WorldWideScience

Sample records for range land health

  1. Bureau of Land Management Range Allotments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at both the New Mexico State Office and the various field offices. Collection...

  2. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Township Range Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSTownship: This dataset represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary source for...

  3. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  4. Watershed health assessment to monitor land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a worldwide issue that affects the Planet and the fate of the humankind (Cerdà et al., 2009; Choudhury et al., 2016; Fernández et al., 2016; Ferreira et al., 2016). Several processes affect the sustainability of the ecosystems, from soil erosion to soil compation, deforestation, Climate Change or water, soil and air pollution (Sadeghi et al., 2015a; 2015b; Gómez-Acanta et al., 2016; Mengistu et al., 2016; Mukai, 2016). Several ecosystem theories have been presented in the scientific literatures to monitor land degradation (Cerdà et al., 2016; Davudirad et al., 2016; Fava et al., 2016; Mahyou et al., 2016; Soulard et al., 2016). Besides the scientific tasks of improving the indication, the conviction of the potential users to change their concepts toward a higher consideration of ecosystem attributes, and toward a fruitful application of the health or integrity concepts, will be a main task of future activities. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability (R-R-V) indicators are often used in combination for quantifying risk and decision making in many systems. However, the use of hydrological series data for R-R-V computations has been rather limited. Toward this, the overall objective of this paper is to conduct a risk assessment analysis on stream flow discharge from Shazand Watershed located in the south western of Markazi Province in Iran for the period of 1972-2014 using R-R-V indicators. Based on the R-R-V analysis conducted in this study, the stream flow discharge of the study region followed a cyclic pattern with a decreasing trend. The results further showed a decreasing trend in reliability and resilience and an increasing trend in vulnerability in the Shazand Watershed. It may be concluded that the Shazand Watershed was in overall in unhealthy condition from view of stream flow discharge. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project

  5. Implications of land rights reform for Indigenous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nicole L

    2007-05-21

    In August 2006, the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Bill 2006 (Cwlth) was passed into law, introducing, among other things, a system of 99-year leases over Indigenous townships. The leasing scheme will diminish the control that traditional owners previously exercised over their lands. This is at odds with research indicating that control over land is a positive influence on Indigenous health.

  6. Initial land reclamation procedures related to possible Pu-cleanup activities at the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1976-02-01

    If areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) are to be used for experimental tests of procedures for clean-up of 239 Pu contamination, there are experiences in the Great Basin Desert portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which can serve as guides to reclamation and revegetation of such arid lands. Procedures which will encourage development of the grasses Hilaria jamesii and Oryzopsis hymenoides, as well as the perennial shrubs Eurotia lanata and Atriplex canescens would greatly improve the area as range land

  7. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  8. Impacts of land cover data selection and trait parameterisation on dynamic modelling of species' range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto K Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Dynamic models for range expansion provide a promising tool for assessing species' capacity to respond to climate change by shifting their ranges to new areas. However, these models include a number of uncertainties which may affect how successfully they can be applied to climate change oriented conservation planning. We used RangeShifter, a novel dynamic and individual-based modelling platform, to study two potential sources of such uncertainties: the selection of land cover data and the parameterization of key life-history traits. As an example, we modelled the range expansion dynamics of two butterfly species, one habitat specialist (Maniola jurtina and one generalist (Issoria lathonia. Our results show that projections of total population size, number of occupied grid cells and the mean maximal latitudinal range shift were all clearly dependent on the choice made between using CORINE land cover data vs. using more detailed grassland data from three alternative national databases. Range expansion was also sensitive to the parameterization of the four considered life-history traits (magnitude and probability of long-distance dispersal events, population growth rate and carrying capacity, with carrying capacity and magnitude of long-distance dispersal showing the strongest effect. Our results highlight the sensitivity of dynamic species population models to the selection of existing land cover data and to uncertainty in the model parameters and indicate that these need to be carefully evaluated before the models are applied to conservation planning.

  9. Assessing Wetland Health Using a Newly Developed Land Cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citizen science combines environmental research with environmental education .... health of the wetland using land cover type impacts. Once the impact is ... to interpret the findings of the quantitative method using the qualitative findings.

  10. Pacific connections for health, ecosystems and society: new approaches to the land-water-health nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Margot W

    2016-03-01

    Renewed effort to understand the social-ecological context of health is drawing attention to the dynamics of land and water resources and their combined influence on the determinants of health. A new area of research, education and policy is emerging that focuses on the land-water-health nexus: this orientation is applicable from small wetlands through to large-scale watersheds or river basins, and draws attention to the benefits of combined land and water governance, as well as the interrelated implications for health, ecological and societal concerns. Informed by research precedents, imperatives and collaborations emerging in Canada and parts of Oceania, this review profiles three integrative, applied approaches that are bringing attention to the importance the land-water-health nexus within the Pacific Basin: wetlands and watersheds as intersectoral settings to address land-water-health dynamics; tools to integrate health, ecological and societal dynamics at the land-water-health nexus; and indigenous leadership that is linking health and well-being with land and water governance. Emphasis is given to key characteristics of a new generation of inquiry and action at the land-water-health nexus, as well as capacity-building, practice and policy opportunities to address converging environmental, social and health objectives linked to the management and governance of land and water resources.

  11. Range of monthly mean hourly land surface air temperature diurnal cycle over high northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihui; Zeng, Xubin

    2014-05-01

    Daily maximum and minimum temperatures over global land are fundamental climate variables, and their difference represents the diurnal temperature range (DTR). While the differences between the monthly averaged DTR (MDTR) and the range of monthly averaged hourly temperature diurnal cycle (RMDT) are easy to understand qualitatively, their differences have not been quantified over global land areas. Based on our newly developed in situ data (Climatic Research Unit) reanalysis (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) merged hourly temperature data from 1979 to 2009, RMDT in January is found to be much smaller than that in July over high northern latitudes, as it is much more affected by the diurnal radiative forcing than by the horizontal advection of temperature. In contrast, MDTR in January is comparable to that in July over high northern latitudes, but it is much larger than January RMDT, as it primarily reflects the movement of lower frequency synoptic weather systems. The area-averaged RMDT trends north of 40°N are near zero in November, December, and January, while the trends of MDTR are negative. These results suggest the need to use both the traditional MDTR and RMDT suggested here in future observational and modeling studies. Furthermore, MDTR and its trend are more sensitive to the starting hour of a 24 h day used in the calculations than those for RMDT, and this factor also needs to be considered in model evaluations using observational data.

  12. Front Range Forest Health Partnership Phase 1 feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkin, P

    1998-09-01

    The Front Range Forest Health Partnership is an alliance of individuals, citizen groups, federal, state, private, and nonprofit organizations that formed to promote forest health restoration and reduce fire risks on Colorado's Front Range. The partnership promotes selective thinning to restore forest health and supports economically feasible end uses for wood waste materials. The Phase I study was initiated to determine the environmental and economic feasibility of using wood wastes from forested and urban areas for the production of fuel-grade ethanol.

  13. Land Use Transition and Human Health in the Eastern Himalayas ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) will manage the project and provide support and capacity building to the three teams. The aim is to better understand the links between land use transition and human health in mountain habitats and jointly design a program for better managing the ...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-02-01

    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70À 30 W latitude, 149À 53 W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  15. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership local health departments.Methods. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n=13 were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Findings. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Implications. Holistic leadership assessment instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ can be useful in assessing public health leaders approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  16. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  17. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  18. Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the Eastern Himalayas. Land use change is ... it at the communal level. The overall goal is to reduce the vulnerability of mountain people to health issues caused by land use change using ecosystem approaches to human health (Ecohealth).

  19. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Abu Baker

    Full Text Available Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀ and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀. Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g. Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE for males and 42 ha (±11SE for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE for males and 150 ha (±29 SE for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats, whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle

  20. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A; Reeve, Nigel; Conkey, April A T; Macdonald, David W; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀) and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀). Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g) in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g). Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE) for males and 42 ha (±11SE) for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE) for males and 150 ha (±29 SE) for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters) influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats), whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle East where

  1. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  2. Computerized methodology for evaluating the long-range radiological impact of shallow-land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized methodology has been implemented to calculate the risk to local and intermediate-range (up to 80 km distant) populations resulting from water- and air-borne transport of radionuclides present in low-level wastes buried in shallow trenches such as those used at Oak Ridge. Our computer code, PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations), was developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects resulting from shallow burial operations. Sources of contamination include radionuclide releases from the trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to at-risk populations for a 1000-year period following cessation of burial ground operations. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled event, unit system response, and risk evaluation processes. Examples of scheduled events are trench cap failure, stabilization of insoluble surface contaminant, the onset of farming or reclamation practices, and human intrusion. Unit system response submodels simulate processes such as infiltration of rainwater into the trench and erosion of soil overburden from the trench cover. System response submodels generate parameters used repeatedly in the 1000-year simulation loop

  3. Framing health for land-use planning legislation: A qualitative descriptive content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Thow, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Framing health as a relevant policy issue for other sectors is not well understood. A recent review of the New South Wales (Australia) land-use planning system resulted in the drafting of legislation with an internationally unprecedented focus on human health. We apply a political science approach to investigate the question 'how and to what extent were health and wider issues framed in submissions to the review?' We investigated a range of stakeholder submissions including health focussed agencies (n = 31), purposively identified key stakeholders with influence on the review (n = 24), and a random sample of other agencies and individuals (n = 47). Using qualitative descriptive analysis we inductively coded for the term 'health' and sub-categories. We deductively coded for 'wider concerns' using a locally endorsed 'Healthy Urban Development Checklist'. Additional inductive analysis uncovered further 'wider concerns'. Health was explicitly identified as a relevant issue for planning policy only in submissions by health-focussed agencies. This framing concerned the new planning system promoting and protecting health as well as connecting health to wider planning concerns including economic issues, transport, public open space and, to a slightly lesser extent, environmental sustainability. Key stakeholder and other agency submissions focussed on these and other wider planning concerns but did not mention health in detail. Health agency submissions did not emphasise infrastructure, density or housing as explicitly as others. Framing health as a relevant policy issue has the potential to influence legislative change governing the business of other sectors. Without submissions from health agencies arguing the importance of having health as an objective in the proposed legislation it is unlikely health considerations would have gained prominence in the draft bill. The findings have implications for health agency engagement with legislative change processes and beyond in

  4. A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Land Use in Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. King

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health researchers have identified numerous health implications associated with land use. However, it is unclear which of multiple methods of data collection most accurately captures land use, and “gold standard” methods vary by discipline. Five desirable features of environmental data sources are presented and discussed (cost, coverage, availability, construct validity, and accuracy. Potential accuracy issues are discussed by using Kappa statistics to evaluate the level of agreement between data sets collected by two methods (systematic social observation [SSO] by trained raters and publicly available data from aerial photography coded using administrative records from the same blocks in Chicago, Illinois. Significant Kappa statistics range from 0.19 to 0.60, indicating varying levels of intersource agreement. Most land uses are more likely to be reported by researcher-designed direct observation than in the publicly available data derived from aerial photography. However, when cost, coverage, and availability outweigh a marginal improvement in accuracy and flexibility in land-use categorization, coded aerial photography data may be a useful data source for health researchers. Greater interdisciplinary and interorganization collaboration in the production of ecological data is recommended to improve cost, coverage, availability, and accuracy, with implications for construct validity.

  5. Incorporating consideration of health impacts into land use development approval processes: Development of a Health Background Study Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloughney, Brent W; Bursey, Gayle E; Neumann, Jana; Leeming, Daniel H; Gutmann, Christine E; Sivanand, Bhavna; Mowat, David L

    2014-09-12

    This project involved development of a Health Background Study (HBS) Framework to support consideration of health impacts within municipalities' approval process for land use development. Peel Public Health and Toronto Public Health led the project with the participation of planners, urban designers, engineers, public health staff and development industry representatives. Historical growth in the Region of Peel and suburban Toronto has resulted in extensive low-density development, creating car-dependent communities with disconnected streets and segregated land uses. The inclusion of an HBS in developers' applications to municipalities is one approach by which health-related expectations for the built environment can be established within the approval process. Development of the HBS Framework used the six core elements of the built environment with the strongest evidence for impact on health and was informed by analysis of the provincial and local policy contexts, practices of other municipalities and stakeholder interviews. The Framework's contents were refined according to feedback from multidisciplinary stakeholder workshops. The HBS Framework identifies minimum standards for built environment core elements that developers need to address in their applications. The Framework was created to be simple and instructive with applicability to a range of development locations and scales, and to various stages of the development approval process. Peel Public Health is leading several initiatives to support the use of the HBS as a part of the development application process. The HBS Framework is a tool that public health and planning can use to support the consideration of health impacts within municipalities' land use development processes.

  6. Does estuarine health relate to catchment land-cover in the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible links between catchment and buffer zone land-cover class composition and the health of the East Kleinemonde Estuary were explored. There was a relationship between catchment land-cover and estuarine health within all assessed catchment delineations. Natural land-cover was determined to be the best ...

  7. RANGE RAM: a long-term planning method for managing grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricus C. Jansen

    1976-01-01

    Range RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a computerized planning method designed to assist range managers in developing and selecting alternatives in spatial and temporal allocation of resources. The technique is applicable at the frest or district management levels, or their equivalents. Range RAM can help formulate plans that maximize the production of range outputs...

  8. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  9. Drivers and uncertainties of forecasted range shifts for warm-water fishes under climate and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Kristen; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Lant, Christopher; Schoof, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Land cover is an important determinant of aquatic habitat and is projected to shift with climate changes, yet climate-driven land cover changes are rarely factored into climate assessments. To quantify impacts and uncertainty of coupled climate and land cover change on warm-water fish species’ distributions, we used an ensemble model approach to project distributions of 14 species. For each species, current range projections were compared to 27 scenario-based projections and aggregated to visualize uncertainty. Multiple regression and model selection techniques were used to identify drivers of range change. Novel, or no-analogue, climates were assessed to evaluate transferability of models. Changes in total probability of occurrence ranged widely across species, from a 63% increase to a 65% decrease. Distributional gains and losses were largely driven by temperature and flow variables and underscore the importance of habitat heterogeneity and connectivity to facilitate adaptation to changing conditions. Finally, novel climate conditions were driven by mean annual maximum temperature, which stresses the importance of understanding the role of temperature on fish physiology and the role of temperature-mitigating management practices.

  10. Vertical ground reaction force in stationary running in water and on land: A study with a wide range of cadences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Fontana, Heiliane; Ruschel, Caroline; Dell'Antonio, Elisa; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Pereira, Gustavo Soares; Roesler, Helio

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cadence, immersion level as well as body density on the vertical component (Fy max ) of ground reaction force (GRF) during stationary running (SR). In a controlled, laboratory study, thirty-two subjects ran at a wide range of cadences (85-210 steps/min) in water, immersed to the hip and to the chest, and on dry land. Fy max. was verified by a waterproof force measurement system and predicted based on a statistical model including cadence, immersion ratio and body density. The effect of cadence was shown to depend on the environment: while Fy max increases linearly with increasing cadence on land; in water, Fy max reaches a plateau at both hip and chest immersions. All factors analyzed, cadence, immersion level and body density affected Fy max significantly, with immersion (aquatic × land environment) showing the greatest effect. In water, different cadences may lead to bigger changes in Fy max than the changes obtained by moving subjects from hip to chest immersion. A regression model able to predict 69% of Fy max variability in water was proposed and validated. Cadence, Immersion and body density affect Fy max in a significant and non-independent way. Besides a model of potential use in the prescription of stationary running in water, our analysis provides insights into the different responses of GRF to changes in exercise parameters between land and aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  12. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  13. Aldo Leopold's land health from a resilience point of view: self-renewal capacity of social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Fikret; Doubleday, Nancy C; Cumming, Graeme S

    2012-09-01

    Health approaches to ecology have a strong basis in Aldo Leopold's thinking, and contemporary ecohealth in turn has a strong philosophical basis in Leopold. To commemorate the 125th anniversary of Leopold's birth (1887-1948), we revisit his ideas, specifically the notions of stewardship (land ethic), productive use of ecosystems (land), and ecosystem renewal. We focus on Leopold's perspective on the self-renewal capacity of the land, as understood in terms of integrity and land health, from the contemporary perspective of resilience theory and ecological theory more generally. Using a broad range of literature, we explore insights and implications of Leopold's work for today's human-environment relationships (integrated social-ecological systems), concerns for biodiversity, the development of agency with respect to stewardship, and key challenges of his time and of ours. Leopold's seminal concept of land health can be seen as a triangulation of productive use, self-renewal, and stewardship, and it can be reinterpreted through the resilience lens as the health of social-ecological systems. In contemporary language, this involves the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and the ability to exercise agency both for conservation and for environmental justice.

  14. Ecological and human health risks arising from exposure to metals in urban soils under different land use in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2018-05-01

    The concentrations of eight metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) were measured in soils under different land use in an urban environment of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. The aim was to provide information on the potential ecological and human health risks associated with human exposure to metals in these soils. The potential ecological risk due to metals in soils of these land use types falls in the range of low to moderate ecological risk with a significant contribution from Cd. The severity of the individual metals to ecological risk in these land use types followed the order Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Mn. The non-carcinogenic risk, expressed in terms of the hazard index (HI), arising through exposure to metals through oral, dermal and inhalation pathways, was greater than 1 for children in the majority of the land use types and less than 1 for adults for all land use types. This indicated that there are considerable non-cancer risks arising from childhood exposure to metals in soils of these land use types. The cancer risk values were within acceptable threshold values indicating a negligible cancer risk for both children and adults exposed to metals in these urban soils.

  15. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; Kays, Roland; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    Feral and free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) can have strong negative effects on small mammals and birds, particularly in island ecosystems. We deployed camera traps to study free-ranging cats in national wildlife refuges and state parks on Big Pine Key and Key Largo in the Florida Keys, USA, and used spatial capture–recapture models to estimate cat abundance, movement, and activities. We also used stable isotope analyses to examine the diet of cats captured on public lands. Top population models separated cats based on differences in movement and detection with three and two latent groups on Big Pine Key and Key Largo, respectively. We hypothesize that these latent groups represent feral, semi-feral, and indoor/outdoor house cats based on the estimated movement parameters of each group. Estimated cat densities and activity varied between the two islands, with relatively high densities (~4 cats/km2) exhibiting crepuscular diel patterns on Big Pine Key and lower densities (~1 cat/km2) exhibiting nocturnal diel patterns on Key Largo. These differences are most likely related to the higher proportion of house cats on Big Pine relative to Key Largo. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from hair samples of free-ranging cats (n = 43) provided estimates of the proportion of wild and anthropogenic foods in cat diets. At the population level, cats on both islands consumed mostly anthropogenic foods (>80% of the diet), but eight individuals were effective predators of wildlife (>50% of the diet). We provide evidence that cat groups within a population move different distances, exhibit different activity patterns, and that individuals consume wildlife at different rates, which all have implications for managing this invasive predator.

  16. Simulating the dynamic effect of land use and transport policies on the health of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Roderick J; Adriazola-Steil, Claudia; Mulvihill, Christine; Fitzharris, Michael; Salmon, Paul; Bonnington, C Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We identified the features of a land use-transportation system that optimizes the health and well-being of the population. We developed a quantitative system dynamics model to represent relationships among land use, transport, economic development, and population health. Simulation experiments were conducted over a 10-year simulation period to compare the effect of different baseline conditions and land use-transport policies on the number of motor vehicle crash deaths and disability-adjusted life years lost. Optimal reduction in the public health burden attributable to land transport was demonstrated when transport safety risk reduction policies were combined with land use and transport polices that minimized reliance on individual motorized transport and maximized use of active transport modes. The model's results were particularly sensitive to the level of development that characterized each city at the start of the simulation period. Local, national, and international decision-makers are encouraged to address transport, land use, and health as an integrated whole to achieve the desired societal benefits of traffic safety, population health, and social equity.

  17. Soil conditions and land use intensification effects on soil microbial communities across a range of European field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Bruce C.; Tisserant, Emilie; Plassart, Pierre; Uroz, Stéphane; Griffiths, Rob I.; Hannula, S. Emilia; Buée, Marc; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel; Van Veen, Johannes A.; Martin, Francis; Bailey, Mark J.; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive land use practices necessary for providing food and raw materials are known to have a deleterious effect on soil. However, the effects such practices have on soil microbes are less well understood. To investigate the effects of land use intensification on soil microbial

  18. Radiological health risk evaluation of radium contaminated land: A real life implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2005-01-01

    A plot of land, currently used for dairy farming, has been contaminated over the years with radium due to the operation of one of the world's largest radium production plants. Within the framework of a global remediation approach for the plant surroundings, the land owner needed advice for a future destination of the land. Therefore, the radium contamination was accurately mapped, and on the basis of its severity a practically feasible subdivision of the land into four plots was proposed. For all four plots, the radiological risk was evaluated for the current type of land use and for possible alternative types. Hence a clear and usable advice could be formulated to the authorities reconciling public health, economic and practical issues. (authors)

  19. Health: The No-Man's-Land Between Physics and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Health as a positive attribute is poorly understood because understanding requires concepts from physics, of which physicians and other life scientists have a very poor grasp. This paper reviews the physics that bears on biology, in particular complex quaternions and scalar fields, relates these to the morphogenetic fields proposed by biologists, and defines health as an attribute of living action within these fields. The distinction of quality, as juxtaposed with quantity, proves essential. Its basic properties are set out, but a science and mathematics of quality are awaited. The implications of this model are discussed, particularly as proper health enhancement could set a natural limit to demand for, and therefore the cost of, medical services.

  20. Role of the Office International des Epizooties in protecting the health of free-ranging mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancou, J

    1992-12-01

    The various activities undertaken by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1924 to protect the helth of free-ranging mammals are outlined and discussed. Two types of activity have been conducted over the years: --The first type promotes measures to protect the health of free-ranging mammals in order to safeguard the health of domestic animals and human beings. These measures have prevented the propagation of the highly contagious diseases of animals and the more serious zoonoses. --The second type aims at protecting the health of free-ranging mammals in order to maintain the fauna and the natural equilibrium. Ecological and epidemiological studies are promoted with a view to effective management of wildlife populations and overcoming the associated health risks. By virtue of its close contacts with officials in charge of animal health in 126 Member Countries, the OIE has made a noteworthy contribution to the protection of populations of free-ranging mammals.

  1. Management of health in the construction and assembly of land pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richa, Newton M.M.; Ruella, Nildemar C [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study are: describe the main aspects of a health management experience in a work of construction and assembly of land pipeline, highlighting the positive impacts on safety and productivity; demonstrate that the general objective of the health function is to provide technical support to companies, information and services for leaders, managers, supervisors, workers and families in the management of multiple interfaces of health, especially the health-work interface; and demonstrate that the appropriate management of health may contribute significantly to the overall management of undertakings. (author)

  2. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corburn, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale

  3. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; Theresa Burcsu

    2010-01-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide...

  4. Soil health in the Mediterranean region: Development and consolidation of a multifactor index to characterize the health of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eshel; Guy, Levy; Oshri, Rinot; Michael, Borisover; Uri, Yermiyahu; Leah, Tsror; Hanan, Eizenberg; Tal, Svoray; Alex, Furman; Yael, Mishael; Yosef, Steinberger

    2017-04-01

    The link among between soil health, soil conservation, and food security, resilience, and function under a wide range of agricultural uses and different environmental systems, is at the heart of many ecofriendly research studies worldwide. We consider the health of soil as a function of its ability to provide ecosystem services, including agricultural production (provisional services); regulating natural cycles (regulation services) and as a habitat for plants (support services). Soil health is affected by a wide range of soil properties (biotic and abiotic) that maintain complex interactions among themselves. The decline in soil health includes degradation in its physical properties (e.g., deterioration of soil structure, compaction and sealing, water-repellency, soil erosion by water and wind), chemical properties (e.g., salinization, depletion of nutrients and organic matter content, accumulation of pollutants and reduction of the soils' ion exchange capacity) and biological properties (e.g., vulnerable populations of microflora, microfauna, and mesofauna, leading to a breach of ecological balance and biodiversity and, as a result, destruction of beneficial populations and pathogen outbreaks). Numerous studies show that agricultural practices have a major impact on soil functioning. Substituting longstanding tillage with no-till cropping and the amalgamation of cover crops in crop rotations were found to improve soil properties. Such changes contributed to the enhancement of the agronomical performance of the soil. On the other hand, these practices may result in lessened effectiveness of controlling perennial weeds. The evaluation of soil-health status in the Mediterranean region is very limited. Moreover, existing approaches for evaluation that have been used (such as the Cornell and Hany tests) do not give sufficient weight to important agronomic processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, sodification, spread of weeds in the fields (in particular, weeds

  5. The consideration of health in land use planning: Barriers and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Jennifer; Bond, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the consideration of human health effects within the plan-making process in the East of England. It is based primarily upon questionnaires and interviews with those involved in plan-making. The results indicate that, prior to the implementation of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive, which established a statutory requirement for the consideration of significant effects on human health in European Union member states, very limited consideration has been given to human health in land use plans. The capacity of the planning system to affect human health is clearly understood by those responsible for their production, but they lack the expertise to consider the health implications of their plans. The SEA Directive, along with reforms to the planning system, does provide a framework for improving the consideration of health, but the capacity of the planning system to consider health must be improved as should dialogue with health practitioners, and the evidence base for health outcomes. Also, analytical and methodological complexity may hinder the ability of planners to consider health, indicating that greater application of the precautionary principle is required to deal with the present uncertainty over human health impacts resulting from the implementation of land use plans

  6. Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the ... Water management challenges in the context of agricultural intensification and ... to announce that the first call for applications for the new Early Career Women. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  7. PRODUCTIVITY AND LAND ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: HEALTH, PUBLIC INVESTMENTS, AND SEQUENTIAL ADOPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire; Amacher, Gregory S.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger

    2003-01-01

    The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our research examines the interaction between public investments, community health, and adoption of productivity and land enhancing technologies by households in the northern Ethiopian state of Tigray. Agricultural technology adoption decision...

  8. [Effects of land use structure change on regional ecological health--taking Shapingba County as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Wei, Chaofu; Gao, Ming; Luo, Guanglian; Jiang, Wei

    2005-12-01

    Land resource is the carrier for the exchange of matter, energy and information flows, while the change velocity and the intensity of land use has strong effects on the ecological processes such as matter circulation, energy flow, and biologic diversity. Land use structure change will alter the type, area, and spatial distribution of ecosystem, and in the meantime, result in the changes of regional ecological health. Employing the principles and methods of landscape ecology, and through endowing relative ecological value to land use type, this paper analyzed the charaeteristics of recent 10 years land use change in Shapingba County of Chongqing, and discussed the effects of land use change on regional ecological health, aimed to provide scientific references for land use planning and sustainable land resource utilization. The results indicated that transformation often occurred among different land use types, and the land use structure in each transformation phase differed quite obviously. Under different land use structure, there was a great disparity in relative ecological value of sub-ecosystems, which played various roles in regional ecological health. In general, the regional relative ecological value embodied both increase and decrease. In the future, the relative ecological value of sub-ecosystem would represent three tendencies, i.e., increase first and decrease then, continuous decrease, and continuous increase. The situation of regional ecological health would gradually become better.

  9. Diurnal Cycles of High Resolution Land Surface Temperatures (LSTs) Determined from UAV Platforms Across a Range of Surface Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Parkes, S. D.; Aragon, B.

    2017-12-01

    Observation of land surface temperature (LST) has many practical uses, from studying boundary layer dynamics and land-atmosphere coupling, to investigating surface properties such as soil moisture status, heat stress and surface heat fluxes. Typically, LST is observed via satellite based sensors such as LandSat or via point measurements using IR radiometers. These measurements provide either good spatial coverage and resolution or good temporal coverage. However, neither are able to provide the needed spatial and temporal resolution for many of the research applications described above. Technological developments in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), together with small thermal frame cameras, has enabled a capacity to overcome this spatiotemporal constraint. Utilising UAV platforms to collect LST measurements across diurnal cycles provides an opportunity to study how meteorological and surface properties vary in both space and time. Here we describe the collection of LST data from a multi-rotor UAV across a study domain that is observed multiple times throughout the day. Flights over crops of Rhodes grass and alfalfa, along with a bare desert surface, were repeated with between 8 and 11 surveys covering the period from early morning to sunset. Analysis of the collected thermal imagery shows that the constructed LST maps illustrate a strong diurnal cycle consistent with expected trends, but with considerable spatial and temporal variability observed within and between the different domains. These results offer new insights into the dynamics of land surface behavior in both dry and wet soil conditions and at spatiotemporal scales that are unable to be replicated using traditional satellite platforms.

  10. Diversity and Abundance of Beetle (Coleoptera Functional Groups in a Range of Land Use System in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURYO HARDIWINOTO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of tropical rain forest might exert impacts on biodiversity loss and affect the function and stability of the related ecosystems. The objective of this study was to study the impact of land use systems (LUS on the diversity and abundance of beetle functional groups in Jambi area, Sumatra. This research was carried out during the rainy season (May-June of 2004. Inventory and collection of beetles have been conducted using winkler method across six land use systems, i.e. primary forest, secondary forest, Imperata grassland, rubber plantation, oilpalm plantation, and cassava garden. The result showed that a total of 47 families and subfamilies of beetles was found in the study area, and they were classified into four major functional groups, i.e. herbivore, predator, scavenger, and fungivore. There were apparent changes in proportion, diversity, and abundance of beetle functional groups from forests to other land use systems. The bulk of beetle diversity and abundance appeared to converge in primary forest and secondary forest and predatory beetles were the most diverse and the most abundant of the four major functional groups.

  11. Responding to Public Health Emergencies on Tribal Lands: Jurisdictional Challenges and Practical Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Justin B

    2015-01-01

    Response to public health emergencies on tribal lands poses a unique challenge for state and tribal public health officials. The complexity and intensely situation-specific nature of federal Indian jurisprudence leaves considerable question as to which government entity, state or tribal, has jurisdiction on tribal lands to undertake basic emergency measures such as closure of public spaces, quarantine, compulsory medical examination, and investigation. That jurisdictional uncertainty, coupled with cultural differences and an often troubled history of tribal-state relations, threatens to significantly impede response to infectious disease outbreaks or other public health emergencies on tribal lands. Given that tribal communities may be disproportionately impacted by public health emergencies, it is critical that tribal, state, and local governments engage with each other in coordinated planning for public health threats. This Article is offered as a catalyst for such planning efforts. The Article identifies some of the most pressing jurisdictional issues that may confront governments responding to a public health emergency on tribal lands, with the aim of highlighting the nature of the problem and the need for action. The Article goes on to examine the most promising means of addressing jurisdictional uncertainty: intergovernmental agreements. Already utilized in many areas of shared interest between tribe and state, intergovernmental agreements offer neighboring state, local, and tribal governments a vehicle for delineating roles and authorities in an emergency, and may lay the groundwork for sharing resources. The Article surveys various representative tribal public health intergovernmental agreements, and concludes with suggestions for tribes and state or local governments looking to craft their own agreements.

  12. Trace elements in land plants: concentration ranges and accumulators of rare earths, Ba, Ra, Mn, Fe, Co and heavy halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Shirakawa, M.; Takada, J.; Katayama, Y.; Matsubara, T.

    1987-01-01

    More than 2000 samples of land plant leaves, mostly of tree, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis in order to find out macroscopic relations between distributions of chemical elements in plants and soil characteristics. The distributions of the elements in plants were also examined from the view point of botanical taxonomy or phylogeny. New species which accumulate Co, rare earths, Ba, Ra, heavy halogens and some other elements were found. Capability or potentiality for accumulating elements could be related to higher ranks of taxonomy, that is, genus or family. The nature of soil is also found to have profound effects on the extent of accumulation of elements in plants. (author)

  13. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  15. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-05-28

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included.

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included

  18. Land use diversification and intensification on elk winter range in Greater Yellowstone: A framework and agenda for social-ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Julia Hobson; Epstein, Kathleen; Stone, Michael; Cross, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Amenity migration describes the movement of peoples to rural landscapes and the transition toward tourism and recreation and away from production-oriented land uses (ranching, timber harvesting). The resulting mosaic of land uses and community structures has important consequences for wildlife and their management. This research note examines amenity-driven changes to social-ecological systems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, specifically in lower elevations that serve as winter habitat for elk. We present a research agenda informed by a preliminary and exploratory mixed-methods investigation: the creation of a “social-impact” index of land use change on elk winter range and a focus group with wildlife management experts. Our findings suggest that elk are encountering an increasingly diverse landscape with respect to land use, while new ownership patterns increase the complexity of social and community dynamics. These factors, in turn, contribute to increasing difficulty meeting wildlife management objectives. To deal with rising complexity across social and ecological landscapes of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, future research will focus on property life cycle dynamics, as well as systems approaches.

  19. Trace elements in land plants: concentration ranges and accumulators of rare earths, Ba, Ra, Mn, Fe, Co, and heavy halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Takada, Jitsuya; Katayama, Yukio; Matsubara, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    More than 2000 samples of land plant leaves, mostly of tree, have been analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to find out macroscopic relations between distributions of chemical elements in plants and soil characteristics. The distributions of the elements in plants were also examined from the view point of botanical taxonomy or phylogeny. New species which accumulate Co, rare earths, Ba, Ra, heavy halogens and other elements have been found. Capability or potentiality for accumulating elements could be related to primarily to species. In several cases, however, it is related to higher ranks of taxonomy, that is, genus or family. The nature of soil is also found to have profound effects on the extent of accumulation of elements in plants. (author)

  20. Potential for effects of land contamination on human health. 2. The case of waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Levy, Len; Brown, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This review of the epidemiological literature shows that evidence for negative impacts of land contaminated by waste disposal on human health is limited. However, the potential for health impacts cannot be dismissed. The link between residence close to hazardous waste disposal sites and heightened levels of stress and anxiety is relatively well established. However, studies on self-reported outcomes generally suffer from interpretational problems, as subjective symptoms may be due to increased perception and recall. Several recent multiple-site studies support a plausible linkage between residence near waste disposal sites and reproductive effects (including congenital anomalies and low birth weight). There is some conflict in the literature investigating links between land contamination and cancers; the evidence for and against a link is equally balanced and is insufficient to make causal inferences. These are difficult to establish because of lack of data on individual exposures, and other socioeconomic and lifestyle factors that may confound a relationship with area of residence. There is no consistently occurring risk for any specific tumor across multiple studies on sites expected to contain similar contaminants. Further insights on health effects of land contamination are likely to be gained from studies that consider exposure pathways and biomarkers of exposure and effect, similar to those deployed with some success in investigating impacts of cadmium on human health.

  1. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha C.; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  2. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Holsinger, James W; Riddell, Martha C; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers.

  3. Home Range Size and Resource Use of Breeding and Non-breeding White Storks Along a Land Use Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Zurell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry is increasingly used to study animal movement at high spatial and temporal resolution and guide conservation and resource management. Yet, limited sample sizes and variation in space and habitat use across regions and life stages may compromise robustness of behavioral analyses and subsequent conservation plans. Here, we assessed variation in (i home range sizes, (ii home range selection, and (iii fine-scale resource selection of white storks across breeding status and regions and test model transferability. Three study areas were chosen within the Central German breeding grounds ranging from agricultural to fluvial and marshland. We monitored GPS-locations of 62 adult white storks equipped with solar-charged GPS/3D-acceleration (ACC transmitters in 2013–2014. Home range sizes were estimated using minimum convex polygons. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess home range selection and fine-scale resource selection by relating the home ranges and foraging sites to Corine habitat variables and normalized difference vegetation index in a presence/pseudo-absence design. We found strong variation in home range sizes across breeding stages with significantly larger home ranges in non-breeding compared to breeding white storks, but no variation between regions. Home range selection models had high explanatory power and well predicted overall density of Central German white stork breeding pairs. Also, they showed good transferability across regions and breeding status although variable importance varied considerably. Fine-scale resource selection models showed low explanatory power. Resource preferences differed both across breeding status and across regions, and model transferability was poor. Our results indicate that habitat selection of wild animals may vary considerably within and between populations, and is highly scale dependent. Thereby, home range scale analyses show higher robustness whereas fine-scale resource

  4. Novel insights linking ecological health to biogeochemical hotspots in mixed land use stream systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo; Rasmussen, Jes J.

    Increasing modifications in land use and water management have resulted in multiple stressors impacting freshwater ecosystems globally. Chemicals with the potential to impact aquatic habitats are still often evaluated individually for their adverse effects on ecosystem health. This may lead...... pollution sources included two contaminated sites (factory, landfill), aquaculture, wastewater/industrial discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas (Sonne et al., 2017). Ecological status was determined by monitoring meiobenthic and macrobenthic invertebrate communities. The stream...

  5. Our land, our language: connecting dispossession and health equity in an indigenous context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen J; McPherson, Gladys; Peterson, Ruby; Newman, Vera; Cranmer, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    For contemporary Indigenous people, colonial relations (past and present) intersect with neoliberal policies and practices to create subtle forms of dispossession.These undermine the health of Indigenous peoples and create barriers restricting access to appropriate health services. Integrating insights from the critical geographer David Harvey, the authors demonstrate how the dispossession of land and language threaten health and well-being and worsen existing illness conditions. Drawing on the qualitative findings from a program of community-based research with the 'Namgis First Nation in the Canadian province of British Columbia, the authors argue for an account of how neoliberal mechanisms operate to further the "accumulation by dispossession" associated with historical and ongoing colonialism. Specifically, they show how neoliberal ideologies operate to sustain medical colonialism and health inequities for Indigenous peoples. The authors discuss the implications for nursing actions to achieve health equity in rural First Nations communities.

  6. Generic Assessment Criteria for human health risk assessment of potentially contaminated land in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Nathanail, Paul C

    2009-12-20

    Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) are derived using widely applicable assumptions about the characteristics and behaviour of contaminant sources, pathways and receptors. GAC provide nationally consistent guidance, thereby saving money and time. Currently, there are no human health based Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) for contaminated sites in China. Protection of human health is therefore difficult to ensure and demonstrate; and the lack of GAC makes it difficult to tell if there is potential significant risk to human health unless site-specific criteria are derived. This paper derived Chinese GAC (GAC) for five inorganic and eight organic substances for three regions in China for three land uses: urban residential without plant uptake, Chinese cultivated land, and commercial/industrial using the SNIFFER model. The SNIFFER model has been further implemented with a dermal absorption algorithm and the model default input values have been changed to reflect the Chinese exposure scenarios. It is envisaged that the modified SNIFFER model could be used to derive GAC for more contaminants, more Regions, and more land uses. Further research to enhance the reliability and acceptability of the GAC is needed in regional/national surveys in diet and working patterns.

  7. Educating veterinarians for careers in free-ranging wildlife medicine and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, J.A.K.; Hamilton, G.E.; Dierauf, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the field of zoological medicine has seen an expansive broadening into the arenas of free-ranging wildlife, conservation medicine, and ecosystem health. During the spring/summer of 2005, we prepared and disseminated a survey designed to identify training and educational needs for individuals entering the wildlife medicine and ecosystem health fields. Our data revealed that few wildlife veterinarians believe that the training they received in veterinary school adequately prepared them to acquire and succeed in their field. Wildlife veterinarians and their employers ranked mentorship with an experienced wildlife veterinarian, training in leadership and communication, courses and externships in wildlife health, and additional formal training beyond the veterinary degree as important in preparation for success. Employers, wildlife veterinarians, and job seekers alike reported that understanding and maintaining ecosystem health is a key component of the wildlife veterinarian's job description, as it is critical to protecting animal health, including human health. Today's wildlife veterinarians are a new type of transdisciplinary professional; they practice medicine in their communities and hold titles in every level of government and academia. It is time that we integrate ecosystem health into our curricula to nurture and enhance an expansive way of looking at veterinary medicine and to ensure that veterinary graduates are prepared to excel in this new and complex world, in which the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and people are interdependent.

  8. Psychological distress is associated with a range of high-priority health conditions affecting working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul; Hilton, Michael; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey

    2010-06-01

    Psychological distress is growing in prevalence in Australia. Comorbid psychological distress and/or depressive symptoms are often associated with poorer health, higher healthcare utilisation and decreased adherence to medical treatments. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study cross-sectional screening dataset was used to explore the association between psychological distress and a range of health conditions in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The study uses the World Health Organization Health and Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ), to identify self-reported health status. Within the HPQ is the Kessler 6 (K6), a six-item scale of psychological distress which strongly discriminates between those with and without a mental disorder. Potential confounders of age, sex, marital status, number of children, education level and annual income were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Psychological distress was significantly associated with all investigated health conditions in both crude and adjusted estimates. The conditions with the strongest adjusted association were, in order from highest: drug and alcohol problems, fatigue, migraine, CVD, COPD, injury and obesity. Psychological distress is strongly associated with all 14 health conditions or risk factors investigated in this study. Comorbid psychological distress is a growing public health issue affecting Australian workers.

  9. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant uptake of trace elements on a Swiss military shooting range: Uptake pathways and land management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Brett H. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: brett.robinson@env.ethz.ch; Bischofberger, Simone; Stoll, Andreas; Schroer, Dirk; Furrer, Gerhard; Roulier, Stephanie; Gruenwald, Anna; Attinger, Werner; Schulin, Rainer [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-06-15

    Over 400 tons of Pb enters Swiss soils annually at some 2000 military shooting ranges (MSRs). We measured elements in the leaves of 10 plant species and associated rhizospheric soil on the stop butt of a disused MSR. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Sb, Cu, Ni in rhizospheric soils were 10,171 mg/kg, 5067 mg/kg, 4125 mg/kg and 917 mg/kg. Some species contained Pb, Cu and Ni, above concentrations (30 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) shown to be toxic to livestock. Most contaminants in leaves resulted from surface deposition. However, at soil Pb concentrations >60,000 mg/kg, Equisetum arvense and Tussilago farfara took up >1000 mg/kg Pb into the leaves. These plants are not hyperaccumulators, having <100 mg/kg Pb in leaves at lower soil concentrations. Removal of soil with more than 30,000 Pb, from which one could smelt this metal to offset remediation costs, followed by revegetation, would minimise dust and hence leaf-borne contaminants. - Establishment of a complete vegetation cover on shooting ranges would reduce the contamination of plant leaves by toxic trace elements.

  11. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to measures already used in clinical practice, molecular measures have been proposed to assess health status, but these have not yet been introduced into clinical practice. We aimed to test the association of functional capacity measures used in current practice and molecular measures...... with age and health status. The cohort consisted of 178 middle-aged to old participants of the Leiden Longevity Study (range 42-82years). We tested associations between functional capacity measures (physical tests: grip strength, 4-meter walk, chair stand test; cognitive tests: Stroop test, digit symbol...... substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...

  12. Continuity and Discontinuity of Health and Health Care in the Czech Lands during two Centuries (1800–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Krízová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of demographic, economic, social and health changes it is possible to identify trends in the Czech Lands that correspond to changes in the advanced countries of Western Europe both in the 19th and 20th century. The discontinuity of political development in the Czech Lands in the 20th century, however, led to the disruption of some of these trends. Social changes were closely connected with the political changes that followed each other in the 20th century in extremely rapid succession, and were very often contradictory. From the short-term point of view, the assessment of the changes since 1989 has been easier. General inclination toward ”proven” values both at home and abroad led within an extremely short time to the adjustment of demographic behaviour and to changes in the structure of illness (in both the positive and negative sense comparable with Western Europé.

  13. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires

  14. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  15. When and where to move: Dynamic occupancy models explain the range dynamics of a food nomadic bird under climate and land cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Downs, Colleen T

    2018-01-01

    Globally, long-term research is critical to monitor the responses of tropical species to climate and land cover change at the range scale. Citizen science surveys can reveal the long-term persistence of poorly known nomadic tropical birds occupying fragmented forest patches. We applied dynamic occupancy models to 13 years (2002-2014) of citizen science-driven presence/absence data on Cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus), a food nomadic bird endemic to South Africa. We modeled its underlying range dynamics as a function of resource distribution, and change in climate and land cover through the estimation of colonization and extinction patterns. The range occupancy of Cape parrot changed little over time (ψ = 0.75-0.83) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Yet, there was considerable regional variability in occupancy and detection probability increased over the years. Colonizations increased with warmer temperature and area of orchards, thus explaining their range shifts southeastwards in recent years. Although colonizations were higher in the presence of nests and yellowwood trees (Afrocarpus and Podocarpus spp.), the extinctions in small forest patches (≤227 ha) and during low precipitation (≤41 mm) are attributed to resource constraints and unsuitable climatic conditions. Loss of indigenous forest cover and artificial lake/water bodies increased extinction probabilities of Cape parrot. The land use matrix (fruit farms, gardens, and cultivations) surrounding forest patches provides alternative food sources, thereby facilitating spatiotemporal colonization and extinction in the human-modified matrix. Our models show that Cape parrots are vulnerable to extreme climatic conditions such as drought which is predicted to increase under climate change. Therefore, management of optimum sized high-quality forest patches is essential for long-term survival of Cape parrot populations. Our novel application of dynamic occupancy models to long-term citizen

  16. Demographic consequences of climate change and land cover help explain a history of extirpations and range contraction in a declining snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Lars Y; LeDee, Olivia E; Martin, Karl J; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Developing conservation strategies for threatened species increasingly requires understanding vulnerabilities to climate change, in terms of both demographic sensitivities to climatic and other environmental factors, and exposure to variability in those factors over time and space. We conducted a range-wide, spatially explicit climate change vulnerability assessment for Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus), a declining endemic species in a region showing strong environmental change. Using active season and winter adult survival estimates derived from 17 data sets throughout the species' range, we identified demographic sensitivities to winter drought, maximum precipitation during the summer, and the proportion of the surrounding landscape dominated by agricultural and urban land cover. Each of these factors was negatively associated with active season adult survival rates in binomial generalized linear models. We then used these relationships to back-cast adult survival with dynamic climate variables from 1950 to 2008 using spatially explicit demographic models. Demographic models for 189 population locations predicted known extant and extirpated populations well (AUC = 0.75), and models based on climate and land cover variables were superior to models incorporating either of those effects independently. These results suggest that increasing frequencies and severities of extreme events, including drought and flooding, have been important drivers of the long-term spatiotemporal variation in a demographic rate. We provide evidence that this variation reflects nonadaptive sensitivity to climatic stressors, which are contributing to long-term demographic decline and range contraction for a species of high-conservation concern. Range-wide demographic modeling facilitated an understanding of spatial shifts in climatic suitability and exposure, allowing the identification of important climate refugia for a dispersal-limited species. Climate change vulnerability

  17. A novel land use approach for assessment of human health: The relationship between urban structure types and cardiorespiratory disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence shows that in addition to lifestyle factors, environmental aspects are an important risk factor for human health. Numerous approaches have been used to estimate the relationship between environment and health. For example, the urban characteristics, especially the types of land use, are considered a potential proxy indicator to evaluate risk of disease. Although several studies have used land use variables to assess human health, none of them has used the concept of Urban Morphology by Urban Structure Types (USTs) as indicators of land use. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between USTs and cardiorespiratory disease risks in the Federal District, Brazil. Toward this end, we used a quantile regression model to estimate risk. We used 21 types of UST. Income and population density were used as covariates in our sensitivity analysis. Our analysis showed an association between cardiorespiratory diseases risk and 10 UST variables (1 related to rural area, 6 related to residential area, 1 recreational area, 1 public area and 1 commercial area). Our findings suggest that the conventional land use method may be missing important information about the effect of land use on human health. The use of USTs can be an approach to complement the conventional method. This should be of interest to policy makers in order to enhance public health policies and to create future strategies in terms of urban planning, land use and environmental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Achieving compliance with environmental health-related land use planning conditions in Hong Kong: perspectives from traditional motivation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Rita Li Yi

    2009-11-01

    Environmental health-related land use planning conditions can enhance the environment in Hong Kong. Previous research by others has shown, however, that a lack of compliance with planning conditions often occurs. And as no direct enforcement of planning conditions exists in Hong Kong, it is of interest to understand possible ways in which to increase the motivation of land developers and property owners to comply with planning conditions. The author looked at motivation from the perspective of three traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, and incentive theory. While the majority of this article focuses on the enforcement and the legal tests in land use planning conditions, it also presents the results of the first study of the motivations behind Hong Kong land developers to comply with land use planning conditions.

  19. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  20. Modeling the Impacts of Global Climate and Regional Land Use Change on Regional Climate, Air Quality and Public Health in the New York Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Kinney, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    There is an imminent need to downscale the global climate models used by international consortiums like the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to predict the future regional impacts of climate change. To meet this need, a "place-based" climate model that makes specific regional projections about future environmental conditions local inhabitants could face is being created by the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, in collaboration with other researchers and universities, for New York City and the 31 surrounding counties. This presentation describes the design and initial results of this modeling study, aimed at simulating the effects of global climate change and regional land use change on climate and air quality over the northeastern United States in order to project the associated public health impacts in the region. Heat waves and elevated concentrations of ozone and fine particles are significant current public health stressors in the New York metropolitan area. The New York Climate and Health Project is linking human dimension and natural sciences models to assess the potential for future public health impacts from heat stress and air quality, and yield improved tools for assessing climate change impacts. The model will be applied to the NY metropolitan east coast region. The following questions will be addressed: 1. What changes in the frequency and severity of extreme heat events are likely to occur over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and land cover (LU/LC) and climate change in the region? 2. How might the frequency and severity of episodic concentrations of ozone (O3) and airborne particulate matter smaller than 2.5 æm in diameter (PM2.5) change over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and climate change in the metropolitan region? 3. What is the range of possible human health impacts of these changes in the region? 4. How might projected future human

  1. Trends in Global Agricultural Land Use: Implications for Environmental Health and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramankutty, Navin; Mehrabi, Zia; Waha, Katharina; Jarvis, Larissa; Kremen, Claire; Herrero, Mario; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2018-04-29

    The eighteenth-century Malthusian prediction of population growth outstripping food production has not yet come to bear. Unprecedented agricultural land expansions since 1700, and technological innovations that began in the 1930s, have enabled more calorie production per capita than was ever available before in history. This remarkable success, however, has come at a great cost. Agriculture is a major cause of global environmental degradation. Malnutrition persists among large sections of the population, and a new epidemic of obesity is on the rise. We review both the successes and failures of the global food system, addressing ongoing debates on pathways to environmental health and food security. To deal with these challenges, a new coordinated research program blending modern breeding with agro-ecological methods is needed. We call on plant biologists to lead this effort and help steer humanity toward a safe operating space for agriculture.

  2. Land use and air quality in urban environments: Human health risk assessment due to inhalation of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, A C; Amarillo, A C; Carreras, H A; González, C M

    2018-02-01

    Particle matter (PM) and its associated compounds are a serious problem for urban air quality and a threat to human health. In the present study, we assessed the intraurban variation of PM, and characterized the human health risk associated to the inhalation of particles measured on PM filters, considering different land use areas in the urban area of Cordoba city (Argentina) and different age groups. To assess the intraurban variation of PM, a biomonitoring network of T. capillaris was established in 15 sampling sites with different land use and the bioaccumulation of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was quantified. After that, particles were collected by instrumental monitors placed at the most representative sampling sites of each land use category and an inhalation risk was calculated. A remarkable intraurban difference in the heavy metals content measured in the biomonitors was observed, in relation with the sampling site land use. The higher content was detected at industrial areas as well as in sites with intense vehicular traffic. Mean PM 10 levels exceeded the standard suggested by the U.S. EPA in all land use areas, except for the downtown. Hazard Index values were below EPA's safe limit in all land use areas and in the different age groups. In contrast, the carcinogenic risk analysis showed that all urban areas exceeded the acceptable limit (1 × 10 -6 ), while the industrial sampling sites and the elder group presented a carcinogenic risk higher that the unacceptable limit. These findings validate the use of T. capillaris to assess intraurban air quality and also show there is an important intraurban variation in human health risk associated to different land use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human health risk from soil heavy metal contamination under different land uses near Dabaoshan Mine, Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Huarong; Xia, Beicheng; Fan, Chen; Zhao, Peng; Shen, Shili

    2012-01-01

    Soil heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern, and the ecological risk associated with heavy metals is increasing. In this paper, we investigated heavy metal contamination near Dabaoshan Mine by: using sequential indicator simulation to delineate the spatial patterns of soil data; fitting multiple linear regression models for heavy metal uptake by crops; interpreting land uses from remote sensing images and integrating the spatial patterns, uptake models and land uses into a dose–response model for human health risks from heavy metals. The areas with elevated soil heavy metal concentrations are mainly located at the Dabaoshan Mine site and in the watershed basins of the Hengshi, Tielong and Chuandu rivers. The average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soil in the study area are all above the natural soil background levels, but Cd is the major contributor to human health risk in the area. Areas of low soil pH are also found throughout the watershed basins of the Hengshi, Tielong and Chuandu rivers. Of the different land use types in the study area, agricultural and residential land uses have the highest human health risk because ingestion is the dominant exposure pathway for heavy metals. The spatial patterns of the heavy metal concentrations and soil pH indicate that the areas with the highest human health risk regions do not directly coincide with the areas of highest heavy metal concentrations, but do coincide with the areas of lower soil pH. The contamination with high concentrations of heavy metals provides the risk source, but the combination of high heavy metal concentrations, low pH and agricultural or residential land use is required for human health risks to be present. The spatial pattern of the hazard quotients indicates that Cd is the most important pollutant contributing to the human health risk. - Highlights: ►The distribution of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and pH in soil were analyzed near Dabaoshan Mine. ►Heavy metal uptake models in

  4. Water resource protection in Australia: Links between land use and river health with a focus on stubble farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmer, Kathleen H.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryStubble farming (conservation farming, minimum tillage, zero tillage) has increased in Australia over several decades with claims of improved productivity, landscape stability and environmental benefit including ecosystem services downstream, yet recent audits show a dramatic and general decline in river health. This review explores explanations for this apparent anomaly. Many confounding factors complicate interactions between land use and river condition and may disguise or over-ride the potential benefits of adoption of stubble systems or other improvements in agricultural land use practice. These factors include climate change and variability; land use changes including an increase in bushfires, growth of farm dams and afforestation; lag times between land use change and expression of benefits in river systems; use of inappropriate scale that disguises local benefit; variations in the extent of ecosystem resilience; impacts of river regulation; and impacts of introduced species. Additionally, the value of river condition and utility is complicated by different local or regional perceptions and by contrasting rural and urban outlooks. The use of indicators, risk frameworks and biophysical modelling may help elucidate the complex relationships between land use and downstream ecosystem impact. The strengthening of local, regional and catchment scale approaches is advocated. This includes the re-integration of land management and governance with water management and planning. It is encouraging that farmers are themselves developing systems to optimise trade-offs between on-farm activities and ecosystem service benefits. This approach needs to be supported and extended.

  5. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO₂ and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda A; Shandas, Vivek; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2017-07-10

    Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC) shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants-and thus human health-is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO₂ is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO₂ observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA), and the spatial variation of NO₂ with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO 2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO₂ and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO₂, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO₂ associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4-12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and -1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  6. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments.

  7. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  8. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Smart

    Full Text Available We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments.

  9. Home on the Range--Health Literacy, Rural Elderly, Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Weinert, Clarann; Spring, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The demographic and socioeconomic impacts of the baby boomer generation turning 65 in 2011 will be magnified in rural areas where elderly are already disproportionately represented. The overall goal of a collaborative, community-based project was to improve the health literacy, health outcomes, and overall well-being of rural elderly in four…

  10. Shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes: preliminary simulations of long-term health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Hiromoto, G.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO, a computer code developed for the Environmental Protection Agency for the evaluation of possible health effects associated with shallow-land rad-waste burial areas, has been used to perform simulations for three such sites. Preliminary results for the 1000 y period following site closure suggest that shallow burial, at properly chosen sites, is indeed an appropriate disposal practice for low-level wastes. Periods of maximum risk to subject populations are also inferred

  11. A multi-scale assessment of human and environmental constraints on forest land cover change on the Oregon (USA) coast range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Janet L. Ohmann

    2004-01-01

    Human modification of forest habitats is a major component of global environmental change. Even areas that remain predominantly forested may be changed considerably by human alteration of historical disturbance regimes. To better understand human influences on the abundance and pattern of forest habitats, we studied forest land cover change from 1936 to 1996 in a 25...

  12. The role of breeding range, diet, mobility and body size in associations of raptor communities and land-use in a West African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Croes, B.M.; Gort, G.; Komdeur, J.

    2013-01-01

    To provide insight into raptor declines in western Africa, we investigated associations between land-use and raptor distribution patterns in Cameroon. We examined the role of breeding distribution, species’ migratory mobility, diet, body size, and thus area requirements, on 5-km scale patterns of

  13. The role of breeding range, diet, mobility and body size in associations of raptor communities and land-use in a West African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.; Gort, Gerrit; Komdeur, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To provide insight into raptor declines in western Africa, we investigated associations between land-use and raptor distribution patterns in Cameroon. We examined the role of breeding distribution, species' migratory mobility, diet, body size, and thus area requirements, on 5-km scale patterns of

  14. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO2 and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Rao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants—and thus human health—is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO2 is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO2 observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA, and the spatial variation of NO2 with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO2 and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO2, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO2 associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4–12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and −1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  15. A fair range of choice: justifying maximum patient choice in the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Stephen

    2007-06-01

    In this paper I put forward an ethical argument for the provision of extensive patient choice by the British National Health Service. I base this argument on traditional liberal rights to freedom of choice, on a welfare right to health care, and on a view of health as values-based. I argue that choice, to be ethically sustainable on this basis, must be values-based and rational. I also consider whether the British taxpayer may be persuadable with regard to the moral acceptability of patient choice, making use of Rawls' theory of political liberalism in this context. I identify issues that present problems in terms of public acceptance of choice, and also identify a boundary issue with regard to public health choices as against individual choices.

  16. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    requires that projects funded by Federal money, that take place on Federal lands, o ed eral ag not threaten historic properties. Sections 106 and 110...patagonica Galleta Pleuraphis jamesii Desert unicorn -plant Proboscidea althaeifolia Woolly paperflower Psilostrophe tagetina Slimflower scurfpea...moistur tent expone Table number with ″ precip -42 Fig. 13 1 C age cor factor 047 -42 Table 2-4 * Bernalillo County P ission ry for Desert Research

  17. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-01-01

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  18. Land use changes and socio-economic development strongly deteriorate river ecosystem health in one of the largest basins in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xian; Chen, Liding; Sun, Ranhao; Kong, Peiru

    2018-03-01

    It is important to assess river ecosystem health in large-scale basins when considering the complex influence of anthropogenic activities on these ecosystems. This study investigated the river ecosystem health in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) by sampling 148 river sites during the pre- and post-rainy seasons in 2013. A model was established to assess the river ecosystem health based on water physicochemical, nutrient, and macroinvertebrate indices, and the health level was divided into "very poor," "poor," "fair," "good," and "excellent" according to the health score calculated from the assessment model. The assessment results demonstrated that the river ecosystem health of the HRB was "poor" overall, and no catchments were labeled "excellent." The percentages of catchments deemed to have "very poor," "poor," "fair," or "good" river ecosystem health were 12.88%, 40.91%, 40.15%, and 6.06%, respectively. From the pre- to the post-rainy season, the macroinvertebrate health levels improved from "poor" to "fair." The results of a redundancy analysis (RDA), path analysis of the structural equation model (SEM), and X-Y plots indicated that the land use types of forest land and grassland had positive relationships with river ecosystem health, whereas arable land, urban land, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and population density had negative relationships with river ecosystem health. The variance partitioning (VP) results showed that anthropogenic activities (including land use and socio-economy) together explained 30.9% of the variations in river ecosystem health in the pre-rainy season, and this value increased to 35.9% in the post-rainy season. Land use intensity was the first driver of river ecosystem health, and socio-economic activities was the second driver. Land use variables explained 20.5% and 25.7% of the variations in river ecosystem health in the pre- and post-rainy season samples, respectively, and socio-economic variables explained 12.3% and 17.2% of

  19. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Shaunna K

    2010-01-01

    US transportation systems have been identified as a problem for public health, as they often encourage automobile transportation and discourage physical activity. This paper provides a case study examination of the Public Health Component of the Wasatch Front Regional Council's Regional Transportation Plan. This plan provides an example of what transportation planners at Utah's largest metropolitan planning organization (MPO) are doing to encourage physical activity through transportation. Existing active living research was used to guide recommendations using a process that included a comprehensive literature review and a review of existing state programs, advisory group and stakeholder meetings, and policy recommendations based on existing local conditions. Stakeholders from a diversity of background and interests came together with one common goal: to improve public health. Based on this collaborative process, nine policy approaches were specifically recommended for approval and integration in the Wasatch Front Regional Transportation Plan. By using current research as a guide and integrating a variety of interests, the Wasatch Front Regional Council is setting a new standard for a collaborative multi-modal focus in transportation planning, which can be replicated nationwide.

  20. Patient Self-Assessed Passive Range of Motion of the Knee Cannot Replace Health Professional Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbjerg, Jens; Madsen, Frank; Odgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients can accurately self-assess their knee passive range of motion (PROM). A picture-based questionnaire for patient self-assessment of knee PROM was developed and posted to patients. The self-assessed PROM from 58 patients was compared...... (≥ 10-degree flexion contracture). Surgeon- and patient-assessed knee PROM showed a mean difference (95% limits of agreement) of -2.1 degrees (-42.5 to 38.3 degrees) for flexion and -8.1 degrees (-28.8 to 12.7 degrees) for extension. The sensitivity of patient self-assessed PROM in identifying knee...

  1. Effects of free-range and confined housing on joint health in a herd of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Heldmer, Eva; Österberg, Julia; Ekman, Stina

    2014-09-11

    Free-range housing, in which pigs have access to both indoor and outdoor areas, is mandatory in organic pig production in Europe, but little is known about the effects of this housing on joint health in pigs. A high level of joint condemnations at slaughter has been reported in organic free-range pigs in Sweden, compared with pigs raised in conventional confined housing. We hypothesised that biomechanical forces imposed on the joints of pigs that range freely promote the development of osteochondrosis and lead to joint condemnation. We compared the prevalence of osteochondrosis and other joint lesions (e.g. arthritis, traumatic) in the elbow and hock joints of 91 crossbred Hampshire (Yorkshire × Landrace) fattening pigs that were housed in a free-range indoor/outdoor system with that in 45 pigs housed in confined indoor pens. A larger proportion of free-range than confined pigs had osteochondrosis in the elbow joints (69 vs. 50%, p free-range pigs showed moderate or severe lesions (33 vs. 16%, p free-range pigs also showed a higher prevalence of osteochondrosis in the hock joints (83 vs. 62%, p free-range pigs had condemned joints, all of which showed severe osteochondrosis, while no joints of confined pigs were condemned. In this experiment the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the elbow and the hock was higher, and lesions were more severe, in free-range than in confined pigs, suggesting that free-range housing increases the risk of acquiring osteochondrosis. Increased biomechanical stress to vulnerable joint structures may be the mechanism behind this effect, however more studies are needed to verify these results. This study suggests that modification of housing, and breeding for joints that are more adapted to free-range movement may be needed in free-range pig production. Severe osteochondrosis is a cause of joint condemnation, but the condemnation rate at slaughter underestimates the actual frequency of joint lesions and hence is a poor assessment of joint

  2. Using Colony Monitoring Devices to Evaluate the Impacts of Land Use and Nutritional Value of Forage on Honey Bee Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Smart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colony monitoring devices used to track and assess the health status of honey bees are becoming more widely available and used by both beekeepers and researchers. These devices monitor parameters relevant to colony health at frequent intervals, often approximating real time. The fine-scale record of hive condition can be further related to static or dynamic features of the landscape, such as weather, climate, colony density, land use, pesticide use, vegetation class, and forage quality. In this study, we fit commercial honey bee colonies in two apiaries with pollen traps and digital scales to monitor floral resource use, pollen quality, and honey production. One apiary was situated in low-intensity agriculture; the other in high-intensity agriculture. Pollen traps were open for 72 h every two weeks while scales recorded weight every 15 min throughout the growing season. From collected pollen, we determined forage quantity per day, species identity using DNA sequencing, pesticide residues, amino acid content, and total protein content. From scales, we determined the accumulated hive weight change over the growing season, relating to honey production and final colony weight going into winter. Hive scales may also be used to identify the occurrence of environmental pollen and nectar dearth, and track phenological changes in plant communities. We provide comparisons of device-derived data between two apiaries over the growing season and discuss the potential for employing apiary monitoring devices to infer colony health in the context of divergent agricultural land use conditions.

  3. Using colony monitoring devices to evaluate the impacts of land use and nutritional value of forage on honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Otto, Clint R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Colony monitoring devices used to track and assess the health status of honey bees are becoming more widely available and used by both beekeepers and researchers. These devices monitor parameters relevant to colony health at frequent intervals, often approximating real time. The fine-scale record of hive condition can be further related to static or dynamic features of the landscape, such as weather, climate, colony density, land use, pesticide use, vegetation class, and forage quality. In this study, we fit commercial honey bee colonies in two apiaries with pollen traps and digital scales to monitor floral resource use, pollen quality, and honey production. One apiary was situated in low-intensity agriculture; the other in high-intensity agriculture. Pollen traps were open for 72 h every two weeks while scales recorded weight every 15 min throughout the growing season. From collected pollen, we determined forage quantity per day, species identity using DNA sequencing, pesticide residues, amino acid content, and total protein content. From scales, we determined the accumulated hive weight change over the growing season, relating to honey production and final colony weight going into winter. Hive scales may also be used to identify the occurrence of environmental pollen and nectar dearth, and track phenological changes in plant communities. We provide comparisons of device-derived data between two apiaries over the growing season and discuss the potential for employing apiary monitoring devices to infer colony health in the context of divergent agricultural land use conditions.

  4. Progress and delivery of health care in Bhutan, the Land of the Thunder Dragon and Gross National Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Dorji, Tandin; Pelzom, Dorji; Gibbons, Robert V

    2011-06-01

    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan is rapidly changing, but it remains relatively isolated, and it tenaciously embraces its rich cultural heritage. Despite very limited resources, Bhutan is making a concerted effort to update its health care and deliver it to all of its citizens. Healthcare services are delivered through 31 hospitals, 178 basic health unit clinics and 654 outreach clinics that provide maternal and child health services in remote communities in the mountains. Physical access to primary health care is now well sustained for more than 90% of the population. Bhutan has made progress in key health indicators. In the past 50 years, life expectancy increased by 18 years and infant mortality dropped from 102.8 to 49.3 per 1000 live births between 1984 and 2008. Bhutan has a rich medical history. One of the ancient names for Bhutan was 'Land of Medicinal Herbs' because of the diverse medicinal plants it exported to neighbouring countries. In 1967, traditional medicine was included in the National Health System, and in 1971, formal training for Drungtshos (traditional doctors) and sMenpas (traditional compounders) began. In 1982, Bhutan established the Pharmaceutical and Research Unit, which manufactures, develops and researches traditional herbal medicines. Despite commendable achievements, considerable challenges lie ahead, but the advances of the past few decades bode well for the future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  6. Accounting for pH heterogeneity and variability in modelling human health risks from cadmium in contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, J. Rebecca; Korre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The authors have previously published a methodology which combines quantitative probabilistic human health risk assessment and spatial statistical methods (geostatistics) to produce an assessment, incorporating uncertainty, of risks to human health from exposure to contaminated land. The model assumes a constant soil to plant concentration factor (CF veg ) when calculating intake of contaminants. This model is modified here to enhance its use in a situation where CF veg varies according to soil pH, as is the case for cadmium. The original methodology uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to map soil concentration estimates for one contaminant across a site. A real, age-stratified population is mapped across the contaminated area, and intake of soil contaminants by individuals is calculated probabilistically using an adaptation of the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. The proposed improvement involves not only the geostatistical estimation of the contaminant concentration, but also that of soil pH, which in turn leads to a variable CF veg estimate which influences the human intake results. The results presented demonstrate that taking pH into account can influence the outcome of the risk assessment greatly. It is proposed that a similar adaptation could be used for other combinations of soil variables which influence CF veg .

  7. A Systems Approach to the Estimation of Ecosystem and Human Health Stressors in Air, Land and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooter, E. J.; Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur oxides (SOx) in air, land and water media are parts of tightly coupled geophysical systems resulting in multiple routes for human and ecosystem exposure. For instance, excess forms of total reactive N in water can lead to harmful algal blooms, with the depletion of oxygen and adverse impacts to aquatic ecosystem productivity in coastal estuaries. Acidic deposition can result in lost forest productivity for terrestrial ecosystem and impacts to trout and other fishery resources in inland waters. Human pulmonary health can be impaired when N and SOx in the atmosphere lead to the generation of ozone and particulate matter (PM). Atmospheric N deposition can also contribute to eutrophication of drinking water sources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has embarked on the development of a multi-media 'one environment' systems approach to these issues to help develop management decisions that create win-win policies. The purpose of this project is to develop a 'one environment' set of models that can inform protection of ecosystems and human health in both the current state and under future climate scenarios. The research framework focuses on three interrelated themes; coupling air quality with land use and agricultural land management, connecting the hydrosphere (i.e., coupling meteorology and hydrology) and linking the air/land/hydrosphere with ecosystem models and benefits models. We will present an overall modeling framework and then move to the presentation of on-going research results related to direct linkage of air quality with land use and agricultural land management. A modeling interface system has been developed that facilitates the simulation of field-scale agricultural land management decisions over a gridded domain at multiple grid resolutions for the Contiguous United States (CONUS) using a modified version of the USDA EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model. EPIC

  8. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  9. A Systematic Review of Land-Based Self-Exclusion Programs: Demographics, Gambling Behavior, Gambling Problems, Mental Symptoms, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Pittig, Andre; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2018-05-02

    Systematic and quantitative reviews on the effects of land-based self-exclusion are scarce. Therefore, the current review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of (1) the demographic characteristics of land-based self-excluders and changes after exclusion, including (2) gambling behavior, (3) gambling problems, (4) mental symptoms, and (5) mental health. A systematic database and literature search was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Nineteen naturalistic studies met the eligibility criteria. The quality of all included records was rated via adaption of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results from higher-quality records were more heavily weighted. Self-excluders were predominantly men in their early or middle forties. Changes after exclusion revealed wide ranges in the rates of abstinence (13-81%), rates of gambling reduction (29-92%), and rates of exclusion breaches (8-59%). The records consistently demonstrated significant changes in pathological gambling from before exclusion (61-95%) to after exclusion (13-26%). Up to 73% of self-excluders exhibited symptoms of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders at program enrollment. Several aspects of mental health improved after exclusion, e.g., quality of life. Problem and pathological gambling are most prevalent in young men, but self-exclusion was most prominent in middle-aged men. The magnitude of effects widely differed between studies despite overall benefits of self-exclusion, and many individuals continued gambling after exclusion. This shortcoming could be minimized using improved access controls and the extension of exclusion to other gambling segments. High rates of pathological gambling and other mental disorders in self-excluders highlight the need for improved early detection and treatment accessibility.

  10. Effects of age and health on the euthyroid reference ranges for serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, J.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Age-related trends in serum free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) concentrations were measured in 7248 euthyroid subjects (age-range 3 months to 106 years). 5700 were patients referred to hospitals for investigation of suspected thyroid dysfunction, but who were diagnosed euthyroid. 1548 were healthy blood donors (age-range 18-63 years) with no indication of thyroid dysfunction. FT 4 concentrations were little affected by the age, the sex or the state of health of the subjects in either group. Serum FT 3 concentrations were significantly affected by both age and health factors. The upper limit of the euthyroid reference range for young subjects up to 15 years was about 20% higher (10.4 pmol/l) than for adult subjects older than 25 years (8.8 pmol/l). The change in the upper limits typical of young subjects to that typical of adults occurred steadily over the decade 15-25 years. After this age, little further change occurred, especially in healthy subjects. Additionally, the lower limit of the euthyroid range for FT 3 was extended by the inclusion in the reference group of patients referred to hospitals. Compared with the lower limit of the FT 3 range for healthy subjects (5 pmol/l), the corresponding limit for referred subjects (young or adult) was 3.5-3.8 pmol/l. Broadening of the FT 3 reference range was probably brought about by a significant number of patients in the hospital-referred group with the 'low-T 3 syndrome' of mild non-thyroidal illness. Accordingly, FT 3 was inferior to FT 4 in the discrimination of hypothyroidism, as FT 4 was unaffected by this phenomenon. Effects of age and non-thyroidal illness on serum FT 3 concentrations require great care when selecting subjects for a laboratory euthyroid reference range typical of the routine workload. Constraints on the choice of subjects for FT 4 reference ranges are less stringent. (orig.) [de

  11. Assessment of Land Use Change and Sedimentation Modelling on Environmental Health in Tropical River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Sansena, T.; Bhaktikuld, K.; Roslan Umar; Asyaari Muhamad; Nor Azlina Abd Aziz; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Sediments are defined as the organic and inorganic materials or solid fragments derived from the weathering processes of sand, pebbles, silt, mud and loess. The objective of this research is to forecast sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir by using the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model to calculate the sediment volume from runoff, rainfall, and sediment volume data. The results from satellite imagery interpretation elucidated that from 2002 to 2005, forest area decreased approximately 50,220 km"2 or 36 %, and was converted to agricultural land. By applying the USLE equation, the soil erosion area was found to increase approximately 185,341 tons/ year between 2002 and 2005. This result illustrated that the impact of land use change greatly increased sedimentation volume. In applying the Neuro-genetic Optimizer model, the learning rate and momentum of this model was 0.9 and 0.1, respectively, and the initial weight value was ± 3. The model forecasted the annual sediment volume in the Lam Phra Phloeng reservoir in 2005 to be 49,855 tons with R"2 equals to 0.9994. The regression model, on the other hand, forecasted the sediment volume using the equation Y=198.48 x 1.1783 with R"2 equals to 0.9974, and the annual sediment volume was estimated to be 45,346 tons. The actual sediment volume in the reservoir in 2005 was obtained from The Royal Irrigation Department, which was found to be 48,697 tons. (author)

  12. Health, education and employment in India: a land of opulance, tragedy and hope

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Rajan Gupta is a theoretical physicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He has developed lectures on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention aimed at students, health workers, industrialists, parents, and industrial workers in India.

  13. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  14. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association of visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing with ankle dorsiflexion range-of-motion and hip abductor muscle strength among healthy female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Einstein, Ofira; Kozol, Zvi

    2018-05-01

    To explore the association between ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), and hip abductor muscle strength, to visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing. Cross-sectional. Gymnasium of participating teams. 37 female volleyball players. Quality of movement in the frontal-plane, sagittal-plane, and overall (both planes) was visually rated as "good/moderate" or "poor". Weight-bearing Ankle DF ROM and hip abductor muscle strength were compared between participants with differing quality of movement. Weight-bearing DF ROM on both sides was decreased among participants with "poor" sagittal-plane quality of movement (dominant side: 50.8° versus 43.6°, P = .02; non-dominant side: 54.6° versus 45.9°, P = .01), as well as among participants with an overall "poor" quality of movement (dominant side: 51.8° versus 44.0°, P movement (53.9° versus 46.0°, P = .02). No differences in hip abductor muscle strength were noted between participants with differing quality of movement. Visual assessment of jump-landing can detect differences in quality of movement that are associated with ankle DF ROM. Clinicians observing a poor quality of movement may wish to assess ankle DF ROM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Normal range albuminuria and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Young Park

    Full Text Available It is well-known that there is a close relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS and microalbuminuria. However, some recent studies have found that even normal range albuminuria was associated with MetS and cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between MetS and normal range albuminuria and to calculate the cutoff value for albuminuria that correlates with MetS in the representative fraction of Korean population.Data were obtained from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 9,650 subjects aged ≥ 19 years. We measured metabolic parameters: fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, and lipids, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR. The optimal ACR cutoff points for MetS were examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the prevalence of MetS and its components according to the ACR levels.The first cutoff value of ACR were 4.8 mg/g for subjects with ≥ 3 components of MetS. There was a graded association between ACR and prevalence of MetS and its components. If ACR was <4 mg/g, there was no significant increase in the prevalence of MetS or its components. From the ACR level of 4-5 mg/g, the prevalence of MetS significantly increased after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and medications for diabetes mellitus and hypertension (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals = 1.416; 1.041-1.926.Albuminuria within the normal range (around 5 mg/g was associated with prevalence of MetS in the Korean population.

  17. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  18. Mental health and trauma in asylum seekers landing in Sicily in 2015: a descriptive study of neglected invisible wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepet, Anna; Rita, Francesco; Reid, Anthony; Van den Boogaard, Wilma; Deiana, Pina; Quaranta, Gaia; Barbieri, Aurelia; Bongiorno, Francesco; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily. This study documents mental health conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties experienced by asylum seekers in the MSF programme in 2014-15. All asylum seekers transiting the 15 MSF-supported centres were invited to a psycho-educational session. A team of psychologists and cultural mediators then provided assessment and care for those identified with MH conditions. Potentially traumatic events experienced before and during the journey, as well as post-migratory living difficulties, were recorded. All those diagnosed with MH conditions from October 2014 to December 2015 were included in the study. Among 385 individuals who presented themselves for a MH screening during the study period, 193 (50%) were identified and diagnosed with MH conditions. Most were young, West African males who had left their home-countries more than a year prior to arrival. The most common MH conditions were post traumatic stress disorder (31%) and depression (20%). Potentially traumatic events were experienced frequently in the home country (60%) and during migration (89%). Being in a combat situation or at risk of death, having witnessed violence or death and having been in detention were the main traumas. Lack of activities, worries about home, loneliness and fear of being sent home were the main difficulties at the AS centres. MH conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties are

  19. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartjes, Frank A.; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  20. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  1. Standard error of measurement of five health utility indexes across the range of health for use in estimating reliability and responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari; Chen, Han-Yang; Kaplan, Robert M.; Feeny, David; Cherepanov, Dasha; Fryback, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Background Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) of health related quality of life (HRQoL) indexes are not well characterized. SEM is needed to estimate responsiveness statistics and provides guidance on using indexes on the individual and group level. SEM is also a component of reliability. Purpose To estimate SEM of five HRQoL indexes. Design The National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) was a population based telephone survey. The Clinical Outcomes and Measurement of Health Study (COMHS) provided repeated measures 1 and 6 months post cataract surgery. Subjects 3844 randomly selected adults from the non-institutionalized population 35 to 89 years old in the contiguous United States and 265 cataract patients. Measurements The SF6-36v2™, QWB-SA, EQ-5D, HUI2 and HUI3 were included. An item-response theory (IRT) approach captured joint variation in indexes into a composite construct of health (theta). We estimated: (1) the test-retest standard deviation (SEM-TR) from COMHS, (2) the structural standard deviation (SEM-S) around the composite construct from NHMS and (3) corresponding reliability coefficients. Results SEM-TR was 0.068 (SF-6D), 0.087 (QWB-SA), 0.093 (EQ-5D), 0.100 (HUI2) and 0.134 (HUI3), while SEM-S was 0.071, 0.094, 0.084, 0.074 and 0.117, respectively. These translate into reliability coefficients for SF-6D: 0.66 (COMHS) and 0.71 (NHMS), for QWB: 0.59 and 0.64, for EQ-5D: 0.61 and 0.70 for HUI2: 0.64 and 0.80, and for HUI3: 0.75 and 0.77, respectively. The SEM varied considerably across levels of health, especially for HUI2, HUI3 and EQ-5D, and was strongly influenced by ceiling effects. Limitations Repeated measures were five months apart and estimated theta contain measurement error. Conclusions The two types of SEM are similar and substantial for all the indexes, and vary across the range of health. PMID:20935280

  2. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  3. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  4. Challenges in identifying and determining the impacts of infection with pestiviruses on the herd health of free ranging cervid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and moused...

  5. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  6. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  7. HEALTH SURVEY OF FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  8. "If the land is healthy ... it makes the people healthy": the relationship between caring for Country and health for the Yorta Yorta Nation, Boonwurrung and Bangerang Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    'yotti' Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Phillips, Rebecca; Aldous, David

    2009-03-01

    This article reports on research undertaken with members of three Indigenous groups in Victoria, Australia, to explore the health and wellbeing implications of caring for Country (defined as having knowledge, sense of responsibility and inherent right to be involved in the management of traditional lands). The research findings provide a better understanding of this key determinant of the health and wellbeing of Indigenous people in the context of public health where there are few existing published studies assessing this relationship. Thirteen traditional custodians(1) and local Indigenous environmental workers were interviewed. This qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews identified that caring for Country offers great benefits, including building self-esteem, fostering self-identity, maintaining cultural connection and enabling relaxation and enjoyment through contact with the natural environment. Results generated indicate that caring for Country may offer a means of improving the current poor health status of Indigenous Australian peoples.

  9. Socio-demographic inequalities across a range of health status indicators and health behaviours among pregnant women in prenatal primary care: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R.; Mannien, J.; te Velde, S.J.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview

  10. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO2 and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda A.; Shandas, Vivek; Rosenstiel, Todd N.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC) shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants—and thus human health—is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO2 is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO2 observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA), and the spatial variation of NO2 with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develo...

  11. Land use/land cover and land capability data for evaluating land utilization and official land use planning in Indramayu Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarwulan, W.; Widiatmaka; Nahib, I.

    2018-05-01

    Land utilization in Indonesia is regulated in an official spatial land use planning (OSLUP), stipulated by government regulations. However in fact, land utilizations are often develops inconsistent with regulations. OSLUP itself is also not usually compatible with sustainable land utilizations. This study aims to evaluate current land utilizations and OSLUP in Indramayu Regency, West Java. The methodology used is the integrated analysis using land use and land cover (LU/LC) data, land capability data and spatial pattern in OSLUP. Actual LU/LC are interpreted using SPOT-6 imagery of 2014. The spatial data of land capabilities are derived from land capability classification using field data and laboratory analysis. The confrontation between these spatial data is interpreted in terms of future direction for sustainable land use planning. The results shows that Indramayu regency consists of 8 types of LU/LC. Land capability in research area range from class II to VIII. Only a small portion of the land in Indramayu has been used in accordance with land capability, but most of the land is used exceeding its land capability.

  12. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-24

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  13. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects

  14. Occupational and health safety guide for the study and recovery of contaminated land; Pilaantuneen maa-alueen tutkimuksen ja kunnostuksen tyoesuojeluopas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The guide reviews the accident and health hazards associated with the study and recovery of contaminated land and contains instructions for their assessment and prevention. The subject is approached in terms of risk management. Risk management involves not only the recognition of hazard and stress factors but also the methods of the assessment of the severity and significance of the risks and the risk management methods. The guide re-views the different risk factors in their appropriate subcategories: biological, physical, chemical and accident hazards. Work-related mental and physical stress is also addressed briefly. In the process of the study and recovery of contaminated land, it is important to plan the measures carefully in advance and to prepare for unexpected hazardous situations with appropriate precautions and personal protective equipment. The guide also addresses the responsibilities and duties of the project's operators. Other subjects include communication, orientation and occupational health responsibilities, for instance health inspections, vaccinations, exposure measurements and measures to be taken in case of accident. The guide also describes five typical recovery projects with their proper risk management measures. (orig.)

  15. On-Board State-of-Health Estimation at a Wide Ambient Temperature Range in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansi Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-health (SOH estimation method for electric vehicles (EVs is presented with three main advantages: (1 it provides joint estimation of cell’s aging states in terms of power and energy (i.e., SOHP and SOHE—because the determination of SOHP and SOHE can be reduced to the estimation of the ohmic resistance increase and capacity loss, respectively, the ohmic resistance at nominal temperature will be taken as a health indicator, and the capacity loss is estimated based on a mechanistic model that is developed to describe the correlation between resistance increase and capacity loss; (2 it has wide applicability to various ambient temperatures—to eliminate the effects of temperature on the resistance, another mechanistic model about the resistance against temperature is presented, which can normalize the resistance at various temperatures to its standard value at the nominal temperature; and (3 it needs low computational efforts for on-board application—based on a linear equation of cell’s dynamic behaviors, the recursive least-squares (RLS algorithm is used for the resistance estimation. Based on the designed performance and validation experiments, respectively, the coefficients of the models are determined and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified. The results at different aging states and temperatures show good accuracy and reliability.

  16. Tunneling Nanotubes and Gap Junctions–Their Role in Long-Range Intercellular Communication during Development, Health, and Disease Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ariazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines, gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs. It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. TNTs are long cytoplasmic bridges that enable long-range, directed communication between connected cells. The proposed functions of TNTs are diverse and not well understood but have been shown to include the cell-to-cell transfer of vesicles, organelles, electrical stimuli and small molecules. However, the exact role of TNTs and gap junctions for intercellular communication and their impact on disease is still uncertain and thus, the subject of much debate. The combined data from numerous laboratories indicate that some TNT mediate a long-range gap junctional communication to coordinate metabolism and signaling, in relation to infectious, genetic, metabolic, cancer, and age-related diseases. This review aims to describe the current knowledge, challenges and future perspectives to characterize and explore this new intercellular communication system and to design TNT-based therapeutic strategies.

  17. Elaboration of standards referred to human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the range of 9kHz to 300GHz in the National System of Health, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joao Henrique Campos de; Giacomet, Andrea Fatima; Cunha, Tarcisio; Drumond, Ivens; Sa, Fabiana O.; Mendes, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The Portaria of the Ministry of Health no. 279 (Ordinance 279), of February 22, 2005, establishes a Working Group-GT with the purpose to elaborate standards relating to human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the range of 9 kHz to 300 GHz in the Sistema Unico de Saude (National System of Health), Brazil. Since then, we have conducted several studies on the biological effects of radiation exposure in this spectral range. The GT proposes the use of the geographical instruments coupled information systems to define an alternative pattern of surveillance, based on the determination of Areas of Risks. Each source of electromagnetic radiation is associated with territorial boundaries that surround it using progressively larger distances, thus determining areas of influence whose intensity is attenuated as the distance to the source increases. This paper presents the main results obtained by the Working Group

  18. Standard error of measurement of 5 health utility indexes across the range of health for use in estimating reliability and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari; Chen, Han-Yang; Kaplan, Robert M; Feeny, David; Cherepanov, Dasha; Fryback, Dennis G

    2011-01-01

    Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indexes are not well characterized. SEM is needed to estimate responsiveness statistics, and is a component of reliability. To estimate the SEM of 5 HRQoL indexes. The National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) was a population-based survey. The Clinical Outcomes and Measurement of Health Study (COMHS) provided repeated measures. A total of 3844 randomly selected adults from the noninstitutionalized population aged 35 to 89 y in the contiguous United States and 265 cataract patients. The SF6-36v2™, QWB-SA, EQ-5D, HUI2, and HUI3 were included. An item-response theory approach captured joint variation in indexes into a composite construct of health (theta). The authors estimated 1) the test-retest standard deviation (SEM-TR) from COMHS, 2) the structural standard deviation (SEM-S) around theta from NHMS, and 3) reliability coefficients. SEM-TR was 0.068 (SF-6D), 0.087 (QWB-SA), 0.093 (EQ-5D), 0.100 (HUI2), and 0.134 (HUI3), whereas SEM-S was 0.071, 0.094, 0.084, 0.074, and 0.117, respectively. These yield reliability coefficients 0.66 (COMHS) and 0.71 (NHMS) for SF-6D, 0.59 and 0.64 for QWB-SA, 0.61 and 0.70 for EQ-5D, 0.64 and 0.80 for HUI2, and 0.75 and 0.77 for HUI3, respectively. The SEM varied across levels of health, especially for HUI2, HUI3, and EQ-5D, and was influenced by ceiling effects. Limitations. Repeated measures were 5 mo apart, and estimated theta contained measurement error. The 2 types of SEM are similar and substantial for all the indexes and vary across health.

  19. The Prevalence of Harmful Content on Outdoor Advertising in Los Angeles: Land Use, Community Characteristics, and the Spatial Inequality of a Public Health Nuisance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. Methods. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. Results. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy. PMID:24524512

  20. The prevalence of harmful content on outdoor advertising in Los Angeles: land use, community characteristics, and the spatial inequality of a public health nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Bryce C; Sloane, David C

    2014-04-01

    Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy.

  1. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-28

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  2. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects

  3. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  4. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period defined from over 63 000 records in a multihospital health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R D; Jensen, J; Maheshwari, A; Henry, E

    2010-08-01

    Blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes are part of the complete blood count. Reference ranges for these concentrations during the neonatal period, established by very large sample sizes and modern methods, are needed for identifying abnormally low or high values. We constructed reference ranges for eosinophils per microl and monocytes per microl among neonates of 22 to 42 weeks of gestation, on the day of birth, and also during 28 days after birth. Data were obtained from archived electronic records over an eight and one-half-year period in a multihospital health-care system. In keeping with the reference range concept, values were excluded from neonates with a diagnosis of infection or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Eosinophils and monocytes per microl of blood were electronically retrieved from 96 162 records, of which 63 371 that lacked a diagnosis of infection or NEC were included in this reference range report. The mean value for eosinophils per microl on the day of birth increased linearly between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation, as did the 5 and 95% values. The reference range at 40 weeks was 140 to 1300 microl(-1) (mean 550 microl(-1)). Similarly, the mean value for monocytes increased linearly over this interval, with a reference range at 40 weeks of 300 to 3300 microl(-1) (mean 1400 microl(-1)). Over the first 4 weeks after birth, no appreciable change was observed in 5% limit and mean eosinophil count, with a slight increase in the 95% limit in week 4. A slight increase in monocyte count was observed during the first 2 weeks after birth. The results of this analysis describe reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period. Additional study is needed for determining the relevance of values falling outside the reference range.

  5. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  6. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Jonathan R; Adam-Bradford, Andrew; Rigby, Janette E

    2009-12-21

    Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our

  7. Effects of mercury on health and first-year survival of free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Williams, G E; Frederick, P C; Spalding, M G

    1999-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have a negative impact on the health and survival of nestling and juvenile free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida. During 1994, when health and survival was monitored in a cohort of young birds with naturally variable concentrations of Hg, packed cell volume was positively correlated with blood Hg concentrations, and high Hg concentration in blood was not related to the probability of surviving during the first 10.5 months of life. During 1995, 70 first-hatched great egret chicks were included in a Hg field-dosing experiment to compare the effects of elevated Hg on health and survival. Birds were dosed while in the nest orally every 2.5 days for 15 days with 0.5 mg of methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) for an estimated intake of 1.54 mg MeHgCl/kg food intake. These birds were compared with controls, which received an estimated 0.41 mg MeHgCl/kg food. No differences were observed in health parameters or in the probability of surviving during the first 8 months of age between egrets that were dosed with Hg and those that were not. A likely explanation for the lack of any effects on health and survival between both groups could be that chicks at this age were eliminating most of the dietary Hg through the production of new feathers.

  8. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  9. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  10. The health and safety implications of local medical support for land seismic crews in remote locations in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, P.M.; Suter, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper attempts to detail the benefits and drawbacks of hiring local doctors to support the medical services needed for land seismic acquisition crews in remote locations in South East Asia. The actual conditions prevailing among such seismic operations will be presented highlighting the problems and risks involved. The management of these problems will be outlined in terms of prevention and actual diagnosis and treatment of disease and injuries including emergency stabilization and evacuation of critically ill patients. The results and lessons learned will be evaluated and discussed including the economics of setting up a reasonably reliable medical facility. The paper will conclude that local knowledge, high levels of training and low costs make this type of medical support beneficial for such operations and may well be applicable for similar operations in other parts of the world

  11. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS IMPOSING RESTRICTIONS IN LAND USE, BURDENED LAND RIGHTS DURING LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh J.

    2016-05-01

    of territorial restrictions in land use, formed on the principles of state security, a combination of state and local interests, to achieve a balanced ratio of economic and environmental interests of society and to ensure rational land use. Information on restrictions on land use rights and encumbrances on the land, was amended land systematized: • formation of land use and protection zones of objects and territories nature reserve fund objects Environmental Network; • definition (specification of borders of natural and agricultural zoning and parcels with especially valuable land; • definition (specification of land borders and security zones and areas of historical, cultural, health and recreational purposes; • definition (specification of land borders and security zones, objects (industry, transport, communications, defense, etc. and their protection zones; • definition (specification of limits of water protection zones and coastal strips, objects of sanitary protection; • definition (specification of limits of radioactive contaminated territories, and contaminated by heavy metals; • definition (specification limits encumbrances established easements, contracts, court order; • definition (specification limits areas formed in accordance with the previously approved land management documentation; • definition (specification boundaries of territories with special regime of land use; • definition (approval of the legal regime of land use in areas of special protection of land and formation of restrictions and encumbrances in land use.

  12. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution...... models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in ‘high allergy risk’ (HAR) areas, i.e., parts of Europe...... with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25%) of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas...

  13. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  14. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L A; Ikenaka, Y; Yohannes, Y B; van Vuren, J J; Wepener, V; Smit, N J; Darwish, W S; Nakayama, S M M; Mizukawa, H; Ishizuka, M

    2017-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,p'-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,p'-DDT and then p,p'-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risk.

  15. Effect of daily temperature range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM_1_0 exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations regarding temperature influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of daily temperature range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that temperature range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between temperature variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. - Highlights: • Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections. • Low education level and poor living conditions are strong modifiers of this relationship. • In Cordoba city higher risk for respiratory infections were observed during summertime. - Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections, particularly for populations with low educational level or poor living conditions.

  16. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  17. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  18. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV 1 /FVC ≥ LLN, FEV 1 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  20. Mastery, perceived stress and health-related behaviour in northeast Arnhem Land: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mark; Brown, Alex; Dhurrkay, J Garnggulkpuy; Cargo, Margaret D; O'Dea, Kerin

    2006-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples in Australia are disadvantaged on all markers of health and social status across the life course. Psychosocial factors are implicated in the aetiology of chronic diseases and in pathways underpinning social health disparities. Minimal research has investigated psychosocial factors and health in Indigenous peoples. This study evaluated associations between mastery, perceived stress, and health-related behaviour for a remote Indigenous population in Australia. Methods Complete data on mastery (the degree to which individuals feel in control of their lives), perceived stress, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained for 177 participants in a community-based chronic disease risk factor survey. Psychosocial questionnaires were completed as an option during community screening (response rate = 61.9%). Extensive consultation facilitated the cross-cultural adaptation of measures. Results Mastery was inversely correlated with perceived stress measures (p < 0.009): recent stress, r = -0.47; chronic stress, r = -0.41; and youth stress, r = -0.30. Relationships between mastery and behaviour varied according to age group (<25 or ≥25 years) for physical activity (p = 0.001) and vegetable consumption (p = 0.005). Individuals aged ≥25 years engaging in ≤2 bouts of physical activity/week had lower mastery than individuals engaging in ≥3 bouts/week, with means (95% CI) of 14.8 (13.7–15.8) and 17.1 (15.3–19.0), respectively (p = 0.026). Individuals aged ≥25 years eating vegetables ≤3 times/week had lower mastery than those eating vegetables ≥4 times/week (p = 0.009) [means 14.7 (13.8–15.5) and 17.3 (15.5–19.1), respectively]. Individuals <25 years engaging in ≤2 bouts of physical activity/week had greater mastery than individuals engaging in ≥3 bouts/week (p = 0.022) [means 17.2 (15.2–19.2) and 13.8 (11.9–15.7), respectively]. For men ≥25 years and women ≥15 years, mastery was inversely

  1. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  2. Adverse mental health effects of cannabis use in two indigenous communities in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia: exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; d'Abbs, Peter; Cairney, Sheree; Gray, Dennis; Maruff, Paul; Parker, Robert; O'Reilly, Bridie

    2005-07-01

    We investigated adverse mental health effects and their associations with levels of cannabis use among indigenous Australian cannabis users in remote communities in the Northern Territory. Local indigenous health workers and key informants assisted in developing 28 criteria describing mental health symptoms. Five symptom clusters were identified using cluster analysis of data compiled from interviews with 103 cannabis users. Agreement was assessed (method comparison approach, kappa-statistic) with a clinician's classification of the 28 criteria into five groups labelled: 'anxiety', 'dependency', 'mood', 'vegetative' and 'psychosis'. Participants were described as showing 'anxiety', 'dependency' etc., if they reported half or more of the symptoms comprising the cluster. Associations between participants' self-reported cannabis use and each symptom cluster were assessed (logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, other substance use). Agreement between two classifications of 28 criteria into five groups was 'moderate' (64%, kappa = 0.55, p < 0.001). When five clusters were combined into three, 'anxiety-dependency', 'mood-vegetative' and 'psychosis', agreement rose to 71% (kappa = 0.56, p < 0.001). 'Anxiety-dependency' was positively associated with number of 'cones' usually smoked per week and this remained significant when adjusted for confounders (p = 0.020) and tended to remain significant in those who had never sniffed petrol (p = 0.052). Users of more than five cones per week were more likely to display 'anxiety-dependency' symptoms than those who used one cone per week (OR = 15.8, 1.8-141.2, p = 0.013). A crude association between the 'mood-vegetative' symptom cluster and number of cones usually smoked per week (p = 0.014) also remained statistically significant when adjusted for confounders (p = 0.012) but was modified by interactions with petrol sniffing (p = 0.116) and alcohol use (p = 0.276). There were no associations between cannabis use and 'psychosis

  3. Novel Insights Linking Ecological Health to Biogeochemical Hotspots across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface in Mixed Land Use Stream Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, U. S.; Sonne, A. T.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Rønde, V.; Traunspurger, W.; Höss, S.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing modifications in land use and water management have resulted in multiple stressors impacting freshwater ecosystems globally. Chemicals with the potential to impact aquatic habitats are still often evaluated individually for their adverse effects on ecosystem health. This may lead to critical underestimations of the combined impact caused by interactions occurring between stressors not typically evaluated together, e.g. xenobiotic groundwater pollutants and trace metals. To address this issue, we identified sources and levels of chemical stressors along a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark), representative for a mixed land use stream system. Potential pollution sources included two contaminated sites (factory, landfill), aquaculture, wastewater/industrial discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Ecological status was determined by monitoring meiobenthic and macrobenthic invertebrate communities.The stream was substantially impaired by both geogenic and anthropogenic sources of metals throughout the investigated corridor, with concentrations close to or above threshold values for barium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in the stream water, hyporheic zone and streambed sediment. The groundwater plume from the factory site caused elevated concentrations of chlorinated ethenes, benzene and pharmaceuticals in both the hyporheic zone and stream, persisting for several km downstream. Impaired ecological conditions, represented by a lower abundance of meiobenthic individuals, were found in zones where the groundwater plume discharges to the stream. The effect was only pronounced in areas characterized by high xenobiotic organic concentrations and elevated dissolved iron and arsenic levels - linked to the dissolution of iron hydroxides caused by the degradation of xenobiotic compounds in the plume. The results thus provide ecological evidence for the interaction of organic and inorganic chemical stressors, which may

  4. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L. in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rasmussen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp. in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5. We quantify the extent of the increase in ‘high allergy risk’ (HAR areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25% of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27–100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

  5. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Muscarella, Robert; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species ( Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' (HAR) areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25%) of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27-100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

  6. Health effects from long-range transported contaminants in Arctic top predators: An integrated review based on studies of polar bears and relevant model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a thorough overview of the health effects from the complexed biomagnified mixture of long-range transported industrial organochlorines (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and mercury (Hg) on polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health. Multiple scientific studies of polar bears indicate negative relationships between exposure to these contaminants and health parameters; however, these are all of a correlative nature and do not represent true cause-and-effects. Therefore, information from controlled studies of farmed Norwegian Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and housed East and West Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) were included as supportive weight of evidence in the clarification of contaminant exposure and health effects in polar bears. The review showed that hormone and vitamin concentrations, liver, kidney and thyroid gland morphology as well as reproductive and immune systems of polar bears are likely to be influenced by contaminant exposure. Furthermore, exclusively based on polar bear contaminant studies, bone density reduction and neurochemical disruption and DNA hypomethylation of the brain stem seemed to occur. The range of tissue concentration, at which these alterations were observed in polar bears, were ca. 1-70,000 ng/g lw for OCs (blood plasma concentrations of some PCB metabolites even higher), ca. 1-1000 ng/g lw for PBDEs and for PFCs and Hg 114-3052 ng/g ww and 0.1-50 microg/g ww, respectively. Similar concentrations were found in farmed foxes and housed sledge dogs while the lack of dose response designs did not allow an estimation of threshold levels for oral exposure and accumulated tissue concentrations. Nor was it possible to pinpoint a specific group of contaminants being more important than others nor analyze their interactions. For East Greenland polar bears the corresponding daily SigmaOC and SigmaPBDE oral exposure was estimated to be 35 and 0.34 microg/kg body

  7. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  8. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, Brooke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-26

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of applicant site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991 and 2010. They are being updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  9. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site 2017 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-25

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of relatively small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991, 2008, 2010, and 2016 and are being concurred with or updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk, and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  10. PLUS: 'Planning Land Use with Students' is a Local Land Use Policy That Showcase the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides

  11. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Beaumont

    Full Text Available The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5. The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  12. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through sequestration and storage. This requires land use, land use change and forestry to be managed with respect to climate change goals. Carbon storage has ...

  13. Changes in land use and housing on resource lands in Washington state, 1976–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew N. Gray; David L. Azuma; Gary J. Lettman; Joel L. Thompson; Neil McKay

    2013-01-01

    Changes in human land use patterns have wide-ranging social, economic and ecological implications. How urban and residential areas develop to accommodate population increase can have varying effects on forest and agricultural production from resource lands. Estimates of the amount and type of land use change differ substantially with definitions and analytical methods...

  14. Qualitative and quantitative physical land evaluation : an operational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Physical land evaluation methods are crucial for evaluating potentials and constraints of land for intended land use. Physical resources, such as soil, climate, hydrology, and topography are evaluated. Different technical procedures are used for physical land evaluation ranging from simple

  15. Fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonated and sandstone reservoirs in the fronts and fore-lands of folded chains: the Salt Range case - Poswar (Pakistan); Circulation des fluides et diagenese des reservoirs carbonates et greseux dans les fronts de chaines plissees et leur avant pays: le cas du Salt Range - Poswar (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchilla, L.

    2003-05-01

    The Salt Range-Poswar Province is located in the western foothills of the Himalayas, in northern Pakistan. It extends over 170 km from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north to the Salt Range in the south. The Salt Range itself is dominantly an ENE-trending structure, but it comprises also a NNW-trending lateral ramp which connects to the west with the Surghar Range. The Salt Range constitutes the frontal part of a detached allochthonous thrust sheet. The sedimentary cover is indeed entirely detached from its substratum along Infracambrian salt horizons. Palaeozoic to Eocene platform series are well exposed in the hanging wall, whereas Neogene molasse has been extensively under-thrust in the footwall of this large over-thrust. The North Potwar Basin is bordered by the Khari-Murat Ridge and coeval back-thrusts in the south, by the northern flank of the Soan syncline in the southeast, and by the MBT in the north. In addition to Neogene outcrops, it also comprises a number of surface anticlines and thrust fronts along which the Eocene platform carbonates are exposed. The Datta Formation is the main Jurassic oil reservoir in the Potwar Basin. It is a fluvio-deltaic deposit which comprises large porous and permeable channels associated to many-calcareous interbeds. The formations crop out well in both the Nammal and Chichali Gorges. The oil field of Toot, located in the western part of the basin, is producing from this reservoir. The petrographic observations show that diagenesis occurred mainly early and was controlled by the fluvio-deltaic environment. (author)

  16. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  17. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  18. Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.

    2017-01-01

    LVT is a framework developed to provide an automated, consolidated environment for systematic land surface model evaluation Includes support for a range of in-situ, remote-sensing and other model and reanalysis products. Supports the analysis of outputs from various LIS subsystems, including LIS-DA, LIS-OPT, LIS-UE. Note: The Land Information System Verification Toolkit (LVT) is a NASA software tool designed to enable the evaluation, analysis and comparison of outputs generated by the Land Information System (LIS). The LVT software is released under the terms and conditions of the NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA) Version 1.1 or later. Land Information System Verification Toolkit (LVT) NOSA.

  19. Increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Twining

    Full Text Available Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo. We found the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga had highest, albeit variable, occupancy in areas of low land use intensity and the Southeast Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator macromaculatus had highest occupancy in areas of high land use intensity. Land use had no effect on the combined occupancy of the two species. In high land use intensity sites, individual water monitors were larger and had better body condition, but at population level had a highly biased sex ratio with more males than females and increased signs of intraspecific conflict. We did not assess scavenging rate or efficiency as a process, but the high occupancy rates and apparent health of the scavengers in high land use intensity landscapes suggests this ecological process is robust to land use change.

  20. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  1. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove

  2. Evaluating Land Subsidence Rates and Their Implications for Land Loss in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High subsidence rates, along with eustatic sea-level change, sediment accumulation and shoreline erosion have led to widespread land loss and the deterioration of ecosystem health around the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB. A proper evaluation of the spatial pattern of subsidence rates in the LMRB is the key to understanding the mechanisms of the submergence, estimating its potential impacts on land loss and the long-term sustainability of the region. Based on the subsidence rate data derived from benchmark surveys from 1922 to 1995, this paper constructed a subsidence rate surface for the region through the empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK interpolation method. The results show that the subsidence rates in the region ranged from 1.7 to 29 mm/year, with an average rate of 9.4 mm/year. Subsidence rates increased from north to south as the outcome of both regional geophysical conditions and anthropogenic activities. Four areas of high subsidence rates were found, and they are located in Orleans, Jefferson, Terrebonne and Plaquemines parishes. A projection of future landscape loss using the interpolated subsidence rates reveals that areas below zero elevation in the LMRB will increase from 3.86% in 2004 to 19.79% in 2030 and 30.88% in 2050. This translates to a growing increase of areas that are vulnerable to land loss from 44.3 km2/year to 240.7 km2/year from 2011 to 2050. Under the same scenario, Lafourche, Plaquemines and Terrebonne parishes will experience serious loss of wetlands, whereas Orleans and Jefferson parishes will lose significant developed land, and Lafourche parish will endure severe loss of agriculture land.

  3. Exercise in a bottle: Elucidating how exercise conveys health benefits might lead to new therapeutic options for a range of diseases from cancer to metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Research has identified several key molecules and pathways involved in the health benefits of exercise that could help to develop an ‘exercise pill’. Delivering some of these benefits through potential drugs is still some way off, but might help people otherwise unable to exercise owing to existing health conditions.

  4. LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-08-06

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6

  5. Land And Water Use Characteristics And Human Health Input Parameters For Use In Environmental Dosimetry And Risk Assessments At The Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6

  6. Military Training Lands Historic Context: Small Arms Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. All product names and...National Archives in Col- lege Park, Maryland; Pat Lacey, ERDC-CERL Librarian ; Michelle Michael at Fort Bragg, NC; John Doss at Fort Bragg, NC; Laurie...and style of a property. It results from conscious decisions made during the original conception and planning of a property (or its sig- nificant

  7. Military Training Lands Historic Context: Large Arms Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. All product names and trademarks...Yarbough in the Carto- graphic and Architectural Record Room at the National Archives in Col- lege Park, Maryland; Pat Lacey, ERDC-CERL Librarian ...combination of elements that create the form, plan, space, structure, and style of a property. It results from conscious decisions made during the

  8. Scientific case studies in land-use driven soil erosion in the central United States: Why soil potential and risk concepts should be included in the principles of soil health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Turner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent improvements in overall soil health gained through conservation agriculture, which has become a global priority in agricultural systems, soil and water-related externalities (e.g., wind and water erosion continue to persist or worsen. Using an inductive, systems approach, we tested the hypothesis that such externalities persist due to expansion of cultivation onto areas unsuitable for sustained production. To test this hypothesis, a variety of data sources and analyses were used to uncover the land and water resource dynamics underlying noteworthy cases of soil erosion (either wind or water and hydrological effects (e.g., flooding, shifting hydrographs throughout the central United States. Given the evidence, we failed to reject the hypothesis that cultivation expansion is contributing to increased soil and water externalities, since significant increases in cultivation on soils with severe erosion limitations were observed everywhere the externalities were documented. We discuss the case study results in terms of land use incentives (e.g., policy, economic, and biophysical, developing concepts of soil security, and ways to utilize case studies such as those presented to better communicate the value of soil and water resource conservation. Incorporating the tenets of soil potential and soil risk into soil health evaluations and cultivation decision-making is needed to better match the soil resource with land use and help avoid more extreme soil and water-related externalities.

  9. Caribbean land and development revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, James; Momsen, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The book is an interdisciplinary collection of fifteen essays, with an editorial introduction, on a range of territories in the Commonwealth, Francophone, and Hispanic Caribbean. The authors focus on land and development, providing fresh perspectives through a collection of international contributing authors.

  10. The Effect of Smartphones on Human Health Relative to User's Addiction: A Study on a Wide Range of Audiences in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    T. Qasim; M. Obeidat; S. Al-Sharairi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the excessive use of smartphones. Smartphones have enormous effects on the human body in that some musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and health problems might evolve. These days, there is a wide use of the smartphones among all age groups of society, thus, the focus on smartphone effects on human behavior and health, especially on the young and elderly people, becomes a crucial issue. This study was conducted in Jordan on smartphone u...

  11. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  12. Applying a Problem Based Learning Approach to Land Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land management covers a wide range activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to fulfil political objectives and achieve sustainable development. This paper presents an overall understanding of the land management paradigm and the benefits of good...... land governance to society. A land administration system provides a country with the infrastructure to implement land-related policies and land management strategies. By applying this land management profile to surveying education, this paper suggests that there is a need to move away from an exclusive...... engineering focus toward adopting an interdisciplinary and problem-based approach to ensure that academic programmes can cope with the wide range of land administration functions and challenges. An interdisciplinary approach to surveying education calls for the need to address issues and problems in a real...

  13. Range and specificity of war-related trauma to posttraumatic stress; depression and general health perception: displaced former World War II children in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kristin; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Silke

    2011-02-01

    Dose-response relation of war experiences and posttraumatic stress, depression and poor health functioning in late life is well documented in war-affected populations. The influence of differing trauma types experienced by war-affected population in the study of dose-response relation of war trauma and psychological maladaptation in late life has not been investigated. We examined a subgroup of displaced elders and investigated whether specific trauma types were associated with differential health outcomes. From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%). Measurement encompassed a self-report survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent dose-relation between war-related experiences and posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms in late life was found for both, displaced and non-displaced elders, whereas a gradient for poor health perception was only found in displaced people. Trauma types derived from principal component analysis showed differential associations with health outcomes. Human Right Violations emerged as risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms and Deprivation & Threat to Life as risk factor for depressive symptoms. Poor self-rated health was associated with multiple trauma types. Non-random recruitment, retrospective design and use of self-report. Posttraumatic stress and depression are associated with war-related experiences more than 60 years after World War II. Results suggest that different trauma types lead to unique variants of syndrome configurations, which may result from different etiological factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Land Use Control Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Andrew Scott

    2015-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of Building M7-505 of institutional controls that have been implemented at the site. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with Building M7-505, institutional land use controls (LUCs) are necessary to prohibit the use of groundwater from the site. LUCs are also necessary to prevent access to soil under electrical equipment in the northwest portion of the site. Controls necessary to prevent human exposure will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  15. Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.; Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing

  16. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... hand, the government is also working to increase national economic growth by promoting private-sector investment in both agriculture and forest resources – two sectors that compete for the same areas intended for protection. This thesis explores how these contradictory drivers of land-use changes...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture...

  17. Reference ranges of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, total and free testosterone determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS and associations to health markers in 304 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.S.; Johannsen, T H; Holmboe, Stine Agergaard

    2016-01-01

    . The study was based on 304 healthy men aged 30-61 years participating in a population-based cross-sectional study (Health2008). Examination program consisted of a clinical examination, completion of a self-administered questionnaire and blood sampling. Steroid metabolites were measured by a validated...

  18. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  19. The Standley allotment: a history of range recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald S. Strickler; Wade B. Hall

    1980-01-01

    One of the first range research programs on National Forest lands was conducted by Dr. Arthur W. Sampson in the Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, between 1907 and 1911. This paper reviews the historical perspective of and the basic range management principles and practices developed from Sampson's studies as well as the land and grazing management of the study area to...

  20. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  1. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  2. Effects of urban land-use on largescale stonerollers in the Mobile River Basin, Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Deborah; Black, M.C.; Blazer, Vicki; Zappia, H.; Bryant, Wade L.

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and fall of 2001 and the spring of 2002 a study was conducted to evaluate the health of the largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis) populations in streams along an urban land-use gradient. Sites were selected from a pool of naturally similar sub-basins (eco-region, basin size, and geology) of the Mobile River basin (MRB), using an index of urban intensity derived from infrastructure, socioeconomic, and land-use data. This urban land-use gradient (ULUG) is a multimetric indicator of urban intensity, ranging from 0 (background) to 100 (intense urbanization). Campostoma sp. have been used previously as indicators of stream health and are common species found in all sites within the MRB. Endpoints used to determine the effects of urban land-use on the largescale stoneroller included total glutathione, histology, hepatic apoptosis, condition factor and external lesions. Liver glutathione levels were positively associated with increasing urban land-use (r2 = 0.94). Histopathological examination determined that some abnormalities and lesions were correlated with the ULUG and generally increased in prevalence or severity with increasing urbanization. Liver macrophage aggregates were positively correlated to the ULUG. The occurrence of nucleosomal ladders (indicating apoptotic cell death) did not correspond with urban intensity in a linear fashion. Apoptosis, as well as prevalence and severity of a myxozoan parasite, appeared to have a hormetic dose–response relationship. The majority of the biomarkers suggested fish health was compromised in areas where the ULUG ≥ 36.

  3. Effects of urban land-use on largescale stonerollers in the Mobile River Basin, Birmingham, AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, D; Black, M C; Blazer, V S; Zappia, H; Bryant, W

    2016-04-01

    During the spring and fall of 2001 and the spring of 2002 a study was conducted to evaluate the health of the largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis) populations in streams along an urban land-use gradient. Sites were selected from a pool of naturally similar sub-basins (eco-region, basin size, and geology) of the Mobile River basin (MRB), using an index of urban intensity derived from infrastructure, socioeconomic, and land-use data. This urban land-use gradient (ULUG) is a multimetric indicator of urban intensity, ranging from 0 (background) to 100 (intense urbanization). Campostoma sp. have been used previously as indicators of stream health and are common species found in all sites within the MRB. Endpoints used to determine the effects of urban land-use on the largescale stoneroller included total glutathione, histology, hepatic apoptosis, condition factor and external lesions. Liver glutathione levels were positively associated with increasing urban land-use (r(2) = 0.94). Histopathological examination determined that some abnormalities and lesions were correlated with the ULUG and generally increased in prevalence or severity with increasing urbanization. Liver macrophage aggregates were positively correlated to the ULUG. The occurrence of nucleosomal ladders (indicating apoptotic cell death) did not correspond with urban intensity in a linear fashion. Apoptosis, as well as prevalence and severity of a myxozoan parasite, appeared to have a hormetic dose-response relationship. The majority of the biomarkers suggested fish health was compromised in areas where the ULUG ≥ 36.

  4. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  5. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  6. Introducing New Peer Worker Roles into Mental Health Services in England: Comparative Case Study Research Across a Range of Organisational Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Steve; Holley, Jess; Gibson, Sarah; Larsen, John; Lucock, Mike; Oborn, Eivor; Rinaldi, Miles; Stamou, Elina

    2015-11-01

    A wide variety of peer worker roles is being introduced into mental health services internationally. Empirical insight into whether conditions supporting role introduction are common across organisational contexts is lacking. A qualitative, comparative case study compared the introduction of peer workers employed in the statutory sector, voluntary sector and in organisational partnerships. We found good practice across contexts in structural issues including recruitment and training, but differences in expectations of the peer worker role in different organisational cultures. Issues of professionalism and practice boundaries were important everywhere but could be understood very differently, sometimes eroding the distinctiveness of the role.

  7. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    -quality regional land cover maps on a regular basis that are consistent and continuous across the landscape. The system is being designed to facilitate improved policy, planning, and decision making by a wide range of users (such as government agencies, local community groups, non-profit organizations, and the private sector).

  8. US land use and energy policy: assessing potential conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowall, D E

    1980-03-01

    The author identifies areas of potential conflict between land-use planning and energy policy. Conflicts center on the rate and intensity of land use, location of land-using activities, and the diversity and interaction of these activities. A range of regulations affecting land use and energy planning are presented and areas of policy choice are indicated. Three energy programs (decentralized technologies, energy-conserving land-use planning, and energy facility siting) are used to illustrate land-use-planning issues. The policy research needed for conflict resolution is also outlined. 36 references.

  9. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  10. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  11. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  12. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  13. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  14. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  15. Global achievements in sustainable land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Motavalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification and development of sustainable land management is urgently required because of widespread resource degradation from poor land use practices. In addition, the world will need to increase food production to meet the nutritional needs of a growing global population without major environmental degradation. Ongoing climate change and its impacts on the environment is an additional factor to consider in identifying and developing sustainable land use practices. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 provide a background to the need for sustainable land management, (2 identify some of its major components, and (3 discuss some examples of sustainable land management systems that are being practiced around the world. Some common components of this type of management are: (1 understanding the ecology of land management, (2 maintenance or enhancement of land productivity, (3 maintenance of soil quality, (4 increased diversity for higher stability and resilience, (5 provision of economic and ecosystem service benefits for communities, and (6 social acceptability. Several examples of sustainable land management systems are discussed to illustrate the wide range of systems that have been developed around the world including agroforestry, conservation agriculture, and precision agricultural systems. Improved technology, allowing for geater environmental measurement and for improved access and sharing of information, provides opportunities to identify and develop more sustainable land management practices and systems for the future.

  16. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie George

    Full Text Available While the association of ethnic group with individual cardiovascular diseases has been studied, little is known about ethnic differences in the initial lifetime presentation of clinical cardiovascular disease in contemporary populations.We studied 1,068,318 people, aged ≥30 years and free from diagnosed CVD at baseline (90.9% White, 3.6% South Asian and 2.9% Black, using English linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, acute coronary syndrome registry and mortality registry (CALIBER platform. During 5.7 years median follow-up between 1997-2010, 95,224 people experienced an incident cardiovascular diagnosis. 69.9% (67.2%-72.4% of initial presentation in South Asian <60 yrs were coronary heart disease presentations compared to 47.8% (47.3%-48.3% in White and 40.1% (36.3%-43.9% in Black patients. Compared to White patients, Black patients had significantly lower age-sex adjusted hazard ratios (HRs for initial lifetime presentation of all the coronary disease diagnoses (stable angina HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.68-0.93; unstable angina- 0.75 (0.59-0.97; myocardial infarction 0.49 (0.40-0.62 while South Asian patients had significantly higher HRs (stable angina- 1.67 (1.52-1.84; unstable angina 1.82 (1.56-2.13; myocardial infarction- 1.67 (1.49-1.87. We found no ethnic differences in initial presentation with heart failure (Black 0.97 (0.79-1.20; S Asian 1.04(0.87-1.26. Compared to White patients, Black patients were more likely to present with ischaemic stroke (1.24 (0.97-1.58 and intracerebral haemorrhage (1.44 (0.97-2.12. Presentation with peripheral arterial disease was less likely for Black (0.63 (0.50-0.80 and South Asian patients (0.70 (0.57-0.86 compared with White patients.While we found the anticipated substantial predominance of coronary heart disease presentations in South Asian and predominance of stroke presentations in Black patients, we found no ethnic differences in presentation with heart failure. We

  17. Understanding How Participants Become Champions and Succeed in Adopting Healthy Lifestyles: A Storytelling of a Community Health and Nutrition Program at a Land-Grant University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo, Phalla Duong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and understand the experiences of participants who become champions and succeed in adopting healthy lifestyles. The setting was a health and nutrition educational program at University of Minnesota Extension. The main research questions were: How do participants in the Community Health Education Program…

  18. PROBLEMS DRAFTING OF LAND USE TO ESTABLISH THE LIMITS RESTRICTIONS IN THE USE OF LAND AND THE OBJECT WITH REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Dorosh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the legal framework of restrictions in land use and their regime facilities (laws, regulations, rules, regulations, standards and classifications. Found that the current classification provides for the conduct of State Land Cadastre is flawed because it does not cover all kinds of restrictions, making impossible to use it for practical purposes. Therefore, we proposed territorial restrictions in the use of land classified by types and species. The classification confirms expediency to distinguish meaningful component of the project land to establish limits restrictions in land use and their rezhymoutvoryuyuchyh objects from the standard procedure of development for all types of project documentation provided by the Law of Ukraine "On Land Management". The article contains an updated block model for the drafting of land to establish the limits of restrictions on land use and regime facilities.The project land boundaries to establish restrictions on land use and regime facilities include: 1 drafting task on land; 2 an explanatory note; 3 the decision of the local government of drafting; 4 characterization of the natural environment; 5 certificate containing a summary of land (territory; 6 Cartogram agro-industrial groups of soils and steep slopes; 7 geodetic surveys and materials of Land Management 8 information on the current state of land use and protection (including registered in the State Land Cadastre restrictions on land use; 9 description of the territory by establishing usage of land of natural reserve fund and other environmental protection, health, recreational, historical, cultural, forestry purposes, land and water resources protection zones, restrictions in land use and their regime facilities; 10 within the limits the settlement - a copy of the graphic part of the master plan of settlement (if applicable, and outside the village - a copy of the appropriate planning documentation (if any and a copy of the decision on the

  19. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  20. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    on fieldwork in a village in the new lands; it is inhabited by graduates who have received land under the Mubarak Project. The analysis shows that they move there in hope of making a better life especially for their children. Nevertheless, the settlers have difficulties building a sense of belonging to the new....... This paper examines from a micro-perspective, the life of Egyptians resettled in the new lands. The first part of the paper provides an introduction to the discourses of land reclamation, to the policies of reclaimed land distribution, and to the background of the settlers. The second part is based...

  1. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  2. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  3. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  4. International Land Coalition: Women's access to land

    OpenAIRE

    International Land Coalition (ILC)

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Land Coalition (ILC) started as the Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty. This is a global alliance of intergovernmental, governmental and civil-society organizations committed to rural poverty eradication. On their website, (on the left click on documents) the link presents a list of resources related to the role of women and access to land. There are case studies and country reports in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Nepal, as wel...

  5. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  6. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... land-based livelihoods. The paper presents an empirical case study of the village of Na Nhang Neua in Nambak District, Luang Prabang Province, using a mixed methods approach to investigate the positive and negative implications for household agricultural strategies, income generation and food security...

  7. Establishing the link between health effects and tire pyrolysis emissions through X RF spectrometry of particulate matter in the 2.5 range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Bucal, Camille Grace DL.

    2011-01-01

    concentration dropped to zero, showing that all of the Zn comes from tire pyrolysis. Residual amounts of the elements (S, Pb, Al, Mg) and Black C could have come from other sources. The data generated provided technical basis linking health effects to tire pyrolysis emissions. This is now being invoked as the regulatory process takes its course and proponents of the facility claim that their emissions do not reach the effected communities. (author)

  8. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora

    OpenAIRE

    Amoroso, Victor B.; Aspiras, Reyno A.

    2010-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and ...

  9. Utilizing 1-Meter Land Cover Data to Increase Sensitivity of Studies Exploring Relationships between Urban Natural Spaces and Health across Multiple Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Previous studies have positively correlated human nature exposures with health promoting outcomes such as increased physical activity, improved cognitive function, increased social engagement, and reduced ambient air pollution. When using remotely-sensed data to investig...

  10. Redistributive Land Reform in Rwanda: The impact on Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    children as the impact of access to land; the number of children underweight decreased even if many of .... countries in the 2006 Human Development Report (HDR). In addition, the country ...... Pharmacy, Mental. Health and Public Health.

  11. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  12. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  13. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  14. THE VALUE AND ROLE OF LAND MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-02-01

    (2001 power rural town councils on order, including the management of land use, land narrowed to only settlements. This led to the decline in land management activities performed. Also, due to lack of funding work on complex land use of rational use of land and their health are not implemented. This land use agricultural land use, which functioned until 1990 was destroyed, and new forms of the rational internal build area to date has not been established. According to Art. 130 Land Code of Ukraine emptive right to purchase agricultural land are citizens ofUkraine, permanently residing in the territory of the local council, where the sale of land, as well as relevant local authorities. However, the status of territory of the local council in land law is not defined. No separation of state and municipal property without development of land management projects within the areas of village councils to streamline land farms has created a number of problems of forecasting, planning and organization of rational use and protection of land at local and economic levels, and therefore financially stable communities. Thus, the importance and role of land management at the local level in the development of local communities land use at this stage of development of land relations is growing. But it needs to speed up recovery (existing before the adoption of the Land Code of Ukraine in 2001 the powers of local communities in the sphere of land relations.

  15. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Garrison; Ardell J. Bjugstad; Don A. Duncan; Mont E. Lewis; Dixie R. Smith

    1977-01-01

    This publication describes the 34 ecosystems into which all the land of the 48 contiguous states has been classified in the Forest-Range Environmental Study (FRES) of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The description of each ecosystem discusses physiography, climate, vegetation, fauna, soils, and land use. For a number of the ecosystems, the...

  16. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  17. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...... and personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  18. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  19. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  20. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  1. Lands directorate publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The directorate has a lead role in providing advice to the federal government on land use policy in Canada. The Canada Land Inventory (CLI) Program has produced significant amounts of data pertaining to the capability of Canadian lands to support agriculture, forestry, recreation, wildlife and sport fish. A list of CLI reports is presented in this publication. In addition, and capability maps have been compiled for agricultural, forestry, recreation and wildlife and are listed and described in this publication. (KRM)

  2. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  3. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  4. Mozambique - Rural Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation strategy for the Land Project is comprised of four components-an impact evaluation of the institutional strengthening activity (Activity II),...

  5. Therapy by electromagnetic wave of millimeter energy range (EFH-therapy, MRT, IWT). Scientific and practical materials on the use of physical factors in clinical and health resort practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Fisenko, L.I.; Kolesnik, K.Eh.; Chukhraev, N.V.; Shimkov, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    Problems of extremely high frequency (EHF) therapy, microwave resonance therapy (MRT) and information-wave therapy (IWT) are considered. Possibilities of electromagnetic waves in millimeter energy range use in clinical and health resort practice are systematized. Recommendations on their use in treatment of different diseases are given. The main principles of selection of zones for meridian correction with the help of electromagnetic waves in millimeter energy range are exposed. The results of EFH-therapy clinical use indicate the possibility of its application practically in all cases, since positive results were obtained in most cases. The recommendations are prepared with account of possibilities and parameters of the apparatus ''MIT-1'' for reflexotherapy which was designed and produced by the Medical Innovative Centre in Kiev

  6. The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Research and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Manfredo, M.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Rechkemmer, A.; Duke, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land change is the result of multiple human-environment interactions operating across different scales. Land change research needs to account for processes ranging from global trade of food and energy to the local management of land resources at farm and landscape level. Land change has a pronounced

  7. Assessing the influence of land use land cover pattern, socio economic factors and air quality status to predict morbidity on the basis of logistic based regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A.; Singh, V. K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies conducted by World Health Organisation (WHO) estimated that 92 % of the total world population are living in places where the air quality level has exceeded the WHO standard limit for air quality. This is due to the change in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern, socio economic drivers and anthropogenic heat emission caused by manmade activity. Thereby, many prevalent human respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema have increased in recent times. In this study, a quantitative relationship is developed between land use (built-up land, water bodies, and vegetation), socio economic drivers and air quality parameters using logistic based regression model over 7 different cities of India for the winter season of 2012 to 2016. Different LULC, socio economic, industrial emission sources, meteorological condition and air quality level from the monitoring stations are taken to estimate the influence on morbidity of each city. Results of correlation are analyzed between land use variables and monthly concentration of pollutants. These values range from 0.63 to 0.76. Similarly, the correlation value between land use variable with socio economic and morbidity ranges from 0.57 to 0.73. The performance of model is improved from 67 % to 79 % in estimating morbidity for the year 2015 and 2016 due to the better availability of observed data.The study highlights the growing importance of incorporating socio-economic drivers with air quality data for evaluating morbidity rate for each city in comparison to just change in quantitative analysis of air quality.

  8. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    are carried out on the land usually effect changes in its cover. ... The FAO document on land cover classification systems, (2000) partly answers this ... over the surface land, including water, vegetation, bare soils and or artificial structures. ... diseases may occur more readily in areas exposed by Land Use and Land Cover ...

  9. LAND GOVERNANCE AND LAND DEALS IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    It starts with an examination of the recent increase in land investments in ... postcolonial name for the former colonial “native reserves” in which the majority of ... in the north-northwest corner of Zimbabwe would receive a proportion of .... 7 See, for example, Hany Besada, Doing Business in Fragile States: The private sector ...

  10. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  11. Land Application of Biosolids in the USA: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Land application of biosolids has proven a cost-effective method of waste disposal by beneficially recycling organic matter and nutrients and improving soil quality; however, it may also pose potential threat to the environment and human health. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on recent research progresses and regulation efforts regarding land application of biosolids, including forms and types and nutrient values of biosolids, environmental and health concerns, and related best management practices (BMPs of biosolids application, with emphasis on its land application in agriculture. More research and regulations are expected to minimize potential risks of biosolids land application, especially its long-term impacts.

  12. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  13. 36 CFR 222.10 - Range betterment fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range betterment fund. 222.10... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.10 Range betterment fund. In... also be accomplished through use of the range betterment fund as follows: (a) On National Forest land...

  14. Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Information about land surface water, energy and carbon conditions is of critical importance to real-world applications such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prediction, water supply, weather and climate forecasting, and environmental preservation. While ground-based observational networks are improving, the only practical way to observe these land surface states on continental to global scales is via satellites. Remote sensing can make spatially comprehensive measurements of various components of the terrestrial system, but it cannot provide information on the entire system (e.g. evaporation), and the observations represent only an instant in time. Land surface process models may be used to predict temporal and spatial terrestrial dynamics, but these predictions are often poor, due to model initialization, parameter and forcing, and physics errors. Therefore, an attractive prospect is to combine the strengths of land surface models and observations (and minimize the weaknesses) to provide a superior terrestrial state estimate. This is the goal of land surface data assimilation. Data Assimilation combines observations into a dynamical model, using the model's equations to provide time continuity and coupling between the estimated fields. Land surface data assimilation aims to utilize both our land surface process knowledge, as embodied in a land surface model, and information that can be gained from observations. Both model predictions and observations are imperfect and we wish to use both synergistically to obtain a more accurate result. Moreover, both contain different kinds of information, that when used together, provide an accuracy level that cannot be obtained individually. Model biases can be mitigated using a complementary calibration and parameterization process. Limited point measurements are often used to calibrate the model(s) and validate the assimilation results. This presentation will provide a brief background on land

  15. Addressing Issues for Land Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing

    2009-09-01

    Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; http://www.glp-beijing.org.cn/index.php and http://www.glp.hokudai.ac.jp) brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

  16. Paraho environmental data. Part IV. Land reclamation and revegetation. Part V. Biological effects. Part VI. Occupational health and safety. Part VII. End use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, L.K.

    1982-06-01

    Characteristics of the environment and ecosystems at Anvil Points, reclamation of retorted shale, revegetation of retorted shale, and ecological effects of retorted shale are reported in the first section of this report. Methods used in screening shale oil and retort water for mutagens and carcinogens as well as toxicity studies are reported in the second section of this report. The third section contains information concerning the industrial hygiene and medical studies made at Anvil Points during Paraho research operations. The last section discusses the end uses of shale crude oil and possible health effects associated with end use. (DMC)

  17. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  18. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  19. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  20. “Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who in this land is fairest of all?” – Distributional sensitivity in the measurement of socioeconomic inequality of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERREYGERS, Guido; CLARKE, Philip; VAN OURTI, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores four alternative indices for measuring health inequalities in a way that takes into account attitudes towards inequality. First, we revisit the extended concentration index which has been proposed to make it possible to introduce changes into the distributional value judgements implicit in the standard concentration index. Next, we suggest an alternative index based on a different weighting scheme. In contrast to the extended concentration index, this new index has the ‘symmetry’ property. We also show how these indices can be generalized so that they satisfy the ‘mirror’ property, which may be seen as a desirable property when dealing with bounded variables. We compare the different indices empirically for under-five mortality rates and the number of antenatal visits in developing countries. PMID:22204878

  1. From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Steeg, van de J.; Veldkamp, A.; Willemen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and

  2. Land, ecology, and democracy. A twenty-first century view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Julianne Lutz; Freyfogle, Eric T; Sullivan, William C

    2006-01-01

    Land is necessary for human flourishing, and its use remains a compelling concern for every society, even those wherein industrialization has sharply diminished people's awareness of land. Here, we consider land's influence on political thinking, particularly thinking about democratic governance, and ask if this influence might be made more beneficial by the application of lessons drawn from ecological research. We identify five such lessons and apply them in six ways to the institution of private-property rights in nature--the main legal institution that allocates and perpetuates power over land--and to modern assumptions about liberal individualism and rights to health. We conclude that people can live well on land, promoting both human and land health, only in governmental forms engaging more citizens more deliberatively than now typical even in democracies. Implications for political institutions and human welfare are discussed under conditions of globalizing interdependence.

  3. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  4. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  5. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  6. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  7. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    interactive distance-learning as well as resident learning. Marine Corps Marine Corps has taken steps to include standardizing manning and training towards...time-sensitive land-based targets using air-to- ground (A-G) weapons. The STW range also supports tactics and operations associated with manned and...procedures. New larger exclusion zone for Somerton Airport (uncontrolled). If traffic increase impacts to MCAS flight ops and cuts into MCAS airspace

  8. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizheng Mao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located.

  10. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  11. Adaptation and mitigation of land subsidence in Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Heri; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh Purnama; Yuwono, Bambang

    2017-07-01

    Land subsidence is not a new phenomenon for Semarang. Some report said the subsidence in Semarang probably is occurring for more than 100 years. Based on the leveling surveys conducted by the Centre of Environmental Geology from 1999 to 2003 it was found that relatively large subsidence was detected around Semarang Harbor, Pondok Hasanuddin, Bandar Harjo and around Semarang Tawang Railway station, with the rates ranging from 1 to 17 cm/year. Results derived from GPS show that land subsidence in Semarang has spatial and temporal variations. In general, subsidence rates in Semarang have an average rate of about 6 to 7 cm/year, with maximum rates that can go up to 14-19 cm/year at certain locations. The impact of land subsidence in Semarang can be seen in several forms, such as the wider expansion of (coastal) flooding areas "rob", cracking of buildings and infrastructure, and increased inland sea water intrusion. It also badly influences the quality and amenity of the living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition) in the affected areas. In the case of Semarang, adaptation and mitigation are considered very important. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, mapping the infrastructure problems, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from Government, from digital media, etc., and we noticed people increased their house, and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode as part of adaptation. We also noticed the Central Goverment built the dyke and pumping station. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since significant land subsidence keep coming and worsening by the sea level which is keep rising. Another conclusion, so far we have seen lack of mitigation program, monitoring or even inevective mitigation in Semarang related to this subsidence

  12. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  13. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  14. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  15. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  16. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  17. Landings_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Landings data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  18. Mozambique - Urban Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This baseline survey was developed for the impact evaluation of activities related to 'improving land access in urban hotspot areas.' The site-specific interventions...

  19. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participation-oriented research methods are much more likely to bring about .... Examining the specific types of relations that women have to land reveals the ways ..... information – builds capacity to acquire sound qualitative data and, thereby, ...

  20. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  1. Water Landing Impact of Recovery Space Capsule: A Research Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Eiichiro; Uchikawa, Hideaki; Tanno, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Ryu

    2014-01-01

    For the design of a manned or cargo space capsule, it is important to precisely estimate the Earth landing loads to the crew or cargo, and to limit the loads to within a permissible range. Water landing simulations and scale-model water landing tests with varying conditions for descending velocity, pitch angle, and horizontal velocity during splashdown were conducted to estimate the magnitude of water impact on the recovery space capsule. This paper describes the results of the simulation and...

  2. Therapy by electromagnetic wave of millimeter energy range (EFH-therapy, MRT, IWT). Scientific and practical materials on the use of physical factors in clinical and health resort practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Chukhraev, N.V.; Shimkov, G.E.; Bitson, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    EHF-therapy method is a principally new method of treatment which is based on the peculiarities in perception by human organism the magnetic radiation of millimeter energy range. Practical use of this method has shown its high therapeutic efficiency at influencing on acupuncture points. This monography is completely devoted to description of EHF-therapy effects on acupuncture points with account of the Chinese reflexotherapy. Apparats of 'MIT' and 'Eleknronika-EHF' series do not provoke any damages in biological structures and refer to the safe class. The proposed scientific and practical materials on the use of physical factors in clinical and health resort practice are edited in addition to the previous monograph under the same title. These materials are of use for physicians of different specializations and listeners of medical advanced courses

  3. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  4. Ethiopia: Land Opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Tommerup, Emil; Valciukaite, Silvestra; Gulbinaite, Simona; Wang, Yizhuo

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, many foreign companies have been attracted to invest in Ethiopian land, Karuturi is one of the largest land investors in Ethiopia and it also claimed its Corporate Social Responsibility strategy. As a developing country with high ranking in corruption, there might be potential risk for investing in Ethiopia, the problem arises: Why does Karuturi invest its production in Ethiopia and even doing CSR? Focused on this problem within the case study of Karuturi, we implemented analysis ...

  5. Rehabilitation of disturbed land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, L.C. [Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This chapter discusses the objectives of rehabilitation of lands in Australian disturbed by mining. It gives advice on rehabilitation planning and outlines the factors influencing post-mining land use and rehabilitation strategies, including climate, topography, hydrology, properties of soils, overburden and mineral processing wastes, flora and fauna and social considerations. Finally, the key elements of a rehabilitation plan are discussed, namely: landscape reconstruction; selective handling of overburden; and establishment and maintenance of a vegetative cover. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  7. Ranging behavior relates to welfare indicators pre- and post-range access in commercial free-range broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition. Post-ranging autopsies were performed (winter: N = 170; summer: N = 60) to assess breast burn, leg health, and ascites. Fewer chickens accessed the range in winter flocks (32.5%) than summer flocks (82.1%). Few relationships between welfare and ranging were identified in winter, likely due to minimal ranging and the earlier age of post-ranging data collection compared to summer flocks. In summer flocks prior to range access, chickens that accessed the range weighed 4.9% less (P = 0.03) than chickens that did not access the range. Pre-ranging weight, gait score, and overall plumage cover predicted the amount of range use by ranging chickens in summer flocks (P ranging behavior. In summer flocks post-range access, ranging chickens weighed 12.8% less than non-ranging chickens (P range visits were associated with lower weight (P range was associated with lower weight (P range in summer is partly related to changes in broiler chicken welfare. Further investigations are required to determine causation.

  8. Validation of land use / land cover changes for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Caspersen, Ole Hjort

    2018-01-01

    This report presents applied methods and results for a validation of land use and land cover changes for 1990 and 2014-2016. Results indicate that generally, accuracies of land use and land cover. However, afforestation and particularly deforestation are significantly overestimated....

  9. The Urban Land Question, Land Reform and the Spectre of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The country's urban land reform mechanism, that is, land restitution, has so far been very marginal in making urban land or property available to the landless and/or homeless people. As a result, since 2014, the country is facing new aggressive extrajudicial land occupations in urban areas spearheaded by the ultra-left ...

  10. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  11. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  12. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  13. Perennial Grass Bioenergy Cropping on Wet Marginal Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate

  14. Impacts of Land use on Selected Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the present study, it could be concluded that the soil quality and health were maintained relatively under the forest land, whereas the influence on most soil parameters were negative on the cultivated land, indicating the need for employing integrated soil fertility management in sustainable manner to optimize and ...

  15. Conserving the birds of Uganda's banana-coffee arc: land sparing and land sharing compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Hulme

    Full Text Available Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat, land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as "winners" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it or "losers" (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic

  16. Towards monitoring land-cover and land-use changes at a global scale: the global land survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, G.; Byrnes, Raymond A.; Masek, J.; Covington, S.; Justice, C.; Franks, S.; Headley, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Land cover is a critical component of the Earth system, infl uencing land-atmosphere interactions, greenhouse gas fl uxes, ecosystem health, and availability of food, fi ber, and energy for human populations. The recent Integrated Global Observations of Land (IGOL) report calls for the generation of maps documenting global land cover at resolutions between 10m and 30m at least every fi ve years (Townshend et al., in press). Moreover, despite 35 years of Landsat observations, there has not been a unifi ed global analysis of land-cover trends nor has there been a global assessment of land-cover change at Landsat-like resolution. Since the 1990s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have supported development of data sets based on global Landsat observations (Tucker et al., 2004). These land survey data sets, usually referred to as GeoCover ™, provide global, orthorectifi ed, typically cloud-free Landsat imagery centered on the years 1975, 1990, and 2000, with a preference for leaf-on conditions. Collectively, these data sets provided a consistent set of observations to assess land-cover changes at a decadal scale. These data are freely available via the Internet from the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) (see http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov or http://glovis.usgs.gov). This has resulted in unprecedented downloads of data, which are widely used in scientifi c studies of land-cover change (e.g., Boone et al., 2007; Harris et al., 2005; Hilbert, 2006; Huang et al. 2007; Jantz et al., 2005, Kim et al., 2007; Leimgruber, 2005; Masek et al., 2006). NASA and USGS are continuing to support land-cover change research through the development of GLS2005 - an additional global Landsat assessment circa 20051 . Going beyond the earlier initiatives, this data set will establish a baseline for monitoring changes on a 5-year interval and will pave the way toward continuous global land

  17. Global Land Carbon Uptake from Trait Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E. E.; Datta, A.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Fazayeli, F.; Chen, M.; Wythers, K. R.; Banerjee, A.; Atkin, O. K.; Kattge, J.; Reich, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, functional diversity in land surface models has been represented through a range of plant functional types (PFTs), each of which has a single value for all of its functional traits. Here we expand the diversity of the land surface by using a distribution of trait values for each PFT. The data for these trait distributions is from a sub-set of the global database of plant traits, TRY, and this analysis uses three leaf traits: mass based nitrogen and phosphorus content and specific leaf area, which influence both photosynthesis and respiration. The data are extrapolated into continuous surfaces through two methodologies. The first, a categorical method, classifies the species observed in TRY into satellite estimates of their plant functional type abundances - analogous to how traits are currently assigned to PFTs in land surface models. Second, a Bayesian spatial method which additionally estimates how the distribution of a trait changes in accord with both climate and soil covariates. These two methods produce distinct patterns of diversity which are incorporated into a land surface model to estimate how the range of trait values affects the global land carbon budget.

  18. Landing quality in artistics gymnastics is related to landing symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Čuk, Ivan; Marinšek, Miha

    2017-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted f...

  19. Incorporating JULES into NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Investigations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  20. 75 FR 26788 - Public Land Order No. 7742; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository; UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 79765] Public Land Order No. 7742; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository... period of 5 years to protect the integrity of the Manning Canyon Tailings Repository and surrounding... withdrawal is to protect public health and safety and the Federal investment in the Manning Canyon Tailings...

  1. Land fragmentation and production diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Guri, Fatmir; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Paloma, Sergio Gomez Y.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of land fragmentation on production diversification in rural Albania. Albania represents a particularly interesting case for studying land fragmentation as the fragmentation is a direct outcome of land reforms. The results indicate that land fragmentation is an important driver

  2. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  3. Land Grabbing and Human Rights: the Involvement of European Corporate and Financial Entities in Land Grabbing outside the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Borras jr. (Saturnino); P. Seufert (Philip); S. Backes (Stephan); D. Fyfe (Daniel); R. Herre (Roman); L. Michele (Laura); E.N. Mills (Elyse)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn early research on land grabbing, the initial focus was on foreign companies investing abroad, with a particular focus on those based in countries such as China, Gulf States, South Korea, and India. In recent years, it has become evident that the range of countries land investors

  4. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  5. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  6. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  7. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  8. Challenges in Access to Urban Land for Business Activities under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    empowerment and the provision of basic services including health, nutrition, education, shelter ...... than denial of the economic value of land use rights if there is an immovable ..... distributed to retail shops by peddlers carrying plastic bags.

  9. Land use and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Koomen, E.; Moel, de, H.; Steingröver, E.G.; Rooij, van, S.A.M.; Eupen, van, M.

    2012-01-01

    Land use is majorly involved with climate change concerns and this chapter discusses and reviews the interrelationships between the vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation aspects of land use and climate change. We review a number of key studies on climate change issues regarding land productivity, land use and land management (LPLULM), identifying key findings, pointing out research needs, and raising economic/policy questions to ponder. Overall, this chapter goes beyond previous reviews ...

  10. Problems in implementing improved range management on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Africa; Australia; Livestock development; Pastoral communities; Rangeland development; Rangeland systems; Sustainability; development; ecology; holism; pastoralism; range management; strategies; environment; water; health; crop production; rangelands; resource management; north africa; holistic approach ...

  11. Land use and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10 6 acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10 6 additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10 6 acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States

  12. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  13. Quantifying the Effects of Historical Land Cover Conversion Uncertainty on Global Carbon and Climate Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Chini, L.; Hurtt, G.; Collins, W. D.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have examined land use change as a driver of global change, but the translation of land use change into land cover conversion has been largely unconstrained. Here we quantify the effects of land cover conversion uncertainty on the global carbon and climate system using the integrated Earth System Model. Our experiments use identical land use change data and vary land cover conversions to quantify associated uncertainty in carbon and climate estimates. Land cover conversion uncertainty is large, constitutes a 5 ppmv range in estimated atmospheric CO2 in 2004, and generates carbon uncertainty that is equivalent to 80% of the net effects of CO2 and climate and 124% of the effects of nitrogen deposition during 1850-2004. Additionally, land cover uncertainty generates differences in local surface temperature of over 1°C. We conclude that future studies addressing land use, carbon, and climate need to constrain and reduce land cover conversion uncertainties.

  14. Land cover classification using reformed fuzzy C-means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper uses segmentation based on unsupervised clustering techniques for classification of land cover. ∗ ... and unsupervised classification can be solved by FCM. ..... They also act as input to the development and monitoring of a range of ...

  15. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  16. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  17. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  18. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  19. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  20. Land Use and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  1. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pphi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  2. Land values and planning: a common interest of land policy and land taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichfield, N

    1979-06-01

    This paper focuses on a relatively neglected area of land policy: the relation between land use and land value as influenced by land-use planning. It discusses the need for and nature of land-use planning, the relationship of planning and land value, the compensation-betterment problem, and some particular issues of current relevance. It concludes that there is a need to ensure that valuation officers and planners complement each other in their respective tasks rather than undermine each other as happens when they do not understand the interaction of land values and planning.

  3. Bumblebees perform well-controlled landings in dim light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Reber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To make a smooth touchdown when landing, an insect must be able to reliably control its approach speed as well as its body and leg position – behaviors that are thought to be regulated primarily by visual information. Bumblebees forage and land under a broad range of light intensities and while their behavior during the final moments of landing has been described in detail in bright light, little is known about how this is affected by decreasing light intensity. Here, we investigate this by characterizing the performance of bumblebees, B. terrestris, landing on a flat platform at two different orientations (horizontal and vertical and at four different light intensities (ranging from 600 lx down to 19 lx. As light intensity decreased, the bees modified their body position and the distance at which they extended their legs, suggesting that the control of landing in these insects is visually mediated. Nevertheless, the effect of light intensity was small and the landings were still well controlled, even in the dimmest light. We suggest that the changes in landing behavior that occurred in dim light might represent adaptations that allow the bees to perform smooth landings across the broad range of light intensities at which they are active.

  4. Bumblebees Perform Well-Controlled Landings in Dim Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Therese; Dacke, Marie; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

    2016-01-01

    To make a smooth touchdown when landing, an insect must be able to reliably control its approach speed as well as its body and leg position-behaviors that are thought to be regulated primarily by visual information. Bumblebees forage and land under a broad range of light intensities and while their behavior during the final moments of landing has been described in detail in bright light, little is known about how this is affected by decreasing light intensity. Here, we investigate this by characterizing the performance of bumblebees, B. terrestris, landing on a flat platform at two different orientations (horizontal and vertical) and at four different light intensities (ranging from 600 lx down to 19 lx). As light intensity decreased, the bees modified their body position and the distance at which they extended their legs, suggesting that the control of landing in these insects is visually mediated. Nevertheless, the effect of light intensity was small and the landings were still well controlled, even in the dimmest light. We suggest that the changes in landing behavior that occurred in dim light might represent adaptations that allow the bees to perform smooth landings across the broad range of light intensities at which they are active.

  5. Land-use change and new houses on forestland: contrasting trends over 30 years in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew N. Gray; Joel L. Thompson; Gary J. Lettman

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of forest, range, and agricultural resource lands to residential and commercial uses affects the available land base, management practices on remaining resource lands, habitat quality, and ecosystem services. The Forest Inventory and Analysis program (FIA) mandate includes monitoring changes in the land area in forest use, and this has proved valuable for...

  6. Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.A.; Hasemann, I.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

  7. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  8. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  9. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  10. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  11. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara Sue; Sleeter, Benjamin Michael; Davis, Adam Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressures from land use coupled with future changes in climate will present unique challenges for California’s protected areas. We assessed the potential for future land use conversion on land surrounding existing protected areas in California’s twelve ecoregions, utilizing annual, spatially explicit (250 m) scenario projections of land use for 2006–2100 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios to examine future changes in development, agriculture, and logging. We calculated a conversion threat index (CTI) for each unprotected pixel, combining land use conversion potential with proximity to protected area boundaries, in order to identify ecoregions and protected areas at greatest potential risk of proximal land conversion. Our results indicate that California’s Coast Range ecoregion had the highest CTI with competition for extractive logging placing the greatest demand on land in close proximity to existing protected areas. For more permanent land use conversions into agriculture and developed uses, our CTI results indicate that protected areas in the Central California Valley and Oak Woodlands are most vulnerable. Overall, the Eastern Cascades, Central California Valley, and Oak Woodlands ecoregions had the lowest areal percent of protected lands and highest conversion threat values. With limited resources and time, rapid, landscape-level analysis of potential land use threats can help quickly identify areas with higher conversion probability of future land use and potential changes to both habitat and potential ecosystem reserves. Given the broad range of future uncertainties, LULC projections are a useful tool allowing land managers to visualize alternative landscape futures, improve planning, and optimize management practices.

  12. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  13. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  14. Multiple Stressors at the Land-Sea Interface: Cyanotoxins at the Land-Sea Interface in the Southern California Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatters, Avery O; Howard, Meredith D A; Nagoda, Carey; Busse, Lilian; Gellene, Alyssa G; Caron, David A

    2017-03-09

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems have received considerable attention in recent years, but their occurrence and potential importance at the land-sea interface has not been widely recognized. Here we present the results of a survey of discrete samples conducted in more than fifty brackish water sites along the coastline of southern California. Our objectives were to characterize cyanobacterial community composition and determine if specific groups of cyanotoxins (anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, microcystins, nodularins, and saxitoxins) were present. We report the identification of numerous potentially harmful taxa and the co-occurrence of multiple toxins, previously undocumented, at several locations. Our findings reveal a potential health concern based on the range of organisms present and the widespread prevalence of recognized toxic compounds. Our results raise concerns for recreation, harvesting of finfish and shellfish, and wildlife and desalination operations, highlighting the need for assessments and implementation of monitoring programs. Such programs appear to be particularly necessary in regions susceptible to urban influence.

  15. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  16. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in Senegal work on the land in agriculture. Senegal is a country ... the private sphere of the family, by the head of the household, following the ... Diop Sall led an IDRC-supported study covering Senegal's six ... ment is in the balance, she says.

  17. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    halting environmental degradation and moving toward more sustainable forms of .... governmental organizations aware of the discrepancy between land laws and actual ... grounds that this would disrupt gender relations and family structure. ... pay off debts and buy their grandchildren new clothes. As a practical step ...

  18. Land, Structure & Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.; van de Minne, A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model which enables us to disentangle the value of a residential property into the value of land and the value of structure, while controlling for depreciation and vintage effects. For given reconstruction costs we are able to estimate the impact of physical

  19. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in many African countries have a legal right to own land, but ... And so, Banda says, “we've come to see that changing the law and the ... Because the people in charge ... women's insecure tenure, despite gender-neutral statutory laws.

  20. Het gemaakte land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, A.; Dirkx, G.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In deze bijdrage komt aan bod hoe zeer de natuur van ons land gevormd is door menselijk handelen. De grote verscheidenheid die hert Nederlandse landschap kenmerkt is sterk bepaald door verschillen in landgebruik. Iedere streek kent zijn eigen boerderijen, gewassen, veerassen, verkavelingspatronen en

  1. Land, structure and depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.; van de Minne, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model that enables us to disentangle the value of a property into the value of land and the value of structure. For given reconstruction costs, we are able to estimate the impact of physical deterioration, functional obsolescence and vintage effects on the structure and

  2. Underpinning Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding...

  3. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    him a drink in the trading centre. You cannot win at that level.” This points to the need to “address the loopholes in the decen- tralization of land strategies,” says Ahikire. Although local courts provide hope for rural women who lack the means to appear at magistrates' court, they need the tools to be more effective.

  4. Using the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Corey; Pecore, John

    2018-01-01

    Land use and development are complex issues rooted in ecology and environmental science as well as in politics and economics. This complexity lends itself to a problem-based learning (PBL) lesson for environmental science students. In the lesson described in this article, students investigated developing a city-owned, 13-acre site where a shopping…

  5. Recent Enhancements in NOAA's JPSS Land Product Suite and Key Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Yu, Y.; Zhan, X.; Vargas, M.; Ek, M. B.; Zheng, W.; Wu, Y.; Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Ahmadov, R.; James, E.; Grell, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of operational land products has been produced as part of NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program to support a wide range of operational applications in environmental monitoring, prediction, disaster management and mitigation, and decision support. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and the operational JPSS satellite series forms the basis of six fundamental and multiple additional added-value environmental data records (EDRs). A major recent improvement in the land-based VIIRS EDRs has been the development of global gridded products, providing a format and science content suitable for ingest into NOAA's operational land surface and coupled numerical weather prediction models. VIIRS near-real-time Green Vegetation Fraction is now in the process of testing for full operational use, while land surface temperature and albedo are under testing and evaluation. The operational 750m VIIRS active fire product, including fire radiative power, is used to support emission modeling and air quality applications. Testing the evaluation for operational NOAA implementation of the improved 375m VIIRS active fire product is also underway. Added-value and emerging VIIRS land products include vegetation health, phenology, near-real-time surface type and surface condition change, and other biogeophysical variables. As part of the JPSS program, a global soil moisture data product has also been generated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor on the GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1) satellite since July 2012. This product is included in the blended NESDIS Soil Moisture Operational Products System, providing soil moisture data as a critical input for land surface modeling.

  6. Land use and land cover dynamics on the campus of Federal University of Lavras from 1964 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identified, quantified and analyzed changes in land use and cover on the campus of Federal University of Lavras campus, located in Lavras city (Minas Gerais State. The 2009 QuickBird satellite imagery and 1985, 1979, 1971, 1964 vertical aerial photographs were used to produce a set of land use and land cover maps. The work started with the orthorectification of the QuickBird satellite imagery and vertical aerial photographs. The identification and definition of land cover and land use classes were obtained from field surveys in 2009. First, the land cover and land use maps were made from that information. Finally, the quantification and analysis of changes were performed at the imagery time range. The results showed that in 2009 the "urbanized area class" of the campus reached 65.79 ha and that the most significant increase of this class occurred between the years 1964 (6.24 ha and 1971 (24.4 ha. The smallest area of "forest land class" found on the campus was 38.38 ha in 1971, and from 1979 on this situation has been improved reaching 113.18 ha of "forest land class" in 2009. For the "water class" there was not any dam constructed yet in the campus before 1971. Most of the campus area, previously used for "agricultural land class" had a significant reduction within this category, from 384.19 ha in 1964 to 271.16 ha in 2009.

  7. The relative importance among anthropogenic forcings of land use/land cover change in affecting temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2018-05-01

    Land use/land cover change (LULCC) exerts significant influence on regional climate extremes, but its relative importance compared with other anthropogenic climate forcings has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compares land use forcing with other forcing agents in explaining the simulated historical temperature extreme changes since preindustrial times in the CESM-Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) project. CESM-LME suggests that the land use forcing has caused an overall cooling in both warm and cold extremes, and has significantly decreased diurnal temperature range (DTR). Due to the competing effects of the GHG and aerosol forcings, the spatial pattern of changes in 1850-2005 climatology of temperature extremes in CESM-LME can be largely explained by the land use forcing, especially for hot extremes and DTR. The dominance of land use forcing is particularly evident over Europe, eastern China, and the central and eastern US. Temporally, the land-use cooling is relatively stable throughout the historical period, while the warming of temperature extremes is mainly influenced by the enhanced GHG forcing, which has gradually dampened the local dominance of the land use effects. Results from the suite of CMIP5 experiments partially agree with the local dominance of the land use forcing in CESM-LME, but inter-model discrepancies exist in the distribution and sign of the LULCC-induced temperature changes. Our results underline the overall importance of LULCC in historical temperature extreme changes, implying land use forcing should be highlighted in future climate projections.

  8. Ecological restoration, ecosystem services, and land use: a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tolvanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This special feature provides an overview on how the ecosystem service concept has been and can be incorporated into the science, practice, and policies of ecological restoration (ER and evidence-based land-use. It includes an edited selection of eleven invited and peer-reviewed papers based on presentations given during the 9th European Conference on Ecological Restoration in 2014. The focus is on Europe, but many contributors also make appraisals and recommendations at the global scale. Based on the contributors' papers, and our own overview of the promise of ecological restoration in the existing international treaties, coalitions, and conventions, we propose that the following actions could contribute to the positive impacts of ER on biodiversity maintenance, ecosystem functioning, progressive mainstreaming the concepts of both ER and ecosystem services, significant mitigation and offsetting of anthropogenic climate change, and lasting enhancement of both ecosystem and human health: •\tER should be incorporated into land use planning, wherever needed, and the synergies and trade-offs of different land use scenarios should be assessed in terms of their impacts on ecosystem services. •\tThe discourse of ER should be enlarged, wherever it is needed, to include multifunctional land use that simultaneously supports sustainable production systems, built environments, and the quality and quantity of diverse ecosystem services. This approach will generate ecological, social, and economic benefits in the long run. •\tMonitoring and evaluation of ER projects should be a continuous process involving careful selection of indicators chosen with the full range of stakeholders in mind, and a sufficiently long-term perspective to catch the progress of long-term or highly dynamic ecosystem processes. •\tScientists should actively participate in policy and land management discussions in order to give their views on the potential outcomes of decisions.

  9. Land Tenure Practices and Women's Right to Land : Implications for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's right to land in Anglophone Cameroon is subject to two conflicting regimes, customary and statutory. ... and how access to land (or lack of it) affects women's economic status and ... Giving girls and women the power to decide.

  10. Assessment of environmental responses to land use/land cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... 49.86% of the land cover has been converted to other land uses, ... management information system and policies that will ensure sustainable management of fragile ...... growth in agricultural output such as food and fiber.

  11. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  12. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  13. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  14. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  15. Evaluating The Land Use And Land Cover Dynamics In Borena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of satellite remote sensing and GIS was an effective approach for analyzing the direction, rate, and spatial pattern of land use change. Three land use and land cover maps were produced by analyzing remotely sensed images of Landsat satellite imageries at three time points (1972,1985,and 2003) .

  16. Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system. This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore

  17. Land Tenure Practices and Women's Right to Land : Implications for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's right to land in Anglophone Cameroon is subject to two conflicting regimes, customary and statutory. This grant will allow a team of researchers to examine women's right to land under statutory and customary law, and how access to land (or lack of it) affects women's economic status and participation in the ...

  18. Promotion of inclusive land governance to improve women's land ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The general objective of this action research project is to help increase women's access to and control over land and their involvement in decision-making for responsible, sustainable land governance, in the context of large-scale land acquisition in Senegal. Its objectives are to establish the conditions to improve women's ...

  19. Between 'Land Grabs' and Agricultural Investment: Land Rent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article suggests the need to rectify the gaps in the land transfer contracts and most importantly, the need to render the government a custodian (and not owner) of land in conformity with the FDRE Constitution and to ensure that the termination of land use rights is decided by courts so that executive offices would not ...

  20. Land Tenure and Land Reform in Namibia. | Amoo | Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... problems relating to the ownership and administration of the communal lands. Within the parameters of the Constitution, pieces of legislation have been promulgated and new policies have been formulated aimed at both land distribution and land reform. Review of Southern African Studies Volume 3 No. 1 June 1999, pp.

  1. Impacts of Climate Change and Land use Changes on Land Surface Radiation and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface radiation and energy budgets are critical to address a variety of scientific and application issues related to climate trends, weather predictions, hydrologic and biogeophysical modeling, and the monitoring of ecosystem health and agricultural crops. This is an introductory paper to t...

  2. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) Significantly Improve Prostate Cancer Detection at Initial Biopsy in a Total PSA Range of 2–10 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K.; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2–10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2–10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA. PMID:23861782

  3. Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ferro

    Full Text Available Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77 was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76 and PCA3 (0.73 with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247. These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60, % fPSA (AUC = 0.62 and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63. At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  4. Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T W

    2013-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging has provided many of the best tests of gravitation since the first Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon. The march to higher precision continues to this day, now entering the millimeter regime, and promising continued improvement in scientific results. This review introduces key aspects of the technique, details the motivations, observables, and results for a variety of science objectives, summarizes the current state of the art, highlights new developments in the field, describes the modeling challenges, and looks to the future of the enterprise. (review article)

  5. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required

  6. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  7. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  8. INFLATE: INFlate Landing Apparatus Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, V. V. K.; Da-Poian, V. D. P.

    2018-02-01

    Our project, named INFLATE (INFlatable Landing Apparatus Technology), aims at reducing space landing risks and constraints and so optimizing space missions (reducing cost, mass, and risk and in the same time improving performance).

  9. Benin - Access to Land - Rural

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This evaluation presents evidence from the first large-scale randomized controlled trial of a land formalization program. This study examines the links between land...

  10. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  11. Downgrading recent estimates of land available for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Nalepa, Rachel A; Perger, Christoph; Schill, Christian; McCallum, Ian; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian; Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Ortner, Simone; Hazarika, Rubul; Cipriani, Anna; Di Bella, Carlos; Rabia, Ahmed H; Garcia, Alfredo; Vakolyuk, Mar'yana; Singha, Kuleswar; Beget, Maria E; Erasmi, Stefan; Albrecht, Franziska; Shaw, Brian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-02-05

    Recent estimates of additional land available for bioenergy production range from 320 to 1411 million ha. These estimates were generated from four scenarios regarding the types of land suitable for bioenergy production using coarse-resolution inputs of soil productivity, slope, climate, and land cover. In this paper, these maps of land availability were assessed using high-resolution satellite imagery. Samples from these maps were selected and crowdsourcing of Google Earth images was used to determine the type of land cover and the degree of human impact. Based on this sample, a set of rules was formulated to downward adjust the original estimates for each of the four scenarios that were previously used to generate the maps of land availability for bioenergy production. The adjusted land availability estimates range from 56 to 1035 million ha depending upon the scenario and the ruleset used when the sample is corrected for bias. Large forest areas not intended for biofuel production purposes were present in all scenarios. However, these numbers should not be considered as definitive estimates but should be used to highlight the uncertainty in attempting to quantify land availability for biofuel production when using coarse-resolution inputs with implications for further policy development.

  12. Land Surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) - A Generalized Framework for Land Surface Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Santanello, Joseph; Harrison, Ken; Liu, Yuqiong; Shaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Model evaluation and verification are key in improving the usage and applicability of simulation models for real-world applications. In this article, the development and capabilities of a formal system for land surface model evaluation called the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) is described. LVT is designed to provide an integrated environment for systematic land model evaluation and facilitates a range of verification approaches and analysis capabilities. LVT operates across multiple temporal and spatial scales and employs a large suite of in-situ, remotely sensed and other model and reanalysis datasets in their native formats. In addition to the traditional accuracy-based measures, LVT also includes uncertainty and ensemble diagnostics, information theory measures, spatial similarity metrics and scale decomposition techniques that provide novel ways for performing diagnostic model evaluations. Though LVT was originally designed to support the land surface modeling and data assimilation framework known as the Land Information System (LIS), it also supports hydrological data products from other, non-LIS environments. In addition, the analysis of diagnostics from various computational subsystems of LIS including data assimilation, optimization and uncertainty estimation are supported within LVT. Together, LIS and LVT provide a robust end-to-end environment for enabling the concepts of model data fusion for hydrological applications. The evolving capabilities of LVT framework are expected to facilitate rapid model evaluation efforts and aid the definition and refinement of formal evaluation procedures for the land surface modeling community.

  13. An Uncertain Programming Model for Land Use Structure Optimization to Promote Effectiveness of Land Use Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; MA Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Land use structure optimization (LUSO) is an important issue for land use planning.In order for land use planning to have reasonable flexibility,uncertain optimization should be applied for LUSO.In this paper,the researcher first expounded the uncertainties of LUSO.Based on this,an interval programming model was developed,of which interval variables were to hold land use uncertainties.To solve the model,a heuristics based on Genetic Algorithm was designed according to Pareto Optimum principle with a confidence interval under given significance level to represent LUSO result.Proposed method was applied to a real case of Yangzhou,an eastern city in China.The following conclusions were reached.1) Different forms of uncertainties ranged from certainty to indeterminacy lay in the five steps of LUSO,indicating necessary need of comprehensive approach to quantify them.2) With regards to trade-offs of conflicted objectives and preferences to uncertainties,our proposed model displayed good ability of making planning decision process transparent,therefore providing an effective tool for flexible land use planning compiling.3) Under uncertain conditions,land use planning effectiveness can be primarily enhanced by flexible management with reserved space to percept and hold uncertainties in advance.

  14. Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) - a generalized framework for land surface model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J.; Harrison, K.; Liu, Y.; Shaw, M.

    2012-06-01

    Model evaluation and verification are key in improving the usage and applicability of simulation models for real-world applications. In this article, the development and capabilities of a formal system for land surface model evaluation called the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) is described. LVT is designed to provide an integrated environment for systematic land model evaluation and facilitates a range of verification approaches and analysis capabilities. LVT operates across multiple temporal and spatial scales and employs a large suite of in-situ, remotely sensed and other model and reanalysis datasets in their native formats. In addition to the traditional accuracy-based measures, LVT also includes uncertainty and ensemble diagnostics, information theory measures, spatial similarity metrics and scale decomposition techniques that provide novel ways for performing diagnostic model evaluations. Though LVT was originally designed to support the land surface modeling and data assimilation framework known as the Land Information System (LIS), it supports hydrological data products from non-LIS environments as well. In addition, the analysis of diagnostics from various computational subsystems of LIS including data assimilation, optimization and uncertainty estimation are supported within LVT. Together, LIS and LVT provide a robust end-to-end environment for enabling the concepts of model data fusion for hydrological applications. The evolving capabilities of LVT framework are expected to facilitate rapid model evaluation efforts and aid the definition and refinement of formal evaluation procedures for the land surface modeling community.

  15. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    and physically. With this perspective in mind the chapter outlines the history of production of spatial knowledge about the environments of New Zealand. This is not only to provide an overview of understandings of the environment, but also to investigate and illustrate the close ties between knowledge......The environmental history of New Zealand is one of the clearest and most recent examples of the way humans make a home for themselves in newly explored territory. New Zealand was the last major land area in the world to be colonised by people and, given its extraordinary natural history, the first...... settlers could hardly have been more surprised when they arrived in the thirteenth century. At the time of this first Polynesian settlement, New Zealand was a land not only without humans, but without any terrestrial mammals except for a few species of bats. In their absence the avifauna had proliferated...

  16. Puente Öland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  17. Land cover change or land use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land

  18. American Attitudes Toward the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    The colonial attitude toward land depended on the climate of the area and the culture of the settlers. With independence came a national attitude that land represented economic and political freedom for the individual. Abundant land fostered unregulated lumbering, mining, and farming. Today environmental awareness has created the conservation…

  19. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  20. LANDING QUALITY IN ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS IS RELATED TO LANDING SYMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinšek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  1. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Future Land Use (FLU) 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Future Land Use 2010. This is the original land use map for 2010. It was drafted for the comprehensive plan in 1990 and contains adopted amendments.

  2. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Doman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking. Autonomous PL&HA builds upon the core GN&C capabilities developed to enable soft, controlled landings on the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies. Through the addition of a Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) function, precision landing within tens of meters of a map-based target is possible. The addition of a 3-D terrain mapping lidar sensor improves the probability of a safe landing via autonomous, real-time Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA). PL&HA significantly improves the probability of mission success and enhances access to sites of scientific interest located in challenging terrain. PL&HA can also utilize external navigation aids, such as navigation satellites and surface beacons. Advanced Lidar Sensors High precision ranging, velocimetry, and 3-D terrain mapping Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) TRN compares onboard reconnaissance data with real-time terrain imaging data to update the S/C position estimate Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) Generates a high-resolution, 3-D terrain map in real-time during the approach trajectory to identify safe landing targets Inertial Navigation During Terminal Descent High precision surface relative sensors enable accurate inertial navigation during terminal descent and a tightly controlled touchdown within meters of the selected safe landing target.

  3. Agent-based land markets: Heterogeneous agents, land proces and urban land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn C.; van der Veen, A.; Amblard, F.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a spatially explicit agent-based model of a bilateral land market. Heterogeneous agents form their bid and ask prices for land based on the utility that they obtain from a certain location (houte/land) and base on the state of the market (an excess of demand or supply). We underline the

  4. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  5. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... and professionals for implementing the new land policy. The curriculum combines the diploma and the bachelor level and it combines the key areas of land surveying, land management and physical planning....

  6. Prediction of Land Use Change Based on Markov and GM(1,1 Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Yi-yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the law of land use change in Laiwu City, Markov and GM(1,1 were respectively employed in the prediction of land use change in Laiwu from 2015 to 2050, after which the results were analyzed and discussed. The results showed that:(1The variational trends of all kinds of land use change predicted by the two models were consistent and the goodness of fit of the predictive value in corresponding years in the near future was high, illustrating that the predicted results in the near future were credible and the trend predicted in mid long term could be used as reference. (2The cultivated land would remanin almost no change from 2015 to 2020, and then gradually decreaseed in a small range from 2020 to 2050. The garden, the woodland, the grassland always reducing and the decreare range of the grassland was the largest. The urban village and industrial and mining land, the transportation land would be continuously increased and the range of urban village and industrial and mining land was the largest. The water and water conservancy facilities land and the other land would be always reduced in a very small range. It could be concluded that the results predicted by the two models in the near future were credible and could provide scientific basis for land use planning of Laiwu, while the method could provide reference for the prediction of land use change.

  7. The dwindling role of population pressure in land use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Reenberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a contemporary coupled human-environmental system on a small island in the South West Pacific. It describes the historical change of the resource management strategies, notably the agricultural land use, in this former subsistence system. Our conceptual mindset draws on Boserup......’s classic theories of land use intensification as well as on her more recently proposed heuristic framework to describe development processes that underpin land use system change. We illustrate how land use has become partially disconnected from the local population pressure and therefore remains relatively...... stable while the larger livelihood portfolio has undergone significant diversification. At present, the agricultural system is a supplement to a range of strategies that support the increasing number of people on the island. This explains why land use patterns continue relatively unchanged while...

  8. Review of Land Use and Land Cover Change research progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yue; Hou, Kang; Li, Xuxiang; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Pei

    2018-02-01

    Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC) can reflect the pattern of human land use in a region, and plays an important role in space soil and water conservation. The study on the change of land use patterns in the world is of great significance to cope with global climate change and sustainable development. This paper reviews the main research progress of LUCC at home and abroad, and suggests that land use change has been shifted from land use planning and management to land use change impact and driving factors. The development of remote sensing technology provides the basis and data for LUCC with dynamic monitoring and quantitative analysis. However, there is no uniform standard for land use classification at present, which brings a lot of inconvenience to the collection and analysis of land cover data. Globeland30 is an important milestone contribution to the study of international LUCC system. More attention should be paid to the accuracy and results contrasting test of land use classification obtained by remote sensing technology.

  9. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  10. Examining fluvial fish range loss with SDMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Papeş, Monica; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Fluvial fishes face increased imperilment from anthropogenic activities, but the specific factors contributing most to range declines are often poorly understood. For example, the range of the fluvial‐specialist shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) continues to decrease, yet how perceived threats have contributed to range loss is largely unknown. We used species distribution models to determine which factors contributed most to shoal bass range loss. We estimated a potential distribution based on natural abiotic factors and a series of currently occupied distributions that incorporated variables characterizing land cover, non‐native species, and river fragmentation intensity (no fragmentation, dams only, and dams and large impoundments). We allowed interspecific relationships between non‐native congeners and shoal bass to vary across fragmentation intensities. Results from the potential distribution model estimated shoal bass presence throughout much of their native basin, whereas models of currently occupied distribution showed that range loss increased as fragmentation intensified. Response curves from models of currently occupied distribution indicated a potential interaction between fragmentation intensity and the relationship between shoal bass and non‐native congeners, wherein non‐natives may be favored at the highest fragmentation intensity. Response curves also suggested that >100 km of interconnected, free‐flowing stream fragments were necessary to support shoal bass presence. Model evaluation, including an independent validation, suggested that models had favorable predictive and discriminative abilities. Similar approaches that use readily available, diverse, geospatial data sets may deliver insights into the biology and conservation needs of other fluvial species facing similar threats.

  11. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  12. Worship of Land

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The ritual shown in this video was performed in a sacred place with a single poplar tree which is situated near the village of Khar-Buluk. In the beginning of the video, the Head Lama of Kalmykia, Telo Tulku Rinpoche, welcomes all who are present. He tells the people the following:'A ritual of gazr tyaklgn (worship of land) has already been performed twice in this sacred place. The single poplar tree here is more than a hundred years old. There is also a spring nearby which has medicinal wate...

  13. No Woman's Land (Performance)

    OpenAIRE

    Garton, Rosie; Rippel, IIdiko

    2017-01-01

    'No Woman's Land' (performance) is 1 hr 15 minute large-scale, multi-media performance work. In 1945, Ildikó’s grandmother Lucia Rippel, expelled from her place of birth, walked 220 miles across the fractured landscape of Europe, with her two small children and all her belongings dragged in a cart. In 2015, Ildikó and Rosie retraced her footsteps, crossing borders, climbing fences, bleeding, crying and blistering, carrying their flat-pack children. The performance is a response to ou...

  14. Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donckt, van der.

    1976-01-01

    The article is a critical review of the work group VI ''health'' in the ''sages report'', the criteria of total body dosis for radionuclides as strontium 90 and iodine 131 are discussed. It emphasizes the lack of adequate solution for the effluents as carbon-14, tritium and iodine 129 as well as for the high radioactivity waste management: the toxicity of plutonium and its cancerous properties are recalled. The risks of accidents in the nuclear facilities and their effect on the population in the proximity of the power plant and the contamination from cooling media are considered as well as sabotage risks. (A.F.)

  15. Shallow land burial of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Rose, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss low-level, solid radioactive wastes buried in the ground since the startup of nuclear operations by the Manhattan Engineer District in the early 1940's. These operations were originally intended to be temporary so the primary consideration in locating land burial sites was their accessibility from the source of waste production. Early land-burial facilities were located on large reservations owned by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and operated by their prime contractors. Shallow land burial consists of excavating a trench or vault, emplacing the waste, minimizing void space within the disposal unit, and covering the waste with earth to control access to the waste. Problems encountered in the land-burial of radioactive wastes are classified into areas which relate to the environmental characteristics of the sites, waste characteristics, operational practices and control, and predictive capability. The most serious environmentally related problems involve water management. Water provides primary vehicle for both erosional processes, which affect the structural integrity of the waste trenches, and for the migration of radionuclides. Although there is consensus that the current level of off-site movement of radionuclides from operating burial grounds does not constitute an immediate health hazard, there is less certainty with respect to the ability of the facilities to provide long-term containment and isolation

  16. Land availability for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dingbao

    2011-01-01

    Marginal agricultural land is estimated for biofuel production in Africa, China, Europe, India, South America, and the continental United States, which have major agricultural production capacities. These countries/regions can have 320-702 million hectares of land available if only abandoned and degraded cropland and mixed crop and vegetation land, which are usually of low quality, are accounted. If grassland, savanna, and shrubland with marginal productivity are considered for planting low-input high-diversity (LIHD) mixtures of native perennials as energy crops, the total land availability can increase from 1107-1411 million hectares, depending on if the pasture land is discounted. Planting the second generation of biofuel feedstocks on abandoned and degraded cropland and LIHD perennials on grassland with marginal productivity may fulfill 26-55% of the current world liquid fuel consumption, without affecting the use of land with regular productivity for conventional crops and without affecting the current pasture land. Under the various land use scenarios, Africa may have more than one-third, and Africa and Brazil, together, may have more than half of the total land available for biofuel production. These estimations are based on physical conditions such as soil productivity, land slope, and climate.

  17. Maximum Interconnectedness and Availability for Directional Airborne Range Extension Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 1 Maximum Interconnectedness and Availability for Directional Airborne Range Extension Networks Thomas...2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS I. INTRODUCTION Tactical military networks both on land and at sea often have restricted transmission...a standard definition in graph theoretic and networking literature that is related to, but different from, the metric we consider. August 29, 2016

  18. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under Forest...

  19. Home range and habitat use of Trumpeter Hornbills Bycanistes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46 km2 (95% LoCoH). However, individual home range sizes varied monthly and seasonally. We found that all individuals tagged used mostly the indigenous forest and frequently utilised urban residential areas (gardens) with little or no use of cultivated land. Observed individual variations in monthly and seasonal home ...

  20. New Technologies to Reclaim Arid Lands User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Under conventional technologies to mitigate these impacts, it is estimated that up to 35 percent of revegetation projects in arid areas will fail due to unpredictable natural environmental conditions, such as drought, and reclamation techniques that were inadequate to restore vegetative cover in a timely and cost-effective manner. New reclamation and restoration techniques are needed in desert ranges to help mitigate the adverse effects of military training and other activities to arid-land environments. In 1999, a cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the US. Department of Defense (DoD), and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on mitigating military impacts in arid lands. As arid lands are impacted due to DoD and DOE activities, biological and soil resources are gradually lost and the habitat is altered. A conceptual model of that change in habitat quality is described for varying levels of disturbance in the Mojave Desert. As the habitat quality degrades and more biological and physical resources are lost from training areas, greater costs are required to return the land to sustainable levels. The purpose of this manual is to assist land managers in recognizing thresholds associated with habitat degradation and provide reclamation planning and techniques that can reduce the costs of mitigation for these impacted lands to ensure sustainable use of these lands. The importance of reclamation planning is described in this manual with suggestions about

  1. Impact of Rainfall, Sales Method, and Time on Land Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Steve; Schurle, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Land prices in Western Kansas are analyzed using regression to estimate the influence of rainfall, sales method, and time of sale. The estimates from regression indicate that land prices decreased about $27 for each range that was farther west which can be converted to about $75 per inch of average rainfall. In addition, the influence of method of sale (private sale or auction) is estimated along with the impact of time of sale. Auction sales prices are approximately $100 higher per acre than...

  2. ExoMars entry, descent and landing science

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, F.; Lewis, S. R.; Withers, P.; Aboudan, A.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Golombek, M.; Harri, A. M.; Komatsu, G.; Leese, M. R.; Mäkinen, T.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Ori, G. G.; Patel, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) measurements can provide essential data for atmospheric scientific investigations.\\ud \\ud We intend to perform atmospheric science measurements by exploiting data from EDLS engineering sensors and exploiting their readings beyond the expected engineering information.

  3. Monitoring Snow and Land Ice Using Satellite data in the GMES Project CryoLand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippus, Gabriele; Nagler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The main objectives of the project "CryoLand - GMES Service Snow and Land Ice" are to develop, implement and validate services for snow, glaciers and lake and river ice products as a Downstream Service within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program of the European Commission. CryoLand exploits Earth Observation data from current optical and microwave sensors and of the upcoming GMES Sentinel satellite family. The project prepares also the basis for the cryospheric component of the GMES Land Monitoring services. The CryoLand project team consists of 10 partner organisations from Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Romania and is funded by the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission. The CryoLand baseline products for snow include fractional snow extent from optical satellite data, the extent of melting snow from SAR data, and coarse resolution snow water equivalent maps from passive microwave data. Experimental products include maps of snow surface wetness and temperature. The products range from large scale coverage at medium resolution to regional products with high resolution, in order to address a wide user community. Medium resolution optical data (e.g. MODIS, in the near future Sentinel-3) and SAR (ENVISAT ASAR, in the near future Sentinel-1) are the main sources of EO data for generating large scale products in near real time. For generation of regional products high resolution satellite data are used. Glacier products are based on high resolution optical (e.g. SPOT-5, in the near future Sentinel-2) and SAR (TerraSAR-X, in the near future Sentinel-1) data and include glacier outlines, mapping of glacier facies, glacier lakes and ice velocity. The glacier products are generated on users demand. Current test areas are located in the Alps, Norway, Greenland and the Himalayan Mountains. The lake and river ice products include ice extent and its temporal changes and snow extent on ice. The algorithms for these

  4. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  5. HARDWARE AND ALGORITHMIC STRUCTURE OF MULTIPOSITION RADIO RANGEFINDING NAVIGATION AND LANDING AERO-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Kondrashov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The principles of formation of the structure and functioning algorithms are developed andpresented for multipositioning radio rangefinding land-based system which identifies the location ofcommuter aircrafts in the vertical and horizontal planes by the method of three ranges without usingaltimeter.Keywords: aircraft, commuter airlines, aeronavigation, landing, airborne radio ranging equipment,operation algorithms.

  6. High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface Model incorporating Land-water Management in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface models have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface models. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The model is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent modeling framework for human-water-climate interactions.

  7. Sustainability: Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    8217. .’" , .. . . . . Aqula Harbour , , MCB Quantico Notification Area MMF Legend Flight Tracks - FixedW1ng - Rot;wy Wing TBS :::_-, FIXed Wing Alea ...Rot;wy Wing Alea TBS Rotary Wing /Vea lmpuln Noise Buffer SMile APZ~l Range Safety Zone C Range Safety Zone A IZ2Zl Corr4losile Su1ace

  8. Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sokouti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion hazard is one of the main problems can affect ecological balance in watersheds. This study aimed to determine the optimal use of land to reduce erosion and increase the resident's income of Qushchi watershed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Income and expenses for the current land uses were calculated with field studies. Damages resulting from the soil erosion were estimated by soil depth equal to the specified land uses. For three different options including the current status of land uses without and with land management, and the standard status of land uses, multi-objective linear programming model was established by LINGO software. Then the optimization problem of the land use was solved by simplex method. Finally, the best option of land use was determined by comparing erosion rate and its cost in each scenario. Then the circumstances and the recommended conditions were compared. The results indicated that the current surface area of current land uses is not suitable to reduce erosion and increase income of residents and should change in the optimum conditions. At the optimum level, there should change horticulture area of 408 to 507 (ha, irrigated land area of 169 to 136 (ha and dry farming of 636 to 570 (ha, while conversion of rangeland area not indispensable. In addition, the results showed that in case of the optimization of land use, soil erosion and the profitability of the whole area will decrease 0.75% and increase 3.68%, respectively. In case of land management practices, soil erosion will decrease 42.27% and the profitability increase 21.39% while in the standard conditions, soil erosion will decrease 60.95% and profitability will increase 24.20%. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the changes in the horticulture and range land areas have the greatest impact on the increasing profitability and reducing soil erosion of Qushchi watershed. So, it is recommended using Education and Extension to promote

  9. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement.

  10. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Magliocca

    Full Text Available Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model

  11. OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-15

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 14 -1 2 Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model...Fulton, Natalie Myers, Scott Tweddale, Dick Gebhart, Ryan Busby, Anne Dain-Owens, and Heidi Howard August 2014 OPAL team measuring above and...online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) ERDC/CERL TR-14-12

  12. Analyzing the Impacts of Land Use Land Change on Near Shore Coastal Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R. D.; Ta, E.; Boyle, C.; Alwood, B.

    2017-12-01

    The natural beauty of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) has continued to attract visitors and residents, which overtime has increased human development and impact. The resulting land use change increases sediment loads and the flow of pollutants into surrounding nearshore environments such as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Compounded with regional climate-related processes such as rising ocean temperatures and acidification, future land-use change poses a formidable threat to coral reefs and other susceptible marine environments. Without a healthy environment, the USVI economy also becomes endangered because it is mainly supported by tourism and recreation. Using Google Earth Engine, we created a tool to composite yearly Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS and Sentinel-2 MSI images identify changes from 1985 to present day. Using these land cover change maps we then analyzed trends at a watershed scale using hydrological data. We found there is a spatial relationship between development intensity and the health of coral reefs. Our work supports the existing knowledge of the link between land use and coastal ecosystem health.

  13. Agricultural Crown Land in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyle, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum industry's interest in provincial crown land in the agricultural area of Saskatchewan has grown over the last two decades. Agricultural land is regulated by the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture and Food, Lands Branch. Since 1974 surface lease contracts by oil and gas companies have increased from 1,400 to the present 3,700. Resource lands are regulated by Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. There are 8.8 million acres of crown agricultural land in Saskatchewan, most of which is held without title. Crown land management is meant to provide a long term management approach to crown lands that balances economic, environmental and social benefits for present and future generations. The oil and gas industry is an important participant in crown land management. Revenues from petroleum and gas surface leasing, and seismic licensing totals more than five million dollars annually. In 1995/96, there were 54 companies establishing new oil and gas leases on crown land in Saskatchewan. This paper provides details of current policies which apply to petroleum and gas leasing and seismic exploration, and environmental guidelines for companies developing well sites, compressor and metering stations, access roads and easements. 3 tabs

  14. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  15. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have all been associated with mechanisms for land control. Agrarian environments have been transformed by processes of de...... analytic tools that had seemed to have timeless applicability with new frameworks, concepts, and theoretical tools. What difference does land control make? These contributions to the debates demonstrate that the answers have been shaped by conflicts, contexts, histories, and agency, as land has been...

  16. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  17. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  18. Hydrology of Ranger land application area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 Ranger Uranium Mines (RUM) began assessing the technique of water treatment by land application as a means of reducing the volume of stored water within the Restricted Release Zone. Knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the treatment site is necessary for optimal day to day and season to season operation of the system and as an input into the assessment of the long-term viability of the site. This paper provides background information on the hydrological requirements for a water treatment site, describes the RUM's water treatment by land application system and summarises the operational statistics and current hydrological knowledge of the site. The general groundwater hydrology of the area comprises a surface soil aquifer overlying a semi-confined aquifer. Drainage of the surface aquifer follows the surface topography along the sandy clays. Vertical permeability ranges between 3 and 12 times greater than horizontal permeability. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Recovery of small pile burn scars in conifer forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Rhoades; Paula J. Fornwalt; Mark W. Paschke; Amber Shanklin; Jayne L. Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The ecological consequences of slash pile burning are a concern for land managers charged with maintaining forest soil productivity and native plant diversity. Fuel reduction and forest health management projects have created nearly 150,000 slash piles scheduled for burning on US Forest Service land in northern Colorado. The vast majority of these are small piles (

  20. International land deals, local people's livelihood, and environment nexus (How to create win-win land deals in Ethiopia?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    quantitative data analyses at different levels of focus ranging from household and farm levels to national and transnational. The study focuses on the western lowlands of Ethiopia where there are many companies engaged in large scale commercial farming, where 75% of it is below 1500 m a.s.l with average annual temperature of 20-25°C and annual rainfall of 500-1800 mm. Some preliminary exploratory findings indicate that there is massive land use conversion (deforestation) and 'voluntary' displacement of indigenous communities, which requires further triangulation. Key words: agricultural outsourcing; environmental services; land grabbing; sustainable livelihood; soil conservation

  1. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  2. Experiences with Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.; Gorgan, Maxim; Palmer, David

    2012-01-01

    . In many cases the fragmentation of land parcels has prevented the land market from developing. As a result of increasing political awareness of the problems, in 2004 the Government of Moldova requested assistance from the World Bank to address the situation. This led to a feasibility study and ultimately...

  3. Land governance and land deals in Africa: opportunities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the converging focus on “governance” by those donors and scholars who promote investment in land in Africa as well as by scholars and activists who criticize what they call “land grabs.” This focus on governance is particularly found in terms of understanding and assessing socio-economic ...

  4. Land tenure security and land investments in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Xian lei, Xianlei; Heerink, N.; Ierland, van E.C.; Berg, van den M.; Shi, X.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of perceived land tenure security in China on farmers' decisions to invest in relatively long-term land quality improvement measures, taking into account the potential endogeneity of tenure security. Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  5. Land policy reform in Rwanda: A Catalyst for Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Step in geo-ICT application for data handling was achieved, despite a big gap in technical and skills capabilities. Since new land policy coincided with decentralization policy, we recommend research on parallel implementation of policies with some similar dimensions. Keywords: Land policy reform, organizational change, ...

  6. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Garnett, Stephen T; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  7. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  9. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.; Beyer, L.; Rookwood, M.; Pacenka, J.; Bergin, J.

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge. The management practices associated with land application are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through land application are discussed

  10. The use of historical range and variability (HRV) in landscape management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Paul F. Hessburg; Peter B. Landres; Fred J. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the past, present, and future use of the concept of historical range and variability (HRV) in land management. The history, central concepts, benefits, and limitations of HRV are presented along with a discussion on the value of HRV in a changing world with rapid climate warming, exotic species invasions, and increased land development. This paper...

  11. Modeling Rainfall-Runoff Response to Land Use and Land Cover Change in Rwanda (1990–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff poses serious environmental problems and public health issues in Rwanda, a tropical country that is increasingly suffering from severe floods, landslides, soil erosion and water pollution. Using the WetSpa Extension model, this study assessed the changes in rainfall runoff depth in Rwanda from 1990 to 2016 in response to precipitation and land use changes. Our results show that Rwanda has experienced a significant conversion of natural forest and grassland to cropland and built-up areas. During the period 1990–2016, 7090.02 km2 (64.5% and 1715.26 km2 (32.1% of forest and grassland covers were lost, respectively, while the cropland and built-up areas increased by 135.3% (8503.75 km2 and 304.3% (355.02 km2, respectively. According to our estimates, the land use change effect resulted in a national mean runoff depth increase of 2.33 mm/year (0.38%. Although precipitation change affected the inter-annual fluctuation of runoff, the long-term trend of runoff was dominated by land use change. The top five districts that experienced the annual runoff depth increase (all >3.8 mm/year are Rubavu, Nyabihu, Ngororero, Gakenke, and Musanze. Their annual runoff depths increased at a rate of >3.8 mm/year during the past 27 years, due to severe deforestation (ranging from 62% to 85% and cropland expansion (ranging from 123% to 293%. These areas require high priority in runoff control using terracing in croplands and rainwater harvesting systems such as dam/reservoirs, percolation tanks, storage tanks, etc. The wet season runoff was three times higher than the dry season runoff in Rwanda; appropriate rainwater management and reservation could provide valuable irrigation water for the dry season or drought years (late rainfall onsets or early rainfall cessations. It was estimated that a reservation of 30.5% (3.99 km3 of the runoff in the wet season could meet the cropland irrigation water gap during the dry season in 2016.

  12. [Land layout for lake tourism based on ecological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ying; Li, Jiang-Feng; Zou, Li-Lin; Liu, Shi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To avoid the decrease and deterioration of lake wetlands and the other ecological issues such as lake water pollution that were caused by the unreasonable exploration of lake tourism, a land layout for the tourism development of Liangzi Lake with the priority of ecological security pattern was proposed, based on the minimal cumulative resistance model and by using GIS technology. The study area was divided into four ecological function zones, i. e., core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecotone zone, and human activity zone. The core protection zone was the landscape region of ecological source. In the protection zone, new tourism land was forbidden to be increased, and some of the existing fundamental tourism facilities should be removed while some of them should be upgraded. The ecological buffer zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 0 to 4562. In the buffer zone, expansion of tourism land should be forbidden, the existing tourism land should be downsized, and human activities should be isolated from ecological source by converting the human environment to the natural environment as far as possible. The ecotone zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 4562 to 30797. In this zone, the existing tourism land was distributed in patches, tourism land could be expanded properly, and the lake forestry ecological tourism should be developed widely. The human activity zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 30797 to 97334, which would be the key area for the land layout of lake tourism. It was suggested that the land layout for tourism with the priority of landscape ecological security pattern would be the best choice for the lake sustainable development.

  13. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  14. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  15. Determining Topographic and Some Physical Characteristics of the Land in Artvin City and Investigating Relationship between These Characteristics with Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yavuz Özalp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the aim was to determine topographic (elevation, slope, and aspect and some physical (Great Soil Groups (GSG and Land Use Capability Classes (LUCC characteristics of the land in Artvin and to reveal relations between these characteristics and land cover of the city that lies along the northeast border of Turkey and due to its natural resources, consists of several protected areas as well as many development projects -both planned and ongoing. Within this scope, areal and percentile distributions in respect to slope, aspect, elevation, GSG, LUCC and land cover were determined for eight towns of Artvin using digitized 1/25000 topographic and soil maps along with CORINE 2006 land cover map with the help of Geographical Information System (GIS. Then, distributions of chosen land use types (forest, agriculture, grassland/meadow were investigated according to the determined-ranges for the parameters of slope, aspect, elevation, GSG, and LUCC. The results showed that about 48.22% of Artvin’s whole land is between an elevation ranges of 1000 – 2000 m while 31.07% of the land lies above 2000 m. Moreover, average elevation of all the towns, except for Hopa, is over the country’s mean elevation of 1132 m and 81.25% of the city’s land consists of more than 30% slope, meaning that topography of the land in Artvin

  16. Consequences of kriging and land use regression for PM2.5 predictions in epidemiologic analyses: insights into spatial variability using high-resolution satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, Stacey E; Schwartz, Joel; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies use predicted air pollution exposures as surrogates for true air pollution levels. These predicted exposures contain exposure measurement error, yet simulation studies have typically found negligible bias in resulting health effect estimates. However, previous studies typically assumed a statistical spatial model for air pollution exposure, which may be oversimplified. We address this shortcoming by assuming a realistic, complex exposure surface derived from fine-scale (1 km × 1 km) remote-sensing satellite data. Using simulation, we evaluate the accuracy of epidemiological health effect estimates in linear and logistic regression when using spatial air pollution predictions from kriging and land use regression models. We examined chronic (long-term) and acute (short-term) exposure to air pollution. Results varied substantially across different scenarios. Exposure models with low out-of-sample R(2) yielded severe biases in the health effect estimates of some models, ranging from 60% upward bias to 70% downward bias. One land use regression exposure model with >0.9 out-of-sample R(2) yielded upward biases up to 13% for acute health effect estimates. Almost all models drastically underestimated the SEs. Land use regression models performed better in chronic effect simulations. These results can help researchers when interpreting health effect estimates in these types of studies.

  17. INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF UKRAINIAN DEFENSE LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazhа Y.P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The management and evaluation of defense land was revealed in the article. Specific institution is the military institutе in the institutional framework for defense land. A special regime and zoning, evaluation, payment and exclusion conditions were established for these lands. The market economy has changed the land-property relations in the country. Lands for defense used only in the framework that established the state. Recently there was a tendency of land release this subcategory. This has led to their misuse, belonging to other owners. The research problem consists of the setting clear boundaries of defense land and legal regulation mechanisms of land relations. Public ownership rights applies only to the defense lands. They are located only in the state ownership. The subject is the state that implements ownership (right to possess, use and dispose of the lands of Defense. It ensures the defense of the country and territory for military sites, airfields, parts, ammunition depots. Functional use of defense land is divided into public (military schools, socio-cultural (health centers, recreation centers, industrial (military and industrial objects, residential (cantonment, commercial (commissary, special (military installations, transport ( carpark, bridges, engineering (antennas, radars, storage (defense deport. The land for military unit were given for permanent use with the justification of the project design documentation sizes. The military part of the land for permanent use with the justification sizes by the project design documentation. Safety, security and other areas are created around military and other defense installations. There are restricted areas, prohibited areas. They have a special regime. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real estate. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real

  18. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  19. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  20. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  1. Theseus Landing Following Maiden Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its high aspect-ratio wing as it comes in for a landing on Rogers Dry Lake after its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able

  2. Relationship between welfare and individual ranging behaviour in commercial free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, H; Hemsworth, P H; Cronin, G M; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Smith, C L; Rault, J-L

    2018-01-24

    Laying hens housed in free-range systems have access to an outdoor range, and individual hens within a flock differ in their ranging behaviour. Whether there is a link between ranging and laying hen welfare remains unclear. We analysed the relationships between ranging by individual hens on a commercial free-range layer farm and behavioural, physiological and health measures of animal welfare. We hypothesised that hens that access the range more will be (1) less fearful in general and in response to novelty and humans, (2) have better health in terms of physical body condition and (3) have a reduced physiological stress response to behavioural tests of fear and health assessments than hens that use the range less. Using radio frequency identification tracking across two flocks, we recorded individual hens' frequency, duration and consistency of ranging. We also assessed how far hens ventured into the range based on three zones: 0 to 2.4, 2.4 to 11.4 or >11.4 m from the shed. We assessed hen welfare using a variety of measures including: tonic immobility, open field, novel object, human approach, and human avoidance (HAV) behavioural tests; stress-induced plasma corticosterone response and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites; live weight, comb colour, and beak, plumage, footpad, and keel bone condition. Range use was positively correlated with plasma corticosterone response, faecal glucocorticoid metabolites, and greater flight distance during HAV. Hens that used the range more, moved towards rather than away from the novel object more often than hens that ranged less. Distance ranged from the shed was significantly associated with comb colour and beak condition, in that hens with darker combs and more intact beaks ranged further. Overall the findings suggest that there is no strong link between outdoor range usage and laying hen welfare. Alternatively, it may be that hens that differed in their ranging behaviour showed few differences in measures of welfare because

  3. Baseline health parameters and species comparisons among free-ranging Atlantic sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo), and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) sharks in Georgia, Florida, and Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Katherine H; Norton, Terry M; Thomas, Austen C; Dove, Alistair D M; Tseng, Florina

    2012-04-01

    Sharks are of commercial, research, conservation, and exhibition importance but we know little regarding health parameters and population status for many species. Here we present health indicators and species comparisons for adults of three common wild-caught species: 30 Atlantic sharpnose sharks (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) and 31 bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) from the western Atlantic, and 30 spiny dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias) from the eastern Pacific. All animals were captured during June-July 2009 and 2010. Median values and preliminary reference intervals were calculated for hematology, plasma biochemistry, trace nutrients, and vitamin A, E, and D concentrations. Significant differences, attributable to physiologic differences among the species, were found in the basic hematologic and plasma biochemistry variables. Significant species differences in arsenic and selenium plasma concentrations were found and appear to coincide with diet and habitat variability among these three species. Vitamin E was significantly higher in the bonnethead shark, again related to the foraging ecology and ingestion of plant material by this species. The Atlantic sharpnose had significantly higher vitamin A concentrations, supported by the higher proportion of teleosts in the diet. Vitamin D was below the limit of quantification in all three species. These preliminary reference intervals for health variables can be used to assess and monitor the population health and serve as indicators of nutritional status in these populations of wild elasmobranchs.

  4. MODERN LAND MANAGEMENT UKRAINE: CONCEPT, ESSENCE, TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak Anton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern transformations prevailing inUkrainein the sphere of land relations and the use and protection of land are critical and require changes without final rozrushennya existing system of land management, the reform and a new understanding of the nature and forms of modern land management. Given that land management is a fundamental mechanism for land management and land use, in our opinion its reform and development should be seen in close relationship with the development of management system. Problems in the theory of management of land resources, especially its main land managers in different socio-economic communities is extremely important because the efficiency of its operation is not the most important in the economic relations of land ownership. However, for more than 25 years the implementation of land reform inUkrainegovernment has not decided as of model management and land management systems. Functioning system of land management and land use inUkraineon a "top - down" is derived from the authoritarian system of the state, theSoviet Unionand there is not a market. Similarly unchanged system of land management, which is why the task was made research its current state for further scientific studies integrated management system. It is studied modern land management in Ukraine and proved the concept and essence of contemporary land in Ukraine as a multifunctional system, which requires besides the concepts of "social land management", "economy of land", "legal land management", "technical land management", such as "environmental land management", " innovation in land management", "cadastral land management", "ecological and economic land management". A new concept of land as the overall socio-economic, environmental measures and organizational, legal and technical actions aimed at regulating land relations and rational organization of the territory of the administrative-territorial entities, entities committed under the influence of

  5. Urban land rights and child nutritional status in Peru, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Tom S

    2007-07-01

    Advocates of land-titling programs in developing countries posit that these programs lead to a multitude of benefits, including health improvements. This paper presents the results of a child health survey of several Lima communities after various time exposures to Peru's urban land-titling program. The results provide suggestive evidence that improved property rights increase children's weight but not their height, which is consistent with previous work on the topic. However, titles also appear to raise children's risk of being overweight or obese, implying that the observed weight gain is not necessarily an improvement in nutritional status.

  6. Hydrological responses of a watershed to historical land use evolution and future land use scenarios under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quilbé

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed runoff is closely related to land use but this influence is difficult to quantify. This study focused on the Chaudière River watershed (Québec, Canada and had two objectives: (i to quantify the influence of historical agricultural land use evolution on watershed runoff; and (ii to assess the effect of future land use evolution scenarios under climate change conditions (CC. To achieve this, we used the integrated modeling system GIBSI. Past land use evolution was constructed using satellite images that were integrated into GIBSI. The general trend was an increase of agricultural land in the 80's, a slight decrease in the beginning of the 90's and a steady state over the last ten years. Simulations showed strong correlations between land use evolution and water discharge at the watershed outlet. For the prospective approach, we first assessed the effect of CC and then defined two opposite land use evolution scenarios for the horizon 2025 based on two different trends: agriculture intensification and sustainable development. Simulations led to a wide range of results depending on the climatologic models and gas emission scenarios considered, varying from a decrease to an increase of annual and monthly water discharge. In this context, the two land use scenarios induced opposite effects on water discharge and low flow sequences, especially during the growing season. However, due to the large uncertainty linked to CC simulations, it is difficult to conclude that one land use scenario provides a better adaptation to CC than another. Nevertheless, this study shows that land use is a key factor that has to be taken into account when predicting potential future hydrological responses of a watershed.

  7. Constraining the JULES land-surface model for different land-use types using citizen-science generated hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, H. K.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Community land surface models such as JULES are increasingly used for hydrological assessment because of their state-of-the-art representation of land-surface processes. However, a major weakness of JULES and other land surface models is the limited number of land surface parameterizations that is available. Therefore, this study explores the use of data from a network of catchments under homogeneous land-use to generate parameter "libraries" to extent the land surface parameterizations of JULES. The network (called iMHEA) is part of a grassroots initiative to characterise the hydrological response of different Andean ecosystems, and collects data on streamflow, precipitation, and several weather variables at a high temporal resolution. The tropical Andes are a useful case study because of the complexity of meteorological and geographical conditions combined with extremely heterogeneous land-use that result in a wide range of hydrological responses. We then calibrated JULES for each land-use represented in the iMHEA dataset. For the individual land-use types, the results show improved simulations of streamflow when using the calibrated parameters with respect to default values. In particular, the partitioning between surface and subsurface flows can be improved. But also, on a regional scale, hydrological modelling was greatly benefitted from constraining parameters using such distributed citizen-science generated streamflow data. This study demonstrates the modelling and prediction on regional hydrology by integrating citizen science and land surface model. In the context of hydrological study, the limitation of data scarcity could be solved indeed by using this framework. Improved predictions of such impacts could be leveraged by catchment managers to guide watershed interventions, to evaluate their effectiveness, and to minimize risks.

  8. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  9. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences...... of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...

  10. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Victor B; Aspiras, Reyno A

    2011-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and mossy-pygmy forests. Inventory of plant species revealed 163 endemic species, 35 threatened species, and 33 rare species. Assessment of plants also showed seven species as new record in Mindanao and one species as new record in the Philippines. Noteworthy is the discovery of Nepenthes micramphora, a new species of pitcher plant found in the high altitudes of Hamiguitan Range. This species is also considered site endemic, rare, and threatened. The result of the study also showed that the five vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan harbor a number of endangered, endemic, and rare species of plants. Thus, the result of this study would serve as basis for the formulation of policies for the protection and conservation of these species and their habitats before these plants become extinct.

  11. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  12. Influence of land use configurations on river sediment pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Duodu, Godfred O; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2017-10-01

    Land use is an influential factor in river sediment pollution. However, land use type alone is found to be inadequate to explain pollutant contributions to the aquatic environment since configurations within the same land use type such as land cover and development layout could also exert an important influence. Consequently, this paper discusses a research study, which consisted of an in-depth investigation into the relationship between land use type and river sediment pollution by introducing robust parameters that represent configurations within the primary land use types. Urban water pollutants, namely, nutrients, total carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals were investigated in the study. The outcomes show that higher patch density and more diverse land use development forms contribute relatively greater pollutant loads to receiving waters and consequently leading to higher sediment pollution. The study outcomes are expected to contribute essential knowledge for creating robust management strategies to minimise waterway pollution and thereby protect the health of aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay Ibrahim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

  14. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2009-01-01

    NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) for their land data assimilation systems to support weather and climate modeling. LIS not only consolidates the capabilities of these two systems, but also enables a much larger variety of configurations with respect to horizontal spatial resolution, input datasets and choice of land surface model through "plugins,". As described in Kumar et al., 2007, and demonstrated in Case et al., 2008, and Santanello et al., 2009, LIS has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to support studies of land-atmosphere coupling the enabling ensembles of land surface states to be tested against multiple representations of the atmospheric boundary layer. LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation as described in Peters-Lidard et al. (2008) and Santanello et al. (2007), who showed that the use of sequential remotely sensed soil moisture products can be used to derive soil hydraulic and texture properties given a sufficient dynamic range in the soil moisture retrievals and accurate precipitation inputs. LIS has also recently been demonstrated for multi-model data assimilation (Kumar et al., 2008) using an Ensemble Kalman Filter for sequential assimilation of soil moisture, snow, and temperature. Ongoing work has demonstrated the value of bias correction as part of the filter, and also that of joint calibration and assimilation. Examples and case studies demonstrating the capabilities and impacts of LIS for hydrometeoroogical modeling, assimilation and parameter estimation will be presented as advancements towards the next generation of integrated observation and modeling systems.

  15. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2011-01-01

    Center (EMC) for their land data assimilation systems to support weather and climate modeling. LIS not only consolidates the capabilities of these two systems, but also enables a much larger variety of configurations with respect to horizontal spatial resolution, input datasets and choice of land surface model through "plugins". LIS has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to support studies of land-atmosphere coupling be enabling ensembles of land surface states to be tested against multiple representations of the atmospheric boundary layer. LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation, who showed that the use of sequential remotely sensed soil moisture products can be used to derive soil hydraulic and texture properties given a sufficient dynamic range in the soil moisture retrievals and accurate precipitation inputs.LIS has also recently been demonstrated for multi-model data assimilation using an Ensemble Kalman Filter for sequential assimilation of soil moisture, snow, and temperature.Ongoing work has demonstrated the value of bias correction as part of the filter, and also that of joint calibration and assimilation.Examples and case studies demonstrating the capabilities and impacts of LIS for hydrometeorological modeling, assimilation and parameter estimation will be presented as advancements towards the next generation of integrated observation and modeling systems

  16. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  17. Flow Range of Centrifugal Compressor Being Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    General Aviation will benefit from turbine engines that are both fuel-efficient and reliable. Current engines fall short of their potential to achieve these attributes. The reason is compressor surge, which is a flow stability problem that develops when the compressor is subjected to conditions that are outside of its operating range. Compressor surge can occur when fuel flow to the engine is increased, temporarily back pressuring the compressor and pushing it past its stability limit, or when the compressor is subjected to inlet flow-field distortions that may occur during takeoff and landing. Compressor surge can result in the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. Unfortunately, the most efficient operating line for the compressor is usually closer to its stability limit line than it is to the line that provides an adequate margin of safety. A wider stable flow range will permit operation along the most efficient operating line of the compressor, improving the specific fuel consumption of the engine and reducing emissions. The NASA Glenn Research Center is working to extend the stable flow range of the compressor. Significant extension has been achieved in axial compressors by injecting air upstream of the compressor blade rows. Recently, the technique was successfully applied to a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor by injecting streams of air into the diffuser. Both steady and controlled unsteady injection were used to inject air through the diffuser shroud surface and extend the range. Future work will evaluate the effect of air injection through the diffuser hub surface and diffuser vanes with the goal of maximizing the range extension while minimizing the amount of injected air that is required.

  18. Development of land cadastral system in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordyuzha

    2012-01-01

    The article gives reasonable prospects for usage of land cadastre information, it’s place and role in land management. Foreign experience in the land cadastre has been explored and analyzed. It is proposed to improve the information system of land resources to ensure effective environmentally-save land use.

  19. Towards a global land subsidence map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, G.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Land subsidence is a global problem, but a global land subsidence map is not available yet. Such map is crucial to raise global awareness of land subsidence, as land subsidence causes extensive damage (probably in the order of billions of dollars annually). With the global land subsidence map

  20. Mined-out land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno; Toomik, Arvi; Valgma, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Estonian mineral resources are deposited in low depth and mining fields are large, therefore vast areas are affected by mining. There are at least 800 deposits with total area of 6,000 km 2 and about the same number of underground mines, surface mines, peat fields, quarries, and sand and gravel pits. The deposits cover more than 10% of Estonian mainland. The total area of operating mine claims exceeds 150 km 2 that makes 0.3 % of Estonian area. The book is written mainly for the people who are living or acting in the area influenced by mining. The observations and research could benefit those who are interested in geography and environment, who follow formation and look of mined-out landscapes. The book contains also warnings for careless people on and under the surface of the mined-out land. Part of the book contains results of the research made in 1968-1993 by the first two authors working at the Estonian branch of A.Skochinsky Institute of Mining. Since 1990, Arvi Toomik continued this study at the Northeastern section of the Institute of Ecology of Tallinn Pedagogical University. Enno Reinsalu studied aftereffects of mining at the Mining Department of Tallinn Technical University from 1998 to 2000. Geographical Information System for Mining was studied by Ingo Valgma within his doctoral dissertation, and this book is one of the applications of his study

  1. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  2. Using biodiversity stewardship as a means to secure the natural wild values on communal land in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McCann; Roelie Kloppers; Andrew Venter

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is one of the most biodiversity-rich countries in the world, with much valuable biodiversity situated on a range of different land tenure types, including state, private and communal land. Despite this, these wild lands are being lost at an unprecedented rate, with the resultant loss of natural areas and associated ecosystem services. The challenge lies in...

  3. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DEGRADED LAND UTILIZATION AS FODDER LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voloshuk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider theoretical and practical prospects of creating biofitocenozes on degraded lands. The problems of soil erosion in Ukraine are discussed. The division of lands into 5 groups is given in view of a degree eroded of a soil cover, exposing by their erosion, the parameters of a relief, etc. Show prospect of creation biofitocenozes on these lands, to select the greatest productive grass associations. The technological operations before crop and entering of various dozes of organic and mineral fertilizers are specified.

  4. Land and building valuation in Cuba: from land without value to land as financial asset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Femández (Ricardo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn Cuba, the government authorities define the priorities for land and property distribution. One might expect that those official development programs would take account of the value of land and buildings. But that is not so, although there is a growing awareness of its importance. When

  5. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  6. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  7. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Currently within the EU's Earth Observation (EO) monitoring framework, there is a need for low-cost methods for acquiring high quality in-situ data to create accurate and well-validated environmental monitoring products. To help address this need, a new four year Horizon 2020 project entitled LandSense will link remote sensing data with modern participatory data collection methods that involve citizen scientists. This paper will describe the citizen science activities within the LandSense Observatory that aim to deliver concrete, measurable and quality-assured ground-based data that will complement existing satellite monitoring systems. LandSense will deploy advanced tools, services and resources to mobilize and engage citizens to collect in-situ observations (i.e. ground-based data and visual interpretations of EO imagery). Integrating these citizen-driven in-situ data collections with established authoritative and open access data sources will help reduce costs, extend GEOSS and Copernicus capacities, and support comprehensive environmental monitoring systems. Policy-relevant campaigns will be implemented in close collaboration with multiple stakeholders to ensure that citizen observations address user requirements and contribute to EU-wide environmental governance and decision-making. Campaigns for addressing local and regional Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) issues are planned for select areas in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Slovenia and Serbia. Novel LandSense services (LandSense Campaigner, FarmLand Support, Change Detector and Quality Assurance & Control) will be deployed and tested in these areas to address critical LULC issues (i.e. urbanization, agricultural land use and forest/habitat monitoring). For example, local residents in the cities of Vienna, Tulln, and Heidelberg will help cooperatively detect and map changes in land cover and green space to address key issues of urban sprawl, land take and flooding. Such campaigns are facilitated through

  8. Research on the Enhancement Effects of Using Ecological Principles in Managing the Lifecycle of Industrial Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Guo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a performance level concept for industrial land use. The performance level concept uses ecological principles to evaluate index systems for industrial land. We used this concept to integrate local economics, land use, development potential, environmental health and ecosystem management with innovation, harmony, floral preservation, and shared land use. The concept helps promote the efficient use of industrial land and the sustainable use of land resources. We used the chemical medicine manufacturing industry in Chongqing Changshou Economic and Technological Development Zone as a case study. We selected eight companies for analysis and calculated an industrial land performance level for each company. We created three industrial land performance levels: growth potential type, positive development type, and inefficient recession type. To determine economic development and land sustainability, we applied administrative, economic, legal and technical measures to evaluate the entire lifecycle of industrial land. This lifecycle included preliminary project audit access, mid-period dynamic supervision and post land exit management. We conclude by proposing measures to mitigate environmental harm occurring from the intensive use of land for industrial use.

  9. Health risk assessment of heavy metals through the consumption of food crops fertilized by biosolids: A probabilistic-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E.; Eskicioglu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • No potential health risk of land application of the regional biosolids. • More realistic risk assessment via probabilistic approach than that of deterministic. • Increasing the total hazard index with increasing fertilizer land application rate. • Significant effect of long-term biosolids land application of hazard index. • Greater contribution of rice ingestion than vegetable ingestion on hazard index. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to perform a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to assess the health risk of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) through the consumption of food crops grown on farm lands fertilized by biosolids. The risk analysis was conducted using 8 years of historical heavy metal data (2005–2013) of the municipal biosolids generated by a nearby treatment facility considering one-time and long-term biosolids land application scenarios for a range of 5–100 t/ha fertilizer application rate. The 95th percentile of the hazard index (HI) increased from 0.124 to 0.179 when the rate of fertilizer application increased from 5 to 100 t/ha at one-time biosolids land application. The HI at long-term biosolids land application was also found 1.3 and 1.9 times greater than that of one-time land application at fertilizer application rates of 5 and 100 t/ha, respectively. Rice ingestion had more contribution to the HI than vegetable ingestion. Cd and Cu were also found to have more contribution to the health risk associated to vegetable and rice ingestion, respectively. Results indicated no potential risk to the human health even at long-term biosolids land application scenario at 100 t/ha fertilizer application rate.

  10. Health risk assessment of heavy metals through the consumption of food crops fertilized by biosolids: A probabilistic-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com; Eskicioglu, C., E-mail: cigdem.eskicioglu@ubc.ca

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • No potential health risk of land application of the regional biosolids. • More realistic risk assessment via probabilistic approach than that of deterministic. • Increasing the total hazard index with increasing fertilizer land application rate. • Significant effect of long-term biosolids land application of hazard index. • Greater contribution of rice ingestion than vegetable ingestion on hazard index. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to perform a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to assess the health risk of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) through the consumption of food crops grown on farm lands fertilized by biosolids. The risk analysis was conducted using 8 years of historical heavy metal data (2005–2013) of the municipal biosolids generated by a nearby treatment facility considering one-time and long-term biosolids land application scenarios for a range of 5–100 t/ha fertilizer application rate. The 95th percentile of the hazard index (HI) increased from 0.124 to 0.179 when the rate of fertilizer application increased from 5 to 100 t/ha at one-time biosolids land application. The HI at long-term biosolids land application was also found 1.3 and 1.9 times greater than that of one-time land application at fertilizer application rates of 5 and 100 t/ha, respectively. Rice ingestion had more contribution to the HI than vegetable ingestion. Cd and Cu were also found to have more contribution to the health risk associated to vegetable and rice ingestion, respectively. Results indicated no potential risk to the human health even at long-term biosolids land application scenario at 100 t/ha fertilizer application rate.

  11. Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Selçuk

    2008-10-01

    Mapping land use/land cover (LULC) changes at regional scales is essential for a wide range of applications, including landslide, erosion, land planning, global warming etc. LULC alterations (based especially on human activities), negatively effect the patterns of climate, the patterns of natural hazard and socio-economic dynamics in global and local scale. In this study, LULC changes are investigated by using of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Rize, North-East Turkey. For this purpose, firstly supervised classification technique is applied to Landsat images acquired in 1976 and 2000. Image Classification of six reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground truth data obtained from aerial images dated 1973 and 2002. The second part focused on land use land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel). In third part of the study, the land cover changes are analyzed according to the topographic structure (slope and altitude) by using GIS functions. The results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred in agricultural (36.2%) (especially in tea gardens), urban (117%), pasture (-72.8%) and forestry (-12.8%) areas has been experienced in the region between 1976 and 2000. It was seen that the LULC changes were mostly occurred in coastal areas and in areas having low slope values.

  12. Development of a 30 m Spatial Resolution Land Cover of Canada: Contribution to the Harmonized North America Land Cover Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, D.; Latifovic, R.; Olthof, I.

    2017-12-01

    Land cover is needed for a large range of environmental applications regarding climate impacts and adaption, emergency response, wildlife habitat, air quality, water yield, etc. In Canada a 2008 user survey revealed that the most practical scale for provision of land cover data is 30 m, nationwide, with an update frequency of five years (Ball, 2008). In response to this need the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing has generated a 30 m land cover of Canada for the base year 2010 as part of a planned series of maps at the recommended five year update frequency. This land cover is the Canadian contribution to the North American Land Change Monitoring System initiative, which seeks to provide harmonized land cover across Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The methodology developed in this research utilized a combination of unsupervised and machine learning techniques to map land cover, blend results between mapping units, locally optimize results, and process some thematic attributes with specific features sets. Accuracy assessment with available field data shows it was on average 75% for the five study areas assessed. In this presentation an overview of the unique processing aspects, example results, and initial accuracy assessment will be discussed.

  13. Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Reis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping land use/land cover (LULC changes at regional scales is essential for a wide range of applications, including landslide, erosion, land planning, global warming etc. LULC alterations (based especially on human activities, negatively effect the patterns of climate, the patterns of natural hazard and socio-economic dynamics in global and local scale. In this study, LULC changes are investigated by using of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey. For this purpose, firstly supervised classification technique is applied to Landsat images acquired in 1976 and 2000. Image Classification of six reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground truth data obtained from aerial images dated 1973 and 2002. The second part focused on land use land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel. In third part of the study, the land cover changes are analyzed according to the topographic structure (slope and altitude by using GIS functions. The results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred in agricultural (36.2% (especially in tea gardens, urban (117%, pasture (-72.8% and forestry (-12.8% areas has been experienced in the region between 1976 and 2000. It was seen that the LULC changes were mostly occurred in coastal areas and in areas having low slope values.

  14. Shallow land burial - why or why not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Ledbetter, J.O.; Rohlich, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a master's thesis on the state-of-the-art for shallow land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes. The coverage of the thesis, which is condensed for this paper, ranges from site selection to problem case histories. Inherent in such coverage is the assessment of risk, the discussion of operational and management problems and the real significance of off-site migration. This topic is discussed in light of the stands taken that the migration is a serious problem and that it is not. Emphasis is on the engineering parameters of importance in site selection, and what pretreatment, if any, is needed

  15. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  16. Highest and best use of agricultural land in multifunctional land market evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, rural lands are important for agricultural production, land value strongly related to productive potential of land income based and measurable. Transition towards multifunctional rural environment, income from land not only...

  17. Plutonium contamination in the Maralinga Tjarutja lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; Lokan, K.H.; Richardson, C.K.; Williams, G.A.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear weapons trials conducted at Maralinga from 1960 to 1963 resulted in contamination of large areas of land with low levels of plutonium. Ground and aerial surveys and soil sampling conducted between 1984 and 1987 showed that this contamination extended beyond the boundaries of the area still controlled by the Commonwealth Government into the Maralinga Tjarutja lands. Levels of contamination beyond the boundaries of the former test range were found to be low, and were generally undetectable for all but the most sensitive measurement techniques. Soil sampling combined with long laboratory counting was initially used to define the trace levels but the contamination was found to be particulate with a surface density of particles too low for this to be a generally useful technique. The results are presented of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry using a portable germanium (Ge) detector to measure contamination levels of plutonium to well below 1 kBq m -2 in the Maralinga Tjarutja lands to the north and north-west of the Maralinga test site. 8 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  18. The GOFC-GOLD/CEOS Land Cover Harmonization and Validation Initiative: Technical Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.; Stehman, S.; Nightingale, J.; Friedl, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2010-12-01

    A global effort to assess the accuracy of existing and future land cover products derived from a variety of satellite sensors over a range of spatial resolutions is being led by the Land Cover Implementation Team (LC-IT) of GOFC/GOLD (Global Observation of Land Cover Dynamics) in conjunction with the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) WGCV (Working Group on Calibration and Validation) LPV (Land Product Validation) subgroup. The first phase of this effort is complete and culminated in a publication of community consensus "best practices" for validation of global land cover datasets (2). The next phase is to implement the recommendations outlined in the "best practices" document. A "living database" of global randomized sample sites will form the basis of accuracy assessment for a host of global land cover products (GLC2000, MODIS land cover, GLOBCOVER, United Nation's Forest Resource Assessment (FRA2010), and the Mid-Decadal Global Land Survey. This "living dataset" will also be a community resource available for use in validation of regional or national mapping efforts using LCCS (UN FAO's Land Cover Classification System). Based on the known accuracy of existing land cover products, GOFC/GOLD will to develop and update a "best currently available" global land cover map. Individual geographic regions may be selected from different land cover products (global, national or regional), or they may be combined in various ways

  19. Estimation and comparision of curve numbers based on dynamic land use land cover change, observed rainfall-runoff data and land slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay Suresh; Chaube, Umesh Chandra; Ekube Hailu, Ambaye; Aberra Gudeta, Dida; Tegene Kassa, Melaku

    2013-06-01

    The CN represents runoff potential is estimated using three different methods for three watersheds namely Barureva, Sher and Umar watershed located in Narmada basin. Among three watersheds, Sher watershed has gauging site for the runoff measurements. The CN computed from the observed rainfall-runoff events is termed as CN(PQ), land use and land cover (LULC) is termed as CN(LU) and the CN based on land slope is termed as SACN2. The estimated annual CN(PQ) varies from 69 to 87 over the 26 years data period with median 74 and average 75. The range of CN(PQ) from 70 to 79 are most significant values and these truly represent the AMC II condition for the Sher watershed. The annual CN(LU) was computed for all three watersheds using GIS and the years are 1973, 1989 and 2000. Satellite imagery of MSS, TM and ETM+ sensors are available for these years and obtained from the Global Land Cover Facility Data Center of Maryland University USA. The computed CN(LU) values show rising trend with the time and this trend is attributed to expansion of agriculture area in all watersheds. The predicted values of CN(LU) with time (year) can be used to predict runoff potential under the effect of change in LULC. Comparison of CN(LU) and CN(PQ) values shows close agreement and it also validates the classification of LULC. The estimation of slope adjusted SA-CN2 shows the significant difference over conventional CN for the hilly forest lands. For the micro watershed planning, SCS-CN method should be modified to incorporate the effect of change in land use and land cover along with effect of land slope.

  20. 25 CFR 170.410 - What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.410 What is the purpose of tribal long-range... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning? 170.410 Section 170.410 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND...

  1. On pilgrimage with biblical women in their land(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Wainwright

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent sociological and anthropological studies have provided models for examining pilgrimage both in its ancient and contemporary manifestations. Such models can facilitate an examination of the phenomenon of study tours to biblical lands and the multivalence of the discourses associated with such tours. The first part of the article engaged critically with the literature in order to open up some frameworks for examining the study tour to biblical lands. Feminist critical biblical scholarship with its potential for a feminist hermeneutic of creative imagination contributes to the multivalence around the study tour. Therefore, the second part of the article engaged this scholarship in relation to an imagined tour with women of the biblical lands. The article highlighted significant issues for consideration for those planning a study tour of biblical lands, especially in terms of the consideration that ought to be paid to gender.

  2. Bureau of Land Management Surface Land Ownership (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — These data were collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at both the New Mexico State Office and at the various field offices. This...

  3. land registration and land investment: the case of tigray region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    percent level) were found to be more likely to make investments on land. .... 2A measurement error on the dependent variable does not destroy the unbiasedness ...... In this case, households with relatively older heads, although not significant.

  4. Christmas in Physics Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage

  5. Prevention and Rehabilitation of Degraded Land to Achieve Sustainable Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankong, Patcharin

    2010-01-01

    Rapid population growth and the challenge of food security combined with burgeoning urban development have put multiple pressures on land and water resources. Worldwide soil degradation is currently estimated at 1.9 billion hectares and is increasing at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. Once land resources are degraded, rehabilitation usually requires a long-term effort and is often expensive. To mitigate land and soil degradation, effective soil conservation and suitable rehabilitation practices are required and should be chosen according to the levels and causes of soil degradation. The basic principles of soil conservation and management for preventing land degradation are: (i) to control soil erosion by practices such as terracing, reduced tillage in combination with mulching, intercropping or grass strips, (ii) to improve soil fertility through organic and inorganic fertilizers, and (iii) to prevent accumulation of harmful substances. Natural rehabilitation of degraded land can be a practical and low-cost alternative. For example, soil stabilization through vegetative measures has been used to control wind and water erosion and simultaneously improve soil health by increasing soil organic matter and nutrient availability. Nevertheless, if land has been degraded by mining and/or contaminated by heavy metals or organic pollutants, the surrounding farmlands can also be affected through surface runoff from the contaminated site, thereby rendering them unfit for cultivation. In this case, phytoremediation technologies, defined as the use of plants and trees to remove, immobilize, transform or degrade contaminants in polluted soil or water, in combination with for instance constructed wetlands and/or microbial interactions can be used to remediate polluted land as well as to prevent contamination of farmlands. Therefore both on-farm management and off-site remediation are important to protect and improve agricultural land resources, hence improve crop

  6. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  7. LANDS CARTOGRAPHY: A MESOAMERICAN HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pájaro Huertas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Land maps, like prehispanic mesoamerican maps, do notuse Euclidean projections, which are based on ahumanistic or social projection. The spatial reality inthese maps is defined and structured by socialrelationships. Thus, a land map represents a communityshowing its territory and history, and not only an area likein conventional technical maps. A land map is a“communicentric projection” of the “egocentricperception” of the peasant, and can be defined as theprojection in graphic symbols of the spatial relationshipsabstracted from the knowledge available in cognitivemaps of the environments known by the peasant, ratherthan the result of sophisticated techniques, such as thoseused in soil surveys or remote perception.

  8. Nations need national land administration infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, Rohan; Rajabifard, Abbas; Williamson, Ian; Wallace, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Many nations lack a coherent national approach to land administration. Instead, land information and processes are frequently disaggregated across states, provinces, cantons, counties, and municipalities. This is particularly the case in federated countries. The growing body of land administration

  9. Research on Land Use Changes in Panjin City Basing on Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hua; Li, Ru Ren; Shuang Sun, Li; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yu Mei

    2018-05-01

    Taking Landsat remote sensing image as the main data source, the research on land use changes in Panjin City in 2005 to 2015 is made with the support of remote sensing platform and GIS platform in this paper; the range of land use changes and change rate are analyzed through the classification of remote sensing image; the dynamic analysis on land changes is made with the help of transfer matrix of land use type; the quantitative calculation on all kinds of dynamic change features of land changes is made by utilizing mathematical model; and the analysis on driving factors of land changes of image is made at last. The research results show that, in recent ten years, the area of cultivated land in Panjin City decreased, the area of vegetation increased, and meanwhile the area of road increased drastically, the settlement place decreased than ever, and water area changed slightly.

  10. A coherent set of future land use change scenarios for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Reginster, I.; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a range of future, spatially explicit, land use change scenarios for the EU15, Norway and Switzerland based on an interpretation of the global storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that are presented in the special report on emissions scenarios (SRES......). The methodology is based on a qualitative interpretation of the SRES storylines for the European region, an estimation of the aggregate totals of land use change using various land use change models and the allocation of these aggregate quantities in space using spatially explicit rules. The spatial patterns...... are further downscaled from a resolution of 10 min to 250 m using statistical downscaling procedures. The scenarios include the major land use/land cover classes urban, cropland, grassland and forest land as well as introducing new land use classes such as bioenergy crops. The scenario changes are most...

  11. Land Use Change and Land Degradation in Southeastern Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall “recuperating” trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  12. From farm land to electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundell, P.; Ekeborg, T.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates how much electricity that can be produced from one hectare of farm land with different combinations of biomass fuel - upgrading processes - cogeneration techniques. The yield from energy crops, energy forest and broad-leaved trees has been combined with possible upgrading processes. A number of combined heat and power techniques has been studied focusing on electric power efficiency in a combined heat and power application. The ambition has been to give rough estimations of the whole systems total electrical output. The biomass losses from source to end use has been taken into account. Parameters such as economy, environment and availability are only briefly discussed. The amount of power produced per hectare and year (MWh e /ha,yr) has been calculated for a number of system combinations. The input energy for cultivation, harvesting, upgrading, transport and power production is estimated. Using todays technology, it is the combination Salix-gasification-combined cycle that gives the highest electricity production of the studied cases. Based on the assumptions and calculations made in this study approximately 20 MWh e /ha,yr is produced. If Salix is used as a solid fuel in a conventional steam cycle the net electricity production will be in the range of 13-15 MWh e /ha,yr. In terms of energy efficiency there is no gain in upgrading the fuel to briquettes, pellets or powder. The best system for energy grass is through gasification and combined cycle which will give an approximate net electricity production of 10-12 MWh e /ha,yr and a heat production of 12-13 MWh/ha,yr. The energy input is about 2-3 MWh/ha,yr. Energy grass used as fuel in an conventional steam cycle will give a net electricity production of 7 MWh e /ha,yr and a heat production of 17 MWh/ha,yr. (59 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.)

  13. Land-use change arising from rural land exchange : an agent-based simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martha M.; Alam, Shah Jamal; van Dijk, Jerry|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29612642X; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing

  14. PROBLEMS OF CLASSIFICATION AND FORMATION LAND OF AVIATION TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovska I. O.

    2017-08-01

    territories. Land-use restrictions on aviation transport on adjacent airport territories cover large areas of land. Formation of aviation land-use and ecologically safe use of land of aviation transport is an extremely topical subject of scientific research in modern conditions. The main task is the development of scientific bases and methodological provisions for the formation, operation and regulation of the use of land potential of the aviation industry and methodological recommendations of land management of objects of aviation transport. The indicated problems were almost not investigated by Ukrainian scientists. The separation of land and property of airports of state, communal and private property is the serious problem in modern time. Due to the violation of the principle that an aerodrome is a strategic object that is not able to privatized, and a terminal is an investment object, including private property, only in 5 years it was possible to return the communal property to the Odessa airport, which in 2011 was transferred to offshore investors. The registration of land occupied has not been completed by other airports, and the corresponding legal documents have been issued to them. In accordance with the State Target Program for the Development of Airports, it is planned to implement a range of appropriate measures to ensure the construction, reconstruction and modernization of facilities. It is necessary to reflect in the State Land Cadastre the data on the registration of aerodrome territories as restrictions on land use associated with the operation of aviation transport, to make necessary changes to the Law of Ukraine "On State Land Cadastre" and the Procedure for State Land Cadastre.

  15. OPAL Land Condition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/download.shtml ) for installation for Windows, Linux, and Apple OSX ( Macintosh Operating System ) computers. Make sure you choose the...training Uses OSX (Apple Macintosh ) Operating System X PDF Portable Document Format PET Potential Evapotranspiration RFMSS Range Facility...uses some of those extensions. For example, OPAL requires the NetLogo Geographic Information System (GIS) extension, which accom- modates the use of

  16. Land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration program areas in China from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The grassland restoration areas in China, most of which was located in arid and semi-arid areas, are affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Using the 3S (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies, quantitative analysis method of landscape patterns and ecological simulation, this study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration areas in China from 2000 to 2010. We apply two parameters land use transfer matrix and land use dynamic degree to explore the speed and regional differentiation of land use change. We propose vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP), soil and water conservation capacity to assess the ecosystem functions. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape patterns at the class and landscape levels and explores the ecological effect of land use pattern and regional ecological processes. The results show that: (1) Grassland and others were the main landscape types in the study area in the past decade. The ecosystem structure was stable. About 0.37% of the total grassland area in 2000 experienced change in land use / land cover types. The area of woodlands, wetlands, farmlands, and built-up areas expanded. The area of others has declined. (2) The dynamic degree of regional land use was less than one percent in the recent ten years. The speed of land use and land cover change was low, and regional differentiation of change between the provinces was small. (3) The matrix of the landscape did not change in the study area. Landscape fragmentation index values decreased progressively; landscape diversity rose continuously; landscape aggregation and continuity decreased slightly; the landscape maintained relative integrity. (4) Ecosystem functions has increased as a whole. The vegetation coverages with significant increase (with a 1.99% yr-1 slope of regression) in the total study area; NPP has a fluctuating and increasing tendency, ranging from 218.23 g

  17. Photogrammetry, Digital mapping and Land Informations Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia.......Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia....

  18. Global albedo change and radiative cooling from anthropogenic land cover change, 1700 to 2005 based on MODIS, land use harmonization, radiative kernels, and reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A.; Masek, Jeffrey; Gao, Feng; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal; He, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Widespread anthropogenic land cover change over the last five centuries has influenced the global climate system through both biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Models indicate that warming from carbon emissions associated with land cover conversion has been partially offset by cooling from elevated albedo, but considerable uncertainty remains partly because of uncertainty in model treatments of albedo. This study incorporates a new spatially and temporally explicit, land cover specific albedo product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer with a historical land use data set (Land Use Harmonization product) to provide more precise, observationally derived estimates of albedo impacts from anthropogenic land cover change with a complete range of data set specific uncertainty. The mean annual global albedo increase due to land cover change during 1700-2005 was estimated as 0.00106 ± 0.00008 (mean ± standard deviation), mainly driven by snow exposure due to land cover transitions from natural vegetation to agriculture. This translates to a top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling of -0.15 ± 0.1 W m-2 (mean ± standard deviation). Our estimate was in the middle of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report range of -0.05 to -0.25 W m-2 and incorporates variability in albedo within land cover classes.

  19. Geospatial Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Transitions from 1986–2014 in a Peri-Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divine Odame Appiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, peri-urbanisation has led to the transformation of the rural landscape, changing rural land uses into peri-urban land uses, under varying driving factors. This paper analyzes the dynamic transitions among identified land use and land cover (LULC types in the Bosomtwe district of Ghana, from 1986 to 2014. An integrated approach of geo-information tools of satellite remote sensing in Earth Resource Data Analysis System (ERDAS Imagine 13 and ArcMap 10.2 Geographic Information System (GIS, with Markov chain analytical techniques were used to examine the combined forest land cover transitions, relative to build-up, recent fallows and grasslands and projected possible factors influencing the transitions under business as usual and unusual situations. Statistical analyses of the classified Landsat TM, ETM+ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (OLI/TIS indicated that over the period of 24 years, the Bosomtwe district has undergone a series of land use conversions with remarkable forest losses especially between 2002 and 2010. In 2010 dense forest cover was degraded to low forest by 4040 ha indicating 0.40% transition probability in the future. There was a remarkable increase of built-up/bare and concrete area with a 380% increment in the 1986–2002 transition periods. The application of the Markov futuristic land use dynamics by the years 2018 and 2028, projected from the 2014 LULC indicated a future steady decline in the area coverage of the dense forest to low forest category. This is currently being driven (as at the 2017 LULC trends, by the combined effects of increasing build up bare and concrete surface land uses as well as the expanding recent fallows and grassland. The paper concluded that the health of the ecosystem and biodiversity of the lake Bosomtwe need to be sustainably managed by the Bosomtwe district assembly.

  20. Effects of land use and land cover changes on water quality in the uMngeni river catchment, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namugize, Jean Nepomuscene; Jewitt, Graham; Graham, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Land use and land cover change are major drivers of water quality deterioration in watercourses and impoundments. However, understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of land use change characteristics and their link to water quality parameters in catchments is limited. As a contribution to address this limitation, the objective of this study is to assess the linkages between biophysico-chemical water quality parameters and land use and land cover (LULC) classes in the upper reaches of the uMngeni Catchment, a rapidly developing catchment in South Africa. These were assessed using Geographic Information Systems tools and statistical analyses for the years 1994, 2000, 2008 and 2011 based on changes over time of eight LULC classes and available water quality information. Natural vegetation, forest plantations and cultivated areas occupy 85% of the catchment. Cultivated, urban/built-up and degraded areas increased by 6%, 4.5% and 3%, respectively coinciding with a decrease in natural vegetation by 17%. Variability in the concentration of water quality parameters from 1994 to 2011 and an overall decline in water quality were observed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels exceeding the recommended guidelines for recreation and public health protection was noted as a major issue at seven of the nine sampling points. Overall, water supply reservoirs in the catchment retained over 20% of nutrients and over 85% of E. coli entering them. A relationship between land use types and water quality variables was found. However, the degree and magnitude of the associations varies between sub-catchments and is difficult to quantify. This highlights the complexity and the site-specific nature of relationships between land use types and water quality parameters in the catchment. Thus, this study provides useful findings on the general relationship between land use and land cover and water quality degradation, but highlights the risks of applying simple relationships or adding