. Various data analysis techniques have yielded many advances in the development of orbit, instrument and Earth models. The direct measurement of the distance to the satellite provided by the laser ranges has given us a simple metric which links the results obtained by diverse approaches. Different groups have used SLR data, often in combination with observations from other space geodetic techniques, to improve models of the static geopotential, the solid Earth, ocean tides, and atmospheric drag models for low Earth satellites. Radiation pressure models and other non-conservative forces for satellite orbits above the atmosphere have been developed to exploit the full accuracy of the latest SLR instruments. SLR is the baseline tracking system for the altimeter missions TOPEX/Poseidon, and ERS-1 and will play an important role in providing the reference frame for locating the geocentric position of the ocean surface, in providing an unchanging range standard for altimeter calibration, and for improving the geoid models to separate gravitational from ocean circulation signals seen in the sea surface. However, even with the many improvements in the models used to support the orbital analysis of laser observations, there remain systematic effects which limit the full exploitation of SLR accuracy today.

  7. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju

    2017-10-01

    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  8. On the constitutionality of dose limiting values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, V.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental right according to Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the German Constitution is relevant for the set-up and application of radiation protection law. Resulting from Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution it is a general obligation of the state to protect life (Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of 25th Feb., 1975, BVerfGE 39.1) and physical soundness. The subjective basic right of everybody to defend against official encroachments his personal integrity corresponds to the right of the individual within the framework of the official obligation for protection from the state (to ward off danger). The term of danger, as to the degree of its determination, corresponds to that of the encroachment. To speak of danger in a legal sense, the causal connection between a certain source of danger and certain damage must be ascertained and proved. Topical controversies as to the admissibility of activity discharges of low doses range in the field of risk reduction and thus in the field of the duty of the state to take precautionary steps against risks (Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution). The constitution, however, does not contain any basic right that every risk has to be avoided. On the other hand, the necessity of cautions valuation of radiation risks can be derived from the Constitution. The fixation of dose limits and their application in connection with general radiation protection principles (paragraph 28 E of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) do not contain any 'interference' with the basic right in the sense of Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 3 of the Constitution. Neither from aspects of the principle of the legal state nor from Art. 80 par. 1 of the Constitution can the use of the legal form of the Ordinance be doubted. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Force Limit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  10. Theory of limit cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yan-Qian; Lo, Chi Y

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades the theory of limit cycles, especially for quadratic differential systems, has progressed dramatically in China as well as in other countries. This monograph, updating the 1964 first edition, includes these recent developments, as revised by eight of the author's colleagues in their own areas of expertise. The first part of the book deals with limit cycles of general plane stationary systems, including their existence, nonexistence, stability, and uniqueness. The second section discusses the global topological structure of limit cycles and phase-portraits of quadratic systems. Finally, the last section collects important results that could not be included under the subject matter of the previous two sections or that have appeared in the literature very recently. The book as a whole serves as a reference for college seniors, graduate students, and researchers in mathematics and physics.

  11. The justification of discriminating environmental control instruments. An investigation of the range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective using the German energy promoting laws EEG and KWKModG as an example; Die Rechtfertigung von diskriminierenden umweltpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumenten. Eine Untersuchung der Reichweite der Warenverkehrsfreiheit und ihrer Begrenzung durch den Umweltschutz als Vertragsziel am Beispiel der deutschen Energiefoerdergesetze EEG und KWKModG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Lydia

    2012-07-01

    The range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (AEUV) are the objective of this study. The investigation is performed in light of the German energy promoting laws EEG (Renewable Energy Law) and KWKModG (Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) whose incentive effect is combined with a discriminating interference of the free merchandise traffic. Based on the PreussenElektra legislation of the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg, Luxembourg) and the succession jurisdiction, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on whether the European Court of Justice has opened the Cassis formula as a basis for justification for discriminations. This can be negotiated. After all, the analysis of the Supreme Court decision comes to the result that the European Court of Justice has applied the known method of practical concordance in the PreussenElektra decision. In case of a collision of treaty objectives of equal rank - merchandise traffic and environmental traffic - one only has to perform an appreciation of values which may involve a justification of discriminating impacts in the free movement of goods and labour. The fundamentals of the minimis notice from the European Competition Act can be decisive for the justification and for the conformity of the domestic market of a discriminating national law if an intervention is connected with a partial market fore closure. These fundamentals have some influence on the consideration as part of the testing of concordance.

  12. Wide range radiation monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a simple and rugged detector capable of measuring radiation fields over the range of 0.02 R/hr up to 10/8 R/hr or higher. The device consists of an emitter element of high atomic number material which is connected to the center conductor of a signal cable. This emitter element is positioned in a spaced-apart relationship between collector element of a low atomic number material with a gap region between the emitter element and the adjacent collector elements

  13. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  14. Synthesis of Lipophilic Guanine N-9 Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Michael C; Pedersen, Pernille L; Löffler, Philipp M G

    2017-01-01

    the synthesis of five new guanine-N9 derivatives bearing alkyl chains with different attachment chemistries, exploiting a synthesis pathway that allows a flexible choice of hydrophobic anchor moiety. In this study, these guanine derivatives were functionalized with C10 chains for insertion into decanoic acid...... bilayer structures, in which both alkyl chain length and attachment chemistry determined their interaction with the membrane. Incubation of these guanine conjugates, as solids, with a decanoic acid vesicle suspension, showed that ether- and triazole-linked C10 anchors yielded an increased partitioning...... of the guanine derivative into the membranous phase compared to directly N-9-linked saturated alkyl anchors. Decanoic acid vesicle membranes could be loaded with up to 5.5 mol % guanine derivative, a 6-fold increase over previous limits. Thus, anchor chemistries exhibiting favorable interactions with a bilayer...

  15. Quantifying Cr(VI) Production and Export from Serpentine Soil of the California Coast Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Cynthia N; Fendorf, Scott; Webb, Samuel M; Maher, Kate

    2017-01-03

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is generated in serpentine soils and exported to surface and groundwaters at levels above health-based drinking water standards. Although Cr(VI) concentrations are elevated in serpentine soil pore water, few studies have reported field evidence documenting Cr(VI) production rates and fluxes that govern Cr(VI) transport from soil to water sources. We report Cr speciation (i) in four serpentine soil depth profiles derived from the California Coast Range serpentinite belt and (ii) in local surface waters. Within soils, we detected Cr(VI) in the same horizons where Cr(III)-minerals are colocated with biogenic Mn(III/IV)-oxides, suggesting Cr(VI) generation through oxidation by Mn-oxides. Water-extractable Cr(VI) concentrations increase with depth constituting a 7.8 to 12 kg/km 2 reservoir of Cr(VI) in soil. Here, Cr(VI) is produced at a rate of 0.3 to 4.8 kg Cr(VI)/km 2 /yr and subsequently flushed from soil during water infiltration, exporting 0.01 to 3.9 kg Cr(VI)/km 2 /yr at concentrations ranging from 25 to 172 μg/L. Although soil-derived Cr(VI) is leached from soil at concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L, due to reduction and dilution during transport to streams, Cr(VI) levels measured in local surface waters largely remain below California's drinking water limit.

  16. Surface and finite size effect on fluctuations dynamics in nanoparticles with long-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.

    2010-02-01

    The influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations and critical phenomena in the three-dimensional (3D)-confined systems with long-range order was not considered theoretically. In this paper, we study the influence of surface and finite size on the dynamics of the order parameter fluctuations in the particles of arbitrary shape. We consider concrete examples of the spherical and cylindrical ferroic nanoparticles within Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach. Allowing for the strong surface energy contribution in micro and nanoparticles, the analytical expressions derived for the Ornstein-Zernike correlator of the long-range order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations, dynamic generalized susceptibility, relaxation times, and correlation radii discrete spectra are different from those known for bulk systems. Obtained analytical expressions for the correlation function of the order parameter spatial-temporal fluctuations in micro and nanosized systems can be useful for the quantitative analysis of the dynamical structural factors determined from magnetic resonance diffraction and scattering spectra. Besides the practical importance of the correlation function for the analysis of the experimental data, derived expressions for the fluctuations strength determine the fundamental limits of phenomenological theories applicability for 3D-confined systems.

  17. Hadron collider luminosity limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1992-01-01

    The three colliders operated to date have taught us a great deal about the behaviour of both bunched and debunched beams in storage rings. The main luminosity limitations are now well enough understood that most of them can be stronglu attenuated or eliminated by approriate design precautions. Experience with the beam-beam interaction in both the SPS and the Tevatron allow us to predict the performance of the new generation of colliders with some degree of confidence. One of the main challenges that the accelerator physicist faces is the problem of the dynamic aperture limitations due to the lower field quality expected, imposed by economic and other constraints.

  18. SLC kicker magnet limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Mattison, T.; Bowden, G.; Weaver, J.; Bulos, F.; Fiander, D.

    1991-01-01

    The SLC Damping Ring kicker magnets requires a fast magnetic field rise time of 58 nsec, a peak field of 800 gauss, a pulse amplitude stability of 0.01%, and a reasonable operational lifetime. The original kicker magnets designed by SLAC and at Fermi were not able to fulfill the SLC kicker requirements. Extensive studies were conducted to determine the limitation in the magnets, response of the ferrite in kicker magnet, and the modifications needed to improve the kicker magnet performance. The paper details the SLAC and Fermi kicker magnets limitation of performance

  19. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  20. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters ( 131 I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables