WorldWideScience

Sample records for range land development

  1. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; Theresa Burcsu

    2010-01-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide...

  2. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  3. Caribbean land and development revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, James; Momsen, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The book is an interdisciplinary collection of fifteen essays, with an editorial introduction, on a range of territories in the Commonwealth, Francophone, and Hispanic Caribbean. The authors focus on land and development, providing fresh perspectives through a collection of international contributing authors.

  4. Bureau of Land Management Range Allotments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at both the New Mexico State Office and the various field offices. Collection...

  5. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  6. Initial land reclamation procedures related to possible Pu-cleanup activities at the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1976-02-01

    If areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) are to be used for experimental tests of procedures for clean-up of 239 Pu contamination, there are experiences in the Great Basin Desert portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which can serve as guides to reclamation and revegetation of such arid lands. Procedures which will encourage development of the grasses Hilaria jamesii and Oryzopsis hymenoides, as well as the perennial shrubs Eurotia lanata and Atriplex canescens would greatly improve the area as range land

  7. The land management paradigm for institutional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  8. Supporting institutional development in land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems are institutional......, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. The paper examines the capacity building concept and underpins the need for institutional development to facilitate the design...... and implementation of efficient Land Administration Models and to support good governance. The paper identifies the role of FIG in this regard. This includes support for professional, institutional and global development in surveying and land management, and aims to facilitate the creation of sustainable...

  9. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....

  10. Incorporating sustainable development objectives into land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Jude

    2006-01-01

    Historically, land administration systems (LAS) were built to support land markets and land taxation systems. In developed countries, these systems constitute substantial infrastructure provided through government for the benefit of overall public administration, citizens and businesses. These sy......Historically, land administration systems (LAS) were built to support land markets and land taxation systems. In developed countries, these systems constitute substantial infrastructure provided through government for the benefit of overall public administration, citizens and businesses...... lay in incorporating market based instruments (MBI) and complex commodities into LAS and revitalization of land information through inventive Web based initiatives. The EGM developed a vision outlined in this paper for future LAS sufficiently flexible to adapt to this changing world of new technology...

  11. Land Systems Impacts of Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Hydropower is often seen as the low-cost, low-carbon, and high-return technology for meeting rising electricity demand and fueling economic growth. Despite the magnitude and pace of hydropower expansion in many developing countries, the potential land use and land cover change (LULCC), particularly indirect LULCC, resulting from hydropower development is poorly understood. Hydropower-driven LULCC can have multiple impacts ranging from global and local climate modification (e.g., increased extreme precipitation events or increased greenhouse gas emissions), ecosystem degradation and fragmentation, to feedbacks on hydropower generation (e.g., increased sedimentation of the reservoir). As a result, a better understanding of both direct and indirect LULCC impacts can inform a more integrated and low-impact model for energy planning in countries with transitioning or growing energy portfolios. This study uses multi-scale remote sensing imagery (Landsat, MODIS, fine-resolution commercial imagery) to estimate LULCC from past hydropower projects intended primarily for electricity generation in 12 countries in Africa, South and Central America, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. It is important to examine multiple locations to determine how socio-political and environmental context determines the magnitude of LULCC. Previous studies have called for the need to scale-up local case studies to examine "cumulative impacts" of multiple development activities within a watershed. We use a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design using a time series of classified images and vegetation indices before and after hydropower plant construction as the response variable in an interrupted time series regression analysis. This statistical technique measures the "treatment" effect of hydropower development on indirect LULCC. Preliminary results show land use change and landscape fragmentation following hydropower development, primarily agricultural and urban in nature. These results suggest

  12. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds...

  13. Women's Land Rights and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mehra, Rekha

    1997-01-01

    Unequal and insecure access to land undermind women's farm productivity, limit employment options, depress their earnings, and degrade the environment. Factors limiting women's access to land include legal discrimination, land scarcity, inappropriate government policies, and lack of political power and social status. Policies to promote sustainalbe development rather than focusing on family planning, as is commonly done, should directly support women's economic activities. Especially needed o...

  14. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Township Range Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSTownship: This dataset represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary source for...

  15. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  16. Influence of land development on stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Lee, B Y; Memon, S A; Umer, S R; Salim, I; Lee, C-H

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating for the negative impacts of stormwater runoff is becoming a concern due to increased land development. Understanding how land development influences stormwater runoff is essential for sustainably managing water resources. In recent years, aggregate low impact development-best management practices (LID-BMPs) have been implemented to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff on receiving water bodies. This study used an integrated approach to determine the influence of land development and assess the ecological benefits of four aggregate LID-BMPs in stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover (LULC) catchment with ongoing land development. It used data from 2011 to 2015 that monitored 41 storm events and monthly LULC, and a Personalized Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM). The four aggregate LID-BMPs are: ecological (S1), utilizing pervious covers (S2), and multi-control (S3) and (S4). These LID-BMPs were designed and distributed in the study area based on catchment characteristics, cost, and effectiveness. PCSWMM was used to simulate the monitored storm events from 2014 (calibration: R 2 and NSE>0.5; RMSE 0.5; RMSE runoff data and LULC change patterns (only 2015 for LID-BMPs) were used. Results show that the expansion of bare land and impervious cover, soil alteration, and high amount of precipitation influenced the stormwater runoff variability during different phases of land development. The four aggregate LID-BMPs reduced runoff volume (34%-61%), peak flow (6%-19%), and pollutant concentrations (53%-83%). The results of this study, in addition to supporting local LULC planning and land development activities, also could be applied to input data for empirical modeling, and designing sustainable stormwater management guidelines and monitoring strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Journal of Building and Land Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papers are accepted in all fields of human settlements development and environmental management including: Architecture and Urban Design, Building Construction, Economics and Management, Housing, Environmental Management and Protection, Local Government, Poverty and Community Action, Land Use Planning ...

  18. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  19. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  20. Range of monthly mean hourly land surface air temperature diurnal cycle over high northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihui; Zeng, Xubin

    2014-05-01

    Daily maximum and minimum temperatures over global land are fundamental climate variables, and their difference represents the diurnal temperature range (DTR). While the differences between the monthly averaged DTR (MDTR) and the range of monthly averaged hourly temperature diurnal cycle (RMDT) are easy to understand qualitatively, their differences have not been quantified over global land areas. Based on our newly developed in situ data (Climatic Research Unit) reanalysis (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) merged hourly temperature data from 1979 to 2009, RMDT in January is found to be much smaller than that in July over high northern latitudes, as it is much more affected by the diurnal radiative forcing than by the horizontal advection of temperature. In contrast, MDTR in January is comparable to that in July over high northern latitudes, but it is much larger than January RMDT, as it primarily reflects the movement of lower frequency synoptic weather systems. The area-averaged RMDT trends north of 40°N are near zero in November, December, and January, while the trends of MDTR are negative. These results suggest the need to use both the traditional MDTR and RMDT suggested here in future observational and modeling studies. Furthermore, MDTR and its trend are more sensitive to the starting hour of a 24 h day used in the calculations than those for RMDT, and this factor also needs to be considered in model evaluations using observational data.

  1. From land grabs to inclusive development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Zoomers, E.B.

    This themed issue proposes to outline the state-of-the art of research on the large-scale investment phenomenon described as the global land grab, focusing on different types of investment flows (in food and biofuel crops, wildlife, mining and city development in various countries) in close relation

  2. Development of wall ranging radiation inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. J.; Yoon, J. S.; Park, Y. S.; Hong, D. H.; Oh, S. C.; Jung, J. H.; Chae, K. S.

    1999-03-01

    With the aging of nation's nuclear facilities, the target of this project is to develop an under water wall ranging robotic vehicle which inspects the contamination level of the research reactor (TRIGA MARK III) as a preliminary process to dismantling. The developed vehicle is driven by five thrusters and consists of small sized control boards, and absolute position detector, and a radiation detector. Also, the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested through under water experiments. Also, the test result at the research reactor shows that the vehicle firmly attached the wall while measuring the contamination level of the wall

  3. Development of wall ranging radiation inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. J.; Yoon, J. S.; Park, Y. S.; Hong, D. H.; Oh, S. C.; Jung, J. H.; Chae, K. S

    1999-03-01

    With the aging of nation's nuclear facilities, the target of this project is to develop an under water wall ranging robotic vehicle which inspects the contamination level of the research reactor (TRIGA MARK III) as a preliminary process to dismantling. The developed vehicle is driven by five thrusters and consists of small sized control boards, and absolute position detector, and a radiation detector. Also, the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested through under water experiments. Also, the test result at the research reactor shows that the vehicle firmly attached the wall while measuring the contamination level of the wall.

  4. Development of land cadastral system in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordyuzha

    2012-01-01

    The article gives reasonable prospects for usage of land cadastre information, it’s place and role in land management. Foreign experience in the land cadastre has been explored and analyzed. It is proposed to improve the information system of land resources to ensure effective environmentally-save land use.

  5. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  6. Land Use, Land Conservation, and Wind Energy Development Outcomes in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, William Cameron

    This dissertation provides three independent research inquiries. The first examines how inter-governmental policy, site-specific, and social factors lead to the success, prolonged delay, or failure of inland wind power projects in New England. The three case studies examined include the 48 megawatt Glebe Mountain Wind Farm proposal in southern Vermont, the 30 megawatt Hoosac Wind Farm in western Massachusetts, and the 24 megawatt Lempster Wind Farm in southern New Hampshire. To ascertain why the project outcomes varied, 45 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders, including wind development firms, utility companies, state regulatory agencies, regional planning commissions, town officials, land conservation organizations, and opposition groups. The second study establishes a comprehensive set of thirty-seven explanatory variables to determine the amount of suitable land and the corresponding electricity generation potential within the prime wind resource areas of Western Massachusetts. The explanatory variables are incorporated into Boolean GIS suitability models which represent the two divergent positions towards wind power development in Massachusetts, and a third, balanced model. The third study determines that exurban residential development is not the only land use factor that reduces wind power development potential in Western Massachusetts. A set of Boolean GIS models for 1985 and 2009 find the onset of conservation easements on private lands having the largest impact. During this 25 year period a combination of land use conversion and land conservation has reduced the access to prime wind resource areas by 18% (11,601 hectares), an equivalent loss of 5,800--8,700 GWh/year of zero carbon electricity generation. The six main findings from this research are: (1) Visual aesthetics remain the main factor of opposition to specific projects; (2) The Not-in-my Backyard debate for wind power remains unsettled; (3) Widespread support

  7. Impacts of land cover data selection and trait parameterisation on dynamic modelling of species' range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto K Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Dynamic models for range expansion provide a promising tool for assessing species' capacity to respond to climate change by shifting their ranges to new areas. However, these models include a number of uncertainties which may affect how successfully they can be applied to climate change oriented conservation planning. We used RangeShifter, a novel dynamic and individual-based modelling platform, to study two potential sources of such uncertainties: the selection of land cover data and the parameterization of key life-history traits. As an example, we modelled the range expansion dynamics of two butterfly species, one habitat specialist (Maniola jurtina and one generalist (Issoria lathonia. Our results show that projections of total population size, number of occupied grid cells and the mean maximal latitudinal range shift were all clearly dependent on the choice made between using CORINE land cover data vs. using more detailed grassland data from three alternative national databases. Range expansion was also sensitive to the parameterization of the four considered life-history traits (magnitude and probability of long-distance dispersal events, population growth rate and carrying capacity, with carrying capacity and magnitude of long-distance dispersal showing the strongest effect. Our results highlight the sensitivity of dynamic species population models to the selection of existing land cover data and to uncertainty in the model parameters and indicate that these need to be carefully evaluated before the models are applied to conservation planning.

  8. Sustainable Land Development In An Urban Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko Tom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be argued that sustainable urban land development depends on the long-term viability and management success of local economic development. It can be further argued that here, economic sustainability is the key. This would furthermore signify a paradigm change to long-term administrative behavior (via an institutional approach, long-term market behavior (heterodox economics approach, and human behavior in actors’ consumption and location choices (behavioral approach. This article examines two criteria within this discourse: innovativeness and social cohesion. In doing so, it proposes a framework for empirical analysis where it is suggested that western, post-socialist and low developed cases choose different strategies due to their different starting points.

  9. FORMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND LAND TENURE AS IMPROVEMENT TOOLS OF land use planning IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak A.M.

    2016-05-01

    relations and cadastral accounting taken land plot, made sharing of agricultural land, where the owners of land shares allocated of land ownership, land use system, especially agricultural enterprises, significantly changed. All this has caused the emergence of a new type of territorial land management, which is aimed, especially in agriculture and environmental protection, on the organization of land use of legal entities and citizens, on the basis of combining of land plots, that being at different property rights. Therefore, should provide as a type of land management territorial planning of land ownership, land use, whose task is the formation of their territory, as is the case in developed foreign countries. Concerning intraeconomic land management, that under current conditions it’s explanation is somewhat different in new approaches to the regulation of land relations and the introduction of land use administration. Introduction of notion of land management forms will help to improve the structure and content of land management documents, and therefore the quality of tools of improvement of land-use planning at different hierarchical levels.

  10. Software Development Framework For Electronic Land Titles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Record keeping is a fundamental activity of public administration. Land Titles management in Nigeria, by virtue of the Land use act 1990, is one of the functions of government. Most of the records hitherto used in managing the records of lands are documented on paper. We carried out an investigation into the suitability of ...

  11. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  12. Balancing housing growth and land conservation: Conservation development preserves private lands near protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Sarah E. Reed; Liba Pejchar; Jessica Salo

    2017-01-01

    Housing development has emerged as a primary driver of land-use change around the world. In the United States, there is particular concern about low-density residential development on rural lands, which often occurs in places with abundant natural amenities. Conservation development (CD), housing development that incorporates protected open space, has emerged as a tool...

  13. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Developed Imperviousness Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Developed Imperviousness Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land...

  14. RANGE RAM: a long-term planning method for managing grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricus C. Jansen

    1976-01-01

    Range RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a computerized planning method designed to assist range managers in developing and selecting alternatives in spatial and temporal allocation of resources. The technique is applicable at the frest or district management levels, or their equivalents. Range RAM can help formulate plans that maximize the production of range outputs...

  15. Radiological assessments of land disposal options: recent model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearn, H.S.; Pinner, A.V.; Hemming, C.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes progress in the development of methodologies and models for assessing the radiological impact of the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes by (i) shallow land burial in simple trenches (land 1), (ii) shallow land burial in engineered facilities (land 2), and (iii) emplacement in mined repositories or existing cavities (land 3/4). In particular the report describes wasteform leaching models, for unconditioned and cemented waste, the role of engineered barriers of a shallow land burial facility in reducing the magnitude of doses arising from groundwater contact and a detailed consideration of the interactions between radioactive carbon and various media. (author)

  16. Climate Resilient Urban Development: Why responsible land governance is important

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Enemark, Stig; van der Molen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    development is the degree to which climate change adaptation and risk management are mainstreamed into two major elements of land governance, viz. securing and safeguarding of land rights, and planning and control of land-use. This paper proposes ways in which the growth of human settlements can be better...

  17. Developing land market data for use in a state wide land use and transportation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This working paper describes the process used to develop land market variables : for use by TRANUS in the Transportation and Land Use Model Integration : Program (TLUMIP). One of the key variables developed during this phase of the : project is the m...

  18. Supporting Capacity Development for Sustainable Land Administration Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2005-01-01

    and for identifying an adequate response to these needs at societal, organisational and individual levels. The paper examines the capacity building concept and underpins the need for institutional development to facilitate the design and implementation of efficient Land Administration Models and to support good......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems are institutional......, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity building concept offers some guidance for analysing and assessing the capacity needs...

  19. Development of a 30 m Spatial Resolution Land Cover of Canada: Contribution to the Harmonized North America Land Cover Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, D.; Latifovic, R.; Olthof, I.

    2017-12-01

    Land cover is needed for a large range of environmental applications regarding climate impacts and adaption, emergency response, wildlife habitat, air quality, water yield, etc. In Canada a 2008 user survey revealed that the most practical scale for provision of land cover data is 30 m, nationwide, with an update frequency of five years (Ball, 2008). In response to this need the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing has generated a 30 m land cover of Canada for the base year 2010 as part of a planned series of maps at the recommended five year update frequency. This land cover is the Canadian contribution to the North American Land Change Monitoring System initiative, which seeks to provide harmonized land cover across Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The methodology developed in this research utilized a combination of unsupervised and machine learning techniques to map land cover, blend results between mapping units, locally optimize results, and process some thematic attributes with specific features sets. Accuracy assessment with available field data shows it was on average 75% for the five study areas assessed. In this presentation an overview of the unique processing aspects, example results, and initial accuracy assessment will be discussed.

  20. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  1. Modeling land development along highway 4 in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potjamas Chuangchang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the change of developed land in three different locations along Highway 4 Road from Phattalung to HatYai. The method involves creating a digitized grid of geographical coordinates covering the study area. The land-use codes and plot identifiers were recorded in database tables indexed by grid coordinates. Logistic regression of land development adjusted for spatial correlation was used to model its change over a 9-year period using land-use at the previous survey combined with location as a determinant. The results show increasing average percentages of developed land (3% in 2000 and 5% in 2009. Land development occurred mostly in the northern location along the Pattalung to HatYai road.

  2. New Approaches to Support Development of Sustainable Land Use Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keulen, van, H.; Ittersum, van, M.K.; Roetter, R.P.; Ridder, de, N.; Hoanh, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the land use planning cycle is introduced and some recent efforts at developing appropriate methodologies for supporting some of its distinct phases are illustrated. The examples still largely bear an academic character, but since there is increasing demand by policy makers for integrated land use analysis studies, they may serve as building blocks for development of operational methodologies for land use policy ormulation and analysis. Their potential impacts on planning proce...

  3. Greening Ground: Exploring the Relation between Land Market, Land Policy and Sustainable Area Development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giezen, M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    For decades the land market in the Netherlands has been dominated by an active municipal land policy. Municipalities acquire land, service the land into lots ready for development and develop the desired infrastructure. These lots are sold to developers for further construction. During periods of

  4. Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Book cover Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Auteur(s) : Stephen Baranyi, Carmen Diana Deere, and Manuel Morales. Maison(s) d'édition : North-South Institute, IDRC. 1 janvier 2004. ISBN :.

  5. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  6. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater – all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  7. Land Degradation Neutrality: Concept development, practical applications and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga; Cowie, Annette

    2017-06-15

    The paper explores the background and scientific basis of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN), a new paradigm reflecting the inter-related aspirations and demands of land-related sustainable development goals. The paper draws on academic literature, field observations, insight from development researchers and practitioners, professional meetings, and agency reports to describe the LDN concept and its relationship with sustainable land management (SLM). We discuss the potential for LDN to facilitate the adoption and assessment of SLM, and to provide a framework to achieve the "land degradation neutral world" goal of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. We present insights relevant to the implementation of LDN. These include the need to: consider quality as well as quantity of land degraded and restored; apply an ecosystem-based approach for LDN assessment; consider land degradation risks; recognize different uses of land and approaches to reach the LDN target; and define the LDN baseline and indicators. We discuss the contradictions of using two different modes for evaluating land degradation and successes in land restoration, which we name the "Anti-degradation view" and "Production-advocacy view". To harmonize these approaches we propose that LDN be considered as a phenomenon of equilibrium of the land system, in terms of the balance between deterioration and improvement of terrestrial ecosystems' qualities, functions and services. Indicators to reflect this balance can use different approaches relevant to the various countries and areas, and to the types of land use. Two examples of using this approach are described. The first shows the assessment of the state of LDN based on the homeostasis of land cover and is based on assessment of distribution of ecosystems, and the dynamics of the land cover pattern in the areas prone to land degradation. The second is based on the combination of the well-known principle of Leibig's Law of the Minimum (1843), and Shelford

  8. Optimal Height Of Land Development – An Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żelazowski Konrad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sky-scrapers are rising in the panorama of big modern cities more and more often, becoming a symbol of dynamic growth and prestige. High-rise development appears to be an answer to the expanding demand for new residential and commercial space as urban land prices continue to go up and the availability of land decreases.

  9. Trends in Coastal Development and Land Cover Change: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oceanographic Research Institute, PO Box 10712, Marine Parade, 4056 Durban, ... and continues to undergo rapid development due to a number of causes, ... coastal vulnerability, with the impact of .... land, agriculture and mining land, disturbed ..... attributable to the construction of Richards ... iSimangaliso wetland park.

  10. Land Sparing and Land Sharing Policies in Developing Countries - Drivers and Linkages to Scientific Debates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mertens, Charlotte Filt

    2017-01-01

    The need for developing land sparing or land sharing policies for protecting the environment has been a polarized debate in the scientific literature. Some studies show that "spared" landscapes with clearly separated intensive agriculture and pristine forest are better for biodiversity and other...... ecosystem services, whereas others demonstrate the benefits of "shared" mosaic landscapes composed of a mix of forest types, agricultural fields, grassland, and plantations. Increasingly, these scientific views have been depolarized, recognizing that both shared and spared landscapes have a role to play......, depending on the context. However, it is less clear from the literature what drives actual policy-making related to land sparing and land sharing in developing countries and what the outcomes of these policies are. We therefore reviewed the international peer-reviewed literature for evidence of policies...

  11. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  12. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  13. Methods and tools for integrated assessment of land use policies on sustainable development in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; König, H.; Feng, S.; Bezlepkina, I.; Nesheim, I.; Bonin, M.; Sghaier, M.; Purushothaman, S.; Sieber, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    For stimulating sustainable development in developing countries, land use patterns and land use changes are considered critical, and therefore effective and efficient land use policies are needed. In this paper we present a methodological framework that has been developed in a joint European and

  14. Land in the Political Economy of African Development: Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-06-18

    Jun 18, 2008 ... The economic version of the perspective on land reform promotes the ...... Fanon, F., 1961, The Wretched of the Earth, London: Penguin Books. Flintan, F. and ... Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mafeje ...

  15. Overview of Biotechnology Futures: Possible Applications to Land Force Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egudo, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    This review of selected scientific and technological advances occurring in the field of biotechnology discusses their possible impact for Land Force capability development in the next decade or two...

  16. Capacity Building for Institutional Development in Surveying and Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    for developing the basic capacity in terms of educational programs and professional organizations; and 3) Global development through cooperation with other international NGO´s such as the UN agencies, the World Bank and sister organizations in surveying. FIG, this way, plays a strong role, in improving...... for institutional development within surveying and land management. Finally the paper discusses the role of FIG in this regard. Three areas are identified: 1) Professional development through providing a global forum for exchange of experiences and new developments; 2) Institutional development through support...... the capacity in surveying and land management at a global scale....

  17. THE VALUE AND ROLE OF LAND MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning of land use by land - is an integral part of the management of land use, which provides a mechanism by which decisions are coordinated among various local, regional and national authorities, and helps implement social responsibilities of public authorities in the use and protection of land and other natural resources. Today, during the implementation of the decentralization of power, much attention is given to the transition from the existing centralized approach to conventional land-use planning (conventional land use planning, which the world is seen more as a institutional approach (institutional approach to the agreed land use planning (rarticipatory land use planning, which puts the interests of the foundation rights of economic, environmental, technological and socio-cultural conditions. Accordingly, it is important to define the relationship between the components of local governance in land development and local communities to identify the main stages of its planning, which will allow to solve social and economic problems of land use while preserving the natural ecological sustainability of land and other natural resources like land development and land use planning. It is also associated with a change in the land system ofUkraineand the transition to market land relations, which requires the transition to a new system of land use and proper planning it with the realities of today. During the 2000-2016 biennium. Ukraine has experienced an unprecedented reform of collective agricultural enterprises in market-oriented agricultural farm land for the project made it possible to dramatically increase the share of agricultural land owned by agricultural cooperatives (14.5%, limited liability companies (26.4% and private (private rental companies (10.4%. Nearly 405,000 farmers based on their land shares (shares created over an area of more than 1.6 mln. Ha of farmland farms. However, after the enactment of the Land Code of Ukraine

  18. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Abu Baker

    Full Text Available Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀ and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀. Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g. Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE for males and 42 ha (±11SE for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE for males and 150 ha (±29 SE for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats, whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle

  19. Hedgehogs on the move: Testing the effects of land use change on home range size and movement patterns of free-ranging Ethiopian hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Mohammad A; Reeve, Nigel; Conkey, April A T; Macdonald, David W; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀) and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀). Animals were significantly heavier in the resource-rich irrigated farms area (417.71 ±12.77SE g) in comparison to the natural desert area (376.37±12.71SE g). Both habitat and sex significantly influenced the home range size of hedgehogs. Home ranges were larger in the reserve than in the farms area. Total home ranges averaged 103 ha (±17 SE) for males and 42 ha (±11SE) for females in the farms area, but were much larger in the reserve averaging 230 ha (±33 SE) for males and 150 ha (±29 SE) for females. The home ranges of individuals of both sexes overlapped. Although females were heavier than males, body weight had no effect on home range size. The results suggest that resources provided in the farms (e.g. food, water, and shelters) influenced animal density and space use. Females aggregated around high-resource areas (either farms or rawdhats), whereas males roamed over greater distances, likely in search of mating opportunities to maximize reproductive success. Most individual home ranges overlapped with many other individuals of either sex, suggesting a non-territorial, promiscuous mating. Patterns of space use and habitat utilization are key factors in shaping aspects of reproductive biology and mating system. To minimize the impacts of agriculture on local wildlife, we recommend that biodiversity-friendly agro-environmental schemes be introduced in the Middle East where

  20. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. People, Land and Water: Participatory Development Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... ... and offers insights and lessons from research and experience in the field. ... 2000), and Involving the Community: A Guide to Participatory Development ... IDRC is now accepting applications for this year's Trees and People: ...

  2. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  3. Agricultural land for urban development: The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  4. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-02-01

    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70À 30 W latitude, 149À 53 W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  5. Navajo-Hopi Land Commission Renewable Energy Development Project (NREP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Benally, Deputy Director,

    2012-05-15

    The Navajo Hopi Land Commission Office (NHLCO), a Navajo Nation executive branch agency has conducted activities to determine capacity-building, institution-building, outreach and management activities to initiate the development of large-scale renewable energy - 100 megawatt (MW) or larger - generating projects on land in Northwestern New Mexico in the first year of a multi-year program. The Navajo Hopi Land Commission Renewable Energy Development Project (NREP) is a one year program that will develop and market a strategic business plan; form multi-agency and public-private project partnerships; compile site-specific solar, wind and infrastructure data; and develop and use project communication and marketing tools to support outreach efforts targeting the public, vendors, investors and government audiences.

  6. A methodology to modify land uses in a transit oriented development scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Akshay

    2018-05-01

    Developing nations are adopting transit oriented development (TOD) strategies to decongest their transportation systems. These strategies are often adopted after the preparation of land use plans. The goal of this study was to build a methodology to modify these land uses using soft computing. This can help to achieve alternate land use plans relevant to TOD. The methodology incorporates TOD characteristics and objectives. Global TOD parameters (density, diversity, and distance to transit) were studied. Expert opinions gave weights and ranges for the parameters in an Indian TOD scenario. Rules to allocate land use was developed. Objective functions were defined. Four objectives were used. First was to maximize employment density, residential density and percent of mix land use. Second was to shape density and diversity with respect to distance. Third was to minimize degree of land use change, and fourth was to increase compactness of the land use allocation. The methodology was applied to two sectors of Naya Raipur, the new planned administrative capital of the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The city has implemented TOD in the form of Bus rapid transit system (BRTS) over an existing land use. Thousand random plans were generated through the methodology. Top 30 plans were selected as parent population for modifications through genetic algorithm (GA). Alternate plans were generated at the end of GA cycle. The best alternate plan was compared with successful BRTS and TOD land uses for its merits and demerits. It was also compared with the initial land use plan for empirical validation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trends in Coastal Development and Land Cover Change: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KwaZulu-Natal. Abstract—Current land cover and development in the coastal zone of KwaZulu- ... 75% by 2025 in some regions (Hinrichsen, 1995). .... Functional divisions and case study areas on the KZN coast. .... Extent of development and access via major road networks along the KZN North and South Coasts. 198.

  8. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  9. Prospects of development of land driverless trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Saykin, A.; Endachev, D.; Evgrafov, V.; Shagurin, A.; Kulikov, I.; Fedoseev, K.

    2018-02-01

    The paper is dedicated to the problem of creation and efficient use of driverless trucks. It also contains general analysis of foreign experience and development trends. The concept of FSUE “NAMI” for development of a platoon of driverless trucks for cargo transportation between specialized terminals on public roads is provided. A road train with virtual couplings where the lead vehicle has a driver and the rest are driverless is proposed as a base for the driverless platoon. The platoon is formed by such road trains, which ensures extended functional features, including the possibility to form platoons of road trains from different logistics centers and with different destinations, quick reforming of the platoon in the logistics centers, possibility to split the platoon when driving on public roads, higher precision of control over the platoon during driving, etc. It is also shown that in order to improve the efficiency of cargo transportation, driverless cargo platforms (trucks) shall be designed without a cabin. The paper also considers the ways to reduce the price of driverless trucks by creating a special road infrastructure, which will allow transfer of the most expensive subsystems of driverless vehicles to such infrastructure. Upon that, the following subsystems will remain within the driverless chassis: navigation, communication, chassis control and ADAS. It is noted that creation of such infrastructure will require high investments, therefore, gradual implementation of such systems is seen as rational. It is shown that the most appropriate area for these purposes is transregional cargo transportation. It is noted that the economic reasons for implementation of the proposed concept are as follows: significant reduction of the number of drivers; significant simplification of the driverless platform control system and reduction of the price of subsystems; no need for the driver’s cabin within the driverless platform; fuel economy when driving within a

  10. Protected area effectiveness against land development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, David; Martínez-Vega, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Land use-land cover (LULC) changes towards artificial covers are one of the main global threats to biodiversity conservation. In this comprehensive study, we tested a number of methodological and research hypotheses, and a new covariate control technique in order to address common protected area (PA) assessment issues and accurately assess whether different PA networks have had an effect at preventing development of artificial LULCs in Spain, a highly biodiverse country that has experienced massive socioeconomic transformations in the past two decades. We used digital census data for four PA networks designated between 1990 and 2000: Nature Reserves (NRs), Nature Parks (NPs), Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs). We analysed the effect of explanatory variables on the ecological effectiveness of protected polygons (PPs): Legislation stringency, cummulative legal designations, management, size, age and bio-physical characteristics. A multiple Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) semi-experimental research design was used whereby artificial land cover increase (ALCI) and proportional artificial land cover increase (PALCI) results were compared inside and outside PAs, using 1 km and 5 km buffer areas surrounding PAs as controls. LULC data were retrieved from Corine Land Cover (CLC) 1990 and 2006 data. Results from three spatial-statistical models using progressively restrictive criteria to select control areas increasingly more accurate and similar to the assessed PPs were compared. PAs were a generally effective territorial policy to prevent land development in Spain. NRs were the most effective PA category, with no new artificial land covers in the assessed period, although exact causality could not be attributed due to legal overlaps. SPAs were the least effective category, with worse ALCI data than their control areas. Legal protection was effective against land development, which was influenced by most bio-physical variables

  11. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  12. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  13. Development (design and systematization) of HMS Group pump ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Yamburenko, V.

    2017-08-01

    The article reveals the need for pump range charts development for different applications and describes main principles used by HMS Group. Some modern approaches to pump selection are reviewed and highlighted the need for pump compliance with international standards and modern customer requirements. Even though pump design types are similar for different applications they need adjustment to specific requirements, which gets manufacturers develop their particular design for each pump range. Having wide pump ranges for different applications enables to create pump selection software, facilitating manufacturers to prepare high quality quotations in shortest time.

  14. Computerized methodology for evaluating the long-range radiological impact of shallow-land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized methodology has been implemented to calculate the risk to local and intermediate-range (up to 80 km distant) populations resulting from water- and air-borne transport of radionuclides present in low-level wastes buried in shallow trenches such as those used at Oak Ridge. Our computer code, PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations), was developed under United States Environmental Protection Agency funding to evaluate possible health effects resulting from shallow burial operations. Sources of contamination include radionuclide releases from the trenches and from areas contaminated with operational spillage. The model is intended to predict radionuclide transport and the ensuing exposure and health impact to at-risk populations for a 1000-year period following cessation of burial ground operations. Several classes of submodels are used in PRESTO to represent scheduled event, unit system response, and risk evaluation processes. Examples of scheduled events are trench cap failure, stabilization of insoluble surface contaminant, the onset of farming or reclamation practices, and human intrusion. Unit system response submodels simulate processes such as infiltration of rainwater into the trench and erosion of soil overburden from the trench cover. System response submodels generate parameters used repeatedly in the 1000-year simulation loop

  15. Drivers and uncertainties of forecasted range shifts for warm-water fishes under climate and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Kristen; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Lant, Christopher; Schoof, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Land cover is an important determinant of aquatic habitat and is projected to shift with climate changes, yet climate-driven land cover changes are rarely factored into climate assessments. To quantify impacts and uncertainty of coupled climate and land cover change on warm-water fish species’ distributions, we used an ensemble model approach to project distributions of 14 species. For each species, current range projections were compared to 27 scenario-based projections and aggregated to visualize uncertainty. Multiple regression and model selection techniques were used to identify drivers of range change. Novel, or no-analogue, climates were assessed to evaluate transferability of models. Changes in total probability of occurrence ranged widely across species, from a 63% increase to a 65% decrease. Distributional gains and losses were largely driven by temperature and flow variables and underscore the importance of habitat heterogeneity and connectivity to facilitate adaptation to changing conditions. Finally, novel climate conditions were driven by mean annual maximum temperature, which stresses the importance of understanding the role of temperature on fish physiology and the role of temperature-mitigating management practices.

  16. developing a one stop shop model for integrated land information

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    which will integrate the data on land ownership, land use and land value for all the land agen- ... services to the investor and other potential clients of land sector agencies involved in the land ..... account types such as a general user, re-.

  17. Development of the full range vange vacuum gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, B. H.; In, S. R.; Jung, K. S.; Jeong, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    The pirani, enning end full range gauges developed during this study had made good characteristics compared with the measured results of customized other gauges, and this results show the possibility of developing the gauges by ourselves in Korea. In order to make a competition with the customized gauges of other countries, it is necessary to upgrade several points to have good characteristics over the large range of the pressure. The new effort will be made in developing the full scale gauge in the next year

  18. Geopressured-geothermal resource development on public free school lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The study's findings and recommendations are based upon analysis of the following: financial and economic feasibility of geopressured-geothermal resource development; possible ecological, social, and economic impacts of resource development on PFSL; and legal issues associated with resource development. The results of the analysis are summarized and are discussed in detail in a series of four technical papers which accompany this volume. Existing rules of the General Land Office (GLO), the School Land Board (SLB), and the Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC) were reviewed in light of the above analysis and were discussed with the agencies. The study's recommendations resulted from this analytical and review process; they are discussed. The preliminary draft rules and regulations to govern resource development on PFSL are presented in Appendix A; the accompanying forms and model lease are found in Appendix B.

  19. Vertical ground reaction force in stationary running in water and on land: A study with a wide range of cadences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Fontana, Heiliane; Ruschel, Caroline; Dell'Antonio, Elisa; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Pereira, Gustavo Soares; Roesler, Helio

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cadence, immersion level as well as body density on the vertical component (Fy max ) of ground reaction force (GRF) during stationary running (SR). In a controlled, laboratory study, thirty-two subjects ran at a wide range of cadences (85-210 steps/min) in water, immersed to the hip and to the chest, and on dry land. Fy max. was verified by a waterproof force measurement system and predicted based on a statistical model including cadence, immersion ratio and body density. The effect of cadence was shown to depend on the environment: while Fy max increases linearly with increasing cadence on land; in water, Fy max reaches a plateau at both hip and chest immersions. All factors analyzed, cadence, immersion level and body density affected Fy max significantly, with immersion (aquatic × land environment) showing the greatest effect. In water, different cadences may lead to bigger changes in Fy max than the changes obtained by moving subjects from hip to chest immersion. A regression model able to predict 69% of Fy max variability in water was proposed and validated. Cadence, Immersion and body density affect Fy max in a significant and non-independent way. Besides a model of potential use in the prescription of stationary running in water, our analysis provides insights into the different responses of GRF to changes in exercise parameters between land and aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Guiding Principles for Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaren, Robin; Enemark, Stig; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Most developing countries are struggling to find remedies for their many land problems that are often causing land conflicts, reducing economic development and preventing countries reaching their true potential. Existing investments in land administration have been built on legacy approaches and ...... and issues associated with implementing FFP land administration, including change management, capacity development and project delivery....

  1. The research into development of passanger transport by land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Butkevičius

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first scientific work in Lithuania carrying out a complex research into passenger transport by land, covering all problematic issues related to the field such as development, market planning, organization, management, competition, contractual relations, financing, development of transport technologies, implementation of new transport technologies elaborating the theoretical base for the development of passenger transport. The research shows the analysis of the movement of passenger transport volumes and determines the regularity of these changes. The forecast of passenger transport by land is based on a multiple analysis. The work determines the perspective markets of rail and road transport as well as elaborates the principles of the improvement of road and rail transport interaction.The author originates the principles of the development of passenger transport technologies and the principles of the implementation of advanced technologies. The author also founds the principles of planning, organization and management of land transport as well as the principles of security of equal conditions of competition and contractual relations between customers and haulers.

  2. Scenarios for shale gas development and their related land use impacts in the Baltic Basin, Northern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranzelli, Claudia; Vandecasteele, Ine; Ribeiro Barranco, Ricardo; Mari i Rivero, Ines; Pelletier, Nathan; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Scenarios for potential shale gas development were modelled for the Baltic Basin in Northern Poland for the period 2015–2030 using the land allocation model EUCS100. The main aims were to assess the associated land use requirements, conflicts with existing land use, and the influence of legislation on the environmental impact. The factors involved in estimating the suitability for placement of shale gas well pads were analysed, as well as the potential land and water requirements to define 2 technology-based scenarios, representing the highest and lowest potential environmental impact. 2 different legislative frameworks (current and restrictive) were also assessed, to give 4 combined scenarios altogether. Land consumption and allocation patterns of well pads varied substantially according to the modelled scenario. Potential landscape fragmentation and conflicts with other land users depended mainly on development rate, well pad density, existing land-use patterns, and geology. Highly complex landscapes presented numerous barriers to drilling activities, restricting the potential development patterns. The land used for shale gas development could represent a significant percentage of overall land take within the shale play. The adoption of appropriate legislation, especially the protection of natural areas and water resources, is therefore essential to minimise the related environmental impact. -- Highlights: •A range of scenarios for shale gas development in Poland were modelled. •The impact in terms of land take and competition for land was assessed. •Of land used for industrial purposes, 7–12% was attributed to shale gas extraction. •If unregulated, 24% of well pads were developed within protected areas. •The legislative framework can have a major influence on overall environmental impact

  3. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  4. The Development in modeling Tibetan Plateau Land/Climate Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; Liu, Ye; li, qian; Maheswor Shrestha, Maheswor; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Cox, Peter; Sun, shufen; Koike, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an important role in influencing the continental and planetary scale climate, including East Asian and South Asian monsoon, circulation and precipitation over West Pacific and Indian Oceans. The numerical study has identified TP as the area with strongest land/atmosphere interactions over the midlatitude land. The land degradation there has also affected the monsoon precipitation in TP along the monsoon pathway. The water cycle there affects water sources for major Asian river systems, which include the Tarim, Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yellow, and Yangtze Rivers. Despite the importance of TP land process in the climate system, the TP land surface processes are poorly modeled due to lack of data available for model validation. To better understand, simulate, and project the role of Tibetan Plateau land surface processes, better parameterization of the Tibetan Land surface processes have been developed and evaluated. The recently available field measurement there and satellite observation have greatly helped this development. This paper presents these new developments and preliminary results using the newly developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, frozen soil model, and glacier model. In recent CMIP5 simulation, the CMIP5 models with dynamic vegetation model show poor performance in simulating the TP vegetation and climate. To better simulate the TP vegetation condition and its interaction with climate, we have developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4/Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID), based on water, carbon, and energy balance. The simulated vegetation variables are updates, driven by carbon assimilation, allocation, and accumulation, as well as competition between plant functional types. The model has been validated with the station data, including those measured over the TP

  5. Adaptation Strategies for Training Lands and Ranges at Fort Leonard Wood, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    effectively accomplished with a commercial manure spreader, how- ever, dump trucks or front end loaders can also be used. Using the 0.25-in. organic matter...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s...toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water

  6. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  7. Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven...

  8. Its4land - Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Innovative Geospatial Tools for Fit-For-Purpose Land Rights Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeva, M.N.; Crommelinck, S.; Stöcker, Claudia; Crompvoets, J.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping millions of unrecorded land rights in large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. The results of many existing ICT-based approaches for recording these rights have often proven to be inappropriate; therefore, a new generation of tools needs to be developed to map land rights

  9. An Approach to Evaluate Comprehensive Plan and Identify Priority Lands for Future Land Use Development to Conserve More Ecological Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has significant impacts on the regional environmental quality through altering natural lands, converting them to urban built-up areas. One common strategy applied by urban planners to manage urbanization and preserve natural resources is to make a comprehensive plan and concentrate future land use in certain areas. However, in practice, planners used to make future land use planning mainly based on their subjective interpretations with limited ecological supporting evidence and analysis. Here, we propose a new approach composed of ecological modelling and land use zoning in the spatial matrix to evaluate the comprehensive plan and identify priority lands for sustainable land use planning. We use the city of Corvallis, OR, as the test bed to demonstrate this new approach. The results indicate that the Corvallis Comprehensive Plan 1998–2020 featured with compact development is not performing efficiently in conserving ecological values, and the land use plan featured with mixed-use spreading development generated by the proposed approach meets the city’s land demands for urban growth, and conserves 103% more ecological value of retaining storm water nitrogen, 270% more ecological value of retaining storm water phosphorus and 19% more ecological value in storing carbon in the whole watershed. This study indicates that if planned with scientific analysis and evidence, spreading urban development does not necessarily result in less sustainable urban environment than the compact development recommended in smart growth.

  10. Sustainable Development under Population Pressure: Lessons from Developed Land Consumption in the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Population growth will result in a significant anthropogenic environmental change worldwide through increases in developed land (DL) consumption. DL consumption is an important environmental and socioeconomic process affecting humans and ecosystems. Attention has been given to DL modeling inside highly populated cities. However, modeling DL consumption should expand to non-metropolitan areas where arguably the environmental consequences are more significant. Here, we study all counties within the conterminous U.S. and based on satellite-derived product (National Land Cover Dataset 2001) we calculate the associated DL for each county. By using county population data from the 2000 census we present a comparative study on DL consumption and we propose a model linking population with expected DL consumption. Results indicate distinct geographic patterns of comparatively low and high consuming counties moving from east to west. We also demonstrate that the relationship of DL consumption with population is mostly linear, altering the notion that expected population growth will have lower DL consumption if added in counties with larger population. Added DL consumption is independent of a county’s starting population and only dependent on whether the county belongs to a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). In the overlapping MSA and non-MSA population range there is also a constant DL efficiency gain of approximately 20km2 for a given population for MSA counties which suggests that transitioning from rural to urban counties has significantly higher benefits in lower populations. In addition, we analyze the socioeconomic composition of counties with extremely high or low DL consumption. High DL consumption counties have statistically lower Black/African American population, higher poverty rate and lower income per capita than average in both NMSA and MSA counties. Our analysis offers a baseline to investigate further land consumption strategies in anticipation of growing

  11. Analysis of road development and associated agricultural land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan

    2017-12-05

    Development of road network is one of the strongest drivers of habitat fragmentation. It interferes with ecological processes that are based on material and energy flows between landscape patches. Therefore, changes in temporal patterns of roads may be regarded as important landscape-level environmental indicators. The aim of this study is to analyze road development and associated agricultural land use change near the town of Erdemli located in the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The study area has witnessed an unprecedented development of agriculture since the 2000s. This process has resulted with the expansion of the road network. Associations between agricultural expansion and road development were investigated. High-resolution satellite images of 2004 and 2015 were used to analyze spatial and temporal dimensions of change. Satellite images were classified using a binary approach, in which land areas were labeled as either "agriculture" or "non-agriculture." Road networks were digitized manually. The study area was divided into 23 sublandscapes using a regular grid with 1-km cell spacing. Percentage of landscape (PL) for agriculture and road density (RD) metrics were calculated for the earlier (2004) and later (2015) years. Metric calculations were performed separately for each of the 23 sublandscapes in order to understand spatial diversity of agriculture and road density. Study results showed that both RD and PL exhibited similar increasing trends between 2004 and 2015.

  12. Case studies of geothermal leasing and development on federal lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trummel, Marc

    1978-09-29

    In response to a widely expressed need to examine the impact of the federal regulatory system on the rate of geothermal power development, the Department of Energy-Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) has established a Streamlining Task Force in cooperation with appropriate federal agencies. The intent is to find a way of speeding development by modification of existing laws or regulations or by better understanding and mechanization of the existing ones. The initial focus was on the leasing and development of federal lands. How do the existing processes work? Would changes produce positive results in a variety of cases? These are questions which must be considered in a national streamlining process. This report presents case studies of federal leasing actions on seven diverse locations in the western region. Characteristics of existing high geothermal potential areas are quite diverse; geography, environment, industry interest and the attitudes and activities of the responsible federal land management agencies and the interested public vary widely. Included are descriptions of post and current activities in leasing exploration and development and discussions of the probable future direction of activities based on current plans. Implications of these plans are presented. The case studies were based on field interviews with the appropriate State and District BLM officer and with the regional forester's office and the particular forest office. Documentation was utilized to the extent possible and has been included in whole or in part in appendices as appropriate.

  13. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  14. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-01-01

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10 4 Bq/ml - 5*10 8 Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10 -14 A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R 2 = 0.998

  15. Diurnal Cycles of High Resolution Land Surface Temperatures (LSTs) Determined from UAV Platforms Across a Range of Surface Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Parkes, S. D.; Aragon, B.

    2017-12-01

    Observation of land surface temperature (LST) has many practical uses, from studying boundary layer dynamics and land-atmosphere coupling, to investigating surface properties such as soil moisture status, heat stress and surface heat fluxes. Typically, LST is observed via satellite based sensors such as LandSat or via point measurements using IR radiometers. These measurements provide either good spatial coverage and resolution or good temporal coverage. However, neither are able to provide the needed spatial and temporal resolution for many of the research applications described above. Technological developments in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), together with small thermal frame cameras, has enabled a capacity to overcome this spatiotemporal constraint. Utilising UAV platforms to collect LST measurements across diurnal cycles provides an opportunity to study how meteorological and surface properties vary in both space and time. Here we describe the collection of LST data from a multi-rotor UAV across a study domain that is observed multiple times throughout the day. Flights over crops of Rhodes grass and alfalfa, along with a bare desert surface, were repeated with between 8 and 11 surveys covering the period from early morning to sunset. Analysis of the collected thermal imagery shows that the constructed LST maps illustrate a strong diurnal cycle consistent with expected trends, but with considerable spatial and temporal variability observed within and between the different domains. These results offer new insights into the dynamics of land surface behavior in both dry and wet soil conditions and at spatiotemporal scales that are unable to be replicated using traditional satellite platforms.

  16. Broadband laser ranging development at the DOE Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey V.; La Lone, Brandon M.; Younk, Patrick W.; Daykin, Ed P.; Rhodes, Michelle A.

    2017-02-01

    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a new diagnostic being developed in collaboration across multiple USA Dept. of Energy (DOE) facilities. Its purpose is to measure the precise position of surfaces and particle clouds moving at speeds of a few kilometers per second. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to encode distance into a modulation in the spectrum of pulses from a mode-locked fiber laser and uses a dispersive Fourier transformation to map the spectral modulation into time. This combination enables recording of range information in the time domain on a fast oscilloscope every 25-80 ns. Discussed here are some of the hardware design issues, system tradeoffs, calibration issues, and experimental results. BLR is being developed as an add-on to conventional Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) systems because PDV often yields incomplete information when lateral velocity components are present, or when there are drop-outs in the signal amplitude. In these cases, integration of the velocity from PDV can give incorrect displacement results. Experiments are now regularly fielded with over 100 channels of PDV, and BLR is being developed in a modular way to enable high channel counts of BLR and PDV recorded from the same probes pointed at the same target location. In this way instruments, will independently record surface velocity and distance information along the exact same path.

  17. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  18. Development of land degradation spectral indices in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Kaufmann, Hermann J.; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia; Escribano, Paula; Mueller, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this study is to develop remote sensing desertification indicators for drylands, in particular using the capabilities of imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imagery) to derive soil and vegetation specific properties linked to land degradation status. The Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in SE Spain presents a still-preserved semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem that has undergone several changes in landscape patterns and vegetation cover due to human activity. Previous studies have revealed that traditional land uses, particularly grazing, favoured in the Park the transition from tall arid brush to tall grass steppe. In the past ~40 years, tall grass steppes and arid garrigues increased while crop field decreased, and tall arid brushes decreased but then recovered after the area was declared a Natural Park in 1987. Presently, major risk is observed from a potential effect of exponential tourism and agricultural growth. A monitoring program has been recently established in the Park. Several land degradation parcels presenting variable levels of soil development and biological activity were defined in summer 2003 in agricultural lands, calcareous and volcanic areas, covering the park spatial dynamics. Intensive field spectral campaigns took place in Summer 2003 and May 2004 to monitor inter-annual changes, and assess the landscape spectral variability in spatial and temporal dimension, from the dry to the green season. Up to total 1200 field spectra were acquired over ~120 targets each year in the land degradation parcels. The targets were chosen to encompass the whole range of rocks, soils, lichens, and vegetation that can be observed in the park. Simultaneously, acquisition of hyperspectral images was performed with the HyMap sensor. This paper presents preliminary results from mainly the field spectral campaigns. Identifying sources of variability in the spectra, in relation with the ecosystem dynamics, will allow the definition of spectral indicators of

  19. Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Crossman, Neville; Ellis, Erle C.

    2015-01-01

    Land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment. Understanding the drivers, state, trends and impacts of different land systems on social and natural processes helps to reveal how changes in the land system affect the functioning of the socio-ecological system...... as a whole and the tradeoff these changes may represent. The Global Land Project has led advances by synthesizing land systems research across different scales and providing concepts to further understand the feedbacks between social-and environmental systems, between urban and rural environments and between...... distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can...

  20. Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... openings and constraints with regard to such policies at the local, national, and international levels? ... land policy initiatives in areas like titling, credit, taxation, and sustainable land use; and ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women.

  1. Land use and ownership and the Czech farm development

    OpenAIRE

    Doucha, Tomas; Divila, Emil; Fischer, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of the present land usage, land ownership and the land market in the Czech Republic — the distribution of the Czech Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) among owners and users, driving barriers on the Czech Land market. A regional view on the Czech UAA from the points of view of natural conditions, agro-environmental and rural sensitivity. Definition of policy scenarios for the 2013 horizon with the respect of coupled/decoupled direct payments, LFA payments, legislation related ...

  2. Development of land data sets for studies of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, F.G.; Watkins, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a major initiative to organize, produce, and distribute land data sets that will support the land data requirements of the global change science community. Satellite image data sets, produced from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensors, will be developed to provide repetitive, synoptic coverage of regional, continental, and global land areas. These data sets, integrated with related land data and supplemented by coregistered Landsat data sets, will enable scientists to quantify the fundamental land surface attributes that are needed to model land surface processes, to detect and monitor land surface change, and to map land cover. These well-structured, consistent land data sets will form the historical record of land observations prior to the era of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System sensors

  3. Framing-camera tube developed for sub-100-ps range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A new framing-camera tube, developed by Electronics Engineering, is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the sub-100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits; the resulting electron-line images from the slits are restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. We have demonstrated its performance in a prototype tube by recording 125-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external electronic drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Shorter frame durations (below 100 ps) can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  4. Classification of Global Land Development Phases by Forest and GDP Changes for Appropriate Land Management in the Mid-Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholho Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To implement appropriate land management strategies, it is essential to identify past and current land cover and land use conditions. In addition, an assessment of land development phases (LDPs in a human-dominated landscape coupled with an analysis of the water-food-ecosystem (WFE nexus can deepen our understanding of sustainable land management. In this study, we proposed the concept of land development phases (LDPs by forest and GDP changes using previously-applied theoretical and empirical approaches. The positive relationship between GDP growth and forest stock changes was used to analyze the timing of forest stock changes as five-year averages, which were aggregated over 20 years to classify LDPs. In addition, forest area changes compared with GDP and GDP per capita changes were analyzed to identify LDPs. Based on two conceptual approaches, we suggested global land into three LDPs: degradation, restoration and sustainability. Using this approach, most of Europe, North America and northeast Asia were classified as sustainability phases, while Africa and Central Asia in the Mid-Latitude region appeared to have degradation or restoration phases. The LDPs described could be improved with further incorporation of solid data analysis and clear standards, but even at this stage, these LDP classifications suggest points for implementing appropriate land management. In addition, indices from comparative analysis of the LDPs with the WFE nexus can be connected with socio-economic global indices, such as the Global Hunger Index, the Food Production Index and the Climate Change Performance Index. The LDPs have the potential to facilitate appropriate land management strategies through integrating WFE nexus and ecosystem services; we propose future research that uses this integration for the Mid-Latitude region and worldwide.

  5. Feasibility Study for Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Hendrix, Project Director; Charles Weir, Project Manager; Dr. John Plodinec, Technology Advisor; Dr. Steve Murray, Economic Advisor

    2005-07-21

    Project Objective: The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (MBCI) conducted a study of the feasibility of siting a renewable energy biomass-based installation on tribal lands. The purpose of the study was to determine whether such an installation can be economically sustainable, as well as consistent with the cultural, social, and economic goals of the Tribe. Scope: To achieve the goal of the feasibility study, the following tasks were carried out: (1) Resource availability assessment--The objective of this assessment was to determine the availability of both poultry litter and wood residues for use in the proposed facility. (2) Power utilization assessment--The objective of this assessment was to determine the potential market size for power produced, the existing infrastructure for delivering power to that market, and the costs and economic returns for doing so. (3) Technology review--The objective of this review was to identify one, or more, technical options for detailed economic and technical assessment. The study considered a range of feedstock and product mixtures of poultry litter; wood residues as feedstock; and electrical power and other ancillary products as outputs. Distributed power sources was also examined. Technologies ranging from gasification to systems that produce both power and value-added chemicals were considered. Technologies selected for detailed review were those that can be sized to process the amount of available feed (poultry litter, or poultry litter and wood residues), and that also appear to make economic sense in terms of the value of their inputs. The technology review leaned heavily on the experience from similar prior DOE projects, particularly those conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). NREL was involved in a consultative role, so that the project team could leverage their experience. (4) Systems Design(s)--Based on the technology review, a pre-conceptual design for an installation was developed. This

  6. The Push and Pull of Land Use Policy: Reconstructing 150 Years of Development and Conservation Land Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria João; Watt, Terry; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The growth of human populations and their resource needs have stressed the conservation of natural land resources. Many policies and programs have been implemented to address the pressures on land resources and notwithstanding this pressure, significant acquisition of land for conservation has occurred throughout history in the U.S., and internationally. Here we assess the on-the-ground result of the evolution of land use policies in California as a pioneer forerunner, in the form of acquisition of land for conservation (i.e. Open Space), and its impact on the rest of the U.S. and beyond. To this end we describe the timeline and spatial representation of the growth of California’s conservation network over the last 150 years, and link it to the history of land use policies. We then assess whether conservation land acquisition has consistently grown through time or occurred in specific decades. About ¼ of the state is now designated Open Space. Fewer and larger areas conserved and acquired at the beginning of the 20th century; the conservation network was complemented with a larger number of smaller sized properties. Despite acquisition of land in every decade, the process was uneven (E = 0.3 for California, E = 0.14±0.08 average for the state’s counties), mostly due to the large acquisitions and land set asides in the 1900s, followed by 1930s and 1940s. This process was a result of a comprehensive set of legislation that evolved through time, and resulted from the competing needs for development and conservation. Even with the impressive 174,000 km2 of public lands in California, the future of California’s natural infrastructure and natural heritage cannot rely solely on these public lands, nor public agencies and their resources. Critically a future course of land preservation relying on the purchase of new lands – in California and beyond – for conservation is tremendously expensive. PMID:25075611

  7. Developing Land Use Land Cover Maps for the Lower Mekong Basin to Aid SWAT Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Bolten, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation discusses research to develop Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps for the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). Funded by a NASA ROSES Disasters grant, the main objective was to produce updated LULC maps to aid the Mekong River Commission's (MRC's) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model. In producing needed LULC maps, temporally processed MODIS monthly NDVI data for 2010 were used as the primary data source for classifying regionally prominent forest and agricultural types. The MODIS NDVI data was derived from processing MOD09 and MYD09 8-day reflectance data with the Time Series Product Tool, a custom software package. Circa 2010 Landsat multispectral data from the dry season were processed into top of atmosphere reflectance mosaics and then classified to derive certain locally common LULC types, such as urban areas and industrial forest plantations. Unsupervised ISODATA clustering was used to derive most LULC classifications. GIS techniques were used to merge MODIS and Landsat classifications into final LULC maps for Sub-Basins (SBs) 1-8 of the LMB. The final LULC maps were produced at 250-meter resolution and delivered to the MRC for use in SWAT modeling for the LMB. A map accuracy assessment was performed for the SB 7 LULC map with 14 classes. This assessment was performed by comparing random locations for sampled LULC types to geospatial reference data such as Landsat RGBs, MODIS NDVI phenologic profiles, high resolution satellite data from Google Map/Earth, and other reference data from the MRC (e.g., crop calendars). LULC accuracy assessment results for SB 7 indicated an overall agreement to reference data of 81% at full scheme specificity. However, by grouping 3 deciduous forest classes into 1 class, the overall agreement improved to 87%. The project enabled updated LULC maps, plus more specific rice types were classified compared to the previous LULC maps. The LULC maps from this project should improve the use of SWAT for modeling

  8. Land regeneration: soil development through forestation on former opencast coal-lands in upland Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, M.J. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The degradation of lands that have been 'reclaimed' after surface coal mining is an international concern. Research near the UNESCO World Heritage site for industrial land at Blaenavon, Wales, seeks more effective ways of creating self-sustaining soils on coal-lands, where the auto-compaction of minespoils causes land degradation. Remedies are sought through the use of close-planted trees as bio-accumulators. Preliminary findings suggest that: 1. forestation quickly mitigates soil compaction, 2. soil fertilisation with NPK improves the survival rate of Alnus glutinosa but may not enhance average growth, 3. soil remineralisation with basic igneous rock flour may be more effective than conventional NPK application alone for enhancing both survival rates and growth and that 4. soil disturbance causes long term depletion of the soil microbial ecosystem. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Driving factors of urban land growth in Guangzhou and its implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhu; Li, Shaoying; Wang, Xuetong; Xue, Xiaolong

    2018-04-01

    Since 2000, China's urban land has expanded at a dramatic speed because of the country's rapid urbanization. The country has been experiencing unbalanced development between rural and urban areas, causing serious challenges such as agricultural security and land resources waste. Effectively evaluating the driving factors of urban land growth is essential for improving efficient land use management and sustainable urban development. This study established a principal component regression model based on eight indicators to identify their influences on urban land growth in Guangzhou. The results provided a grouping analysis of the driving factors, and found that economic growth, urban population, and transportation development are the driving forces of urban land growth of Guangzhou, while the tertiary industry has an opposite effect. The findings led to further suggestions and recommendations for urban sustainable development. Hence, local governments should design relevant policies for achieving the rational development of urban land use and strategic planning on urban sustainable development.

  10. Demographic consequences of climate change and land cover help explain a history of extirpations and range contraction in a declining snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Lars Y; LeDee, Olivia E; Martin, Karl J; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Developing conservation strategies for threatened species increasingly requires understanding vulnerabilities to climate change, in terms of both demographic sensitivities to climatic and other environmental factors, and exposure to variability in those factors over time and space. We conducted a range-wide, spatially explicit climate change vulnerability assessment for Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus), a declining endemic species in a region showing strong environmental change. Using active season and winter adult survival estimates derived from 17 data sets throughout the species' range, we identified demographic sensitivities to winter drought, maximum precipitation during the summer, and the proportion of the surrounding landscape dominated by agricultural and urban land cover. Each of these factors was negatively associated with active season adult survival rates in binomial generalized linear models. We then used these relationships to back-cast adult survival with dynamic climate variables from 1950 to 2008 using spatially explicit demographic models. Demographic models for 189 population locations predicted known extant and extirpated populations well (AUC = 0.75), and models based on climate and land cover variables were superior to models incorporating either of those effects independently. These results suggest that increasing frequencies and severities of extreme events, including drought and flooding, have been important drivers of the long-term spatiotemporal variation in a demographic rate. We provide evidence that this variation reflects nonadaptive sensitivity to climatic stressors, which are contributing to long-term demographic decline and range contraction for a species of high-conservation concern. Range-wide demographic modeling facilitated an understanding of spatial shifts in climatic suitability and exposure, allowing the identification of important climate refugia for a dispersal-limited species. Climate change vulnerability

  11. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; Kays, Roland; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    Feral and free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) can have strong negative effects on small mammals and birds, particularly in island ecosystems. We deployed camera traps to study free-ranging cats in national wildlife refuges and state parks on Big Pine Key and Key Largo in the Florida Keys, USA, and used spatial capture–recapture models to estimate cat abundance, movement, and activities. We also used stable isotope analyses to examine the diet of cats captured on public lands. Top population models separated cats based on differences in movement and detection with three and two latent groups on Big Pine Key and Key Largo, respectively. We hypothesize that these latent groups represent feral, semi-feral, and indoor/outdoor house cats based on the estimated movement parameters of each group. Estimated cat densities and activity varied between the two islands, with relatively high densities (~4 cats/km2) exhibiting crepuscular diel patterns on Big Pine Key and lower densities (~1 cat/km2) exhibiting nocturnal diel patterns on Key Largo. These differences are most likely related to the higher proportion of house cats on Big Pine relative to Key Largo. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from hair samples of free-ranging cats (n = 43) provided estimates of the proportion of wild and anthropogenic foods in cat diets. At the population level, cats on both islands consumed mostly anthropogenic foods (>80% of the diet), but eight individuals were effective predators of wildlife (>50% of the diet). We provide evidence that cat groups within a population move different distances, exhibit different activity patterns, and that individuals consume wildlife at different rates, which all have implications for managing this invasive predator.

  12. Industrial development and its impact on land values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Ferrall, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation examined the potential of oil and gas facilities to devalue land, with specific reference to a recent study conducted by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Issues concerning the establishment of injurious affection were discussed, as well as devaluation's susceptibility to market-based analysis. Burdens of proof in injurious affection cases were discussed. Issues concerning compensation for devaluation in the event of oil and gas activities were reviewed, as well as various caveats and restrictive covenants. Issues concerning the EUB study of the impact of oil and gas activity on rural residential property values were examined. It was suggested that the study included too few properties with oil and gas facilities actually located on them to determine whether the impact on value was statistically significant. The magnitude of effects on values within the study were also counter-intuitive: wells further away had greater impact on values than wells nearby. In addition, times of sale did not appear to have been considered or adjusted for. Sale dates ranged from January 1994 to March 2001. It was concluded that there were a huge number of variables other than proximity of oil and gas facilities which could not be isolated or held constant in the evaluation of properties. tabs., figs

  13. Implementing land use change models in the developing world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available recently adapted land use change models (Dyna-Clue and UrbanSIM) that have been successfully adapted to simulate future land use change policies in the various metro's across South-Africa. The presentation will focus on how these technologies together...

  14. Ongoing Development of Land Administration Standards : Blockchain in Transaction Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Vos, J.; Beentjes, B.

    2017-01-01

    This article in the special edition on blockchain and land transfer in the European Property Law Journal (EPLJ) discusses available standards in land administration and options for further standardisation, including standardisation of transactions of those rights, as a possible first step to

  15. Incorporating consideration of health impacts into land use development approval processes: Development of a Health Background Study Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloughney, Brent W; Bursey, Gayle E; Neumann, Jana; Leeming, Daniel H; Gutmann, Christine E; Sivanand, Bhavna; Mowat, David L

    2014-09-12

    This project involved development of a Health Background Study (HBS) Framework to support consideration of health impacts within municipalities' approval process for land use development. Peel Public Health and Toronto Public Health led the project with the participation of planners, urban designers, engineers, public health staff and development industry representatives. Historical growth in the Region of Peel and suburban Toronto has resulted in extensive low-density development, creating car-dependent communities with disconnected streets and segregated land uses. The inclusion of an HBS in developers' applications to municipalities is one approach by which health-related expectations for the built environment can be established within the approval process. Development of the HBS Framework used the six core elements of the built environment with the strongest evidence for impact on health and was informed by analysis of the provincial and local policy contexts, practices of other municipalities and stakeholder interviews. The Framework's contents were refined according to feedback from multidisciplinary stakeholder workshops. The HBS Framework identifies minimum standards for built environment core elements that developers need to address in their applications. The Framework was created to be simple and instructive with applicability to a range of development locations and scales, and to various stages of the development approval process. Peel Public Health is leading several initiatives to support the use of the HBS as a part of the development application process. The HBS Framework is a tool that public health and planning can use to support the consideration of health impacts within municipalities' land use development processes.

  16. Scenario Development for Trgovska Gora Shallow Land Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Lokner, V.; Levanat, I.

    2002-01-01

    Safety assessments, either preliminary or final, consist of a qualitative and a quantitative part. The qualitative part of the assessment implies a selection of relevant scenarios to be analyzed, while the quantitative part of the assessment consists of their mathematical modeling. This work is dealing with the qualitative part of safety assessment concerning a specific radioactive waste disposal system, i.e., the shallow land facility situated on the macrolocation Trgovska gora. This article has as its purpose a brief presentation of the ISAM methodology application results (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Facilities;), a methodology developed within the framework of a project of the same name, organized by the IAEA. The above mentioned methodology is based on the development of the so-called FEP list (Features, Events, Process), on selection procedure of the FEP list, specifically regarding particular criteria defined in advance, and on application of systematic methods of selecting relevant scenarios (in this case the matrix of interactions method has been applied). The main aim and purpose of a methodology based on the analysis of FEPs (identification, classification, selection, construction of the matrix of interactions) consists of observing and documenting all the features, events and processes due to be taken into consideration while assessing safety of a particular radioactive waste disposal system. In this connection, by radioactive waste disposal system we mean a system consisting of radioactive waste and engineer features (barriers), geological environment within which the disposal site is located, surface-environment (soil, sediments, vegetation, etc.) and human population near the disposal site. The final step of the application of this methodology consists of generating the scenario using the matrix of interactions. So, for shallow land facility situated on the macrolocation Trgovska gora, applying

  17. Soil conditions and land use intensification effects on soil microbial communities across a range of European field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Bruce C.; Tisserant, Emilie; Plassart, Pierre; Uroz, Stéphane; Griffiths, Rob I.; Hannula, S. Emilia; Buée, Marc; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel; Van Veen, Johannes A.; Martin, Francis; Bailey, Mark J.; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive land use practices necessary for providing food and raw materials are known to have a deleterious effect on soil. However, the effects such practices have on soil microbes are less well understood. To investigate the effects of land use intensification on soil microbial

  18. Is UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 relevant to governing the intimate land-use/groundwater linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    The close link between land use and groundwater has long been recognised, but not widely translated into integrated policy and management practices. Common understanding is needed to facilitate cross-sector dialogue on governance. The process of land-use planning advocated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) 15 for 2030, coupled with the launch of an independent global land-use monitoring initiative known as Land Matrix, appear to provide windows of opportunity for hydrogeologists to make specific proposals for the inclusion of groundwater protection needs in national land-use plans and the consideration of groundwater sustainability threats from major land deals and contracts. Ignoring the groundwater dimension in land-use management can result in high long-run costs for drinking-water supply and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, coordinated governance based on a coherent set of land-use sustainability criteria, aimed at enhancing both the food and groundwater harvest, is crucial for the future.

  19. The Prospects for Development of the Agricultural Land Market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir Nina B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the basic aspects of establishment and development of the land market. A mechanism for securing against the leasehold estate and a model of an agricultural land market have been proposed. It has been specified that the most important component on formation of land market in our State is to work to change public opinion, people attitudes regarding the private ownership of land and deals with it. The proposed mechanism for securing against the leasehold estate has not only economic, but also social significance, which, above all, is that securing against the leasehold estate does not change the owner of the land, and, consequently, does not threaten villagers with dispossession of land. With introduction of the presented model of an agricultural land market it can be argued that such a market is an open, complex system based on the interaction between its actors over the use, disposal and market turnover of agricultural lands.

  20. Is UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 relevant to governing the intimate land-use/groundwater linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    The close link between land use and groundwater has long been recognised, but not widely translated into integrated policy and management practices. Common understanding is needed to facilitate cross-sector dialogue on governance. The process of land-use planning advocated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) 15 for 2030, coupled with the launch of an independent global land-use monitoring initiative known as Land Matrix, appear to provide windows of opportunity for hydrogeologists to make specific proposals for the inclusion of groundwater protection needs in national land-use plans and the consideration of groundwater sustainability threats from major land deals and contracts. Ignoring the groundwater dimension in land-use management can result in high long-run costs for drinking-water supply and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, coordinated governance based on a coherent set of land-use sustainability criteria, aimed at enhancing both the food and groundwater harvest, is crucial for the future.

  1. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: a pre- and post-land claim conservation and development history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thondhlana, Gladman; Shackleton, Sheona [Department of Environmental Science, Rhodes University (South Africa); Muchapondwa, Edwin [EPRU, School of Economics, Environmental Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.

  2. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: a pre- and post-land claim conservation and development history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thondhlana, Gladman; Shackleton, Sheona; Muchapondwa, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.

  3. Development of an efficient and compact range extender engine; Entwicklung eines effizienten und kompakten Range-Extender-Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahr, Bernd; Bassett, Mike; Hall, Jonathan; Warth, Marco [Mahle Powertrain Ltd., Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Mahle Powertrain has developed a compact, two-cylinder, spark-ignition engine that is specifically designed to be used as a range extender. Drive-cycle simulations and engine tests indicate that a range-extended vehicle using this engine would achieve a significant reduction in fuel consumption and tail-pipe CO{sub 2} levels. (orig.)

  4. ZONAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF A STRATEGIC PLANNING APPROACH FOR LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

    OpenAIRE

    LIMAPORNWANITCH, Karin; HOKAO, Kazunori; TEKNOMO, Kardi; FUKUDA, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    Due to rapid urban developments in developing cities, the integration of land-use and transportation planning is very necessary. However, up-to-date land-use and transportation interaction planning is still difficult, because of rapid urbanization and complex relationships. The lack of human resources, budget, and necessary data are some of the hindrances. The planners in Bangkok have tried to utilize Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) in harmonizing land developments and transportation improvem...

  5. Development of waste unit for use in shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    A hexagonal waste unit has been developed for use in shallow land burial of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The waste units used as overpack on empty standard 210 1 drums have been tested for tightness and mechanical resistance. Experimental burial of 21 empty full-size units has demonstrated the emplacement of the containers and the sealing of the crevises between them with molten bitumen. The development of the experimental burial with time is being followed. Three different conceptual designs for advanced burial systems using the hexagonal standard units are described. The outer barrier is a thick concrete structure covered by 2, 10 or 20 m soil, respectively. The waste units were cast from a normal high-quality concrete as well as from Densit, a new, very strong and impermeable type of concrete prepared by the combined use of silica-fume (microsilica) and a superplastizicer as additives. The migration of Cl - , Cs + and tritiated water was found to be much slower in Densit than in normal concrete. In combination with leaching measurements for Cs + from the same materials the results are used to present some theoretical considerations concerning transport through solution-filled pore systems as dependent on pore-size distribution, tortuosity, etc. A method based on neutron-activated cement cast in form of thin plates has been developed and used to study the dissolution chemistry of concrete. A preliminary model is presented. Indications for precipitation mechanisms were obtained. Densit was demonstrated to ensure a high degree of corrosion protection for steel reinforcement. The reason is mainly the high electrical resistivity combined with low diffusive transport in the material. The pozzolanic reaction results in somewhat lower pH in the pore water than in normal concrete, but the effect is not so pronounced that the passivation of steel reinforcement is endangered

  6. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) Change Detection in Islamabad and its Comparison with Capital Development Authority (CDA) 2006 Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaan, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing is very useful for the production of land use and land cover statistics which can be beneficial to determine the distribution of land uses. Using remote sensing techniques to develop land use classification mapping is a convenient and detailed way to improve the selection of areas designed to agricultural, urban and/or industrial areas of a region. In Islamabad city and surrounding the land use has been changing, every day new developments (urban, industrial, commercial and agricultural) are emerging leading to decrease in vegetation cover. The purpose of this work was to develop the land use of Islamabad and its surrounding area that is an important natural resource. For this work the eCognition Developer 64 computer software was used to develop a land use classification using SPOT 5 image of year 2012. For image processing object-based classification technique was used and important land use features i.e. Vegetation cover, barren land, impervious surface, built up area and water bodies were extracted on the basis of object variation and compared the results with the CDA Master Plan. The great increase was found in built-up area and impervious surface area. On the other hand vegetation cover and barren area followed a declining trend. Accuracy assessment of classification yielded 92% accuracies of the final land cover land use maps. In addition these improved land cover/land use maps which are produced by remote sensing technique of class definition, meet the growing need of legend standardization.

  7. Poverty and Land Degradation Linkages in the Developing World

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor at the Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of. Oslo, Nonvay. ... h> increasing population and poor management or land resources. As ... Economic growth resulting from SAP was also supposed to benefit the.

  8. Perils of project development on public land open to mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Conducting a government project on public land open to the general mining laws can result in added costs, legal entanglements, schedule uncertainties, and the potential for unanticipated safety issues and concerns due to interactions with mining claimants. Planning for such projects must include a careful assessment of not only land access needs and restrictions, but also possible scenarios for conflict with activities authorized under the general mining laws throughout the life of the project. It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the applicable mining laws and how they are currently being interpreted and applied by the responsible regulatory authorities and land managers. The Yucca Mountain Project approach to land access, problems encountered with mining claims filed under the Mining Law of 1872, and the lessons learned from these experiences are discussed in this paper

  9. Assessing Wetland Health Using a Newly Developed Land Cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citizen science combines environmental research with environmental education .... health of the wetland using land cover type impacts. Once the impact is ... to interpret the findings of the quantitative method using the qualitative findings.

  10. Preliminary Guidelines for Installation Product Line Land Management Suite (LMS) Product Developers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westervelt, James; Dilks, Kelly M; Goran, William D

    2005-01-01

    .... This document provides an introduction to the new technologies and techniques and is written for all involved with installation land management software development including managers, supervisors...

  11. Urban Land Use Planning Trend and Sustainable Challenges in Socio-Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yousif Mangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use planning is a technical approach for developing and managing the land into various public interests to endorse sustainable socio-economic development. This paper focuses on socio-economic problems by improper allocations of urban land uses particularly in vertical development (High rise buildings. Taluka Qasimabad Town was selected as a case study to observe the existing urban land use trends. Spatial and Quantitative data were collected through detailed land use survey and formal interviews. The ArcGIS and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science online software were used to analyze spatial and quantitative data. LRM (Linear Regression Model was used for predicting urban land use change particularly in vertical development by the year 2050. In this context, yearly code and land use change variables were applied in LRM to predict land use change since 2007. The results were found that rapid change in land uses occurred in the study area, by which inhabitants are facing problems like privacy, insecurity, property devaluation, and orientation nearby their accommodations. This research can lead to suggest several ways to improve and enhance urban land use planning approaches for betterment of urban communities.

  12. Long range plan for flexible joint development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective is to develop bellows expansion joints into CDS and subsequent LMFBR and liquid metal applications. An assessment was performed on the use of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 718 as bellows materials

  13. Range and railgun development results at LS and PA ''Soyuz''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babakov, Y.P.; Plekhanov, A.V.; Zheleznyi, V.B.

    1995-01-01

    A rail electromagnetic accelerator is one of the most reliable and simple devices for accelerating macroparticles up to high velocity. These accelerators allow scientists to carry out fundamental and applied investigations to study both equation-of-state of materials at high pressure due to high velocity encounters, and creation of conditions for shock thermonuclear fusion. In the department ''Energophyzika'' LS and PA ''Soyuz'' range was created. It was equipped with an inductor with storage capacity up to 12.5 MJ energized by a solid propellant MHD generator and a capacitor bank (energy capacity up to 6 MJ). These systems deliver currents of 1 MA and 2 MA, respectively. Diagnostic, recording, and autocalculation systems allow use of as many as 120 data channels with acquisition frequency up to 10 MHz. Recent technical successes in railgun construction, using special methods to compact plasma armature and produce high velocity trailing contact, creation of hybrid armatures, and optimizing acceleration made possible to gain velocities in the range of 6.2 to 6.8 km/s (masses of 3.8 to 10 g) and velocities 2.7 to 3.8 km/s (masses of 50 to 100 g) on railguns with length 2 to 4 m

  14. Evaluating forest land development effects on private forestry in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that forest land development can reduce the productivity of remaining forest land because private forest owners reduce their investments in forest management. We developed empirical models describing forest stocking, thinning, harvest, and postharvest tree planting in eastern Oregon, as functions of stand and site characteristics, ownership, and...

  15. Final Report: Systematic Development of a Subgrid Scaling Framework to Improve Land Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Robert Earl [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-07-11

    We carried out research to development improvements of the land component of climate models and to understand the role of land in climate variability and change. A highlight was the development of a 3D canopy radiation model. More than a dozen publications resulted.

  16. Spontaneous long-range calcium waves in developing butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-03-25

    Butterfly wing color patterns emerge as the result of a regular arrangement of scales produced by epithelial scale cells at the pupal stage. These color patterns and scale arrangements are coordinated throughout the wing. However, the mechanism by which the development of scale cells is controlled across the entire wing remains elusive. In the present study, we used pupal wings of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya, which has distinct eyespots, to examine the possible involvement of Ca(2+) waves in wing development. Here, we demonstrate that the developing pupal wing tissue of the blue pansy butterfly displayed spontaneous low-frequency Ca(2+) waves in vivo that propagated slowly over long distances. Some waves appeared to be released from the immediate peripheries of the prospective eyespot and discal spot, though it was often difficult to identify the specific origins of these waves. Physical damage, which is known to induce ectopic eyespots, led to the radiation of Ca(2+) waves from the immediate periphery of the damaged site. Thapsigargin, which is a specific inhibitor of Ca(2+)-ATPases in the endoplasmic reticulum, induced an acute increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels and halted the spontaneous Ca(2+) waves. Additionally, thapsigargin-treated wings showed incomplete scale development as well as other scale and color pattern abnormalities. We identified a novel form of Ca(2+) waves, spontaneous low-frequency slow waves, which travel over exceptionally long distances. Our results suggest that spontaneous Ca(2+) waves play a critical role in the coordinated development of scale arrangements and possibly in color pattern formation in butterflies.

  17. A Database Design and Development Case: Smile Land Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ranida; Harris, Ken; Eplion, David

    2013-01-01

    This case describes the situation of Smile Land Academy (SLA), a real-world based childcare center. SLA has grown from a very small company to a fairly large-sized organization (30 employees with 150 children). Unfortunately, its system for record-keeping, summarization of data, and reporting has not kept pace. The hard copies and spreadsheet…

  18. Development of automated land information management system (a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A database was created with the attributes linked to the spatial data using the text tool. An attempt was made to compare the digital database created with the analogue system of data storage. It revealed that any parcel of land can easily and readily be queried. The potential of the database was also tested by querying the ...

  19. Effects of Climate Change and Urban Development on Army Training Capabilities: Firing Ranges and Maneuver Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    investments in the development of off-post housing, shopping facilities, dining facilities ( restaurants ), and other busi- nesses that provide...Regional Urban Growth model (RUG) (Westervelt 2011), the ERDC TR-16-1 35 Landuse Evolution and Impact Assessment Model (LEAM) (Deal 2004), and the U.S...Land Use Scenarios JCSG Joint Cross-Service Group KBDI Keetch-Byram Drought Index LEAM Land-use Evolution and impact Assessment Model MAC Maneuver

  20. Long range manipulator development and experiments with dismantling tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.

    1993-01-01

    An existing handling system (EMIR) was used as a carrier system for various tools for concrete dismantling and radiation protection monitoring. It combined the advantages of long reach and high payload with highly dexterous kinematics. This system was enhanced mechanically to allow the use of different tools. Tool attachment devices for automatic tool exchange were investigated as well as interfaces (electric, hydraulic, compressed air, cooling water and signals). The control system was improved with regard to accuracy and sensor data processing. Programmable logic controller functions for tool control were incorporated. A free field mockup of the EMIR was build that allowed close simulation of dismantling scenarios without radioactive inventory. Aged concrete was provided for the integration tests. The development scheduled included the basic concept investigation; the development of tools and sensors; the EMIR hardware enhancement including a tool exchange; the adaption of tools and mockup and the final evaluation of the system during experiments

  1. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Development of new chemical dosimeter for low dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.; Adhikari, S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement of low dose radiation in complex systems is of utmost importance in radiation biology and related areas. Ferrous Benzoic acid Xylenol orange (FBX) system is being widely used for measurement of low dose gamma radiation because of its reproducibility and precision. However, an additional step, i.e., dissolution of benzoic acid in water at higher temperature followed by cooling at room temperature is involved for the preparation of this dosimeter. This makes it inconvenient as a ready to use dosimeter. In the present work, the organic molecule, sorbitol has been used for measurement of low doses of radiation. The advantages of using sorbitol are its ready availability and instantaneous water solubility. Owing to its dissolution at room temperature, possible errors those are involved in calculation of dose due to thermal oxidation of ferrous ions during preparation of the FBX dosimetric solution could be made insignificant in the proposed dosimeter. In the present system, sorbitol acts as radiolytic sensitizer for the oxidation of ferrous ion, and xylenol orange forms a 1:1 complex specifically with ferric ions. Thus, the analytical detection limit of ferric ions is enhanced compared to other systems. Final composition of the dosimetric solution is; 0.5 mol/m 3 xylenol orange, 10 mol/m 3 sorbitol and 0.2 mol/m 3 ferrous ion in 50 mol/m 3 sulfuric acid. Radiolytic sensitization in combination with analytical enhancement of the ferrous based system, allows us to measure radiation dose in the range of 0.05 Gy–12 Gy with ease and high reproducibility.

  3. Goals and instruments of land policy and the growth and development of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Maruška Šubic Kovač

    2001-01-01

    Instruments of land policies are tied to its goals, as well as defined relations on property and law as set in the Constitution. Since these relations have changed in Slovenia, the instruments of land policy also have to change. When devising particular instruments, basic principles have to be respected, which are the starting point for particular procedures. Only adequate legally defined instruments of land policies can be implemented in practice and affect the growth and development of citi...

  4. Goals and instruments of land policy and the growth and development of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Šubic Kovač

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments of land policies are tied to its goals, as well as defined relations on property and law as set in the Constitution. Since these relations have changed in Slovenia, the instruments of land policy also have to change. When devising particular instruments, basic principles have to be respected, which are the starting point for particular procedures. Only adequate legally defined instruments of land policies can be implemented in practice and affect the growth and development of cities in Slovenia.

  5. Influences of Regional Development on Land Use of Nagara Basin and Flood Risk Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banba Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land developments, and construction of factories or logistic centers should be implemented with the wellconsidered land use plans by taking account of disaster risks to improve the resilience of region to mitigate damages. In this paper, the relationship between regional development and land use from the perspective of flood risk control. Nagara basin in Gifu prefecture (Gifu, Mino, and Seki City, where transportation network has been developed to raise the potential for more development, is selected as a case study site. First, changes of industrial structures of the region and its influences on land use were analyzed. Then, possible flood control measures were summarized, and issues from the land use perspective are analysed

  6. The Environmental Advisory Service (EASe): a decision support system for comprehensive screening of local land-use development proposals and comparative evaluation of proposed land-use plans

    OpenAIRE

    K P White; A P Sage; F A Rodammer; C T Peters

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Advisory Service (EASe) is a decision support system which can provide assistance to local planning agencies in selecting land-development alternatives or in formulating land-use plans. EASe offers a comprehensive and consistent procedure for rating either a development proposal or a proposed plan. This procedure is based upon qualitative assessments of the impact of developments or plans on the natural environment, zoning and land use. public and private services, transport...

  7. SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change

  8. Urban Land Development for Industrial and Commercial Use: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanzhun Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 20th century, urbanization has been the main characteristic of global land development. If we can reveal and understand the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of urban development, we can then identify a sustainable development pattern for cities. In this paper, we primarily focus on the determinants of two main types of land use in urban development, industrial and commercial, in an empirical study of Beijing. We use a spatial data analysis method to seek and model major determinants of industrial and commercial land growth in the period of 2000–2010 in Beijing. A spatial logistic regression model is used to explore the impact of spatial independent variables on these two types of land use. The study shows that: (1 newly-added industrial land during 2000–2010 received significant contributions from the number of local enterprises engaged in services in 2010, the use of land for agriculture and construction in the neighborhood in 2000 and planning orders; (2 factors contributing to land transferred for commercial use included the number of enterprises, construction land in the neighborhood and accessibility improvement.

  9. The development of a land use inventory for regional planning using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessling, A. H.; Mara, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    Water quality planning in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana is reviewed in terms of use of land use data and satellite imagery. A land use inventory applicable to water quality planning and developed through computer processing of LANDSAT-1 imagery is described.

  10. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST MARKET OF LEASE LAND IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunko L.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The land is the main asset of the farmer. The basic production of agricultural products, the food security of the state and its export potential today depend directly on the ability of agricultural producers to conduct sustainable production. However, in addition to the natural elements that stand in the way of stabilizing the situation in the field of agriculture, we also have a chronic presence of numerous "man-made" problems that remain unsettled for years. One of the most significant and painful of them is the state registration of the right to lease land. Long-term disorder, corporate wars between state authorities for the right to land relations, negligent attitude to information on land rights and their encumbrances, the shifting of competence among registrars of land tenure rights continue to cause complaints from agricultural producers. But the peculiarities of the legal regulation of the state registration of the right to lease land for agricultural purposes did not become the subject of a separate scientific study. Consequently, the purpose of this work is to study and analyze the problems of legal regulation of state registration of the right to lease land and to find an acceptable option for their further solution. Since the reform of the agrarian sector of Ukraine, the most common form of land use in agricultural production is the use of land by agricultural producers on a lease. The advantage of leasing relations in agricultural production is enshrined in the Concept of the State Target Program for Land Relations Development in Ukraine for the period up to 2020, which was approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated June 17, 2009 No. 743-p. The right to lease a land plot is mediated by a contract concluded in accordance with the Article 20 of the Law of Ukraine "On land lease" is subject to mandatory state registration,on the other hand in Article 125 of the Land Code of Ukraine, it is stated that the

  11. Diversity and Abundance of Beetle (Coleoptera Functional Groups in a Range of Land Use System in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURYO HARDIWINOTO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of tropical rain forest might exert impacts on biodiversity loss and affect the function and stability of the related ecosystems. The objective of this study was to study the impact of land use systems (LUS on the diversity and abundance of beetle functional groups in Jambi area, Sumatra. This research was carried out during the rainy season (May-June of 2004. Inventory and collection of beetles have been conducted using winkler method across six land use systems, i.e. primary forest, secondary forest, Imperata grassland, rubber plantation, oilpalm plantation, and cassava garden. The result showed that a total of 47 families and subfamilies of beetles was found in the study area, and they were classified into four major functional groups, i.e. herbivore, predator, scavenger, and fungivore. There were apparent changes in proportion, diversity, and abundance of beetle functional groups from forests to other land use systems. The bulk of beetle diversity and abundance appeared to converge in primary forest and secondary forest and predatory beetles were the most diverse and the most abundant of the four major functional groups.

  12. Land Resource Management as the Ground for Mining Area Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovitskiy, Aleksander; Brel, Olga; Nikulin, Nikolai; Nastavko, Ekaterina; Meser, Tatayna

    2017-11-01

    It is established that the problem of sustainable development of Kuzbass cities is their being tied to a single production and income from other sources is not considered. Therefore, their economy is underdeveloped, depends entirely on one city-forming enterprise (singleindustry city), which causes response to the slightest changes in the economic situation. In Kuzbass, all cities, except Kemerovo, are monodependent, including Kiselevsk, which economy mainly consists of coal mining enterprises. In the circumstances, there is a need to develop a set of measures for management the urban land, primarily aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of Kiselevsk city. The development of principles and management mechanism of the urban territory land fund determines its effectiveness. Establishing the dependence of rational use of land resources and sustainable development characterizes a new level of information interaction between sciences (land management and economy). Practical use of this theory is to overcome the mono-urban development of mining cities, taking into account effective subsoil management.

  13. Developing tools to identify marginal lands and assess their potential for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsidas, Spyridon; Gounaris, Nikolaos; Dimitriadis, Elias; Rettenmaier, Nils; Schmidt, Tobias; Vlachaki, Despoina

    2017-04-01

    The term "marginal land" is currently intertwined in discussions about bioenergy although its definition is neither specific nor firm. The uncertainty arising from marginal land classification and quantification is one of the major constraining factors for its potential use. The clarification of political aims, i.e. "what should be supported?" is also an important constraining factor. Many approaches have been developed to identify marginal lands, based on various definitions according to the management goals. Concerns have been frequently raised regarding the impacts of marginal land use on environment, ecosystem services and sustainability. Current tools of soil quality and land potentials assessment fail to meet the needs of marginal land identification and exploitation for biomass production, due to the lack of comprehensive analysis of interrelated land functions and their quantitative evaluation. Land marginality is determined by dynamic characteristics in many cases and may therefore constitute a transitional state, which requires reassessment in due time. Also, marginal land should not be considered simply a dormant natural resource waiting to be used, since it may already provide multiple benefits and services to society relating to wildlife, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, etc. The consequences of cultivating such lands need to be fully addressed to present a balanced view of their sustainable potential for bioenergy. This framework is the basis for the development of the SEEMLA tools, which aim at supporting the identification, assessment, management of marginal lands in Europe and the decision-making for sustainable biomass production of them using appropriate bioenergy crops. The tools comprise two applications, a web-based one (independent of spatial data) and a GIS-based application (land regionalization on the basis of spatial data), which both incorporate: - Land resource characteristics, restricting the cultivation of agricultural crops but

  14. Using Optimal Land-Use Scenarios to Assess Trade-Offs between Conservation, Development, and Social Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Pressey, Robert L; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G

    2016-01-01

    Development of land resources can contribute to increased economic productivity but can also negatively affect the extent and condition of native vegetation, jeopardize the persistence of native species, reduce water quality, and erode ecosystem services. Spatial planning must therefore balance outcomes for conservation, development, and social goals. One approach to evaluating these trade-offs is scenario planning. In this paper we demonstrate methods for incorporating stakeholder preferences into scenario planning through both defining scenario objectives and evaluating the scenarios that emerge. In this way, we aim to develop spatial plans capable of informing actual land-use decisions. We used a novel approach to scenario planning that couples optimal land-use design and social evaluation of environmental outcomes. Four land-use scenarios combined differences in total clearing levels (10% and 20%) in our study region, the Daly Catchment Australia, with the presence or absence of spatial precincts to concentrate irrigated agriculture. We used the systematic conservation planning tool Marxan with Zones to optimally plan for multiple land-uses that met objectives for both conservation and development. We assessed the performance of the scenarios in terms of the number of objectives met and the degree to which existing land-use policies were compromised (e.g., whether clearing limits in existing guidelines were exceeded or not). We also assessed the land-use scenarios using expected stakeholder satisfaction with changes in the catchment to explore how the scenarios performed against social preferences. There were a small fraction of conservation objectives with high conservation targets (100%) that could not be met due to current land uses; all other conservation and development objectives were met in all scenarios. Most scenarios adhered to the existing clearing guidelines with only marginal exceedances of limits, indicating that the scenario objectives were

  15. Using Optimal Land-Use Scenarios to Assess Trade-Offs between Conservation, Development, and Social Values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Adams

    Full Text Available Development of land resources can contribute to increased economic productivity but can also negatively affect the extent and condition of native vegetation, jeopardize the persistence of native species, reduce water quality, and erode ecosystem services. Spatial planning must therefore balance outcomes for conservation, development, and social goals. One approach to evaluating these trade-offs is scenario planning. In this paper we demonstrate methods for incorporating stakeholder preferences into scenario planning through both defining scenario objectives and evaluating the scenarios that emerge. In this way, we aim to develop spatial plans capable of informing actual land-use decisions. We used a novel approach to scenario planning that couples optimal land-use design and social evaluation of environmental outcomes. Four land-use scenarios combined differences in total clearing levels (10% and 20% in our study region, the Daly Catchment Australia, with the presence or absence of spatial precincts to concentrate irrigated agriculture. We used the systematic conservation planning tool Marxan with Zones to optimally plan for multiple land-uses that met objectives for both conservation and development. We assessed the performance of the scenarios in terms of the number of objectives met and the degree to which existing land-use policies were compromised (e.g., whether clearing limits in existing guidelines were exceeded or not. We also assessed the land-use scenarios using expected stakeholder satisfaction with changes in the catchment to explore how the scenarios performed against social preferences. There were a small fraction of conservation objectives with high conservation targets (100% that could not be met due to current land uses; all other conservation and development objectives were met in all scenarios. Most scenarios adhered to the existing clearing guidelines with only marginal exceedances of limits, indicating that the scenario

  16. A tale of two land uses in the American West: rural residential growth and energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.

  17. Land evaluation for agricultural development : some explorations of land-use systems analysis with particular reference to Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    LAND EVALUATION

    Increases in the demand for agricultural produce and for space to meet non-agricultural needs are provoking rapid changes in the use of land. These changes have stimulated a critical examination of our methods of looking at land. Most useful is a land evaluation that predicts the

  18. Modeling the hydrologic effects of land and water development interventions: a case study of the upper Blue Nile river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege; Adgo, Enyew; Poesen, Jean; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Over 67% of the Ethiopian landmass has been identified as very vulnerable to climate variability and land degradation. These problems are more prevalent in the Upper Blue Nile (UBN, often called Abay) river basin covering a drainage area of about 199,800 km2. The UBN River runs from Lake Tana (NW Ethiopia) to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. To enhance the adaptive capacity to the high climate variability and land degradation in the basin, different land and water management measures (stone/soil bunds, runoff collector trenches, exclosures) have been extensively implemented, especially since recent years. Moreover, multipurpose water harvesting schemes including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD, reservoir area of ca. 4000 km2) and 17 other similar projects are being or to be implemented by 2025. However, impact studies on land and water management aspects rarely include detailed hydrological components especially at river basin scale, although it is generally regarded as a major determinant of hydrological processes. The main aim of this study is therefore to model the significance of land and water management interventions in surface runoff response at scale of UBN river basin and to suggest some recommendations. Spatially-distributed annual surface runoff was simulated for both present-day and future (2025) land and water management conditions using calibrated values of the proportional loss model in ArcGIS environment. Average annual rainfall map (1998-2012) was produced from calibrated TRMM satellite source and shows high spatial variability of rainfall ranging between ca. 1000 mm in the Eastern part of the basin to ca. 2000 mm in the southern part of the basin. Present-day land use day condition was obtained from Abay Basin Master Plan study. The future land use map was created taking into account the land and water development interventions to be implemented by 2025. Under present-day conditions, high spatial variability of annual runoff depth was observed

  19. Land surface temperature distribution and development for green open space in Medan city using imagery-based satellite Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, N.; Basyuni, M.; Slamet, B.

    2018-03-01

    Green open space (GOS) is one of the requirements where a city is comfortable to stay. GOS might reduce land surface temperature (LST) and air pollution. Medan is one of the biggest towns in Indonesia that experienced rapid development. However, the early development tends to neglect the GOS existence for the city. The objective of the study is to determine the distribution of land surface temperature and the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the priority of GOS development in Medan City using imagery-based satellite Landsat 8. The method approached to correlate the distribution of land surface temperature derived from the value of digital number band 10 with the NDVI which was from the ratio of groups five and four on satellite images of Landsat 8. The results showed that the distribution of land surface temperature in the Medan City in 2016 ranged 20.57 - 33.83 °C. The relationship between the distribution of LST distribution with NDVI was reversed with a negative correlation of -0.543 (sig 0,000). The direction of GOS in Medan City is therefore developed on the allocation of LST and divided into three priority classes namely first priority class had 5,119.71 ha, the second priority consisted of 16,935.76 ha, and third priority of 6,118.50 ha.

  20. Trace elements in land plants: concentration ranges and accumulators of rare earths, Ba, Ra, Mn, Fe, Co and heavy halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Shirakawa, M.; Takada, J.; Katayama, Y.; Matsubara, T.

    1987-01-01

    More than 2000 samples of land plant leaves, mostly of tree, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis in order to find out macroscopic relations between distributions of chemical elements in plants and soil characteristics. The distributions of the elements in plants were also examined from the view point of botanical taxonomy or phylogeny. New species which accumulate Co, rare earths, Ba, Ra, heavy halogens and some other elements were found. Capability or potentiality for accumulating elements could be related to higher ranks of taxonomy, that is, genus or family. The nature of soil is also found to have profound effects on the extent of accumulation of elements in plants. (author)

  1. Development of Custom 465® Corrosion-Resisting Steel for Landing Gear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymond, Benjamin T.; Binot, Nicolas; Schmidt, Michael L.; Preston, Steve; Collins, Richard; Shepherd, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Existing high-strength low-alloy steels have been in place on landing gear for many years owing to their superior strength and cost performance. However, there have been major advances in improving the strength of high-performance corrosion-resisting steels. These materials have superior environmental robustness and remove the need for harmful protective coatings such as chromates and cadmium now on the list for removal under REACH legislation. A UK government-funded collaborative project is underway targeting a refined specification Custom 465® precipitation hardened stainless steel to replace the current material on Airbus A320 family aircraft main landing gear, a main fitting component developed by Messier-Bugatti-Dowty. This is a collaborative project between Airbus, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, and Carpenter Technology Corporation. An extensive series of coupon tests on four production Heats of the material have been conducted, to obtain a full range of mechanical, fatigue, and corrosion properties. Custom 465® is an excellent replacement to the current material, with comparable tensile strength and fracture toughness, better ductility, and very good general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Fatigue performance is the only significant area of deficit with respect to incumbent materials, fatigue initiation being often related to carbo-titanium-nitride particles and cleavage zones.

  2. Influences of Different Land Use Spatial Control Schemes on Farmland Conversion and Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management. PMID:25915897

  3. Influences of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management.

  4. Land use diversification and intensification on elk winter range in Greater Yellowstone: A framework and agenda for social-ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Julia Hobson; Epstein, Kathleen; Stone, Michael; Cross, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Amenity migration describes the movement of peoples to rural landscapes and the transition toward tourism and recreation and away from production-oriented land uses (ranching, timber harvesting). The resulting mosaic of land uses and community structures has important consequences for wildlife and their management. This research note examines amenity-driven changes to social-ecological systems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, specifically in lower elevations that serve as winter habitat for elk. We present a research agenda informed by a preliminary and exploratory mixed-methods investigation: the creation of a “social-impact” index of land use change on elk winter range and a focus group with wildlife management experts. Our findings suggest that elk are encountering an increasingly diverse landscape with respect to land use, while new ownership patterns increase the complexity of social and community dynamics. These factors, in turn, contribute to increasing difficulty meeting wildlife management objectives. To deal with rising complexity across social and ecological landscapes of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, future research will focus on property life cycle dynamics, as well as systems approaches.

  5. Relevance of the land use changes related to a megacity development in a Colombian river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arias, Alicia; Romero Hernández, Claudia Patricia; Francés, Félix

    2017-04-01

    A megacity development is a main driving force for land uses changes. Population in these megacities usually rise depending on some or all of the natural resources related to the occupied area and, among them, water is a pivotal requirement. On the other hand, land use changes determine the catchment hydrology and, in consequence, its management. The better knowledge on land uses cover distribution and characteristics, the higher capabilities to increase the accuracy of hydrological predictions and the efficiency of water management. This study aims to describe the land uses changes occurred during the recent expansion of the megacity of Bogotá (Colombia) and to understand the expected changes. In addition, we propose the base for the consideration of this land use changes in the TETIS distributed hydrological modelling approach. The discussion focus on the necessity of considering this kind of scenarios in hydrological modelling for a responsible management of the water resources.

  6. Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Huu Ty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Vietnam’s State land ownership regime, the Government holds supreme authority over compulsory land acquisition. The results show that many improvements in land acquisition policies have been made, but poor implementation measures largely cannot prevent or even mitigate the adverse impacts on displaced persons. In particular, ineffective compensation measures and a lack of production land and livelihood alternatives accelerate the resistance of communities displaced as a result of hydropower development. The close alliance between the local government and the investor, which is considered as an “interest group”, is the main factor that leads to the ignorance of benefits of displaced people within the compulsory land acquisition process.

  7. Trace elements in land plants: concentration ranges and accumulators of rare earths, Ba, Ra, Mn, Fe, Co, and heavy halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Takada, Jitsuya; Katayama, Yukio; Matsubara, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    More than 2000 samples of land plant leaves, mostly of tree, have been analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to find out macroscopic relations between distributions of chemical elements in plants and soil characteristics. The distributions of the elements in plants were also examined from the view point of botanical taxonomy or phylogeny. New species which accumulate Co, rare earths, Ba, Ra, heavy halogens and other elements have been found. Capability or potentiality for accumulating elements could be related to primarily to species. In several cases, however, it is related to higher ranks of taxonomy, that is, genus or family. The nature of soil is also found to have profound effects on the extent of accumulation of elements in plants. (author)

  8. Land Right Registration and Property Development for Poverty Eradication and Slum Clearance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Olaopin Olanrele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to unfold the implication of non-registration of land rights on the achievement of the poverty eradication and slum clearance targets of the United Nation's Millennium development goals in Nigeria. The paper is based on empirical survey of land holding in the outskirts of Ibadan city and the rural areas in Oyo State, of Nigeria. A case study research method was adopted and data were collected with the use of questionnaire survey and secondary data was also extracted from the state land registry office in respect of total cost of documentation of subsequent transaction on titled/registered land. The study found that ignorance and government insensitivity in addition to high cost and delay are among major constraints to land titling. Only a few opportune people can afford the land right formalization process and they do so when it becomes necessary. These unequivocally militate against the achievement of the poverty and slum eradication goals of the UN. The paper suggested simplification of the titling procedure, cost reduction, computerization and public enlightenment on the benefits of registered land right to facilitate efficient land right registration towards adequate housing for the citizenry.

  9. Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges: Cross-Jurisdictional Management and Impacts on Unconventional Fuel Development in Utah's Uinta Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McNeally, Phoebe [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tribby, Clavin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued

  10. Home Range Size and Resource Use of Breeding and Non-breeding White Storks Along a Land Use Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Zurell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry is increasingly used to study animal movement at high spatial and temporal resolution and guide conservation and resource management. Yet, limited sample sizes and variation in space and habitat use across regions and life stages may compromise robustness of behavioral analyses and subsequent conservation plans. Here, we assessed variation in (i home range sizes, (ii home range selection, and (iii fine-scale resource selection of white storks across breeding status and regions and test model transferability. Three study areas were chosen within the Central German breeding grounds ranging from agricultural to fluvial and marshland. We monitored GPS-locations of 62 adult white storks equipped with solar-charged GPS/3D-acceleration (ACC transmitters in 2013–2014. Home range sizes were estimated using minimum convex polygons. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess home range selection and fine-scale resource selection by relating the home ranges and foraging sites to Corine habitat variables and normalized difference vegetation index in a presence/pseudo-absence design. We found strong variation in home range sizes across breeding stages with significantly larger home ranges in non-breeding compared to breeding white storks, but no variation between regions. Home range selection models had high explanatory power and well predicted overall density of Central German white stork breeding pairs. Also, they showed good transferability across regions and breeding status although variable importance varied considerably. Fine-scale resource selection models showed low explanatory power. Resource preferences differed both across breeding status and across regions, and model transferability was poor. Our results indicate that habitat selection of wild animals may vary considerably within and between populations, and is highly scale dependent. Thereby, home range scale analyses show higher robustness whereas fine-scale resource

  11. Benefits of wildlife-based land uses on private lands in Namibia and limitations affecting their development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsey, P.A.; Havemann, C.P.; Lines, R.M.; Price, A.E.; Retief, T.A.; Rhebergen, T.; Waal, van der C.; Romanach, S.

    2013-01-01

    Legislative changes during the 1960s–1970s granted user rights over wildlife to landowners in southern Africa, resulting in a shift from livestock farming to wildlife-based land uses. Few comprehensive assessments of such land uses on private land in southern Africa have been conducted and the

  12. ZONAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF A STRATEGIC PLANNING APPROACH FOR LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin LIMAPORNWANITCH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urban developments in developing cities, the integration of land-use and transportation planning is very necessary. However, up-to-date land-use and transportation interaction planning is still difficult, because of rapid urbanization and complex relationships. The lack of human resources, budget, and necessary data are some of the hindrances. The planners in Bangkok have tried to utilize Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA in harmonizing land developments and transportation improvements, but without a complete land-use comprehensive plan, the TIA cannot effectively manage urbanization. This paper intends to propose a Zonal Impact Analysis (ZIA framework as a strategic planning tool to balance travel demands of land developments and performance of transportation systems over urban areas. First, the land-use planning situation in Bangkok is explained, afterwards the framework is described. The framework is applied into Bangkapi areas as a case study. Both single and simultaneous development cases are considered. It was found that more comprehensive development alternatives were established. The most suitable zone for a single project is Zone 179, as the advantages of location in the center of radial networks, so full accessibility can be provided. Without any network improvements in Zone 179, the simultaneous developments should be implemented in Zone 168 and 173, as high capacities of the expressway are available. The results give a better understanding on the characteristics of land-use and transportation planning in Bangkapi. Finally, it was emphasized that the ZIA framework is a strategic planning alternative to increase the capabilities of growth management for sustainable developments.

  13. Land change in the Central Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion and hydrologic consequences in developed areas: 1939-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista; Shaver, David; Alexander, Randal; Over, Thomas; Soong, David T.

    2013-01-01

    This report emphasizes the importance of a multi-disciplinary understanding of how land use and land cover can affect regional hydrology by collaboratively investigating how increases in developed land area may affect stream discharge by evaluating land-cover change from 1939 to 2000, urban housing density data from 1940 to 2010, and changes in annual peak streamflow from water years 1945 to 2009. The results and methods crosscut two mission areas of the U.S. Geological Survey (Climate and Land Use, Water) and can be used to better assess developed land change and hydrologic consequences, which can be used to better assess future management and mitigation strategies.

  14. Monitoring soil for sustainable development and land degradation neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás; da Silva, Manuela Ravina; Montanarella, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The adoption of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) listed in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by the United Nations urged the scientific community to generate information for planning and monitoring socioeconomic development and the underlying environmental compartments. SDGs 2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 14, and 15 have targets which commend direct consideration of soil resources. There are five groups of SDGs and assigned SDG indicators where soil plays a central role. Frameworks of ...

  15. Monitoring soil for sustainable development and land degradation neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gergely; Hermann, Tamás; da Silva, Manuela Ravina; Montanarella, Luca

    2018-01-04

    The adoption of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) listed in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by the United Nations urged the scientific community to generate information for planning and monitoring socioeconomic development and the underlying environmental compartments. SDGs 2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 14, and 15 have targets which commend direct consideration of soil resources. There are five groups of SDGs and assigned SDG indicators where soil plays a central role. Frameworks of soil-related sustainable development goals and related indicators which can be monitored in current monitoring schemes are proposed.

  16. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Nourian; A. A. Alesheikh; F. Hosseinali

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionUrban land-use expansion is a challenging issue in developing countries. Increases in population as well as the immigration from the villages to the cities are the two major factors for that phenomenon. Those factors have reduced the influence of efforts that try to limit the cities’ boundaries. Thus, spatial planners always look for the models that simulate the expansion of urban land-uses and enable them to prevent unbalanced expansions of cities and guide the...

  17. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  18. Climate resilient urban development : why responsible land governance is important

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, D.; Enemark, S.; van der Molen, P.

    2015-01-01

    In less-developed countries, the major global pressures of rapid urbanization and climate change are resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers. Much of the climate impact is concentrated in urban and coastal areas, as urban development spreads into areas that are hazard-prone. Often

  19. Evaluating satellite imagery-based land use data for describing forestland development in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; David L. Azuma; Andrew. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Forestry professionals are concerned about how forestlands are affected by residential and other development. To address those concerns, researchers must find appropriate data with which to describe and evaluate rates and patterns of forestland development and the impact of development on the management of remaining forestlands. We examine land use data gathered from...

  20. Mediterranean California’s water use future under multiple scenarios of developed and agricultural land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2017-01-01

    With growing demand and highly variable inter-annual water supplies, California’s water use future is fraught with uncertainty. Climate change projections, anticipated population growth, and continued agricultural intensification, will likely stress existing water supplies in coming decades. Using a state-and-transition simulation modeling approach, we examine a broad suite of spatially explicit future land use scenarios and their associated county-level water use demand out to 2062. We examined a range of potential water demand futures sampled from a 20-year record of historical (1992–2012) data to develop a suite of potential future land change scenarios, including low/high change scenarios for urbanization and agriculture as well as “lowest of the low” and “highest of the high” anthropogenic use. Future water demand decreased 8.3 billion cubic meters (Bm3) in the lowest of the low scenario and decreased 0.8 Bm3 in the low agriculture scenario. The greatest increased water demand was projected for the highest of the high land use scenario (+9.4 Bm3), high agricultural expansion (+4.6 Bm3), and high urbanization (+2.1 Bm3) scenarios. Overall, these scenarios show agricultural land use decisions will likely drive future demand more than increasing municipal and industrial uses, yet improved efficiencies across all sectors could lead to potential water use savings. Results provide water managers with information on diverging land use and water use futures, based on historical, observed land change trends and water use histories.

  1. 150 years of land degradation and development: loss of habitats, natural resources due to quarrying and industrialization followed by land reclamation in the heart of Budapest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The urban development and land degradation is an accelerated process in the 21st century; however several examples are known when this happened in the past. A historic case study is discussed in this research when clump of three former small towns (named: Buda, Pest and Óbuda) became a million population city more than hundred years ago invoking significant land degradation, drastic and surprising changes in land use. Budapest which is now the capital of Hungary has seen rapid land use changes in the past 150 years especially from 1850'ies to early 20th century. The population of the city rapidly grown from the end of 19th century to early 20th century; i.e. it is tripled from 1880 to 1920 and reached nearly 1 million in 40 years. This population boom induced significant land degradation, changes in land use and loss of habitats. The paper presents examples how the land use has changed in the past 105 years with historic maps and interpreted cases suggesting different pathways leading to land degradation. The first one focuses on vineyards and grape cultivation and explains how these areas were first converted to limestone quarries to provide construction material to the city and then transformed to urban habitat in the early 20th century again. The cellars - former quarry galleries - than were used for housing (urban habitat) and later were used as storage facilities and mushroom cultivation sites. At present these subsurface openings cause high risk of land development (collapse) and limit the land use of the given area. The current paper also outlines the development of the city via the perspective of natural resources, since drinking water and industrial water need modified the land development and urbanization. Another example is also given how the brewery industry exploited natural resources and the surface water use was shifted to exploitation of karstic waters causing land degradation and drop of water table. Additional example demonstrates how the former

  2. Land quality, urban development and urban agriculture within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research indicates that low-density residential development is still the major consumer ..... planning theory as a separate rural feature. ... a strong motivation against the practice. (Lewcock ... can contribute to the local economy and whether ...

  3. Guidelines and incentives for conservation development in local land-use regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah E; Hilty, Jodi A; Theobald, David M

    2014-02-01

    Effective conservation of biological diversity on private lands will require changes in land-use policy and development practice. Conservation development (CD) is an alternative form of residential development in which homes are built on smaller lots and clustered together and the remainder of the property is permanently protected for conservation purposes. We assessed the degree to which CD is permitted and encouraged by local land-use regulations in 414 counties in the western United States. Thirty-two percent of local planning jurisdictions have adopted CD ordinances, mostly within the past 10 years. CD ordinances were adopted in counties with human population densities that were 3.0 times greater and in counties with 2.5 times more land use at urban, suburban, and exurban densities than counties without CD ordinances. Despite strong economic incentives for CD (e.g., density bonuses, which allow for a mean of 66% more homes to be built per subdivision area), several issues may limit the effectiveness of CD for biological diversity conservation. Although most CD ordinances required a greater proportion of the site area be protected than in a typical residential development, just 13% (n = 17) of the ordinances required an ecological site analysis to identify and map features that should be protected. Few CD ordinances provided guidelines regarding the design and configuration of the protected lands, including specifying a minimum size for protected land parcels or encouraging contiguity with other protected lands within or near to the site. Eight percent (n =11) of CD ordinances encouraged consultation with a biological expert or compliance with a conservation plan. We recommend that conservation scientists help to improve the effectiveness of CD by educating planning staff and government officials regarding biological diversity conservation, volunteering for their local planning boards, or consulting on development reviews. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  4. Recent developments in forestry and land use in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.

    1974-01-01

    Dr. W. Meijer, who is Dutch-born, worked in Indonesia from 1951 to 1958, first at Bogor, then at Pajakumbuh, Sumatra, and was Forest Botanist in Sabah for several years, revisited Indonesia with a National Science Foundation travel grant under an NSF-AID (Agency for International Development)

  5. Malawi Economic Monitor, November 2017 : Land for Inclusive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kandoole, Priscilla; Record, Richard; Deininger, Klaus; Kalemba, Sunganani; Stylianou, Eleni; Chilima, Efrem; Kufeyani, Linly

    2017-01-01

    The Malawi Economic Monitor (MEM) provides an analysis of economic and structural development issues in Malawi. The aim of the publication is to foster better-informed policy analysis and debate regarding the key challenges that Malawi faces in its endeavor to achieve high rates of stable, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth. Malawi’s economy is primarily based on agriculture and he...

  6. Promoting institutional and organisational development in surveying and land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Greenway, Iain

    2006-01-01

    development, and outlines some of the key tools and techniques to be used in the institutional reform process. This process will normally include four steps: Where are we now (assessment of the current situation and needs); Where do we want to be (design of vision and mission); How do we get there (strategies...

  7. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include

  8. Plant uptake of trace elements on a Swiss military shooting range: Uptake pathways and land management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Brett H. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: brett.robinson@env.ethz.ch; Bischofberger, Simone; Stoll, Andreas; Schroer, Dirk; Furrer, Gerhard; Roulier, Stephanie; Gruenwald, Anna; Attinger, Werner; Schulin, Rainer [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-06-15

    Over 400 tons of Pb enters Swiss soils annually at some 2000 military shooting ranges (MSRs). We measured elements in the leaves of 10 plant species and associated rhizospheric soil on the stop butt of a disused MSR. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Sb, Cu, Ni in rhizospheric soils were 10,171 mg/kg, 5067 mg/kg, 4125 mg/kg and 917 mg/kg. Some species contained Pb, Cu and Ni, above concentrations (30 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) shown to be toxic to livestock. Most contaminants in leaves resulted from surface deposition. However, at soil Pb concentrations >60,000 mg/kg, Equisetum arvense and Tussilago farfara took up >1000 mg/kg Pb into the leaves. These plants are not hyperaccumulators, having <100 mg/kg Pb in leaves at lower soil concentrations. Removal of soil with more than 30,000 Pb, from which one could smelt this metal to offset remediation costs, followed by revegetation, would minimise dust and hence leaf-borne contaminants. - Establishment of a complete vegetation cover on shooting ranges would reduce the contamination of plant leaves by toxic trace elements.

  9. Assessing development pressure in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: an evaluation of two land-use change models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, Peter R; Jantz, Claire A; Goetz, Scott J; Bisland, Carin

    2004-06-01

    Natural resource lands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are increasingly susceptible to conversion into developed land uses, particularly as the demand for residential development grows. We assessed development pressure in the Baltimore-Washington, DC region, one of the major urban and suburban centers in the watershed. We explored the utility of two modeling approaches for forecasting future development trends and patterns by comparing results from a cellular automata model, SLEUTH (slope, land use, excluded land, urban extent, transportation), and a supply/demand/allocation model, the Western Futures Model. SLEUTH can be classified as a land-cover change model and produces projections on the basis of historic trends of changes in the extent and patterns of developed land and future land protection scenarios. The Western Futures Model derives forecasts from historic trends in housing units, a U.S. Census variable, and exogenously supplied future population projections. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, and combining the two has advantages and limitations.

  10. Local power and land use: spatial implications for local energy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, C.L.; Hewitt, Richard; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Martínez Alonso, Patricia; Hernández Jiménez, Verónica; Diaz Pacheco, Jaime; Bermejo, Lara Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background The decentralised and private nature of small-scale renewable energy development does not fit traditional models of government planning and oversight. The land use impacts related to these developments are not well understood and data is lacking related to the environmental, social and

  11. LAND-USE, ECONOMICS AND HYDROLOGIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A SECOND STEP TOWARDS ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past and present development and land-use patterns have drastically altered the hydrologic function of our nation's watersheds. What is only now widely recognized is that the increased storm water volume and peak flows resulting from development in watersheds, not just the pollu...

  12. Figuring rural development : concepts and cases of land use, sustainability and integrative indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbes, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable economic development is essential for hundreds of millions of poor households in rural areas. This book represents a merger of environmental science and rural development economics. It elucidates the linkage between rational choice theory and theories on land use change. It builds a

  13. Can Large Scale Land Acquisition for Agro-Development in Indonesia be Managed Sustainably?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obidzinski, K.; Takahashi, I.; Dermawan, A.; Komarudin, H.; Andrianto, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of large scale land acquisition for agro-development by analyzing the Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE) in Indonesia. It also examines the potential for MIFEE to meet sustainability requirements under RSPO, ISPO, and FSC. The plantation development

  14. Development of sustainable land management policies and practices in five selected countries from 1960 to 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Aklilu, A.; Ouessar, M.; Asins-Velis, S.; Kessler, A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the 1930s there has been worldwide concern about the effects of land degradation. After the problems experienced in the Dust Bowl in the USA, much attention was paid to soil and water conservation in both developed and developing countries. Initially Governments have stimulated the

  15. Negotiating development narratives within large-scale oil palm projects on village lands in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Egay, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    the narratives that suggest that large-scale land development projects ‘bring development to the people’, utilising ‘idle lands’ and ‘creating employment’ to lift them out of poverty, we argue that political and economic processes related to cultivation of oil palm intersect with local community differences...

  16. When and where to move: Dynamic occupancy models explain the range dynamics of a food nomadic bird under climate and land cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Downs, Colleen T

    2018-01-01

    Globally, long-term research is critical to monitor the responses of tropical species to climate and land cover change at the range scale. Citizen science surveys can reveal the long-term persistence of poorly known nomadic tropical birds occupying fragmented forest patches. We applied dynamic occupancy models to 13 years (2002-2014) of citizen science-driven presence/absence data on Cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus), a food nomadic bird endemic to South Africa. We modeled its underlying range dynamics as a function of resource distribution, and change in climate and land cover through the estimation of colonization and extinction patterns. The range occupancy of Cape parrot changed little over time (ψ = 0.75-0.83) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Yet, there was considerable regional variability in occupancy and detection probability increased over the years. Colonizations increased with warmer temperature and area of orchards, thus explaining their range shifts southeastwards in recent years. Although colonizations were higher in the presence of nests and yellowwood trees (Afrocarpus and Podocarpus spp.), the extinctions in small forest patches (≤227 ha) and during low precipitation (≤41 mm) are attributed to resource constraints and unsuitable climatic conditions. Loss of indigenous forest cover and artificial lake/water bodies increased extinction probabilities of Cape parrot. The land use matrix (fruit farms, gardens, and cultivations) surrounding forest patches provides alternative food sources, thereby facilitating spatiotemporal colonization and extinction in the human-modified matrix. Our models show that Cape parrots are vulnerable to extreme climatic conditions such as drought which is predicted to increase under climate change. Therefore, management of optimum sized high-quality forest patches is essential for long-term survival of Cape parrot populations. Our novel application of dynamic occupancy models to long-term citizen

  17. A manual-control approach to development of VTOL automatic landing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. R.; Niessen, F. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of VTOL aircraft in the city-center environment will require complex landing-approach trajectories that insure adequate clearance from other traffic and obstructions and provide the most direct routing for efficient operations. As part of a larger program to develop the necessary technology base, a flight investigation was undertaken to study the problems associated with manual and automatic control of steep, decelerating instrument approaches and landings. The study employed a three-cue flight director driven by control laws developed and refined during manual-control studies and subsequently applied to the automatic approach problem. The validity of this approach was demonstrated by performing the first automatic approach and landings to a predetermined spot ever accomplished with a helicopter. The manual-control studies resulted in the development of a constant-attitude deceleration profile and a low-noise navigation system.

  18. Fitting Islamic Financial Contracts in Developing Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic finance industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. However, many potential Muslim customers, particularly in rural areas, have unfulfilled banking needs and lack access to financing. Meanwhile, entrepreneurial projects in the agricultural sector are presumed to optimize economic growth. In addition, some scholars have expounded that the financial problems faced by the agricultural sector are caused by the risks of debt financing and lack of access to the capital market. In Islamic law, almuzara’ah and al-musaqah can be considered as forms of partnership contract in farming. Therefore, using descriptive analysis, this paper attempts to portray how Islamic financial principles are closely related to the agricultural sector in developing Islamic agricultural finance. This study found that the application of the modes of Islamic financing in the agricultural sector through financial institutions could be very effective in providing financing to ensure that the partnership progresses effectively and efficiently. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop a sound agricultural financial system based on Islamic contracts in order to increase and sustain the income of farmers and landowners and to reduce poverty.

  19. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecological protection. Classification of cultivated land should take into account the soil fertility of cultivated land. Then, grading of cultivated land is carried out from the practical productivity (or potential productivity) of cultivated land. According to the existing classification index system of cultivated land, the soil, natural and environmental factors in plains, mountains and hills are mainly modified in the classification index system of cultivated land. And index systems for the cultivated land classification in plains, mountains and hills are set up. The grading index system of cultivated land is established based on the economic viability (economic value), social acceptability (social value) and protection of cultivated land (ecological value). Quantitative expression of cultivated land grading index is also carried out.

  20. Land use/land cover and land capability data for evaluating land utilization and official land use planning in Indramayu Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarwulan, W.; Widiatmaka; Nahib, I.

    2018-05-01

    Land utilization in Indonesia is regulated in an official spatial land use planning (OSLUP), stipulated by government regulations. However in fact, land utilizations are often develops inconsistent with regulations. OSLUP itself is also not usually compatible with sustainable land utilizations. This study aims to evaluate current land utilizations and OSLUP in Indramayu Regency, West Java. The methodology used is the integrated analysis using land use and land cover (LU/LC) data, land capability data and spatial pattern in OSLUP. Actual LU/LC are interpreted using SPOT-6 imagery of 2014. The spatial data of land capabilities are derived from land capability classification using field data and laboratory analysis. The confrontation between these spatial data is interpreted in terms of future direction for sustainable land use planning. The results shows that Indramayu regency consists of 8 types of LU/LC. Land capability in research area range from class II to VIII. Only a small portion of the land in Indramayu has been used in accordance with land capability, but most of the land is used exceeding its land capability.

  1. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  2. Collaborative development of land use change scenarios for analysing hydro-meteorological risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Simulating future land use changes remains a difficult task, due to uncontrollable and uncertain driving forces of change. Scenario development emerged as a tool to address these limitations. Scenarios offer the exploration of possible futures and environmental consequences, and enable the analysis of possible decisions. Therefore, there is increasing interest of both decision makers and researchers to apply scenarios when studying future land use changes and their consequences. The uncertainties related to generating land use change scenarios are among others defined by the accuracy of data, identification and quantification of driving forces, and the relation between expected future changes and the corresponding spatial pattern. To address the issue of data and intangible driving forces, several studies have applied collaborative, participatory techniques when developing future scenarios. The involvement of stakeholders can lead to incorporating a broader spectrum of professional values and experience. Moreover, stakeholders can help to provide missing data, improve detail, uncover mistakes, and offer alternatives. Thus, collaborative scenarios can be considered as more reliable and relevant. Collaborative scenario development has been applied to study a variety of issues in environmental sciences on different spatial and temporal scales. Still, these participatory approaches are rarely spatially explicit, making them difficult to apply when analysing changes to hydro-meteorological risk on a local scale. Spatial explicitness is needed to identify potentially critical areas of land use change, leading to locations where the risk might increase. In order to allocate collaboratively developed scenarios of land change, we combined participatory modeling with geosimulation in a multi-step scenario generation framework. We propose a framework able to develop scenarios that are plausible, can overcome data inaccessibility, address intangible and external driving forces

  3. The land management tool: Developing a climate service in Southwest UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Falloon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal climate forecasts (SCFs have significant potential to support shorter-term agricultural decisions and longer-term climate adaptation plans, but uptake in Europe has to date been low. Under the European Union funded project, European Provision Of Regional Impacts Assessments on Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS we have developed the Land Management Tool (LMTool, a prototype seasonal climate service for land managers, working closely in collaboration with two stakeholder organizations, Clinton Devon Estates (CDE and the National Farmers Union (NFU. LMTool was one of several prototype climate services selected for development within EUPORIAS, including those for the UK transport network, food security in Ethiopia, renewable energy production, hydroelectric energy production in Sweden, and river management in two French basins. The LMTool provides SCFs (1–3 months ahead to farmers in the Southwest UK, alongside 14-day site specific weather forecasts during the winter months when the skill of seasonal forecasts is greatest.We describe the processes through which the LMTool was co-designed and developed with the farmers, its technical development and key features; critically examine the lessons learned and their implications for providing future climate services for land managers; and finally assess the feasibility of delivering an operational winter seasonal climate service for UK land managers.A number of key learning points from developing the prototype may benefit future work in climate services for the land management and agriculture sector; many of these points are also valid for climate services in other sectors. Prototype development strongly benefitted from; working with intermediaries to identify representative, engaged land managers; an iterative and flexible process of co-design with the farmer group; and from an interdisciplinary project team. Further work is needed to develop a better understanding of the role of

  4. The Development of a Tactical-Level Full Range Leadership Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    full range leadership theory has become established as the predominant and most widely researched theory on leadership . The most commonly used survey...instrument to assess full range leadership theory is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, originally developed by Bass in 1985. Although much...existing literature to develop a new full range leadership theory measurement instrument that effectively targets low- to mid-level supervisors, or

  5. Management of human-induced salinisation in the Berg River catchment and development of criteria for regulating agricultural land use in terms of salt generating capacity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, W

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From previous WRC work by the same group, various needs were identified. One was to examine the effects a range of land uses may have on the production of salinity from the Sandspruit catchment. Another was to develop criteria to manage the salt...

  6. Estimation of un-used land potential for biofuels development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yishui [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Sun, Liying [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Yan, Jinyue [Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the current status of biofuel development and estimates the potential of un-used land for biofuel development. The potential of crops including cassava, sweet potato, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet and Jerusalem artichoke were assessed and discussed for different regions considering the geographical conditions and features of agricultural production. If reserved land resources are explored together with substitute planting implemented and unit area yield improved, potential production of ethanol fuel will be 22 million ton in 2020. The study also recommends the use of winter idle lands for rapeseed plantation for biofuel production. The potential for production of biodiesel by rapeseed and cottonseed can reach to 3.59 million ton. (author)

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Simple, Multifactorial Model Based on Landing Performance to Indicate Injury Risk in Surfing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and evaluate a multifactorial model based on landing performance to estimate injury risk for surfing athletes. Five measures were collected from 78 competitive surfing athletes and used to create a model to serve as a screening tool for landing tasks and potential injury risk. In the second part of the study, the model was evaluated using junior surfing athletes (n = 32) with a longitudinal follow-up of their injuries over 26 wk. Two models were compared based on the collected data, and magnitude-based inferences were applied to determine the likelihood of differences between injured and noninjured groups. The study resulted in a model based on 5 measures--ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion, isometric midthigh-pull lower-body strength, time to stabilization during a drop-and-stick (DS) landing, relative peak force during a DS landing, and frontal-plane DS-landing video analysis--for male and female professional surfers and male and female junior surfers. Evaluation of the model showed that a scaled probability score was more likely to detect injuries in junior surfing athletes and reported a correlation of r = .66, P = .001, with a model of equal variable importance. The injured (n = 7) surfers had a lower probability score (0.18 ± 0.16) than the noninjured group (n = 25, 0.36 ± 0.15), with 98% likelihood, Cohen d = 1.04. The proposed model seems sensitive and easy to implement and interpret. Further research is recommended to show full validity for potential adaptations for other sports.

  8. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  9. Succeeding criteria of community based on land transportation infrastructure for Johor innovation valley development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan, Amir A.; Aminudin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Ghazali, Farid Ezanee Mohamed; Baharudin, Nur Azwa Amyra; Siang, Lee Yong

    2017-10-01

    Developing countries around the world have developed innovative centre, or known as innovation hub, to meet the demand of today's changing global competitive environment. The shift of economic sector from manufacturing to services has allowed numerous regions and cities around the world to undergo major structural changes. In Malaysia, Skudai area is on its way of becoming a community-based innovation hub under the Johor State Economic Growth Strategic Plan called Johor Innovation Valley (JIV). Towards this new-city concept, land transportation infrastructure is among the most important network in being a linkage to the source of contribution in enhancing the local innovative environment. This paper highlights the requirement of land transportation infrastructure criteria that would be effective in making Skudai a community-based innovation hub. Data were collected through survey questionnaires involving stakeholders with the knowledge of land transportation infrastructure who also lives within the area. Descriptive analysis was employed with further rank breakdown using Average Index analysis. The findings distinguish the differences between each criteria of land transportation infrastructure. Change in traffic system, easier accessibility to one place to another and attraction to outside investor are among the impacts of growth of JIV. This paper concluded that selected requirement of land transportation infrastructure criteria is necessary for future contribution towards the growth of the JIV.

  10. Carbon sequestration by Miscanthus energy crops plantations in a broad range semi-arid marginal land in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jia; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenhui; Yan, Juan; Li, Jianqiang; Sang, Tao

    2014-10-15

    Carbon sequestration is an essential ecosystem service that second-generation energy crops can provide. To evaluate the ability of carbon sequestration of Miscanthus energy crops in the Loess Plateau of China, the yield and soil organic carbon (SOC) changes were measured for three Miscanthus species in the experimental field in Qingyang of the Gansu Province (QG). With the highest yield of the three species, Miscanthus lutarioriparius contributed to the largest increase of SOC, 0.57 t ha(-1)yr(-1), comparing to the field left unplanted. Through modeling M. lutarioriparius yield across the Loess Plateau, an average increase of SOC was estimated at 0.46 t ha(-1)yr(-1) for the entire region. Based on the measurements of SOC mineralization under various temperatures and moistures for soil samples taken from QG, a model was developed for estimating SOC mineralization rates across the Loess Plateau and resulted in an average of 1.11 t ha(-1)yr(-1). Combining the estimates from these models, the average of net carbon sequestration was calculated at a rate of 9.13 t ha(-1)yr(-1) in the Loess Plateau. These results suggested that the domestication and production of M. lutarioriparius hold a great potential for carbon sequestration and soil restoration in this heavily eroded region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient…

  12. Development activities on shallow land disposal of solid radioactive waste. Progress report, January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Progress on projects focused on problems of shallow land burial of radioactively contaminated solid waste is summarized. Developments on a system to evaluate the containment adequacy of existing burial sites are described. Efforts to describe the environmental factors in monitoring the LASL disposal sites are discussed. The aim of a new program on radioactive waste burial technology is outlined

  13. Urban development, and emerging relations of informal property and land based authority in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Paul Austin

    2018-01-01

    Rural–urban migration leads to ever increasing numbers of Africans living in informal settlements. In Accra's largest informal settlement, Old Fadama, residents by definition have no statutory rights to the land and their building activities undermine formal state law and state-recognized customary......, building and development in the settlement that involve a variety of local, national and global actors. Their actions show the contemporaneous making and unmaking of different relations of property and land-based control and authority in the densely populated urban site. Important features of urban...

  14. The Determinant Factors of Regional Development Toward Land Use Change in Deli Serdang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindarto, D.; Sirojuzilam; Badaruddin; Dwira

    2017-03-01

    The concept of regional development Mebidangro (Medan, Binjai, Deli Serdang, and Karo) creating neighboring region hinterland Medan city with Deli Serdang Regency especially in Tembung village, Percut Sei Tuan District. Population structure in Tembung shows occurrence condition of rural-urban change which seen from the sprawl land use change. The aim of the study is to reveal the genius locus as one of land use change factors. The study conducted with quantitative approach intended at obtaining variables which describing several factors forming land use change. Descriptive approach intended to give an idea, justification, and fact-finding with correct interpretation. Data collected through a purposive sampling of 300 respondents who have built the house between 2010 till 2014. With overlay figure/ground technique, scoring analysis, descriptive quantitative and SEM (Structural Equational Models) gained a result that place character/genius locus (p=0,007) potentially as one of the main land use change driving factors besides accessibility (p=0,039), infrastructure (p=0,005), social-economic p=0,038). Topographic (p=0,663) was inversely potentially. The implication of the findings is required intensive control in space utilization considering the rapid change in land use transformation that tend to have the negative impact of urban sprawl.

  15. Rangeland livestock production: Developing the concept of sustainability on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Ruyle

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) was established in 1903 at the behest of concerned stockmen and researchers as the first facility in the United States set aside to study range livestock production. At the time, severe overgrazing of the public domain had seriously reduced carrying capacities of Southwestern rangelands. Researchers on the SRER developed and...

  16. Development of an extended-range electric vehicle : a systems engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorderhake, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the complete design (i.e., from product level to implementation level) of a sportive hatchback extended-range electric vehicle, including the design rationales and product creation process used. The project had two main goals: First, the development of a modular extended-range

  17. Contracting Selection for the Development of the Range Rule Risk Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...-Effectiveness Risk Tool and contractor selection for the development of the Range Rule Risk Methodology. The audit objective was to determine whether the Government appropriately used the Ordnance and Explosives Cost-Effectiveness Risk Tool...

  18. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT IN BEIUŞ LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu FILIMON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available : The present study that focuses on the human potential in Beiuş Land, seen as a source of economical development, aims at highlighting the human resource existing in this area. It constitutes the engine or the dynamic element of the economical development. Such an endeavour is necesssary and needs accomplishment, in order to support some territorial development policies, regardless of the scale they are set on. Its analysis of Beiuş Land highlighted the existence of several drawbacks of the human potential, triggered by the demographic aging process, but also by the possibilities this area offers. Depending on its evolution, it is necessary to achieve a certain level of development which should ensure its welfare status.

  19. Land reclamation and artificial islands: Walking the tightrope between development and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yin Chee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal developments worldwide have put entire shoreline ecosystems at risk. Recently, land reclamation has been extended to the construction of whole new islands; a phenomenon that is particularly common in Asia and the Middle East and is recognised as a global conservation issue. Using Penang Island, Malaysia as a case study, we illustrate the relationship between rapid population growth and the simultaneous increase in urbanisation, land reclamation and extent of artificial shorelines; and decrease in the quality and extent of natural coastal habitats. Our goal was to provide an up-to-date assessment of the state of coastal habitats around Penang, identify knowledge gaps and identify locations that may be potentially suitable for eco-engineering. Comparisons of historical and current topographic maps revealed that land formerly consisting of coastal swamp and forest, mangrove forests, sandy beaches, and rubber and oil plantations have been lost to large-scale land reclamation and urbanisation. Between 1960 and 2015, there were increases in urbanised area, reclaimed land, and artificial shoreline extent. The total extent of mangrove forests has remained relatively stable but this balance is characterised by significant losses on the east coast coupled with increases on the west coast. Coastal development on the island is still on-going with plans for the construction of five artificial islands and another two coastal reclamation projects are either underway or scheduled for the near future. If the plans for future land reclamations are fully realized, 32.3 km2 of the 321.8 km2 island (10% will be reclaimed land and the associated negative effects on the island’s natural coastal habitats will be inevitable. This study highlights sections of the coast of Penang Island in need of effective monitoring, conservation and management and explores the possibility of incorporating ecological engineering into development projects, either

  20. Long-Range Planning Can Improve the Efficiency of Agricultural Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-24

    planning is not done » Conclusions Recommendat ion Agency comments ADVISORY BODIES HAVE HAD MIXED SUCCESS IN AFFECTING LONG-RANGE PLANNING... kfc r Their efforts have more impact on determining priorities for the short-range budgeting cycle rather than influencing development of long...cultural products, (2) developing an efficient marketing and processing system, (3) conserving natural resources, and (4) im- proving the well-being of

  1. Developing Spatial Data Protocol and a Geodatabase for the Surinamese Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forest Management (Ministry RGB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Surinamese Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forest Management (De minister van Ruimtelijke ordening, Grond- en Bosbeheer (Ministry RGB)) is tasked with a wide range of critical environmental duties. This ministry is responsible for monitoring and protecting federally ...

  2. Land use changes and plantation crop development in selected provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Most institutions stated that biofuel will not qualify the standard of GHG emission reduction if it was produced in the plantation associated with the forest conversion. Therefore, knowing previous land use before the development of plantation is very important. In Indonesia, plantation development occurs mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. A number of studies had been published showing historical LUCC before plantation development. Objective of this study was to review various studies on LUCC carried out in four selected provinces, namely West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, and Riau. The analysis and comparison was based on the different source of historical data including online spatial data sources and various studies published in various journals. Each data source of LUCC shows significant variation on the amount of plantation developed directly from forest and other land use types. But, our review showed that the plantation areas associated with the forest cover changes far less than those claimed by several international journals. But, the debate concerning which plantation developments indirectly contributed to LUCC and which are directly will probably continue until the information on the land ownership and history of plantation development is available publicly.

  3. Change of Land Use Patterns in the Areas Close to the Airport Development Area and Some Implicating Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokporn Swangjang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of land use change in the suburbs near Suvarnabhumi International Airport, with a focus on land use patterns before and during airport development. According to geographic information system (GIS, land use patterns are categorized into three main groups, namely intensive urban development land, areas developed under environmental conditions, and natural land. Steps of land use changes, land use planning and related factors concerning number of population, dwelling units and factories were analyzed. In the short term, urban development dramatically increases by 39.97% whereas the areas developed under environmental conditions decreased by 37.52%, with significant correlation (P < 0.05. The natural land which is typically grassland and watercourses changed insignificantly (P > 0.05. Urbanization of the areas where the airport is located increased between 10.07% and 15.57%. The changes of land use comply with the Integrated Town and Country Planning. The areas where urbanization is small are under the area designated as the green area. Urban expansion is mainly a result of increase in residential areas which is closely related to number of population. Such changes indicate a need for more effective urban development planning and management to conserve environmental quality.

  4. Land Suitability for Developing Soybean Crops in Bumi Nabung and Rumbia Districts, Central Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Wijanarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumi Nabung district consists of 6 villages with a total area of 7,810 ha which are divided into 251 ha of rain fed rice lands, 4,908 ha of dry land, 1,317 ha of lowland, 1,158 ha of yards and 176 ha of others. Rumbia district consists of 14 villages which has a total area of 22,696 ha of land consisting of 2,728 ha of yards, 17,358 ha of dry land, 326 rainfed paddy field, 839 ha of swamp land, 1,470 ha of lowland and 4,232 ha of others. Bumi Nabung and Rumbia districts have a low soil fertility potential that is reflected by the lowof soil pH, CEC, total N, available P, and high level of exchangeable Al and Al saturation. The results assessment based on the physical and chemical characteristics showed that Bumi Nabung district have 5 villages on suitable class S-2 (North Bumi Nabung, East Bumi Nabung, Bumi Nabung Ilir, South Bumi Nabung, and Sri Kencono and one village New Bumi Nabung has less suitable class S-3. In the Rumbia District, there were 14 villages belonged to suitable class (S-2, namely Reno Basuki, Rekso Binangun, Teluk Dalam Ilir, Rukti Basuki, Restu Baru, Restu Buana, Bina Karya Buana, Bina Karya Putra, Bina Karya Jaya, Bina Karya Utama, Bina Karya Sakti, Joharan, Rantau Jaya Ilir and Rantau Jaya Baru. Bumi Nabung and Rumbia districts have the potential fertility and land suitability for extensification and development of soybean crops. The main technology components to support this program are the use of ameliorant (dolomite and zeolite, the application of organic fertilizers (manure and compost and inorganic fertilizers (NPK.

  5. The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium: 20 years of development and integration of USA national land cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, James D.; Homer, Collin G.; Vogelmann, James E.; McKerrow, Alexa; Mueller, Rick; Herold, Nate; Coluston, John

    2014-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium demonstrates the national benefits of USA Federal collaboration. Starting in the mid-1990s as a small group with the straightforward goal of compiling a comprehensive national Landsat dataset that could be used to meet agencies’ needs, MRLC has grown into a group of 10 USA Federal Agencies that coordinate the production of five different products, including the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP), the Cropland Data Layer (CDL), the Gap Analysis Program (GAP), and the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE). As a set, the products include almost every aspect of land cover from impervious surface to detailed crop and vegetation types to fire fuel classes. Some products can be used for land cover change assessments because they cover multiple time periods. The MRLC Consortium has become a collaborative forum, where members share research, methodological approaches, and data to produce products using established protocols, and we believe it is a model for the production of integrated land cover products at national to continental scales. We provide a brief overview of each of the main products produced by MRLC and examples of how each product has been used. We follow that with a discussion of the impact of the MRLC program and a brief overview of future plans.

  6. Development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land abandonment in a semi-arid ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Kooijman, A.M.; van Wesemael, B.

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate erosion on abandoned fields in semi-arid ecosystems, it is important to understand how vegetation and soil properties and patterns develop after land abandonment. Our objective was to investigate the development of spatial heterogeneity in vegetation and soil properties after land

  7. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of...) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on approximately 3,705 acres of public land in... designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes East SEZ and De Tilla Gulch SEZ. Applications for solar...

  8. Development of wide range charge integration application specified integrated circuit for photo-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayose, Yusaku, E-mail: katayose@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Ikeda, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tanaka, Manobu [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shibata, Makio [Department of Physics, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    A front-end application specified integrated circuit (ASIC) is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier (WDAMP) to read-out signals from a photo-sensor like a photodiode. The WDAMP ASIC consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier, four wave-shaping circuits with different amplification factors and Wilkinson-type analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To realize a wider range, the integrating capacitor in the preamplifier can be changed from 4 pF to 16 pF by a two-bit switch. The output of a preamplifier is shared by the four wave-shaping circuits with four gains of 1, 4, 16 and 64 to adapt the input range of ADC. A 0.25-μm CMOS process (of UMC electronics CO., LTD) is used to fabricate the ASIC with four-channels. The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC and the noise performance of 0.46 fC + 6.4×10{sup −4} fC/pF. -- Highlights: ► A front-end ASIC is developed with a wide dynamic range amplifier. ► The ASIC consists of a CSA, four wave-shaping circuits and pulse-height-to-time converters. ► The dynamic range of four orders of magnitude is achieved with the maximum range over 20 pC.

  9. Annual and monthly range fidelity of female boreal woodland caribou in respons to petroleum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan V. Tracz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-sector development in northern Alberta, Canada has been implicated as one factor influencing the decline of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Previous research showed that caribou are farther from petroleum-sector disturbances within their home range than expected. As petroleum development increases, the distance caribou can selectively place themselves relative to industrial disturbance must decrease, because distances between disturbances decrease. Conceptually, the number of local disturbances becomes so large that caribou either abandon their local avoidance behaviour or leave their traditional home range. We evaluated whether an intense petroleum- development event in northern Alberta was sufficient to result in home range abandonment by female woodland caribou. Using well locations as an index of petroleum development, we found that caribou studied from 1992 to 2000 did not change their annual or monthly range fidelity as a function of development intensity. Caribou remained in peatland complexes containing a large number of petroleum-sector disturbances rather than move to new areas, presumably because the risks of dispersing across upland habitat to reach other suitable habitat are high. Such range fidelity may have fitness consequences for woodland caribou if they suffer greater predation in areas where petroleum development is occurring.

  10. A new scramble for land or an unprecedented opportunity for the rural poor? Distributional consequences of increasing land rents in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna; Henningsen, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Price induced increases in land rents trigger an increasing incentive for rent- seeking behavior. To analyse distributional and welfare eects of increasing land rents in developing countries, we develop a game theoretic model where a large and heterogeneous group of farmers competes with a small...... and wealthy elite. The results indicate that only relatively small rent increases benet the farmers more than the elite. Moreover, political institutions have an ambiguous eect on farmers' rent share, and may even reduce overall welfare, because they induce wasteful expenditure on rent-seeking....

  11. Design and Development of High-Repetition-Rate Satellite Laser Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Bang, Seong-Cheol; Sung, Ki-Pyoung; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chan-Gyu; Kim, In-Yeung; Choi, Jae-Seung

    2015-09-01

    The Accurate Ranging System for Geodetic Observation ? Mobile (ARGO-M) was successfully developed as the first Korean mobile Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system in 2012, and has joined in the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) tracking network, DAEdeoK (DAEK) station. The DAEK SLR station was approved as a validated station in April 2014, through the ILRS station ¡°data validation¡± process. The ARGO-M system is designed to enable 2 kHz laser ranging with millimeter-level precision for geodetic, remote sensing, navigation, and experimental satellites equipped with Laser Retroreflector Arrays (LRAs). In this paper, we present the design and development of a next generation high-repetition-rate SLR system for ARGO-M. The laser ranging rate up to 10 kHz is becoming an important issue in the SLR community to improve ranging precision. To implement high-repetition-rate SLR system, the High-repetition-rate SLR operation system (HSLR-10) was designed and developed using ARGO-M Range Gate Generator (A-RGG), so as to enable laser ranging from 50 Hz to 10 kHz. HSLR-10 includes both hardware controlling software and data post-processing software. This paper shows the design and development of key technologies of high-repetition-rate SLR system. The developed system was tested successfully at DAEK station and then moved to Sejong station, a new Korean SLR station, on July 1, 2015. HSLR-10 will begin normal operations at Sejong station in the near future.

  12. Farm size, land yields, and the agricultural production function: an analysis for fifteen developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornia, G A

    1985-04-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between factor inputs, land yields, and labor productivity for farms of different size on the basis of FAO farm management data for 15 developing countries. For all but three countries a strong negative correlation is found between farm size on the one side, and factor inputs and yields per hectare on the other. The fitting of unconstrained production functions to the above data suggests that in only few cases can the decline in yields for increasing farm size be attributed to decreasing returns to scale. The higher yields observed in small farms are mainly to be ascribed to higher factor inputs and to a more intensive use of land. Therefore, where conspicuous labor surpluses exist, the superiority of small farming provides solid arguments in favor of land redistribution. Such an agrarian reform would determine higher output, higher labor absorption and a more equitable income distribution, thus contributing in a decisive manner to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper also provides estimates of cross-sectional production functions for the 15 countries analyzed. Empirical relations are found between the output elasticities of land, labor, and intermediate inputs and physical indicators of their scarcity. The paper concludes by proposing a simple method for deriving a long-term production function for agriculture. 23 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Current State and Development of Land Degradation Processes Based on Soil Monitoring in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Jozef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current state and development of land degradation processes based on soil monitoring system in Slovakia is evaluated in this contribution. Soil monitoring system in Slovakia is consistently running since 1993 year in 5-years repetitions. Soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principle, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various land use. The result of soil monitoring network is 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion and compaction, soil acidification, decline in soil organic matter and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical degradation of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. It was determined that about 39% of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, slight decline in soil organic matter indicates the serious facts on evaluation and extension of soil degradation processes during the last period in Slovakia. Soil contamination is without significant change for the time being. It means the soils contaminated before soil monitoring process this unfavourable state lasts also at present.

  14. Farmers’ Practices in Developing Agricultural Land in Malaysia: Is there an Islamic Microfinance Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper attempts to highlight the farmers’ lives in Malaysia and their problems in developing idle agricultural land.Methods - This paper is using descriptive and exploratory method of study which refer to the situation of agricultural sector in Malaysia.Results - The scheme aPLS (agricultural production and loss sharing that proposed cannot stand alone in the traditional fiqh to be implemented now. Therefore, the combinations of aPLS contract with ujrah principle are really needed. This is important to ensure the flexibility of the contract that can offer a fully comprehensive scheme of Islamic agricultural finance.Conclusion – The land together with labour can be considered as a form of capital and therefore has a similarity to the contracts of mudaraba and musharaka. Hence, it can be said that these principles are “agricultural production and loss sharing (aPLS” because land will naturally produce an output or a product. Muzara’a and musaqa therefore can be said to be contracts which are based on sharing output rather than sharing profit.Keywords: Idle Agricultural Land, Islamic agricultural finance, Malaysia

  15. Assessing the Feasibility of Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency Deployment on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nominelli, Gregg R.

    2012-12-17

    The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is committed to preserving our natural environment and reducing the amount of fossil fuels consumed while developing "green" business manufacturing jobs on tribal lands. The Tribe's Comprehensive Strategic Plan seeks to diversify the Tribal Economy through the creation of alternative energy businesses, such as wind, solar and bio-mass facilities while protecting the waters of Lake Superior, tribal inland lakes and streams. In addition, the Community desired to utilize clean/green energy resources to promote the self-sufficiency of the Tribal Nation. The objective of the study is to preserve our environment and maintain our cultural goals of using the resources of the land wisely. To reduce our consumption of fossil fuels, mercury and carbon dioxide emissions, which harm our water and land; we have decided to evaluate the opportunities of utilizing wind power. Preliminary projections show that we may eliminate pollution from our land in a cost effective manner. This study will evaluate wind capacity and our current energy consumption while projecting the feasibility of converting to wind power for operations at our major facilities. This project will study the feasibility of wind power at two locations for the purpose of reducing the Tribe's reliance upon fossil fuels and creating business opportunities, jobs and revenue for the community.

  16. Applying Evolutionary Prototyping In Developing LMIS: A Spatial Web-Based System For Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustiono, W.

    2018-01-01

    Software development project is a difficult task. Especially for software designed to comply with regulations that are constantly being introduced or changed, it is almost impossible to make just one change during the development process. Even if it is possible, nonetheless, the developers may take bulk of works to fix the design to meet specified needs. This iterative work also means that it takes additional time and potentially leads to failing to meet the original schedule and budget. In such inevitable changes, it is essential for developers to carefully consider and use an appropriate method which will help them carry out software project development. This research aims to examine the implementation of a software development method called evolutionary prototyping for developing software for complying regulation. It investigates the development of Land Management Information System (pseudonym), initiated by the Australian government, for use by farmers to meet regulatory demand requested by Soil and Land Conservation Act. By doing so, it sought to provide understanding the efficacy of evolutionary prototyping in helping developers address frequent changing requirements and iterative works but still within schedule. The findings also offer useful practical insights for other developers who seek to build similar regulatory compliance software.

  17. A Model for Developing and Assessing Community College Students' Conceptions of the Range, Interquartile Range, and Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turegun, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Traditional curricular materials and pedagogical strategies have not been effective in developing conceptual understanding of statistics topics and statistical reasoning abilities of students. Much of the changes proposed by statistics education research and the reform movement over the past decade have supported efforts to transform teaching…

  18. QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT AND QUALIFICATIONS RATING IN THE LAND MANAGEMENT SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Myrasheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to observe the existing approaches to qualifications framework development in the sphere of land management, cadastres and real estate management, as well as the qualifications framework adaptation to European system. The relevance of the issue is related to the specific professional and institutional problems facing Russian educational establishments engaged in personnel training in the given sphere. The authors demonstrate the qualifications framework development in the land management sector regarding it as a key mechanism of educational mobility and the router for knowledge acquisition and updates. The qualifications framework is referred to as a systematic and structured description of recognized qualifications. The accepted worldwide methodology of organizing the educational process and quality control system is given. The emphasis is on the need to comply the qualifications framework with the Russian State Educational Standards.

  19. Development and evaluation of automatic registration system for multi-range fiducials applied to augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Yang, Shoufeng; Yan, Weida; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an automatic registration system was developed that can measure 3 dimensional position and orientation of multi-range fiducials automatically using a camera, laser range finder and motion bases connected to a computer. Result of the experimental evaluation shows that the measurement takes about 50 seconds per marker and RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the position and orientation measurement are 3.5 mm and 1.2 degrees respectively. (author)

  20. Recycling and shallow land burial as goals for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponti, C.

    1988-01-01

    The acceptability of each natural element as a constituent for fusion reactor materials has been determined for the purpose of limiting long-lived radioactivity, so that the material could be recycled or disposed of by near-surface burial. The results show that there is little incentive for optimizing the composition of steels for recycling. The development of a steel with an optimized composition that would allow reaching shallow land burial conditions even for the first wall is more interesting and feasible

  1. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M.; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  2. Effects of Climate Change, Urban Development, and Threatened and Endangered Species Management on Army Training Capabilities: Firing Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    conducted under the as- sumption that conditions at and around installations will remain static. In reality, the natural, social, and built ...1) plans and operations, (2) training and testing, (3) built and natural in- frastructure, and (4) acquisition and supply chain (DoD 2014). A...type of land where development would not be permitted, such as federal or state-owned land, parks, natural areas, wetlands , and military

  3. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-03

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  4. Temporal Changes of Land Use Capability Classification Depending on the Urban Development: Case Study of Trabzon Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, H. E.; Memisoglu, T.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving high efficiency by taking advantage of agricultural land at a high level allows the continued vitality of the soil and also contributes to the country's economy. The land with the most fertilizer from agricultural land is generally the first class agricultural land (I.) followed by second (II.) and third class (III.) agricultural lands. It is accepted that all these lands are considered to be protected and various restrictions have been introduced to these lands. Soil conservation, use and development of balanced is possible to be defined in detail by exploiting the developing science and technology possibilities, determination well-defined properties and the implementation of policies by making the necessary plans. For this reason, Trabzon province is selected as the pilot region land use capability of agricultural land classes (especially urban-rural area and plateau) ongoing changes in the past years until today are examined depending on the land use first, second and third class. In this context, satellite images for 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2017 and land use data including the non-agricultural use of the province of Trabzon has been discussed and the temporal changes of agricultural areas depending on land use capability have been examined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In all the productive areas of Trabzon Province, the increase in urban-rural development has been examined in detail because of especially the creation of planned areas and the occurrence of construction needs. This study is a small-scale case study and the results are examined and analyzed using GIS.

  5. Land use planning and wildfire: development policies influence future probability of housing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Massada, Avi Bar; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for

  6. Changes in land use and housing on resource lands in Washington state, 1976–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew N. Gray; David L. Azuma; Gary J. Lettman; Joel L. Thompson; Neil McKay

    2013-01-01

    Changes in human land use patterns have wide-ranging social, economic and ecological implications. How urban and residential areas develop to accommodate population increase can have varying effects on forest and agricultural production from resource lands. Estimates of the amount and type of land use change differ substantially with definitions and analytical methods...

  7. Developing a Land Suitability Index for Agricultural uses in Dry Lands from Geologic Point of View Using GIS - a Case Study from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammmad Al Farajat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.63-76In the context of the study, a Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE in GIS was used in developing suitability index to optimize suitable lands for agricultural uses and seasonal farming in dry lands from geologic point of view. This study was performed in the areas between Mafraq and Zarqa Cities in Jordan which are classified as arid lands. The study aims at protecting groundwater from pollution, reducing soil salting, reducing irrigation water loss caused by evaporation, and increasing crop productivity. The geo-environmental parameters of the named area including geology, groundwater depths, soil depths and textures, climatic conditions, topographic settings, and groundwater vulnerability conditions were mapped and converted into layers with special rates, given weights, and then modeled using the multi criteria evaluation (MCE option, using Decision Making Modeling in IDRISI (GIS software to reach at the best choice of lands for agricultural activities, and also to determine which of these lands are suitable for summer farming and which are suitable for winter farming.

  8. Criteria for evaluation and guidelines for land use planning in terms of sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ostojić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable spatial development is a generally accepted objective and principle in spatial planning. It is implemented mainly by regulations in the sectors for management of natural resources, but not comprehensively in implementing regulations for urban space management. One of the most important instruments of spatial planning at local level is land use, for which there is no comprehensive framework of implementing measures for achieving sustainable spatial objectives in urban areas. In accordance with the review and critical analysis of literature, there are four measures presented in the paper: protection of natural resources and reduction of environmental-climate risks, compact urban structure, mixed-use and accessibility of urban functions. The review and analysis have shown that the listed measures enable sustainable development of urban areas, but only if they are planned and implemented in accordance with supporting physical, social and economic elements of urban space. In the conclusion, indicators which can assess the level of sustainability in land use design are presented and guidelines for restructuring land use in existing settlement areas are described.

  9. 'Land grabs' in Africa: can the deals work for development?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo; Vermeulen, Sonja

    2009-09-15

    For many millions in the developing world, land is central to livelihoods, food security, even identity – the result of a direct dependence on agriculture and natural resources. It is not surprising, then, that a recent wave of large-scale land acquisitions in poorer countries has sparked a major debate. Through these acquisitions, interests in richer countries are buying or leasing large tracts of farmland for agricultural investment in Africa, Central and Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. With some deals involving hundreds of thousands of hectares, these investments have been dubbed 'land grabs' by the media. But this is too simplistic. Depending on the way they are structured, these investments can either create new opportunities to improve local living standards, or further marginalise the poor. An analysis of this complex and shifting situation, focusing on Africa, lays out key trends, drivers and main features, and outlines how to make the renewed momentum in agricultural investment work for local development and livelihoods.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT OF LAND TENURE IN THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Pismennaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The provision of food security in Russia under conditions of the WTO and the Customs Union, the food import embargo and sanctions is a complex and multiscale task for supplying industry with the agricultural raw materials and the population with foodstuffs on stable basis and for achieving relative independence from the imports of raw materials and food products [1]. Currently, the agribusiness in the Stavropol Territory is developing faster than the agriculture in the neighboring regions of the North Caucasus Federal District. An analysis of the diversity of natural and socio-economic conditions in this Territory has shown that the existing areas of agricultural specialization do not correspond to the potential of the territory and the food security in general. With the reduction of the state financial support, an increase in the number of unprofitable farms has been marked. The structure of the foodstuff manufacturing (potatoes, fruits, milk, and meat is increasingly drawn to the small-scale farms. The consequence of the land and economic reforms becomes the imbalance structure of agricultural lands, livestock population, crop acreages and rotations, deterioration of soil fertility indices in large and medium agricultural enterprises. The low yielding natural forage grassland are prevailing. A biologically simplified system of farming has been formed, which leads to a short-term economic effect on the background of the phytosanitary and agrochemical sustainability drop of tillable lands and to the deterioration of the natural environment state. The production and yield of agricultural crops is increasingly dependent on weather conditions. This is unacceptable for the recovery of livestock production and effective arable farming [2]. In accordance with the implementation of the «Strategy of Socio-Economic Development of the North Caucasus Federal District until 2025», the Stavropol Territory in the future will continue focusing on the

  11. Three Global Land Cover and Use Stage considering Environmental Condition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Song, C.; Moon, J.; Ryu, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mid-Latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between around 30° - 60° latitude. This zone is a home to over more than 50% of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal regions which host most of the global problems related to development and poverty. Mid-Latitude region and its ecotone demands in-depth analysis, however, latitudinal approach has not been widely recognized, considering that many of natural resources and environment indicators, as well as social and economic indicators are based on administrative basis or by country and regional boundaries. This study sets the land cover change and use stage based on environmental condition and economic development. Because various land cover and use among the regions, form vegetated parts of East Asia and Mediterranean to deserted parts of Central Asia, the forest area was varied between countries. In addition, some nations such as North Korea, Afghanistan, Pakistan showed decreasing trends in forest area whereas some nations showed increasing trends in forest area. The economic capacity for environmental activities and policies for restoration were different among countries. By adopting the standard from IMF or World Bank, developing and developed counties were classified. Based on the classification, this study suggested the land cover and use stages as degradation, restoration, and sustainability. As the degradation stage, the nations which had decreasing forest area with less environmental restoration capacity based on economic size were selected. As the restoration stage, the nation which had increasing forest area or restoration capacity were selected. In the case of the sustainability, the nation which had enough restoration capacity with increasing forest area or small ratio in forest area decreasing were selected. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that regions of Mid-Latitudes are facing, grouping by

  12. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  13. Understanding the connection between historic range of variation, current social values and developing desired conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Blocker; Susan K. Hagle; Rick Lasko; Robert Keane; Barry Bollenbacher; Bruce Fox; Fred Samson; Randy Gay; Cynthia Manning

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between the development of desired conditions based on today’s social values, and an understanding of the historic range of variability (HRV) are key to the implementation of ecosystem management. Relevant to the discussion are wildlife habitat values, forage production, economics related to wood resources, aesthetics and visual quality, changes in...

  14. Identifying Barriers and Pathways to Success for Renewable Energy Development on American Indian Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necefer, Len Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Jones, Thomas Elisha [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    American Indian tribes possess lands rich with renewable energy (RE) resources. Tribes have great potential and need to develop these resources, yet face a host of barriers that continue to impede development. Understanding these challenges as well as the pathways that can be taken to overcome them may facilitate more economic development to meet community needs and better position tribes to play a role in securing a low-carbon energy future for the United States. This paper presents the results of an expert elicitation of 24 tribal energy experts from federal, tribal, academic, and private industry backgrounds to identify barriers and opportunities for federally recognized tribes in the lower 48 states. Experts identified a number of unique challenges facing tribes including financing and funding, infrastructure, tribal leadership and staff, state-level influence, and partnerships. Cultural factors were seen only to be of concern with large-scale development. Tribal sovereignty is a significant motivation for RE development and has yet to be fully realized. Cultural considerations are critical to the success of future projects; smaller residential and community-scale projects may be a better fit. Improving partnerships between tribes and the private sector can increase RE deployment and overcome historical distrust. States can have a double-ended influence on projects within tribal lands through taxation.

  15. Urban Land Allocation Model of Territorial Expansion by Urban Planners and Housing Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cantergiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based models have recently been proposed as potential tools to support urban planning due to their capacity to simulate complex behaviors. The complexity of the urban development process arises from strong interactions between various components driven by different agents. AMEBA (agent-based model for the evolution of urban areas is a prototype of an exploratory, spatial, agent-based model that considers the main agents involved in the urban development process (urban planners, developers, and the population. The prototype consists of three submodels (one for each agent that have been developed independently and present the same structure. However, the first two are based on a land use allocation technique, and the last one, as well as their integration, on an agent-based model approach. This paper describes the conceptualization and performance of the submodels that represent urban planners and developers, who are the agents responsible for officially launching expansion and defining the spatial allocation of urban land. The prototype was tested in the Corredor del Henares (an urban–industrial area in the Region of Madrid, Spain, but is sufficiently flexible to be adapted to other study areas and generate different future urban growth contexts. The results demonstrate that this combination of agents can be used to explore various policy-relevant research questions, including urban system interactions in adverse political and socioeconomic scenarios.

  16. Rushing for land: equitable and sustainable development in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    The global land grab is causing radical changes in the use and ownership of land. This ‘foreignization’ of space is driven primarily by the acquisition of land for growing biofuels, food crops and/or nature conservation. In addition, pressure on the land is rapidly increasing due to entrepreneurs

  17. Vertical Land Utilization by Means of Storey Housing Development in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Sukanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many international covenants and constitutions have recognized housing and shelter needs as one of many human right aspects. This paper intends to clarify the particular issues relating to paragraph 19 of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, on resolving city slum problems. The Declaration has also embedded initiative to achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers as proposed in the “Cities without Slums” by 2020. In the local perspectives, based on existing regulations analysis, the Special Region (DKI of Jakarta has many problems on forthcoming implementation. Vertical land utilization model by way of storey houses development becomes an alternative to settle the demographic and housing problems. More legal research needs to be conducted to find the best effective national policy in the future. Urban land use, proposed as starting points, will be able to explore how to provide and undertake vertical land utilization and city planning to resolve city slums problems by providing both housing needs and city attractiveness as an integrated planning.

  18. Socio-economic risk factors of foreign land acquisition in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujunwa Augustine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large investment in African land has generated serious interest among academicians, policy makers, international and local development agencies as well as civil organization. The debates centre on the phenomenal trajectory and the drivers of this investment in Africa. The inaccuracy or ambiguities in number of deals and institutional specificities has brought in the main, the need to undertake country by country study of foreign land deals in agricultural investment. To suggest vital information that will aid policy formulation and deliberation at country level, the study is on Congo-Brazzaville. This paper explores the factors that influenced foreign land acquisition in Congo, the impact of such investment on the host communities, and faults the decision of the government to make the attraction of foreign investment in agriculture a priority without fashioning out institutional framework that will regulate the investors and promote market discipline. Based on the above, the paper recommends strategies the government should earnestly pursue to mitigate the negativities of the investment and leverage on the benefits of commercial farming in the country, especially, in the area of skill transfer

  19. Contribution of the Land and Water Development Division of FAO to soil and water conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, F.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Land and Water Development Division of FAO has played an active role in promoting soil conservation measures. It has provided advice and expert assistance to many countries and is involved in more than fifty field programmes related to soil conservation. It conducts seminars, workshops, and training courses and provides fellowships for individuals. Technical and education material has been published. Maps have been developed showing the present degradation and risk of degradation in Africa and methodology used in assessment of soil degradation is outlined. (author)

  20. Using LandSat and SRTM datasets to develop relationships for estimating bankfull channel widths in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummadi, V.; He, Y.; Beighley, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    Modeling fine scale spatial and temporal processes of the hydrologic cycle over continental to global extents is vital for assessing the potential impacts of climate and land use change on global water resources and related systems. Significant advancement in understanding and predicting the magnitude, trend, timing and partitioning of terrestrial water stores and fluxes requires the development of methodologies and knowledge for extracting representative hydraulic geometries from remote sensing data products and field data, suitable for estimating inundation characteristics and water storage changes which are limited for much of the globe. In this research, relationships between channel and floodplain widths and spatial drainage characteristics are developed for the Amazon Basin. Channel and floodplain widths were measured using SRTM data and LandSat TM/ETM imagery at 510 sites. The study sites were selected based on the Pfafstetter decomposition methodology which provides an irregular model grid based on repeatedly subdividing landscape units into nine subunits consisting of basins and interbasins. The selected sites encompass all possible combinations of Pfafstetter modeling units (ex., basins of interbasins, interbasins of basins, etc.). The 510 study sites are within the Amazon Basin with drainage areas ranging 10 to 5.4 million sq km and mean watershed ground slopes ranging from 0.4 and 30 percent. Preliminary results indicate that channel widths can be predicted using drainage area and mean watershed slope (R2 = 0.85). Floodplain widths can be predicted using channel width and the local slope (R2 = 0.70). Using the Purus watershed, a sub-basin to the Amazon (350,000 sq km), effects of channel and floodplain widths on simulated hydrographs are presented.

  1. A review on the long-range strategy of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Shigehiro; Kondo, Shunsuke; Ishida, Hiroshi.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power generation in Japan is proceeding steadily, such as the world's second in power generating capacity and the nation's own development of power reactors. Meanwhile, however, there are number of problems for future solution, like the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, before nuclear energy is fully harnessed. Looking as far ahead as the 21st century, the long-range strategy of nuclear power development is reviewed: politics on uranium supply outlook, a compromise between uranium enrichment and nuclear nonproliferation, LWR technology with safety, FBR development scheme, uranium resources saving and heavy water reactor, HTGR development, a 2nd fuel reprocessing plant, high level wastes management, reactors decommissioning, research in nuclear energy development, and fostering of a nuclear power industry. (J.P.N.)

  2. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  3. EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER BALANCE AS A BASIC PRECONDITION OF PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF LAND AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K KUDRNA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of water balance components – precipitation, transpiration, evaporation, underground waters and surface runoff – is a determining factor of stabile development of land area. But this proportion can be considerably disturbed and is permanently changing. Certain many-year averages are usually accepted as a stable state. That is why, in the presented work, we have tried to defi ne water balance on symmetry and invariance principles, to express it as a limit state, which would characterize it as a natural principle and enable comparison with the present balance.

  4. Geo-environmental changes and agricultural land development in Bengal Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinji; Uchida, Haruo; Ando, Kazuo; Salim, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed changes in the relationship between geo-environment and agricultural land development around the central Jamuna (Brahmaputra) River, central Bangladesh. Based on sedimentary facies analysis and AMS radiocarbon dating, some conclusions are as follows: (1) Natural levees along the Jamuna River formed until ca. 12 to 11 k cal yrs BP; (2) Homesteads (bari-bhiti) were repaired by public works (mati-kata) following some flood events; (3) Paddy fields and homesteads were created since ca. 1.3 k cal yrs BP around central Bangladesh (central Bengal Delta). (author)

  5. Control system developments for a range of kinematically redundant hydraulic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.L.; Rice, P.S.; Thiruarooran, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a range of control system improvements developed and implemented for in-reactor use during the last three years. Novel control techniques have been developed to provide accurate closed-loop velocity control of pumped hydraulic manipulator joints under a wide range of operating conditions. As a result the supervisory computer system can provide accurate trajectory following, even when more than ten joints are required to move simultaneously. Accurately coordinated motion has given rise to some spectacular gains in in-reactor performance in terms of deployment time, safety and accessibility. The same low-level control improvements have made it feasible to integrate and use the 'geometric controller' to provide accurate resolved motion control of a kinematically redundant manipulator. Examples of recent in-reactor use of all these techniques are given. (author)

  6. Agriculture and Rural Development on Fort Hood Lands, 1849-1942: National Register Assessments of 710 Historic Archeological Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Martha

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, historians consulting with Prewitt & Associates, Inc., conducted archival research for the purpose of developing historic contexts relevant to the Fort Hood lands taken during the 1940s acquisition...

  7. Developing first time-series of land surface temperature from AATSR with uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2013-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Earth Observation satellites provide the opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST approximately every 3 days or less. One such source of satellite retrieved LST has been the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR); with LST retrieval being implemented in the AATSR Instrument Processing Facility in March 2004. Here we present first regional and global time-series of LST data from AATSR with estimates of uncertainty. Mean changes in temperature over the last decade will be discussed along with regional patterns. Although time-series across all three ATSR missions have previously been constructed (Kogler et al., 2012), the use of low resolution auxiliary data in the retrieval algorithm and non-optimal cloud masking resulted in time-series artefacts. As such, considerable ESA supported development has been carried out on the AATSR data to address these concerns. This includes the integration of high resolution auxiliary data into the retrieval algorithm and subsequent generation of coefficients and tuning parameters, plus the development of an improved cloud mask based on the simulation of clear sky conditions from radiance transfer modelling (Ghent et al., in prep.). Any inference on this LST record is though of limited value without the accompaniment of an uncertainty estimate; wherein the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology quote an uncertainty as "a parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand that is the value of the particular quantity to be measured". Furthermore, pixel level uncertainty fields are a mandatory requirement in the on-going preparation of the LST product for the upcoming Sea and Land Surface Temperature (SLSTR) instrument on-board Sentinel-3

  8. Land development in Massachusetts: Its effect on the environment within Essex and Middlesex counties from 1990 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardie, Peter Sean

    Since the 1970's urban centers in and surrounding Essex and Middlesex Counties in Massachusetts have expanded and proliferated into adjacent communities. This expansion has led to the conversion of land for housing, businesses, schools, recreation, and parks, placing significant strain on existing land cover, land use, and available natural resources. Mounting growth pressures and a reduction of undeveloped land have raised serious concerns as cropland and forest fragmentation, wetland destruction, protected open-space infringement, pollution, and systematic losses of rural conditions have become obvious. To monitor development, the post-classification change detection method was applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data and GIS was used to detect, quantity, and document the extent of development and its effect on the environment and to assess and quantify the demographic changes that occurred within the counties from 1990 to 2007. Classification of the 1990 image resulted in 217 clusters and 214 clusters for the 2007 image The overall accuracy achieved for the 1990 image classification was 87.3% with a KHAT value of 0.848, and the overall accuracy for the 2007 classification was 86.27% with a KHAT value of 0.840. From 1990 to 2007 land cover change occurred primarily along major transportation corridors. The post-classification change detection results indicate that Essex and Middlesex County combined gained 23,435.66 "new" acres of land development from 1990 to 2007 through a loss and change in acreage from the Bareland, Forest, Grassland, Water, and Wetland land cover class categories. Results indicate that there was an approximate 0.56% overall (net) increase of newly developed land areas within the 1990 and 2007 image classifications from 415.46 acres or 0.64 square miles. In addition, there was a substantial decrease (-40.0%) within the grassland category. Land development was responsible for a portion of the decrease of grasslands (-13

  9. Actors and processes behind urban fringe development: Mechanism to guide urban land management. Study on Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Fahria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has attempted to analyze and resolve urban fringe problems in Dhaka by incorporating different roles and interests of actors in land development processes. The research has revealed that these different actors have different interests, norms and ideologies which are playing an active role in guiding or regulating urban land development process. This situation is deploying existing rules and regulations in form of politics and affecting urban fringe management negatively. The resea...

  10. Rapid Fishery Assessment by Market Survey (RFAMS--an improved rapid-assessment approach to characterising fish landings in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T White

    Full Text Available The complex multi-gear, multi-species tropical fisheries in developing countries are poorly understood and characterising the landings from these fisheries is often impossible using conventional approaches. A rapid assessment method for characterising landings at fish markets, using an index of abundance and estimated weight within taxonomic groups, is described. This approach was developed for contexts where there are no detailed data collection protocols, and where consistent data collection across a wide range of fisheries types and geographic areas is required, regardless of the size of the site and scale of the landings. This methodology, which was demonstrated at seven fish landing sites/fish markets in southern Indonesia between July 2008 and January 2011, provides a rapid assessment of the abundance and diversity in the wild catch over a wide variety of taxonomic groups. The approach has wider application for species-rich fisheries in developing countries where there is an urgent need for better data collection protocols, monitoring future changes in market demographics, and evaluating health of fisheries.

  11. Land-based Investments for Rural Development? A Grounded Analysis of the Local Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Schoneveld

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing biofuel sector in Africa has, in recent years, been received with divided interest. As part of a contemporary wave of agricultural modernization efforts, it could make invaluable contributions to rural poverty. Conversely, it could also engender socioeconomically and environmentally detrimental land use changes as valuable land resources are converted to plantation agriculture. This research analyzes the impacts and impact pathways of biofuel feedstock development in Ghana. It finds that companies are accessing large contiguous areas of customary land through opaque negotiations with traditional authorities, often outside the purview of government and customary land users. Despite lack of participation, most customary land users were highly supportive of plantation development, with high expectations of 'development' and 'modernization.' With little opposition and resistance, large areas of agricultural and forested land are at threat of being converted to plantation monoculture. A case study analysis shows that this can significantly exacerbate rural poverty as communities lose access to vital livelihood resources. Vulnerable groups, such as women and migrants, are found to be most profoundly affected because of their relative inability in recovering lost livelihood resources. Findings suggest that greater circumspection by government is warranted on these types of large-scale land deals.

  12. Land use planning for sustainable development of peri-urban zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović-Miljković Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that growth of urban population has impacts on land use and that managing urban population change is one of the most important contemporary challenges, this paper deals with the sustainable development of peri-urban zones which represent important an environment where employment opportunities are developed and resources exploited (particularly agricultural resources and environment where important recreational and leisure activities could be pursued. Within the review of current concepts and planning practices, the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and multifunctional landscapes in peri-urban zones are pointed out, as well as EU Developing Periurban Projects. The paper particularly focuses on the current situation in Serbia, where there is no specific legal basis for the planning of peri-urban areas, although there are positive examples of strategies, regulations and planning documents which treat agriculture and greenery in peri-urban zones in a sustainable manner.

  13. Development and application of multi-proxy indices of land use change for riparian soils in southern New England, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, M C; Donohue, S W; Stolt, M H; Zavada, M S

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the effects of land use on riparian systems is dependent upon the development of methodologies to recognize changes in sedimentation related to shifts in land use. Land use trends in southern New England consist of shifts from forested precolonial conditions, to colonial and agrarian land uses, and toward modern industrial-urban landscapes. The goals of this study were to develop a set of stratigraphic indices that reflect these land use periods and to illustrate their applications. Twenty-four riparian sites from first- and second-order watersheds were chosen for study. Soil morphological features, such as buried surface horizons (layers), were useful to identify periods of watershed instability. The presence of human artifacts and increases in heavy metal concentration above background levels, were also effective indicators of industrial-urban land use periods. Increases and peak abundance of non-arboreal weed pollen (Ambrosia) were identified as stratigraphic markers indicative of agricultural land uses. Twelve 14C dates from riparian soils indicated that the rise in non-arboreal pollen corresponds to the start of regional deforestation (AD 1749 +/- 56 cal yr; mean +/- 2 SD) and peak non-arboreal pollen concentration corresponds to maximum agricultural land use (AD 1820 +/- 51 cal yr). These indices were applied to elucidate the impact of land use on riparian sedimentation and soil carbon (C) dynamics. This analysis indicated that the majority of sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in regional riparian soils is of postcolonial origins. Mean net sedimentation rates increased -100-fold during postcolonial time periods, and net SOC sequestration rates showed an approximate 200-fold increase since precolonial times. These results suggest that headwater riparian zones have acted as an effective sink for alluvial sediment and SOC associated with postcolonial land use.

  14. Land use planning using transit oriented development concept: Case study: Salaya station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarritthai, Supanee; Techpeeraparnich, Wasaporn

    2017-10-01

    The urban sprawl of Bangkok has increased with a motorization rate along with the expansion of the road network to adjacent cities. Nakhonpathom province, located at the southern edge of Bangkok has been affected by the urban sprawl. One of Nakhonpathom's Districts named "Salaya" Salaya has been quickly urbanized due to the establishment of many large academic institutes, such as universities, colleges and high schools as well as many commercial shopping malls. The period of 2013-2017, the Thai government introduced sustainable urban planning policy and promoted the use of public transportation systems. The Light Red Line railway extension of the Bangkok Metro Transit system will soon be constructed and the current Salaya Station will be replaced with new station. Many railway expansion projects will be built, should be designed by using transit-oriented development (TOD) scheme. This paper explores demographic information of the area, the demands of the community and relevant stakeholders for designing of the area using TOD. The proposed land use planning is designed based on the existing condition of the area as much as possible to meet the TOD standard and stakeholders' requirement. The result revealed that the guidelines of transit oriented development concept were of importance not only for planning of urban land use, supporting public transport, but also improving the quality of life.

  15. A spatial web/agent-based model to support stakeholders' negotiation regarding land development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooyandeh, Majeed; Marceau, Danielle J

    2013-11-15

    Decision making in land management can be greatly enhanced if the perspectives of concerned stakeholders are taken into consideration. This often implies negotiation in order to reach an agreement based on the examination of multiple alternatives. This paper describes a spatial web/agent-based modeling system that was developed to support the negotiation process of stakeholders regarding land development in southern Alberta, Canada. This system integrates a fuzzy analytic hierarchy procedure within an agent-based model in an interactive visualization environment provided through a web interface to facilitate the learning and negotiation of the stakeholders. In the pre-negotiation phase, the stakeholders compare their evaluation criteria using linguistic expressions. Due to the uncertainty and fuzzy nature of such comparisons, a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is then used to prioritize the criteria. The negotiation starts by a development plan being submitted by a user (stakeholder) through the web interface. An agent called the proposer, which represents the proposer of the plan, receives this plan and starts negotiating with all other agents. The negotiation is conducted in a step-wise manner where the agents change their attitudes by assigning a new set of weights to their criteria. If an agreement is not achieved, a new location for development is proposed by the proposer agent. This process is repeated until a location is found that satisfies all agents to a certain predefined degree. To evaluate the performance of the model, the negotiation was simulated with four agents, one of which being the proposer agent, using two hypothetical development plans. The first plan was selected randomly; the other one was chosen in an area that is of high importance to one of the agents. While the agents managed to achieve an agreement about the location of the land development after three rounds of negotiation in the first scenario, seven rounds were required in the second

  16. Densification without Growth Management? Evidence from Local Land Development and Housing Trends in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Delmelle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In urban America, land development and residential real estate have passed through a number of different phases during the post-WWII era. In contemporary discourse on urban sustainability, attention is often expressed in terms of intensity of land development, lot sizes, and square-footage of housing units. In this paper, we reconstruct the land development trajectory of a rapidly growing southern city in the United States and assess whether this trajectory has experienced any reversal in the face of socio-economic transformations that have occurred over the past decade or so. Starting with current land and real estate property records, we reconstitute the urban map of Charlotte using World War II as a starting point. Results highlight a decline in the average single family lot size over the past decade, while the average home size has consistently grown, suggesting that the city of Charlotte and its county have witnessed a densification trend along a path towards greater land development. This analysis both helps situate Charlotte with respect to other U.S. urban regions, and provides support for potential land-use policies, especially densification, when a balance between urban development, environment preservation, energy savings, and the achievement of quality of life for current and future generations are concerned.

  17. Modeling the Complex Dynamics of Landscape Development: Applications for Land Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Flores, Homero; Bras, Rafael L

    2004-01-01

    .... Thus, remedial soil and land conservation plans are vitally important to stabilize erosion and use the land more safely for Army activities while complying with environmental regulations and standards...

  18. Community Land Model Version 3.0 (CLM3.0) Developer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, FM

    2004-12-21

    This document describes the guidelines adopted for software development of the Community Land Model (CLM) and serves as a reference to the entire code base of the released version of the model. The version of the code described here is Version 3.0 which was released in the summer of 2004. This document, the Community Land Model Version 3.0 (CLM3.0) User's Guide (Vertenstein et al., 2004), the Technical Description of the Community Land Model (CLM) (Oleson et al., 2004), and the Community Land Model's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM): Technical Description and User's Guide (Levis et al., 2004) provide the developer, user, or researcher with details of implementation, instructions for using the model, a scientific description of the model, and a scientific description of the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model integrated with CLM respectively. The CLM is a single column (snow-soil-vegetation) biogeophysical model of the land surface which can be run serially (on a laptop or personal computer) or in parallel (using distributed or shared memory processors or both) on both vector and scalar computer architectures. Written in Fortran 90, CLM can be run offline (i.e., run in isolation using stored atmospheric forcing data), coupled to an atmospheric model (e.g., the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)), or coupled to a climate system model (e.g., the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3)) through a flux coupler (e.g., Coupler 6 (CPL6)). When coupled, CLM exchanges fluxes of energy, water, and momentum with the atmosphere. The horizontal land surface heterogeneity is represented by a nested subgrid hierarchy composed of gridcells, landunits, columns, and plant functional types (PFTs). This hierarchical representation is reflected in the data structures used by the model code. Biophysical processes are simulated for each subgrid unit (landunit, column, and PFT) independently, and prognostic variables are maintained for each subgrid unit

  19. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    A flowmeter was required to measure recirculating helium gas flow over a wide range of conditions in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core flow simulator, the ORNL Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). The flow measurement requirements of the CFTL exceeded the proven performance of any single conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a special purpose vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was developed. A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the CFTL requirements would provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified VSFM are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEES) are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work.

  20. The extended range neutron rem counter LINUS: overview and latest developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Rancati, T.; Esposito, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Ferrari, A.; Silari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The 'history' of the extended range neutron rem counter LINUS, since its first conception in 1990 is reviewed, along with the latest developments. These include the calibration of the initially cylindrical version with nearly monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range 34-66 MeV, a detailed evaluation of the anisotropy of its response function, the construction and calibration of an improved spherical version, and recent measurements in reference high energy stray radiation fields. The instrument can now be considered as being fully characterized. Similar monitors built by other laboratories following the present design have confirmed its performances. The instrument is now in semi-routine use at a number of particle accelerator facilities and is one of several devices used on-board of aircrafts for assessing the exposure to cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. (author)

  1. Biofuel Development and Large-Scale Land Deals in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgia Giovannetti; Elisa Ticci

    2013-01-01

    Africa's biofuel potential over the last ten years has increasingly attracted foreign investors’ attention. We estimate the determinants of foreign investors land demand for biofuel production in SSA, using Poisson specifications of the gravity model. Our estimates suggest that land availability, abundance of water resources and weak land governance are significant determinants of large-scale land acquisitions for biofuel production. This in turn suggests that this type of investment is mainl...

  2. The development of hoof balance and landing preference in the post-natal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, B M C; Serra Bragança, F M; Wolschrijn, C F; Back, W; van Weeren, P R

    2018-04-20

    Foals can follow the herd within hours of birth, but it has been shown that kinetic gait parameters and static balance still have to mature. However, development of dynamic balance has not been investigated. To objectively quantify landing and pressure pattern dynamics under the hoof during the first half year of life. Prospective, cohort study performed at a single stud farm. Pressure plate measurements at walk and trot from ten Dutch warmblood foals during the first 24 weeks of life were used to quantify toe-heel and medial-lateral hoof balance asymmetry indexes and to determine preferred landing strategy. Concurrently, radiographs of the tarsocrural and femoropatellar joints were taken at 4-6 weeks and after 6 months to check for osteochondrosis. A linear mixed model was used to determine the effects of time point, limb pair (front/hind), side (left/right) and osteochondrosis status of every foal. At 25% of stance duration at walk, front limbs were more loaded in the heel region in weeks 6-20 (P≤0.04), the medial-lateral balance was more to the lateral side from week 6 onwards at both walk and trot (P≤0.04). Landing preference gradually changed in the same directions. Variability in pressure distribution decreased over time. (Subclinical) osteochondrosis did not influence any of the measured parameters. This study is limited by the relatively small sample size only containing one breed from a single stud farm. Dynamic hoof balance in new-born foals is more variable and less oriented towards the lateral side of the hoof and to the heel than in mature horses. This pattern changes gradually during the first weeks of life. Knowledge of this process is essential for the clinician when considering interventions in this area in early life. © 2018 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  3. 36 CFR 292.23 - Standards of compatible land use and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... topography permit. This standard does not prevent or impair routine maintenance of utility lines or related... on all except designated mining lands, are screened where possible, and are not in excess of 2 acres... route. (c) Mining Lands. (1) The following standards are applicable to mining lands: (i) The owner of...

  4. Improving Land Administration and Management for Sustainable Urban Development : Philippines Urbanization Review Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This policy note assesses the performance of existing land administration and management (LAM) system in the Philippines in creating an environment for competitive cities. It looks at the influence of LAM (including property rights) in the proper functioning of land markets in urban areas; the effectiveness of land use planning and regulations in shaping urban growth, reducing informality,...

  5. Development and validation of a 5 stroke engine for range extenders application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kéromnès, A.; Delaporte, B.; Schmitz, G.; Le Moyne, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have designed and built an innovative five stroke internal combustion engine. • The design includes an innovative exhaust gas management system, the smart waste gate. • The turbocharged port-injection spark ignition engine has a fuel conversion efficiency of 36%. - Abstract: A 5-stroke turbo-charged port-injection spark-ignition engine has been developed in the present study for use as a range extender or series-hybrid main power source. The development and the design of the engine are based on 0D/1D model and experimental results have been compared with the engine model. The 5-stroke engine is a three-cylinder in which two cylinders perform a four-stroke cycle and alternatively a second expansion of the burnt gases is performed in the third cylinder. The boost pressure delivered by the turbocharger is controlled by a particular innovative system called “smart wastegate”, different from a conventional wastegate, consisting in a variable valve timing of the two exhaust valves of the low pressure cylinder. The engine develops up to 40 kW for a speed range of 3500–4500 rpm. BSFC is 226 g/kW.h which corresponds to a fuel conversion efficiency of 36.1%. This efficiency can be achieved for an engine speed of 4000 rpm and a brake power of 32.5 kW, which are notable scores for an MPI two-valve per cylinder engine. Expected optimum should be below 217 g/kW.h BSFC and over 90 N.m torque. The engine has been tested over a wide range of conditions; model predictions and experimental results are compared and combustion efficiency increase discussed

  6. Development of computer-aided auto-ranging technique for a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.; Shimura, K.; Nakajima, N.; Kato, H.

    1988-01-01

    For a computed radiography system, the authors developed a computer-aided autoranging technique in which the clinically useful image data are automatically mapped to the available display range. The preread image data are inspected to determine the location of collimation. A histogram of the pixels inside the collimation is evaluated regarding characteristic values such as maxima and minima, and then the optimal density and contrast are derived for the display image. The effect of the autoranging technique was investigated at several hospitals in Japan. The average rate of films lost due to undesirable density or contrast was about 0.5%

  7. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  8. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDO NEHREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica. In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  9. Developing a Data Record of Lower Troposphere Temperature Profiles for Diurnal Land-Atmosphere Coupling Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Li, D.

    2017-12-01

    The lower troposphere, including the planetary boundary layer, is strongly influenced by the land surface at diurnal scales. However, investigations of diurnal land-atmosphere coupling are significantly hindered by the lack of profile measurements that resolve the diurnal cycle. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing a decade-long (from 2007 to 2016) data record of diurnal temperature profiles in the lower troposphere (from the surface to about 4 km above the surface), which is based on the Aircrafts Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) meteorological observations. We first identify the number of profiles within an hour for each airport over the CONUS. At each airport, only data that passed at least level-1 quality check are retained. 40 airports out of 275 are then selected, which have data for more than 12 hours per day. These selected airports are mainly located along the east and west coasts, as expected. Because the data are recorded at irregular heights, we resample each profile in the lowest 4 km or so to pre-defined vertical coordinates. These temperature profiles are further bias-corrected by comparing to collocated radiosonde observations. This consistent data record of diurnal temperature profiles in the lower troposphere can be also used for regional climatology research, short-term weather forecasts, and numerical model evaluation.

  10. Impacts of urban and industrial development on Arctic land surface temperature in Lower Yenisei River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization and industrial development have significant impacts on arctic climate that in turn controls settlement patterns and socio-economic processes. In this study we have analyzed the anthropogenic influences on regional land surface temperature of Lower Yenisei River Region of the Russia Arctic. The study area covers two consecutive Landsat scenes and includes three major cities: Norilsk, Igarka and Dudingka. Norilsk industrial region is the largest producer of nickel and palladium in the world, and Igarka and Dudingka are important ports for shipping. We constructed a spatio-temporal interpolated temperature model by including 1km MODIS LST, field-measured climate, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), DEM, Landsat NDVI and Landsat Land Cover. Those fore-mentioned spatial data have various resolution and coverage in both time and space. We analyzed their relationships and created a monthly spatio-temporal interpolated surface temperature model at 1km resolution from 1980 to 2010. The temperature model then was used to examine the characteristic seasonal LST signatures, related to several representative assemblages of Arctic urban and industrial infrastructure in order to quantify anthropogenic influence on regional surface temperature.

  11. Using Urban Landscape Trajectories to Develop a Multi-Temporal Land Cover Database to Support Ecological Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Alberti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and the resulting changes in land cover have myriad impacts on ecological systems. Monitoring these changes across large spatial extents and long time spans requires synoptic remotely sensed data with an appropriate temporal sequence. We developed a multi-temporal land cover dataset for a six-county area surrounding the Seattle, Washington State, USA, metropolitan region. Land cover maps for 1986, 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2002 were developed from Landsat TM images through a combination of spectral unmixing, image segmentation, multi-season imagery, and supervised classification approaches to differentiate an initial nine land cover classes. We then used ancillary GIS layers and temporal information to define trajectories of land cover change through multiple updating and backdating rules and refined our land cover classification for each date into 14 classes. We compared the accuracy of the initial approach with the landscape trajectory modifications and determined that the use of landscape trajectory rules increased our ability to differentiate several classes including bare soil (separated into cleared for development, agriculture, and clearcut forest and three intensities of urban. Using the temporal dataset, we found that between 1986 and 2002, urban land cover increased from 8 to 18% of our study area, while lowland deciduous and mixed forests decreased from 21 to 14%, and grass and agriculture decreased from 11 to 8%. The intensity of urban land cover increased with 252 km2 in Heavy Urban in 1986 increasing to 629 km2 by 2002. The ecological systems that are present in this region were likely significantly altered by these changes in land cover. Our results suggest that multi-temporal (i.e., multiple years and multiple seasons within years Landsat data are an economical means to quantify land cover and land cover change across large and highly heterogeneous urbanizing landscapes. Our data, and similar temporal land cover change

  12. A multi-scale assessment of human and environmental constraints on forest land cover change on the Oregon (USA) coast range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Janet L. Ohmann

    2004-01-01

    Human modification of forest habitats is a major component of global environmental change. Even areas that remain predominantly forested may be changed considerably by human alteration of historical disturbance regimes. To better understand human influences on the abundance and pattern of forest habitats, we studied forest land cover change from 1936 to 1996 in a 25...

  13. The role of breeding range, diet, mobility and body size in associations of raptor communities and land-use in a West African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Croes, B.M.; Gort, G.; Komdeur, J.

    2013-01-01

    To provide insight into raptor declines in western Africa, we investigated associations between land-use and raptor distribution patterns in Cameroon. We examined the role of breeding distribution, species’ migratory mobility, diet, body size, and thus area requirements, on 5-km scale patterns of

  14. The role of breeding range, diet, mobility and body size in associations of raptor communities and land-use in a West African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.; Gort, Gerrit; Komdeur, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To provide insight into raptor declines in western Africa, we investigated associations between land-use and raptor distribution patterns in Cameroon. We examined the role of breeding distribution, species' migratory mobility, diet, body size, and thus area requirements, on 5-km scale patterns of

  15. Participatory Scenario Development to Address Potential Impacts of Land Use Change: An Example from the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Malek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes to land use such as the removal of natural vegetation and expansion of urban areas can result in degradation of the landscape and an increase in hydro-meteorological risk. This has led to higher interest by decision-makers and scientists in the future consequences of these drivers. Scenario development can be a useful tool for addressing the high uncertainty regarding modeling future land use changes. Scenarios are not exact forecasts, but images of plausible futures. When studying future land dynamics, emphasis should be given to areas experiencing high rates of socioeconomic change. We have focused on the eastern Italian Alps, which face increasing pressure from tourism development. Identified drivers of local land use change are mostly external and difficult to quantify. This area, characterized by a traditional Alpine landscape, is subject to high levels of hydro-meteorological risk, another reason to study potential future land use changes. We tested a scenario generation method based on existing decisions and assumptions about future tourism development. We aimed to develop a framework leading to plausible scenarios that can overcome data inaccessibility and address external drivers. We combined qualitative methods, such as stakeholder interviews and cognitive mapping, with geospatial methods, such as geographic information systems, geostatistics, and environmental modeling. We involved stakeholders from the beginning to support the steps of generating data, understanding the system of land use change, and developing a land use change model for scenario development. In this way, we generated spatio-temporal scenarios that can assist future spatial planning and improve preparedness for possible undesirable development.

  16. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage.

  17. The Early Modern Land Reclamation, Protomodern Migration and Economic Development of the Feudal Estate of Vrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mlinarić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the authors are focused on local and trans-border migration processes in Northern Dalmatia and their influence on the economic and demographic development of the Vrana feudal estate during the 17th and 18th century. The research was based on the complex and qualitative analysis of demographic, economical, confessional and cartographic archival sources, followed by the correlation of existing secondary literature research (desk-study analysis. The primary scientific goal was to determine how the land reclamation and corresponding protomodern migrations, which had occurred prior the statistical period of migration registration, have changed and influenced further economic and environmental development of this particular hinterland of the Dalmatian area. The change of the lowland marshy borderlands was investigated within the frames of its physical ambience, geo-strategic position, and its communication, commercial and migratory potential, within the interdisciplinary framework and discourse of ecohistory and environmental studies methodology and approach. In addition, this paper tends to discuss whether the Borelli family's private venture of investing in land reclamation was an economic success or rather an adventurous experiment since they failed to keep the immigrants colonized from Bukovica in permanent settlements. After getting the Vrana estate as a feudal possession in 1752, these Italian family members undertook a huge action of marshland and land reclamation in order to re-evaluate and redefine land use in the area that was once a prosperous Roman barn field, which provided food for a much larger population. Consequently, these newly gained lands were used by the state, along with some other tax and administrative benefits, to attract agrarian labour force. After drying the Vrana moors and marshes, damp soil improved in quality and the excess water was taken away, especially after the trenching of main and collateral ditches

  18. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  19. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H

    2015-12-18

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  20. Understanding the costs and benefits of land development : An empirical analysis into the financial effects of location features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, E.; Witte, P.A.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    As a means to sustainable urban development, redeveloping brownfield sites is advocated over greenfield development in most Western countries. There is much case study research into the factors that influence the (financial) costs, revenues and results of land development. What is virtually absent

  1. Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework: 3. Land Use and Field Boundary Database Development and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Mark D; James, David E; Sandoval-Green, Claudette M J

    2017-05-01

    Conservation planning information is important for identifying options for watershed water quality improvement and can be developed for use at field, farm, and watershed scales. Translation across scales is a key issue impeding progress at watershed scales because watershed improvement goals must be connected with implementation of farm- and field-level conservation practices to demonstrate success. This is particularly true when examining alternatives for "trap and treat" practices implemented at agricultural-field edges to control (or influence) water flows through fields, landscapes, and riparian corridors within agricultural watersheds. We propose that database structures used in developing conservation planning information can achieve translation across conservation-planning scales, and we developed the Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) to enable practical planning applications. The ACPF comprises a planning concept, a database to facilitate field-level and watershed-scale analyses, and an ArcGIS toolbox with Python scripts to identify specific options for placement of conservation practices. This paper appends two prior publications and describes the structure of the ACPF database, which contains land use, crop history, and soils information and is available for download for 6091 HUC12 watersheds located across Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, and parts of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin and comprises information on 2.74 × 10 agricultural fields (available through /). Sample results examining land use trends across Iowa and Illinois are presented here to demonstrate potential uses of the database. While designed for use with the ACPF toolbox, users are welcome to use the ACPF watershed data in a variety of planning and modeling approaches. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Leandria C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV, named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS, transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI, and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility.

  3. Performance analysis of dedicated short range communications technology and overview of the practicability for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Bassoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is a widely researched field and aims at developing technologies that may complement systems such as the advanced driver assistance systems. It is therefore important to analyse and infer on the performance of vehicular technologies for different driving and on-road criteria. This study considers the dedicated short range communications technology and more precisely the IEEE 802.11p standard for a performance and practicability analysis. There is also the proposal of a new classification scheme for typical driving conditions, which includes the main categories of Emergency and Safety scenarios while sub-classifications of Critical and Preventive Safety also exist. The scheme is used to build up scenarios as well as related equations relevant to developing countries for practical network simulation. The results obtained indicate that the relative speed of nodes is a determining factor in the overall performance and effectiveness of wireless vehicular communication systems. Moreover, delay values of low order were observed while an effective communication range of about 800 m was calculated for highway scenarios. The research thus indicates suitability of the system for an active use in collision avoidance even though independent factors such as climatic conditions and driver behaviour may affect its effectiveness in critical situations.

  4. Preamplifier development for high count-rate, large dynamic range readout of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshelashvili, Irakli; Erni, Werner; Steinacher, Michael; Krusche, Bernd; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter are central component of many experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Modern ''trigger less'' detectors run with very high count-rates, require good time and energy resolution, and large dynamic range. In addition photosensors and preamplifiers must work in hostile environments (magnetic fields). Due to later constraints mainly Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD's), Vacuum Photo Triodes (VPT's), and Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTT's) are used. A disadvantage is their low gain which together with other requirements is a challenge for the preamplifier design. Our group has developed special Low Noise / Low Power (LNP) preamplifier for this purpose. They will be used to equip PANDA EMC forward end-cap (dynamic range 15'000, rate 1MHz), where the PWO II crystals and preamplifier have to run in an environment cooled down to -25{sup o}C. Further application is the upgrade of the Crystal Barrel detector at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with APD readout for which special temperature comparison of the APD gain and good time resolution is necessary. Development and all test procedures after the mass production done by our group during past several years in Basel University will be reported.

  5. 25 CFR 170.412 - How is the tribal IRR long-range transportation plan developed and approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-range transportation plan developed and approved? (a) The tribal IRR long-range transportation plan is... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the tribal IRR long-range transportation plan developed and approved? 170.412 Section 170.412 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  6. Placing value on the products and patrimony of rural lands in southern Brazil: contribution to sustainable land development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cerdan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes an analysis of the way in which agents of rural development have elaborated and implemented mechanisms to place value on the local specificities within two states of Brazil’s southern region. Within this context, consideration of biological and cultural diversity from a perspective of sustainable development imposes itself, whether directly or indirectly. We base our argument on two case studies of experiences that promote these mechanisms through placing emphasis on origins: i beef produced in native pastures of Rio Grande do Sul and ii Goethe wine, made in the Urussanga region of Santa Catarina. Both cases are considered illustrative of the current phase of evolution of debates dealing with the interface of geographic origins, protection of national heritage and sustainable rural development. Keywords: rural development, sustainable development, cultural heritage, Southern Brazil.

  7. Sustainable development - Liberalization of land markets and new processes of land grabbing : report of the academic panel organized by IDS on 7 July 2009, Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, G. van; Zoomers, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that opportunities to buy land through the market and the use of internet have resulted in new processes of land grabbing, and an upward trend in the ownership of land by foreign and other non-local buyers. In addition to ‘traditional’ large land holders, new actors are

  8. Development of a High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Synchrotrons and XFELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel Todd

    Advances in synchrotron radiation light source technology have opened new lines of inquiry in material science, biology, and everything in between. However, x-ray detector capabilities must advance in concert with light source technology to fully realize experimental possibilities. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) place particularly large demands on the capabilities of detectors, and developments towards diffraction-limited storage ring sources also necessitate detectors capable of measuring very high flux [1-3]. The detector described herein builds on the Mixed Mode Pixel Array Detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging, and the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) developed for the European XFEL by a collaboration between Deustsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), the University of Hamburg, and the University of Bonn, led by Heinz Graafsma [4, 5]. The feasibility of combining adaptive gain with charge removal techniques to increase dynamic range in XFEL experiments is assessed by simulating XFEL scatter with a pulsed infrared laser. The strategy is incorporated into pixel prototypes which are evaluated with direct current injection to simulate very high incident x-ray flux. A fully functional 16x16 pixel hybrid integrating x-ray detector featuring several different pixel architectures based on the prototypes was developed. This dissertation describes its operation and characterization. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the front-end amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is thereby shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a

  9. Sustainable Development Policy for the Environomy: Population, Land-use, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravago, M.; Roumasset, J.

    2009-12-01

    Despite its inertia and avowed purpose of being practical and feasible, sustainability science has yet to embrace the policy sciences. The existing sustainability science agenda emphasizes the importance of taking a systems approach and stresses capturing many interactions between natural and human systems. In order to incorporate policy analysis, we first trace the history of thought of sustainable development, including its definition and operationalization. After rejecting the popular Venn diagram approach to sustainable development (environment, economy, society) as non-operational and unfettered preservationism as counterproductive, two promising approaches to sustainable growth are contrasted. Negative sustainability is an injunction not to deplete the total value of natural and produced capital, leaving all other questions of economic and environmental management unanswered. To fill the void, we offer positive sustainability, which maximizes intertemporal welfare while incorporating interlinkages within the total environomy. This provides an operational framework for sustainable growth, including the efficiency values of produced and natural capital. In addition, sustainable development must include the optimal patterns of production, consumption, and trade. We illustrate particular patterns of unsustainable development by drawing on lessons from cultivation patterns in the Philippines. In the province of Bukidnon, Philippines the traditional drivers of agricultural expansion were logging and forest fires. In recent decades, intense vegetable cultivation coupled with access to roads and lack of well-defined property rights drive intensification and environmental degradation. Population in the province has risen and grew more than the national average. The high population growth, combined with distorted economic policies, has resulted in extreme population pressure in the province, which decreased the fallow period and caused erosion, falling yields, and

  10. PROSPECTS OF CORN PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT IN DRY LAND IN PAPUA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrizal Malik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of dry land in the province of Papua were directed not only to commodities such as coffee, cocoa, and coconut but also for the development of upland rice, soybean, and corn. Corn has the largest composition for feed, industrial raw materials, edible oil, starch, and drinks. In agricultural development policy of Papua province, the government set the development of maize as one of the priority food commodities in addition to rice and soybeans. But productivity is less than 1.8 tons per hectare, while the results of the assessment of more than 10 tonnes per ha. This is due to the low productivity of yield improvement technologies (seeds, fertilizers are not yet fully mastered farmers and socioeconomic factors (a scarcity of capital. Need encouragement for improved productivity include Integrated Crop Management approaches in maize. The use of fertilizers such as Urea 250 kg + 100 kg SP-36 + KCl 100 kg per ha could increase the productivity of maize. There are 4,445,871 ha for maize development in Papua.

  11. Exploring Evidence of Land Surface Dynamics of River Basin Development in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, C.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    Improving the productivity of agricultural lands in Africa in the face of climate variability and change is vital to achieving food security. A variety of possible approaches exist, many of which focus on the development and expansion of irrigation - at times associated with dam construction to provide co-benefits of hydropower and water supply. Optimal development of river basin infrastructure such as this has long been a topic of interest in water resources systems analysis. Recent advances have focused on addressing the uncertainty associated with climate change in the development of river basin plans. However, such studies rarely consider either the uncertainty from changing local surface-atmosphere interactions via basin development or the attendant effects on local ecosystems, precipitation, evapotranspiration and consequently the availability of water for the proposed projects. Some numerical experiments have described and reproduced the mechanisms via which river basin infrastructure influences local climatology in Sahelian Africa. However, no studies have explored available data for evidence of land-atmosphere interactions associated with actual development projects. This study explores the correlation of seasonal soil moisture and latent heat flux over currently dammed/irrigated areas on downwind precipitation in the East Africa region (bounded by 0N, -15N, 25E, 40E) at the mesoscale (30km - 100km) to unearth evidence of local climatological effects of river basin development (irrigation schemes). The adopted process is (1) use reanalysis data to derive mean wind directions at 800hPa for selected regions (2) use mean wind directions (and orthogonal directions) to locate high (and low) impact areas 30 -100km downwind (3) extract precipitation time series for downwind locations from three different gridded products (CRU, GCPC, PRINCETON) (4) compare precipitation time series across datasets in high/low impact areas and correlate with upwind latent heat flux

  12. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Cokal, E.J.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots at Los Alamos are reported. Results of completed and on-going experiments with migration barriers for water and contaminant movement are presented. An envelope wick experiment for subsurface water management is described, and preliminary field data are reported. An integrated field experiment was designed to test individual SLB component tests related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers, and the progress made in emplacing the experiment is presented. Efforts to utilize the field data collected to validate hydrologic models (TRACR3D) important to waste management strategies are also presented. 11 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  13. Shallow land burial: experience and developments at Oak Ridge and Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since the mid-1940's, in excess of 250,000 m 3 of low- and intermediate-level radioactive solid waste, generated in operations at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), has been disposed of by on-site shallow land burial and retrievable storage in dry volcanic tuff. Guidelines have been developed at LASL which regulate the construction of waste disposal facilities, burial and storage operations, disposal site maintenance and restoration, and documentation of all waste disposal activities. Monitoring programs at the past and current solid waste disposal sites have continued to show that, with the exception of low levels of tritium, no migration of contaminants away from their disposal location has been detected

  14. Development of computer model for radionuclide released from shallow-land disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganda, D.; Sucipta; Sastrowardoyo, P.B.; Eriendi

    1998-01-01

    Development of 1-dimensional computer model for radionuclide release from shallow land disposal facility (SLDF) has been done. This computer model is used for the SLDF facility at PPTA Serpong. The SLDF facility is above 1.8 metres from groundwater and 150 metres from Cisalak river. Numerical method by implicit method of finite difference solution is chosen to predict the migration of radionuclide with any concentration.The migration starts vertically from the bottom of SLDF until the groundwater layer, then horizontally in the groundwater until the critical population group. Radionuclide Cs-137 is chosen as a sample to know its migration. The result of the assessment shows that the SLDF facility at PPTA Serpong has the high safety criteria. (author)

  15. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Drennon, B.J.; Herrera, W.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Langhorst, G.J.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.; Martinez, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented

  16. Development of an Aerosol Opacity Retrieval Algorithm for Use with Multi-Angle Land Surface Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D.; Paradise, S.; Martonchik, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1998, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) will fly aboard the EOS-AM1 spacecraft. MISR will enable unique methods for retrieving the properties of atmospheric aerosols, by providing global imagery of the Earth at nine viewing angles in four visible and near-IR spectral bands. As part of the MISR algorithm development, theoretical methods of analyzing multi-angle, multi-spectral data are being tested using images acquired by the airborne Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS). In this paper we derive a method to be used over land surfaces for retrieving the change in opacity between spectral bands, which can then be used in conjunction with an aerosol model to derive a bound on absolute opacity.

  17. Your Vision or My Model? Lessons from Participatory Land Use Scenario Development on a European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkery, Axel; Ribeiro, Teresa; Henrichs, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    different perspectives. However, this task is all but easy as it requires a careful balancing of approaches and an acceptance of different levels of knowledge and trust in different methods across disciplinary boundaries. In spite of a growing body of literature we are still in the early stages of learning......-term alternative land use scenarios in cooperation with experts and modellers. The scenarios have been used in a formal outreach process with key clients and stakeholders at the European and Member State level afterwards. The aim of this paper is to document the methods used, analyse their strengths and weaknesses...... effectively trigger strategic conversations among policy-makers and key stakeholders about potential future developments and related response strategies. A weak integration with quantitative results can undermine this outcome, which is one of the ultimate objectives of any scenario exercise....

  18. 75 FR 8645 - Public Meetings on the Development of the Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...The USDA Forest Service is committed to developing a new Forest Service Land Management Planning Rule (planning rule) through a transparent and participatory process. To facilitate public participation, dialogue, and active collaboration, the Forest Service will host a national science forum, three national roundtables, and nine regional roundtables. Summaries of each session will be produced and posted on the planning rule Web site as part of the public record. While public participation in the forum and roundtables will be a valuable source of information for the rule-writing process, this participation is not a substitute for the submission of written comments through the formal National Environmental Policy Act and Administrative Procedure Act (NEPA/APA) processes. Any comments you wish to be considered as part of the formal NEPA/APA process must be made by you in writing during the appropriate comment period.

  19. State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J G; Hudgens, D E; Kassakian, J M; Trescott, D L; Craghan, M; Nuckols, W H; Hershner, C H; Linn, C J; Merritt, P G; McCue, T M; O'Connell, J F; Tanski, J; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    Rising sea level threatens existing coastal wetlands. Overall ecosystems could often survive by migrating inland, if adjacent lands remained vacant. On the basis of 131 state and local land use plans, we estimate that almost 60% of the land below 1 m along the US Atlantic coast is expected to be developed and thus unavailable for the inland migration of wetlands. Less than 10% of the land below 1 m has been set aside for conservation. Environmental regulators routinely grant permits for shore protection structures (which block wetland migration) on the basis of a federal finding that these structures have no cumulative environmental impact. Our results suggest that shore protection does have a cumulative impact. If sea level rise is taken into account, wetland policies that previously seemed to comply with federal law probably violate the Clean Water Act.

  20. DEVELOPMENT MILESTONES AND TENDENCIES OF BANKING IN THE CZECH LANDS IN THE CONTEXT OF FINANCIAL LITERACY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hruška

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there are presented the results obtained in the qualitative research in the area of banking with a specific focus on the history, present and development tendencies of banking in the Czech lands. The main target of the paper is to identify, analyze and evaluate the milestones and development tendencies in the banking system area (central banks and commercial banks in the Czech territory since the formation of the independent Czechoslovak state in 1918 until the present, i.e. 2015. The historical development is divided into seven stages when each stage is bordered by important events of a political and economical character which had a significant influence on the form of the banking system. The stages are dated in the years 1918 – 1939, 1939 – 1945, 1945 – 1989, 1989 – 1993, 1993 – 2004, 2004 – 2008 and 2008 – 2015. In the paper important milestones regarding the banking development are described and prediction of the expected banking system development future periods is performed. For each historical stage of banking development the key events which influenced the character of the banking system and the portfolio of offered services on banking market are identified in the paper. Also the main changes in the first stage of the banking system, namely in the central bank, are documented and analyzed.

  1. The Standley allotment: a history of range recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald S. Strickler; Wade B. Hall

    1980-01-01

    One of the first range research programs on National Forest lands was conducted by Dr. Arthur W. Sampson in the Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, between 1907 and 1911. This paper reviews the historical perspective of and the basic range management principles and practices developed from Sampson's studies as well as the land and grazing management of the study area to...

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    requires that projects funded by Federal money, that take place on Federal lands, o ed eral ag not threaten historic properties. Sections 106 and 110...patagonica Galleta Pleuraphis jamesii Desert unicorn -plant Proboscidea althaeifolia Woolly paperflower Psilostrophe tagetina Slimflower scurfpea...moistur tent expone Table number with ″ precip -42 Fig. 13 1 C age cor factor 047 -42 Table 2-4 * Bernalillo County P ission ry for Desert Research

  3. Development of a digital guidance and control law for steep approach automatic landings using modern control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a digital automatic control law for a small jet transport to perform a steep final approach in automatic landings is reported along with the development of a steady-state Kalman filter used to provide smooth estimates to the control law. The control law performs the functions of localizer and glides capture, localizer and glideslope track, decrab, and place. The control law uses the microwave landing system position data, and aircraft body-mounted accelerators, attitude and attitude rate information. The results obtained from a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics, wind conditions, and sensor noises using the control law and filter developed are described.

  4. Assessing the land resource–food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national levels toward multiple goals and mitigate the conflicts that arise from competing resource demands. In this analysis, we adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand how coherent policy combinations can manage trade-offs among environmental conservation initiatives and food prices. Our scenario results indicate that SDG strategies constructed around Sustainable Consumption and Production policies can minimize problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We conclude that Sustainable Consumption and Production policies (goal 12) are most effective at minimizing trade-offs and argue for their centrality to the formulation of coherent SDG strategies. We also find that alternative socioeconomic futures—mainly, population and economic growth pathways—generate smaller impacts on the eventual achievement of land resource–related SDGs than do resource-use and management policies. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policy-makers to negotiate trade-offs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs. PMID:27652336

  5. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national levels toward multiple goals and mitigate the conflicts that arise from competing resource demands. In this analysis, we adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand how coherent policy combinations can manage trade-offs among environmental conservation initiatives and food prices. Our scenario results indicate that SDG strategies constructed around Sustainable Consumption and Production policies can minimize problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We conclude that Sustainable Consumption and Production policies (goal 12) are most effective at minimizing trade-offs and argue for their centrality to the formulation of coherent SDG strategies. We also find that alternative socioeconomic futures-mainly, population and economic growth pathways-generate smaller impacts on the eventual achievement of land resource-related SDGs than do resource-use and management policies. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policy-makers to negotiate trade-offs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.

  6. Development of dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    A new inventive radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with WIde energy raNges), has been developed for monitoring doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. Scintillations from the detector induced by thermal and fast neutrons, photons and muons were discriminated by analyzing their waveforms, and their light outputs were directly converted into the corresponding doses by applying the G-function method. Characteristics of DARWIN were studied by both calculation and experiment. The calculated results indicate that DARWIN gives reasonable estimations of doses in most radiation fields. It was found from the experiment that DARWIN has an excellent property of measuring doses from all particles that significantly contribute to the doses in surrounding environments of accelerator facilities - neutron, photon and muon with wide energy ranges. The experimental results also suggested that DARWIN enables us to monitor small fluctuation of neutron dose rates near the background-level owing to its high sensitivity. (author)

  7. Development of a Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and. control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for inter-spacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for RF Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  8. Body size development of captive and free-ranging Leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Julia; Hammer, Catrin; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The growth and weight development of Leopard tortoise hatchings (Geochelone pardalis) kept at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Qatar, was observed for more than four years, and compared to data in literature for free-ranging animals on body weight or carapace measurements. The results document a distinctively faster growth in the captive animals. Indications for the same phenomenon in other tortoise species (Galapagos giant tortoises, G. nigra; Spur-thighed tortoises, Testudo graeca; Desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizi) were found in the literature. The cause of the high growth rate most likely is the constant provision with highly digestible food of low fiber content. Increased growth rates are suspected to have negative consequences such as obesity, high mortality, gastrointestinal illnesses, renal diseases, "pyramiding," fibrous osteodystrophy or metabolic bone disease. The apparently widespread occurrence of high growth rates in intensively managed tortoises underlines how easily ectothermic animals can be oversupplemented with nutrients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Development of a Compton camera for online ion beam range verification via prompt γ detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldawood, S. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Liprandi, S.; Marinsek, T.; Bortfeldt, J.; Lang, C.; Lutter, R.; Dedes, G.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); Maier, L.; Gernhaeuser, R. [TU Munich, Garching (Germany); Kolff, H. van der [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); TU Delft (Netherlands); Castelhano, I. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Schaart, D.R. [TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Precise and preferably online ion beam range verification is a mandatory prerequisite to fully exploit the advantages of hadron therapy in cancer treatment. An imaging system is being developed in Garching aiming to detect promptγ rays induced by nuclear reactions between the ion beam and biological tissue. The Compton camera prototype consists of a stack of six customized double-sided Si-strip detectors (DSSSD, 50 x 50 mm{sup 2}, 0.5 mm thick, 128 strips/side) acting as scatterer, while the absorber is formed by a monolithic LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillator crystal (50 x 50 x 30 mm{sup 3}) read out by a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (Hamamatsu H9500). The on going characterization of the Compton camera properties and its individual components both offline in the laboratory as well as online using proton beam are presented.

  10. A target development program for beamhole spallation neutron sources in the megawatt range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.; Atchison, F. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Spallation sources as an alternative to fission neutron sources have been operating successfully up to 160 kW of beam power. With the next generation of these facilities aiming at the medium power range between 0.5 and 5 MW, loads on the targets will be high enough to make present experience of little relevance. With the 0.6 MW continuous facility SINQ under construction, and a 5 MW pulsed facility (ESS) under study in Europe, a research and development program is about to be started which aimes at assessing the limits of stationary and moving solid targets and the feasibility and potential benefits of flowing liquid metal targets. Apart from theoretical work and examination of existing irradiated material, including used targets from ISIS, it is intended to take advantage of the SINQ solid rod target design to improve the relevant data base by building the target in such a way that individual rods can be equipped as irradiation capsules.

  11. Applying a Problem Based Learning Approach to Land Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land management covers a wide range activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to fulfil political objectives and achieve sustainable development. This paper presents an overall understanding of the land management paradigm and the benefits of good...... land governance to society. A land administration system provides a country with the infrastructure to implement land-related policies and land management strategies. By applying this land management profile to surveying education, this paper suggests that there is a need to move away from an exclusive...... engineering focus toward adopting an interdisciplinary and problem-based approach to ensure that academic programmes can cope with the wide range of land administration functions and challenges. An interdisciplinary approach to surveying education calls for the need to address issues and problems in a real...

  12. Development of sexual behavior in free-ranging female Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2014-09-01

    We studied the development of sexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our cross-sectional data on juvenile, adolescent, and adult females supported most of our predictions related to the learning hypothesis, which holds that adolescence serves to provide females with a period in which to practice adult female-like sexual behavioral patterns, including sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. We found evidence for a gradual acquisition of adult-like behavioral patterns (e.g., more frequent solicitations with body contact, more frequent complete mounts, more diverse solicitation patterns and complete mounting postures, and longer consortships involving prolonged inter-mount grasping behavior between partners), and a gradual disappearance of less effective immature behavioral patterns (e.g., less frequent non-contact solicitations, ambiguous mounting initiations, and incomplete mounts). We distinguished between three major categories of sexual behavioral patterns based on their speed of development, ranging from fast (e.g., diversity in mounting postures and genital stimulation during mounting) to slow (e.g., contact solicitations and grasping behavior between consortship partners), with some being intermediate (e.g., range of solicitation patterns and expression of complete mounts). This study showed that the emergence of both conceptive and non-conceptive adult sexual behaviors can be traced back to immature behavioral patterns in adolescent female Japanese macaques, with a major threshold occurring at the age of 4 years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Using measures of wellbeing for impact evaluation: Proof of concept developed with an Indigenous community undertaking land management programs in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Silva; Stoeckl, Natalie; Jarvis, Diane; Addison, Jane; Prior, Sharon; Esparon, Michelle

    2018-05-05

    Combining insights from literature on the Theory of Change, Impact Evaluation, and Wellbeing, we develop a novel approach to assessing impacts. Intended beneficiaries identify and rate factors that are important to their wellbeing, their satisfaction with those factors now, and before an intervention. Qualitative responses to questions about perceived changes and causes of change are linked to quantitative data to draw inferences about the existence and/or importance of impact(s). We use data from 67 Ewamian people, in a case study relating to Indigenous land management, to provide proof of concept. 'Knowing that country is being looked after' and 'Having legal right/access to the country' were identified as important to wellbeing, with perceptions that Native Title determination, declared Indigenous Protected Area and associated land management programs have had a significant and positive impact on them. Further method testing might determine the utility of this approach in a wide range of settings.

  14. Field sampling and data analysis methods for development of ecological land classifications: an application on the Manistee National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Host; Carl W. Ramm; Eunice A. Padley; Kurt S. Pregitzer; James B. Hart; David T. Cleland

    1992-01-01

    Presents technical documentation for development of an Ecological Classification System for the Manistee National Forest in northwest Lower Michigan, and suggests procedures applicable to other ecological land classification projects. Includes discussion of sampling design, field data collection, data summarization and analyses, development of classification units,...

  15. A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO MITIGATING URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF VIA DEVELOPMENT PLANS BASED ON LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We advocate an approach to reduce the anticipated increase in stormwater runoff from conventional development by demonstrating a low-impact development that incorporates hydrologic factors into an expanded land suitability analysis. This methodology was applied to a 3 hectare exp...

  16. Simulation of the spatial stresses due to territorial land development on Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve using a GIS-based assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolei; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Feng, Qingyu; Cui, Bohao; Zhang, Shumin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the stresses from land development in or around Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR) and identifying the impacted areas. Major land development types (reservoirs, pond, aquafarm, salt pan, road, residential land, industry land, farming land, and fishing land) in or around the YRDNR from 1995 to 2014 were identified using spatial data sets derived from remote sensing imageries. The spatial stresses were simulated by considering disturbance due to land development activities and accessibility of disturbance using a geographic information system based model. The stresses were then used to identify the impacted area by land development (IALD). The results indicated that main increasing land development types in the study area from 1995 to 2014 were salt pan and construction land. The 98.2% of expanded land development area and 93.7% of increased pump number showed a good control of reserve function zone on land development spread. The spatial stress values and percentages of IALD increased from 1995 to 2014, and IALD percentage exceeded 50% for both parts of YRDNR in 2014. The results of this study also provided the information that detailed planning of the YRDNR (2014-2020) could decrease the spatial stress and IALD percentage of the whole YRDNR on the condition that the area of land development activities increased by 24.4 km 2 from 2014 to 2020. Effective measures should be taken to protect such areas from being further disturbed in order to achieve the goal of a more effective conservation of the YRDNR, and attention should be paid to the disordered land development activities in or around the natural reserves.

  17. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effec...

  18. Development of methodological approaches to the accounting of ownership of land assets in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Ostapchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accounting and legal display of land resources is very important in modern society as the land assets are of great value both for the state as a whole and for each landowner and land user. That’s why they must have a proper legal framework and a quite informative method of accounting. In practice the subjects of land relations have many questions and certain inconsistencies in existing legal documents. In addition, there is a mismatch of the current regulatory framework to the rules of accounting. Today, accounting law has no documents that would specifically be related to land resources, as the objects of accounting, and the rights to them. The article specifies the list of objects of accounting associated with the full ownership on land and other property rights on them. The author improves the methodical approaches to accounting display operations with land assets depending on the power of land owner, based on existing regulations and take into account the experience of other countries.

  19. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  20. Advanced technology trends in development of land-mine detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun Tae; Choi, Kil Oung

    2001-01-01

    While the United Nations (UN) agencies work to restrict the manufacture, sale, and use of land-mines worldwide, a massive clean-up effort is needed to find and destroy the estimated 100 million land-mines still buried around the world. Land-mines left behind from wars worldwide are one of the past century's main unsolved problems of wars and remain the focus of humanitarian land-mine detection and removal primarily in Europe, Africa, Asia and Central and South America. For example, approximately 1 million anti-personnel mines and other various kinds which have been buried in the 249.4 km (155 miles) demilitarized zone(DMZ) of the Korean peninsular should be completely removed in historical process of the peaceful unification between South and North Korea. In this regard, the current trends of technologies linked to land-mine detection systems are surveyed. (author)

  1. Effect of Deforestation and Land Use Changes on Mosquito Productivity and Development in Western Kenya Highlands: Implication for Malaria Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Munga, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past 50 years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa has led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing, and house construction materials needs. This has lead to the creation of suitable breeding habitats, which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. This increased temperature has resulted in the shortening of developmental stages of aquatic stages of mosquitoes and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes. Assessment of the effects of deforestation and land coverage changes (decrease), which leads to temperature changes and subsequently increases survivorship of adults and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes' body was gathered from previous data collected from 2003 to 2012 using different analysis techniques. Habitats productivity, species dynamics and abundance, mosquitoes feeding rates, and sporogony development are presented in relation to temperature changes. The effects of temperature rise due to land cover changes in highlands of western Kenya on larval developmental rates, adult sporogony developments, and malaria risk in human population were derived. Vector species dynamics and abundance in relation to land use changes have been found to change with time. This study found that, land cover changes is a key driver for the temperature rise in African highlands and increases the rate of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae ssp., An. Funestus , and An. arabiensis colonizing the highlands. It has also significantly enhanced sporogony development rate and adult vector survival and therefore the risk of malaria transmission in the highlands.

  2. National report for CSD-16 The Netherlands: A review of sustainable development in agriculture, land and rural development, drought and desertification, and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Boone, K.; de Bont, C.; Brouwers, J.; Hack-Ten Broeke, M.; Migchels, G.; Oenema, O.; van de Peet, G.; Pinxterhuis, I.; Smit, A.; Stuiver, M.; Sukkel, W.; Verkerke, W.; Verzandvoort, S.; Visser, A.; Zwart, K.; Damen, M.

    2008-01-01

    This report forms the Netherlands’ contribution to CSD-16 (2008) of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. It comprises an overview of the Netherlands’ policies, priorities and activities with regard to sustainable development in the fields of agriculture, land and rural development, drought

  3. Characterizing proton-activated materials to develop PET-mediated proton range verification markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Kerr, Matthew D.; Amos, Richard A.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Marom, Edith M.; Truong, Mylene T.; Palacio, Diana M.; Betancourt, Sonia L.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; DeGroot, Patricia M.; Carter, Brett W.; Gladish, Gregory W.; Sabloff, Bradley S.; Benveniste, Marcelo F.; Godoy, Myrna C.; Patil, Shekhar; Sorensen, James; Mawlawi, Osama R.

    2016-06-01

    Conventional proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) relies on tissue activation alone and therefore requires particle therapy PET whose installation can represent a large financial burden for many centers. Previously, we showed the feasibility of developing patient implantable markers using high proton cross-section materials (18O, Cu, and 68Zn) for in vivo proton range verification using conventional PET scanners. In this technical note, we characterize those materials to test their usability in more clinically relevant conditions. Two phantoms made of low-density balsa wood (~0.1 g cm-3) and beef (~1.0 g cm-3) were embedded with Cu or 68Zn foils of several volumes (10-50 mm3). The metal foils were positioned at several depths in the dose fall-off region, which had been determined from our previous study. The phantoms were then irradiated with different proton doses (1-5 Gy). After irradiation, the phantoms with the embedded foils were moved to a diagnostic PET scanner and imaged. The acquired data were reconstructed with 20-40 min of scan time using various delay times (30-150 min) to determine the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio. The resultant PET/computed tomography (CT) fusion images of the activated foils were then examined and the foils’ PET signal strength/visibility was scored on a 5 point scale by 13 radiologists experienced in nuclear medicine. For both phantoms, the visibility of activated foils increased in proportion to the foil volume, dose, and PET scan time. A linear model was constructed with visibility scores as the response variable and all other factors (marker material, phantom material, dose, and PET scan time) as covariates. Using the linear model, volumes of foils that provided adequate visibility (score 3) were determined for each dose and PET scan time. The foil volumes that were determined will be used as a guideline in developing practical implantable markers.

  4. Development of corrective measures and site stabilization technologies for shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.

    1986-01-01

    The overall purpose of the corrective measures task performed for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program has been to develop and test methods that can be used to correct any actual or anticipated problems with new and existing shallow land burial (SLB) sites in a semiarid environment. These field tests have not only evaluated remedial actions, but have also investigated phenomena suspected of being a possible problem at semiarid SLB sites. The approach we have taken in developing remedial action and site closure technologies for low-level waste sites is to recognize that physical and biological processes affecting site integrity are interdependent, and therefore, cannot be treated as separate problems. The field experiments performed for this task were to identify, evaluate, and model erosion control technologies, field test second generation biointrusion barriers, determine by field experiments the extent of upward radionuclide migration due to moisture cycling, and measure the effects of subsidence on remedial action of other system components. Progress made in each of these research areas is described

  5. Development of long range arms for inspection and light intervention in hazardous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yann Perrot [CEA-DRT (France); Jean Jacques Cordier [CEA-DSM (France); Jim Palmer [EFDA-CSU (Germany); Gerard Piolain [COGEMA (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Robotics and Interactive systems Department of CEA is in charge of the development of remote technologies in order to meet the nuclear industry requirements. This paper reports the recent Research and Development activities in advanced robotics systems for inspection or light intervention in hazardous environment with limited access. COGEMA, the French leading company in nuclear fuel manufacturing and reprocessing industry, expressed the need to carry out in its hot cells, light interventions with a long reach manipulator. It may be used as extending existing manipulators accessibility or allow easy interventions into a cell without any device for manipulation. The requested system has to be deployed through horizontal small diameter wall engineering penetrations in a wide range of hot cells. In order to meet these requirements, CEA has developed a very challenging robotic carrier (called P.A.C.) which is able to perform light intervention tasks inside high range of blind hot cells. This long reach multi-link carrier with 11 joints is less than 30 kg weight and is actuated by electrical motors. It includes on-board hardened control electronics qualified up to 10 kGy. It can be remotely operated by means of a control system which includes a graphical user interface providing virtual 3D display as well as on-line collision avoidance capabilities and real-time dynamic simulation. This allows intuitive driving of the arm around the obstacles (pipes, tubs...). An industrial PAC robot is currently under development and will be a 10 meter long robot made of 7 modules with 15 actuated joints. The second project takes place in the Remote Handling (RH) activities for the next step of the fusion reactor as ITER. The aim of the R and D program performed under EFDA work programme is to demonstrate the feasibility of close inspection (e.g. for viewing and leak testing) of the Divertor cassettes and the Vacuum Vessel first wall of ITER. To

  6. Development of long range arms for inspection and light intervention in hazardous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yann Perrot; Jean Jacques Cordier; Jim Palmer; Gerard Piolain

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Robotics and Interactive systems Department of CEA is in charge of the development of remote technologies in order to meet the nuclear industry requirements. This paper reports the recent Research and Development activities in advanced robotics systems for inspection or light intervention in hazardous environment with limited access. COGEMA, the French leading company in nuclear fuel manufacturing and reprocessing industry, expressed the need to carry out in its hot cells, light interventions with a long reach manipulator. It may be used as extending existing manipulators accessibility or allow easy interventions into a cell without any device for manipulation. The requested system has to be deployed through horizontal small diameter wall engineering penetrations in a wide range of hot cells. In order to meet these requirements, CEA has developed a very challenging robotic carrier (called P.A.C.) which is able to perform light intervention tasks inside high range of blind hot cells. This long reach multi-link carrier with 11 joints is less than 30 kg weight and is actuated by electrical motors. It includes on-board hardened control electronics qualified up to 10 kGy. It can be remotely operated by means of a control system which includes a graphical user interface providing virtual 3D display as well as on-line collision avoidance capabilities and real-time dynamic simulation. This allows intuitive driving of the arm around the obstacles (pipes, tubs...). An industrial PAC robot is currently under development and will be a 10 meter long robot made of 7 modules with 15 actuated joints. The second project takes place in the Remote Handling (RH) activities for the next step of the fusion reactor as ITER. The aim of the R and D program performed under EFDA work programme is to demonstrate the feasibility of close inspection (e.g. for viewing and leak testing) of the Divertor cassettes and the Vacuum Vessel first wall of ITER. To

  7. Development of dose monitoring system applicable to various radiations with wide energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A new radiation dose monitor, designated as DARWIN (Dose monitoring system Applicable to various Radiations with WIde energy raNges), has been developed for real-time monitoring of doses in workspaces and surrounding environments of high energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN is composed of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, which consists of liquid organic scintillator BC501A coupled with ZnS(Ag) scintillation sheets doped with 6 Li, and a data acquisition system based on a Digital-Storage-Oscilloscope. DARWIN has the following features: (1) capable of monitoring doses from neutrons, photons and muons with energies from thermal energy to 1 GeV, 150 keV to 100 MeV, and 1 MeV to 100 GeV, respectively, (2) highly sensitive with precision, and (3) easy to operate with a simple graphical user-interface. The performance of DARWIN was examined experimentally in several radiation fields. The results of the experiments indicated the accuracy and rapid response of DARWIN for measuring dose rates from neutrons, photons and muons with wide energies. With these properties, we conclude that DARWIN will be able to play a very important role for improving radiation safety in high energy accelerator facilities. (author)

  8. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-05-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts, we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability, and understanding of climate system feedbacks.

  9. Development of a Bi-National Great Lakes Coastal Wetland and Land Use Map Using Three-Season PALSAR and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods using extensive field data and three-season Landsat TM and PALSAR imagery were developed to map wetland type and identify potential wetland stressors (i.e., adjacent land use for the United States and Canadian Laurentian coastal Great Lakes. The mapped area included the coastline to 10 km inland to capture the region hydrologically connected to the Great Lakes. Maps were developed in cooperation with the overarching Great Lakes Consortium plan to provide a comprehensive regional baseline map suitable for coastal wetland assessment and management by agencies at the local, tribal, state, and federal levels. The goal was to provide not only land use and land cover (LULC baseline data at moderate spatial resolution (20–30 m, but a repeatable methodology to monitor change into the future. The prime focus was on mapping wetland ecosystem types, such as emergent wetland and forested wetland, as well as to delineate wetland monocultures (Typha, Phragmites, Schoenoplectus and differentiate peatlands (fens and bogs from other wetland types. The overall accuracy for the coastal Great Lakes map of all five lake basins was 94%, with a range of 86% to 96% by individual lake basin (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.

  10. Analysis the Appropriate using Standard Costing Applying in Land Cost Component of Real Estate Development Activities: A Case Study of PT Subur Agung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfrida Yanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard cost is generally used by manufacturing business, which direct material, labor, and factory overhead are cleared allocated. On real estate business in this case PT Subur Agung use standard cost based on three costs, raw land, land improvement and interest expense categories instead of direct material, direct labor and overhead. Developer use these cost to predict the project cost and estimate the pre-selling price, in accordance with the cost estimation classification matrix, the variance range is in the expected accuracy rate by testing the variance percentage between standard cost and actual cost. The additional similar projects in PT Subur Agung also follow the same scope. All these evidences have proved the appropriate using standard costing in land cost component of real estate development activities but how it applies this article will analyze in this particular project with using descriptive and exploratory method. The analysis started by knowing the conceptual situation of PT Subur Agung and the data was presented in tables and calculation with detail explanation. 

  11. Land Use Change and Recommendation for Sustainable Development of Peatland for Agriculture: Case Study at Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts, West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyunto, Wahyunto; Supriatna, Wahyu; Agus, Fahmuddin

    2010-01-01

    Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively) of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Tim...

  12. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  13. Land quality, sustainable development and environmental degradation in agricultural districts: A computational approach based on entropy indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambon, Ilaria; Colantoni, Andrea; Carlucci, Margherita; Morrow, Nathan; Sateriano, Adele; Salvati, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Land Degradation (LD) in socio-environmental systems negatively impacts sustainable development paths. This study proposes a framework to LD evaluation based on indicators of diversification in the spatial distribution of sensitive land. We hypothesize that conditions for spatial heterogeneity in a composite index of land sensitivity are more frequently associated to areas prone to LD than spatial homogeneity. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas that act as hotspots for future degradation processes. A diachronic analysis (1960–2010) was performed at the Italian agricultural district scale to identify environmental factors associated with spatial heterogeneity in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI). In 1960, diversification in the level of land sensitivity measured using two common indexes of entropy (Shannon's diversity and Pielou's evenness) increased significantly with the ESAI, indicating a high level of land sensitivity to degradation. In 2010, surface area classified as “critical” to LD was the highest in districts with diversification in the spatial distribution of ESAI values, confirming the hypothesis formulated above. Entropy indexes, based on observed alignment with the concept of LD, constitute a valuable base to inform mitigation strategies against desertification. - Highlights: • Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas. • Entropy indexes can inform mitigation strategies against desertification. • Assessing spatial diversification in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation. • Mediterranean rural areas have an evident diversity in agricultural systems. • A diachronic analysis carried out at the Italian agricultural district scale.

  14. Land quality, sustainable development and environmental degradation in agricultural districts: A computational approach based on entropy indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.zambon@unitus.it [Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Colantoni, Andrea [Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Carlucci, Margherita [Department of Social and Economic Science, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Morrow, Nathan [Tulane University, Payson Program in International Development at the School of Law, New Orleans (United States); Sateriano, Adele; Salvati, Luca [Italian Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, I-00184 Rome (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Land Degradation (LD) in socio-environmental systems negatively impacts sustainable development paths. This study proposes a framework to LD evaluation based on indicators of diversification in the spatial distribution of sensitive land. We hypothesize that conditions for spatial heterogeneity in a composite index of land sensitivity are more frequently associated to areas prone to LD than spatial homogeneity. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas that act as hotspots for future degradation processes. A diachronic analysis (1960–2010) was performed at the Italian agricultural district scale to identify environmental factors associated with spatial heterogeneity in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI). In 1960, diversification in the level of land sensitivity measured using two common indexes of entropy (Shannon's diversity and Pielou's evenness) increased significantly with the ESAI, indicating a high level of land sensitivity to degradation. In 2010, surface area classified as “critical” to LD was the highest in districts with diversification in the spatial distribution of ESAI values, confirming the hypothesis formulated above. Entropy indexes, based on observed alignment with the concept of LD, constitute a valuable base to inform mitigation strategies against desertification. - Highlights: • Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas. • Entropy indexes can inform mitigation strategies against desertification. • Assessing spatial diversification in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation. • Mediterranean rural areas have an evident diversity in agricultural systems. • A diachronic analysis carried out at the Italian agricultural district scale.

  15. 78 FR 17716 - Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of... State Office is providing an opportunity for parties to express an interest in proposing solar energy... two designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZs) serialized as COC-074761 (Los Mogotes East SEZ) and COC...

  16. From Outreach to Engaged Placemaking: Understanding Public Land-Grant University Involvement with Tourism Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herts, Rolando D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research project aimed to identify benefits and drawbacks of public land-grant university involvement with tourism planning and development, an emergent form of university-community engagement. Using qualitative methodology, the study's findings led to the codification of levels of university tourism planning and development…

  17. Development of Land Use Regression models for particulate matter and associated components in a low air pollutant concentration airshed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgawati, Mila; Heyworth, Jane S.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; McCaul, Kieran A.; Blake, David; Boeyen, Jonathon; Cope, Martin; Yeap, Bu Beng; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hinwood, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for

  18. Institutional Motivation and Policy Change Associated with Land Grant Institutions' Involvement in Economic Development. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Lawrence S.; And Others

    A study investigated: (1) the degree of land grant institution involvement in economic development activity, defined in terms of 17 selected cooperative research and technology exchange activities; (2) changes in selected academic policies (patents, consulting, conflict of interest, conflict of commitment, and extra compensation); and (3) the…

  19. Integrated assessment of agricultural land use policies on nutrient pollution and sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Feng, S.; Loon, van M.; Luo, X.; Kang, C.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Qu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution in Chinese lakes is a major problem. To reduce nutrient pollution and enhance sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China, an integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural land use policies has been performed, using the technical coefficient generator TechnoGIN and the

  20. THREADS TO BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT OF LAND USE AS ITS PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Demydenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the understanding of ecological and economic instruments for biodiversity conservation as a system of market, legal and regulatory, institutional arrangements and policies for sustainable development of land use. In terms of European integration, which is the basis of foreign policy identity Ukraine, acquires particular significance modernization of the state, forming an effective and efficient system of public administration (Public Administration, able to introduce systematic and consistent decisions, submission of all tasks of foreign and domestic policy achievement of the conditions and criteria membership in the European Union, particularly in the field of biodiversity conservation and land use management of protected areas, as its component. The signing of the Association Agreement between Ukraine, on one hand, and the European Union and its Member States, of the other part (the Agreement offers new opportunities and creates new standards in various areas of public life, including environmental protection. Sectoral cooperation in the field of environmental protection in the Agreement stipulated in Chapter 6, which is called "Environment" Chapter V «economic and sectoral cooperation." For Ukraine, the implementation of EU legislation in the field of the environment occurs within the eight sectors governed by 29 sources of law (Directives and Regulations of the EU in this area. Directive and Regulation establishes common rules and standards that need to be transposed (transferred to domestic law. These rules and standards are not the subject of discussion and be completely achieved, otherwise stipulated penalties. Unlike modern environmental legislation of Ukraine, which in many respects is a declarative sources of EU law determine the quantitative and qualitative results, which should reach every country within a specified period of time. The feature of EU Directives is that States must adapt their legislation to achieve the

  1. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  2. Analysis of the development of land use in the Morava River floodplain, with special emphasis on the landscape matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilianová Helena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of an analysis of land use development in the Morava River floodplain (Czech Republic using GIS from 1836 to the present, are the subject of this article. The results are based on the analysis of historical maps, using the landscape matrix assessment of the Morava River floodplain. The final analyses were processed from land use maps of the floodplain at a scale of 1 : 25,000 in five time horizons. These maps were compared with the present state of landscape by GIS methods. The study area was assessed according to five geomorphological areas from the northern/higher part to the southern/lower part of floodplain. In 1836 the landscape matrix of the floodplain was composed of meadows and forests. Forest components decreased minimally but the changes are more important. The grassland area (meadows and pastures decreased but arable land, as well as settlements, increased very significantly. In the 1950s the landscape matrix was composed of a mosaic of alluvial forests, meadows and arable land. Currently, the predominant landscape matrix consists of arable land and isolated forest complexes.

  3. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  4. Development of source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Li

    2002-01-01

    Source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor is key equipment of low-side measuring in source range. At the same time, it is also weighty component of out-of-pile neutron-flux level observation system. The authors have done some researching and renovating based on the similar type devices used in nuclear reactor to improve the meter sensitivity, measuring range, noise proof features, reliability in running and maintainability which belong to the main performance index of the instrument. The design ideas, configurations, working principle, performance indexes, technique features and effect in utilizing are introduced briefly

  5. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  6. Developing a Serious Videogame for Preteens to Motivate HPV Vaccination Decision Making: Land of Secret Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Diehl, Sandra J; Stockton, Laurie L; Porter, Jeannette; Ihekweazu, Chioma; Gurbani, Arshya S; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2018-02-01

    Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is routinely recommended for ages 11-12, yet in 2016 only 49.5% of women and 37.5% of men had completed the three-dose series in the United States. Offering information and cues to action through a serious videogame for preteens may foster HPV vaccination awareness, information seeking, and communication. An iterative process was used to develop an interactive videogame, Land of Secret Gardens. Three focus groups were conducted with 16 boys and girls, ages 11-12, for input on game design, acceptability, and functioning. Two parallel focus groups explored parents' (n = 9) perspectives on the game concept. Three researchers identified key themes. Preteens wanted a game that is both entertaining and instructional. Some parents were skeptical that games could be motivational. A back-story about a secret garden was developed as a metaphor for a preteen's body and keeping it healthy. The goal is to plant a lush secret garden and protect the seedlings by treating them with a potion when they sprout to keep them healthy as they mature. Points to buy seeds and create the potion are earned by playing mini-games. Throughout play, players are exposed to messaging about HPV and the benefits of the vaccine. Both boys and girls liked the garden concept and getting facts about HPV. Parents were encouraged to discuss the game with their preteens. Within a larger communication strategy, serious games could be useful for engaging preteens in health decision making about HPV vaccination.

  7. Identifying Hotspots in Land and Water Resource Uses on the Way towards Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, A.; Havlik, P.; Van Dijk, M.; Leclere, D.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture plays a key role in achieving adequate food, water, and energy security (as summarized in the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs) as populations grow and incomes rise. Yet, agriculture is confronted with an enormous challenge to produce more using less. Land and water resources are projected to be strongly affected by climate change demand and agriculture faces growing competition in the demand for these resources. To formulate policies that contribute to achieving the SDGs, policy makers need assessments that can anticipate and navigate the trade-offs within the water/land/energy domain. Assessments that identify locations or hotspots where trade-offs between the multiple, competing users of resources may exist must consider both the local scale impacts of resource use as well as regional scale socioeconomic trends, policies, and international markets that further contribute to or mitigate the impacts of resource trade-offs. In this study, we quantify impacts of increased pressure on the land system to provide agricultural and bioenergy products under increasingly scarce water resources using a global economic and land use model, GLOBIOM. We model the supply and demand of agricultural products at a high spatial resolution in an integrated approach that considers the impacts of global change (socioeconomic and climatic) on the biophysical availability and the growing competition of land and water. We also developed a biodiversity module that relates changes in land uses to changes in local species richness and global species extinction risk. We find that water available for agriculture and freshwater ecosystems decreases due to climate change and growing demand from other sectors (domestic, energy and industry) (Fig 1). Climate change impacts will limit areas suitable for irrigation and may lead to an expansion of rainfed areas in biodiverse areas. Impacts on food security from climate change are significant in some regions (SSA and SA) and policies

  8. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  9. Factors Influencing Land Development and Redevelopment during China’s Rapid Urbanization: Evidence from Haikou City, 2003–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land development and redevelopment (LDR is essential to economic growth and the advancement of urbanization in urban China. Moreover, various factors affect LDR. Based on an investigation, during 2003–2016, which involves 420 parcels within a 2-km section of the Nandu River, Haikou city, this paper employs a logistic model, so as to judge the impact of LDR on these parcels, and then with an improved hedonic model, it sets out to explore the LDR influencing factors. Specifically, the results show that the impact mechanism of LDR in China is different from countries where economy is the main influencing force. Moreover, China’s urban land development results from the cooperation and competition between local government and enterprises, with a particular focus on multiple political and economic factors. Hence, the paper innovatively incorporates quantifiable political and property factors that significantly influence the results. Finally, the paper tries to explain the variance from macro-level government and micro-level enterprises perspectives. In conclusion, China’s land development requires cooperation among the government and enterprises, in order to improve the economic, social, and environmental benefits of land use.

  10. Development of prompt gamma measurement system for in vivo proton beam range verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Chul Hee

    2011-02-01

    entire energy range, it is from calcium. Second, to verify the relationship between the proton dose distribution and the prompt gamma distribution, the present study developed a proof-of-principle measurement system (the PGS system) employing a scanning process. The first-time experimental study verified not only that prompt gammas can be measured during treatment, but also that their distribution has a clear relationship with the proton dose distribution for therapeutic proton beams. Third, for the clinical application, a small array-type prompt gamma measurement system for use without the problematic scanning process was designed, and its optimal dimensions for effective reduction of background gammas were determined (by Monte Carlo simulations): 3-mm scintillation thickness: 2-mm slit width: 2-mm septal thickness: 150-mm slit length. To accelerate the simulations, the present study employed the parameterized source term that improved the calculation speed by a factor of 300. Finally, the performance of the array-type measurement system for clinical applications was evaluated with the test measurement system composed of a multislit collimation system, a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, and a precise motion system. To quantitatively determine the location of the distal dose edge from the prompt gamma distribution, a methodology based on a sigmoidal curve fitting is here proposed, and this methodology proves that the distal dose edge could be accurately determined within about 4 mm for therapeutic proton beams. Additionally, the phantom effect on the prompt gamma distribution and the analysis of background gammas are studied by Monte Carlo simulations

  11. Perception as a key component in the development of fire affected land in Eastern Spain. El Massís del Caroig study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Keesstra, Saskia; Úbeda, Xavier; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; Muñoz Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; Novara, Agata

    2017-04-01

    (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Assefa, E., & Hans-Rudolf, B. (2016). Farmers' perception of land degradation and traditional knowledge in southern Ethiopia—Resilience and stability. Land Degradation and Development, 27(6), 1552-1561. doi:10.1002/ldr.2364 Escadafal, R., Barbero-Sierra, C., Exbrayat, W., Marques, M. J., Akhtar-Schuster, M., El Haddadi, A., & Ruiz, M. (2015). First appraisal of the current structure of research on land and soil degradation as evidenced by bibliometric analysis of publications on desertification. Land Degradation and Development, 26(5), 413-422. doi:10.1002/ldr.2351 Francos, M., Úbeda, X., Tort, J., Panareda, J.M., Cerdà, A. 2016. The role of forest fire severity on vegetation recovery after 18 years. Implications for forest management of Quercus suber L. in Iberian Peninsula, Global and Planetary Change,145:11-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.07.016 Hedo, J., Lucas-Borja, M.E., Wic, C., Andrés-Abellán, M., De Las Heras, J. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. (2015) Solid Earth, 6 (1), pp. 243-252. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/se-6-243-2015 Jafari, R., & Bakhshandehmehr, L. (2016). Quantitative mapping and assessment of environmentally sensitive areas to desertification in central iran. Land Degradation and Development, 27(2), 108-119. doi:10.1002/ldr.2227 Keesstra S, Wittenberg L, Maroulis J, Sambalino F, Malkinson D, Cerdà A, Pereira P. 2016. The influence of fire history, plant species and post-fire management on soil water repellency in a Mediterranean catchment: The Mount Carmel range, Israel. Catena, 149, 857-866. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2016.04.006 Marques, M. J., Bienes, R., Cuadrado, J., Ruiz-Colmenero, M., Barbero-Sierra, C., & Velasco, A. (2015). Analysing perceptions attitudes and responses of winegrowers about

  12. Management and development of land in the name of the Green Economy: planning, landscape, efficiency, biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Promoting sustainable economic development is the basis of the Green Economy: a new vision of Agriculture, Environmental and Regional policy, shared by the wine sector, especially on some crucial issues, such as reducing the consumption of agricultural land, recognition as economically important of the green agricultural production space, spreading of organic farming, adoption of good agricultural practices. Sustainability, in fact , is not just about the use of analysis tools (carbonfoot print, Waterfoot print, etc .) but is about innovations to be introduced in the entire production process, protection of biodiversity, ethic work in the vineyard and winery. It means to disseminate as much as possible all those practices that can enable a more efficient land management also considering the recent climate changes: introduction of agro-energy and precision agriculture, rational use of water resources, creation of an observatory on temperatures and an interactive mapping system, viticultural zoning and municipal planning to make concrete balance between vitality in agronomic sector and landscape quality. Realizing such a regional geopedological mapping about agricultural soil, will allow companies to display a real-time access to all the data needed for a sustainable management of the funds, not only it would be an important tool to support the technical choices of farmers, enhancing their potential and optimizing production in relation to the current climate crisis, but would have a strong impact in terms of managing and saving water and energy resources. A strong efficacy in this context should be recognized at the "Urban Regulation Plans of the Wine Cities", which have developed since 2007 on the base of the guidelines promoted by the Italian Association Città del Vino, in order to enhance the quality of wine districts. The foundations of this multidisciplinary tool are based on: • in-depth knowledge of the characteristics of the wine territory; • unity and

  13. Sustainable Urban Development and Land Use Change—A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a sustainability assessment method for the rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta in China addressing the role of land use pattern. We first calculated the sustainability component scores of 16 cities in the area in 2000 and 2005. The results showed that socioeconomic and environmental conditions improved while the performance of resource-use degraded from 2000 to 2005. We then made a spatial analysis of land use change (LUC using geographic information systems during 1990–2000. We found that diverse spatiotemporal transformation occurred among the cities and identified urban development cluster patterns and profiles based on development density. Finally, we examined the impact of LUC on sustainable urban development (SUD. Using regression techniques, we demonstrated that urbanization, infrastructure development, industrial structure and income significantly affected environmental performance and resource-use. These results suggest a moderate pace of LUC with steady economic growth being key to SUD.

  14. Development of a simple driving simulator and determination of the reference range of normative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noriaki; Saeki, Satoru; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Matsunaga, Katsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    To establish the reference range for assessment items of the 'Simple Driving Simulator' (SiDS) in a normative population and to compare performance of age-matched young adults with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) to this reference data. Normative ranges were calculated from the data of 445 participants in the control group. Three performance ranges were established: 'normal', 'borderline' and 'impaired' defined using standard deviation cutoff values in the control group. The performance of 28 patients with a TBI, aged 18-35 years, was evaluated. The performance score for the TBI group in the 'impaired range' was calculated for each test item and used to make a synthetic judgment regarding the clinical value of the SiDS. In the control group, only 0.6% of the participants exhibited a performance in the impaired range on >2 items, compared to 33.2% for the TBI group. We provide evidence that impaired performance on ≤2 items of the SiDS provides a sensitive criterion of 'driving fitness' in young adults after a TBI.

  15. Characterizing Land Surface Anisotropic Reflectance over Rugged Terrain: A Review of Concepts and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Wen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rugged terrain, including mountains, hills, and some high lands are typical land surfaces around the world. As a physical parameter for characterizing the anisotropic reflectance of the land surface, the importance of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF has been gradually recognized in the remote sensing community, and great efforts have been dedicated to build BRDF models over various terrain types. However, on rugged terrain, the topography intensely affects the shape and magnitude of the BRDF and creates challenges in modeling the BRDF. In this paper, after a brief introduction of the theoretical background of the BRDF over rugged terrain, the status of estimating land surface BRDF properties over rugged terrain is comprehensively reviewed from a historical perspective and summarized in two categories: BRDFs describing solo slopes and those describing composite slopes. The discussion focuses on land surface reflectance retrieval over mountainous areas, the difference in solo slope and composite slope BRDF models, and suggested future research to improve the accuracy of BRDFs derived with remote sensing satellites.

  16. Climate change, land use and land cover change detection and its impact on hydrological hazards and sustainable development: a case study of Alaknanda river basin, Uttarakhand, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABHAY SHANKAR PRASAD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic events impact on the natural ecosystems of Alaknanda river basin which affect the socio-economic condition of the rural communities, loss of life, livelihood and natural resources. They pose a serious threat to normal life as well as the process of sustainable development. Rivers are fragile ecosystems which are globally important as water tower of the earth, reservoirs of rich biodiversity, and a popular destination for recreation, tourism and culture heritage. Rivers provides direct life support base for humankind. The unique Geo-climatic condition of Garhwal Himalaya, Alaknanda River basin, Uttarakhand makes it one of the most vulnerable regions in the India. Hydrological hazards are sudden calamities, which involve loss of life, property and livelihood. This paper presents a methodological approach for the integration of extreme events, climatic vulnerability, land use scenario, and flood risk assessment. Anthropogenic activities are continuously disturbing the natural system of the Garhwal Himalaya and its impact on extreme hydrological events. Factors causing these changes have been attempted to be understood through the use of GIS and Geospatial techniques. Human interference, unscientific developmental activities, agriculture extension, tourism activity and road construction are creating the hydrological hazards. Soil erosion and landslide have been recognised as major hazards in the high altitude region of Himalaya. This paper has analysed and evaluates the climate and livelihood vulnerability assessment and its adaptation for sustainable development in the near district headquarter (NDH away district headquarter (ADH determined mainly by a weighted matrix index. The Geospatial technique is used to find out the land use/cover change detection and secondary data is taken to carry out the analysis work. Primary data from each hotspot has been collected through a questionnaire survey and a Participatory Research Approach

  17. Characterizations of pumping-induced land subsidence in coastal aquifers - model development and field-scale implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, C.; Huang, Y.; Lu, C.

    2012-12-01

    The pumping-induced land subsidence events are typically founded in coastal aquifers in Taiwan especially in the areas of lower alluvial fans. Previous investigations have recognized the irreversible situation for an aquifer deformation even if the pumped water is significantly reduced or stopped. Long-term monitoring projects on land subsidence in Choshui alluvial fan in central Taiwan have improved the understanding of the deformations in the aquifer system. To characterization the detailed land subsidence mechanism, this study develops an inverse numerical model to estimate the deformation parameters such as the specific storage (Ss) and vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) for interbeds. Similar to the concept of Hydraulic tomography survey (HTS), the developed model employs the iterative cokriging estimator to improve the accuracy of estimating deformation parameters. A one-dimensional numerical example is employed to assess the accuracy of the developed inverse model. The developed model is then applied to field-scale data from compaction monitoring wells (CMW) installed in the lower Choshui River fan. Results of the synthetic example show that the developed inverse model can reproduce well the predefined geologic features of the synthetic aquifer. The model provides better estimations of Kv patterns and magnitudes. Slightly less detail of the Ss was obtained due to the insensitivity of transient stresses for specified sampling times. Without prior information from field measurements, the developed model associated with deformation measurements form CMW can estimate Kv and Ss fields with great spatial resolution.

  18. Analysis of Double Meridian Distance for a Closed Traverse Area towards Developing a Contour Map and Land Title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Ganiron Jr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze double meridian distance for a closed traverse area in developing a land title for a propose gymnasium in Qassim University. Theodolite, leveling rod and steel tape plays an important role in measuring elevations, bearings and distances of the boundaries of a lot. Contour map is necessary to determine the traces of level surfaces of successive elevation. This will enable to identify the type of contour map and type of contour lines necessary for this project. Corel draw software is used to draw contour map and guide to interpret the significance of the variables. It is essential to check the error of closure for interior angles and for both latitude and departure before applying the Double Meridian Distance (DMD method to obtain the total area of the lot. Technical descriptions of the land such as distance, bearing, boundaries and area are necessary to visualize the shape & exact location of the land. Developing a land title will be obtained using the technical descriptions of the lot in preparation for the type of gymnasium necessary for Qassim University.

  19. Laser Ranging in Solar System: Technology Developments and New Science Measurement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mcgarry, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ranging has played a major role in geodetic studies of the Earth over the past 40 years. The technique can potentially be used in between planets and spacecrafts within the solar system to advance planetary science. For example, a direct measurement of distances between planets, such as Mars and Venus would make significant improvements in understanding the dynamics of the whole solar system, including the masses of the planets and moons, asteroids and their perturbing interactions, and the gravity field of the Sun. Compared to the conventional radio frequency (RF) tracking systems, laser ranging is potentially more accurate because it is much less sensitive to the transmission media. It is also more efficient because the laser beams are much better focused onto the targets than RF beams. However, existing laser ranging systems are all Earth centric, that is, from ground stations on Earth to orbiting satellites in near Earth orbits or lunar orbit, and to the lunar retro-reflector arrays deployed by the astronauts in the early days of lunar explorations. Several long distance laser ranging experiments have been conducted with the lidar in space, including a two-way laser ranging demonstration between Earth and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft over 24 million km, and a one way laser transmission and detection experiment over 80 million km between Earth and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the MGS spacecraft in Mars orbit. A one-way laser ranging operation has been carried out continuously from 2009 to 2014 between multiple ground stations to LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE mission has demonstrated that a two way laser ranging measurements, including both the Doppler frequency and the phase shift, can be obtained from the subcarrier or the data clocks of a high speed duplex laser communication system. Plans and concepts presently being studied suggest we may be

  20. The sustainable arable land use pattern under the tradeoff of agricultural production, economic development, and ecological protection-an analysis of Dongting Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Jiang, Xilong

    2017-11-01

    allow more space for urban expansion. This study could provide guidance for sustainable arable land use by both satisfying the future agricultural production and the local economic development, which can be used for the other major grain-producing areas in this rapid developing country.

  1. Land legislation and its impact on the development of cattle farms in the Antioquian Magdalena Medio from 1920 to 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Álvarez Múnera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Colombian agricultural sector, predominantly rural country, has combined two models: one led by rural entrepreneurs and one that has been promoted by the rural economy. The two have survived to the debate on agricultural policy that sought the legalization and use of land, access to credit and productive development in general. This historical reflection with support regional sources, a policy associate for the legalization of public lands in relation to business development in rural sector: Livestock in Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia in the first half of the twentieth century. The farm and rural production unit is understood as rural company and the landowner as an entrepreneur. In the end, it is presented the magnitude of farms in the region and period studied. This product of the doctoral thesis “Rural enterprises in Antioquia: the case of livestock in the Eastern and Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia, 1920-1960.

  2. Developing pathways to low carbon land-based passenger transport in Great Britain by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, Abigail L.; Tight, Miles; Pridmore, Alison; May, Anthony D.

    2008-01-01

    The key aim of this paper is to examine strategic pathways to low carbon personal transport in Britain and to compare these with the current trajectory of transport policy. A 2050 baseline was established using trend information, forecasts and best evidence from the literature on response to policy intervention. A range of strategies are tested including: technological development, pricing, public transport and soft measures. We conclude that even dramatic technological advance cannot meet the more stringent targets for carbon reduction in the absence of considerable behavioural change. The most promising combinations of measures involve clear price signals to encourage both a reduction in the use of motorised transport and the development and purchase of more efficient vehicles; decarbonisation of public transport and facilitating measures to enhance access whilst reducing the need for motorised travel

  3. Developing a CBA Methodology for the Scenario-Based Land-Use Impact Assessment of Proposed Rail Investments in the Leipzig Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustaoglu, Eda; Williams, Brndan; Petrov, Laura Oana

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a methodological approach to be utilised for the evaluation of transport-land-use impacts of rapid rail investments in the Leipzig Region with the potential for this approach to be used for other European regions. Various land development scenarios are generated from the MOLAN...

  4. Development of GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Weng Puyu; Chen Mingjun; Hu Zunsu; Huang Chenguang; Lei Jindian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the main design features and basic properties of a GM tube electronic personal dosimeter with wide range and multi-purposes. the dosimeter can display dose-rate or accumulative dose or the maximum dose-rate, record accumulative dose and the maximum dose-rate as well as the time of its appearance and at most 160 historical dose values within 8 h. All recorded data can directly be sent to PC by the infrared communication

  5. Global achievements in sustainable land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Motavalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification and development of sustainable land management is urgently required because of widespread resource degradation from poor land use practices. In addition, the world will need to increase food production to meet the nutritional needs of a growing global population without major environmental degradation. Ongoing climate change and its impacts on the environment is an additional factor to consider in identifying and developing sustainable land use practices. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 provide a background to the need for sustainable land management, (2 identify some of its major components, and (3 discuss some examples of sustainable land management systems that are being practiced around the world. Some common components of this type of management are: (1 understanding the ecology of land management, (2 maintenance or enhancement of land productivity, (3 maintenance of soil quality, (4 increased diversity for higher stability and resilience, (5 provision of economic and ecosystem service benefits for communities, and (6 social acceptability. Several examples of sustainable land management systems are discussed to illustrate the wide range of systems that have been developed around the world including agroforestry, conservation agriculture, and precision agricultural systems. Improved technology, allowing for geater environmental measurement and for improved access and sharing of information, provides opportunities to identify and develop more sustainable land management practices and systems for the future.

  6. Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.

    2017-01-01

    LVT is a framework developed to provide an automated, consolidated environment for systematic land surface model evaluation Includes support for a range of in-situ, remote-sensing and other model and reanalysis products. Supports the analysis of outputs from various LIS subsystems, including LIS-DA, LIS-OPT, LIS-UE. Note: The Land Information System Verification Toolkit (LVT) is a NASA software tool designed to enable the evaluation, analysis and comparison of outputs generated by the Land Information System (LIS). The LVT software is released under the terms and conditions of the NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA) Version 1.1 or later. Land Information System Verification Toolkit (LVT) NOSA.

  7. Development of an Integrated GIS and Land Use Planning Course: Impacts of Hybrid Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an action research undertaken at Queensland University of Technology. It evaluates the effectiveness of the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) within the substantive domains of an existing land use planning course in 2011. Using student performance, learning experience survey, and questionnaire survey data, it…

  8. Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands: Data and Resources for Tribes (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.

  9. 23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., transportation, safety, economic development, social and environmental effects, or energy) that were relevant to... time of adoption, that provides for the development and implementation of the multimodal transportation... consultation with affected non-metropolitan officials with responsibility for transportation using the State's...

  10. Transport Improvements and Impacts on Land Use Dynamics and Economic Development: Evidence for the Dublin-Belfast Corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Brendan; Foley, Walter; Shahumyan, Harutyun

    2016-01-01

    Transport infrastructure improvements are frequently dealt without adequate consideration of land use management issues. Theoretically this would not appear to be consistent with urban economic theory which prioritises the critical role that transportation plays in all urban economic spatial land...... and planning systems need to be better aligned. In this paper we examine policy evolution and recent policy outcomes and trends in the Belfast-Dublin corridor in light of the major infrastructure investment which occurred based upon official data within the time period mid 1990s (when many investments...... commenced) to 2012 (completion and use of those investments). It will investigate recent trends in terms of emerging economic development patterns since the creation of the M1 motorway and improved rail links. The research will incorporate spatial analytic modelling of current and future development trends...

  11. A methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have shown that it is feasible to design a methodology that can provide suitable guidelines for operational production of small scale rural land use maps of semiarid developing regions from LANDSAT MSS imagery, using inexpensive and unsophisticated visual techniques. The suggested methodology provides immediate practical benefits to map makers attempting to produce land use maps in countries with limited budgets and equipment. Many preprocessing and interpretation techniques were considered, but rejected on the grounds that they were inappropriate mainly due to the high cost of imagery and/or equipment, or due to their inadequacy for use in operational projects in the developing countries. Suggested imagery and interpretation techniques, consisting of color composites and monocular magnification proved to be the simplest, fastest, and most versatile methods.

  12. Planning Review: Developments and Planning Issues of Land Use Control in Suburban Areas by Local Government’s Ordinances in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mashima, Toshimitsu; Kawakami, Mitsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to clarify how changes in the legal system combined with changing social, economic, and environmental pressures have affected approaches taken for land use control. Our emphasis is on how historical transitions in the legal system, particularly in the use of local government ordinances (Development Permission Ordinances and voluntary ordinances concerning land use management) have contributed to land use control in suburban areas. Our results show that because of the revision ...

  13. Development of a national geodatabase (Greece) for soil surveys and land evaluation using space technology and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilas, George; Dionysiou, Nina; Karapetsas, Nikolaos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Kosmas, Konstantinos; Misopollinos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    This project was funded by OPEKEPE, Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food, Greece and involves development of a national geodatabase and a WebGIS that encompass soil data of all the agricultural areas of Greece in order to supply the country with a multi-purpose master plan for agricultural land management. The area mapped covered more than 385,000 ha divided in more than 9.000 Soil Mapping Units (SMUs) based on physiographic analysis, field work and photo interpretation of satellite images. The field work included description and sampling in three depths (0-30, 30-60 and >60 cm) of 2,000 soil profiles and 8,000 augers (sampling 0-30 and >30 cm). In total more than 22,000 soil samples were collected and analyzed for determining main soil properties associated with soil classification and soil evaluation. Additionally the project included (1) integration of all data in the Soil Geodatabase, (2) finalization of SMUs, (3) development of a Master Plan for Agricultural Land Management and (4) development and operational testing of the Web Portal for e-information and e-services. The integrated system is expected, after being fully operational, to provide important electronic services and benefits to farmers, private sector and governmental organizations. An e-book with the soil maps of Greece was also provided including 570 sheets with data description and legends. The Master Plan for Agricultural Land Management includes soil quality maps for 30 agricultural crops, together with maps showing soil degradation risks, such as erosion, desertification, salinity and nitrates, thus providing the tools for soil conservation and sustainable land management.

  14. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon. I: Spatial variation and land use

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud, MA; El-Fadel, M; Scrimshaw, MDirector; Lester, JN

    2006-01-01

    Surface water bodies are progressively subject to increasing stress as a result of environmentally degrading processes primarily related to anthropogenic activities. This study assesses and examines the impact of land use and anthropogenic activities on the spatial variation in water quality of the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon. It is the first detailed study of its kind in Lebanon and adds to the existing Knowledge by shedding light on a relatively small Mediterranean river in a developing...

  15. Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne B. Stevens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and as such is required to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the Energy, Transport, Waste and the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sectors every two years in national inventories. The AFOLU sector is unique in that it comprises both sources and sinks for GHGs. Emissions from the AFOLU sector are estimated to contribute a quarter of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. GHG emissions sources from agriculture include enteric fermentation; manure management; manure deposits on pastures, and soil fertilization. Emissions sources from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU include anthropogenic land use activities such as: management of croplands, forests and grasslands and changes in land use cover (the conversion of one land use to another. South Africa has improved the quantification of AFOLU emissions and the understanding of the dynamic relationship between sinks and sources over the past decade through projects such as the 2010 GHG Inventory, the Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA, and the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA. These projects highlight key mitigation opportunities in South Africa and discuss their potentials. The problem remains that South Africa does not have an emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector against which the mitigation potentials can be measured. The AFOLU sector as a result is often excluded from future emission projections, giving an incomplete picture of South Africa’s mitigation potential. The purpose of this project was to develop a robust GHG emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector which will enable South Africa to project emissions into the future and demonstrate its contribution towards the global goal of reducing emissions.

  16. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. Part 6: A low-cost method for land use mapping using simple visual techniques of interpretation. [Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that color composite transparencies and monocular magnification provided the best base for land use interpretation. New methods for determining optimum sample sizes and analyzing interpretation accuracy levels were developed. All stages of the methodology were assessed, in the operational sense, during the production of a 1:250,000 rural land use map of Murcia Province, Southeast Spain.

  17. Development of a conceptual framework of holistic risk assessment - Landfill as a particular type of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, T E; Javadi, A A; Nunns, M A; Beal, C D

    2016-11-01

    Landfills can be regarded as a particular type of contaminated land that has a potential to directly and indirectly pollute all of the four main spheres of the environment which are the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and eventually adversely impact the biosphere. Therefore, environmental risk assessment of a landfill has to be more integrated and holistic by virtue of its nature of being a multidimensional pollutant source. Despite this, although various risk assessment approaches have been adopted for landfill waste disposal sites, there are still wide-ranging knowledge gaps and limitations which need to be addressed. One important knowledge gap and limitation of current risk assessment approaches is the inability to fully identify, categorise and aggregate all individual risks from all combinations of hazards, pathways and targets/receptors (e.g. water, air, soil and biota) in connection to a certain landfill leachate and yet at any stage of the landfill cycle. So such an approach is required that could not only integrate all possible characteristics of varying scenarios but also contain the ability to establish an overall risk picture, irrespective of the lifecycle stage of the landfill (e.g. planning stage/pre-operation, in-operation or post-operation/closed). One such approach to address the wide-breadth of landfill impact risks is by developing a more holistic risk assessment methodology, whose conceptual framework is presented in this paper for landfill leachate in a whole-system format. This conceptual framework does not only draw together various constituting factors and sub-factors of risk assessment in a logical sequence and categorical order, but also indicates the "what, why, when and how" outputs of and inputs to these factors and sub-factors can be useful. The framework is designed to identify and quantify a range of risks associated with all stages of the landfill lifecycle, and yet in a more streamlined, logical, categorical and integrated

  18. Injection seeded, diode pumped regenerative ring Nd:YAG amplifier for spaceborne laser ranging technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Degnan, John J.; Krebs, Danny J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1992-01-01

    A small, all solid state, regenerative ring amplifier designed as a prototype for space application is discussed. Novel features include dual side pumping of the Nd:YAG crystal and a triangular ring cavity design which minimizes the number of optical components and losses. The amplifier is relatively small (3 ns round trip time) even though standard optical elements are employed. The ring regeneratively amplifies a 100 ps single pulse by approximately 10(exp 5) at a repetition rate of 10 to 100 Hz. The amplifier is designed to be injection seeded with a pulsed, 100 ps laser diode at 1.06 microns, but another Nd:YAG laser system supplying higher pulse energies was employed for laboratory experiment. This system is a prototype laser oscillator for the Geoscience Laser Ranging System (GLRS) platform. Results on measurements of beam quality, astigmatism, and gain are given.

  19. Long-Range Socio-Economic Forecasting of World Development in the Works by IMEMO RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov D. V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of papers by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAS on long-term socio-economic forecasting of global development. The forecasting methodology is shown, its capabilities and limitations, as well as the structure, main results and characteristics of the forecasts made by IMEMO RAS since early 2000s. The «Strategic Global Outlook for 2030» has acquired features of an interdisciplinary research, and has been developed based on a system analysis of objective socio-economic indicators, long-term global and regional socio-demographic trends, and expert assessment of the future dynamics of the political situation in individual countries and in intergovernmental relations. This methodology allowed the focus to be placed primarily on the stable trends of development in the world economy and the system of international relations, their actors, structures and institutions

  20. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments are described: effectiveness of a moisture barrier and the physical basis for capillary barriers; trench cap designs for long term stabilization including biointrusion barrier testing; and joint DOE/NRC tracer migration experiment. In the first, a barrier concept known as the wick effect is being field tested to control the movement of water on top of and around shallow land burial trenches. The barrier is composed of bentonite and tuff. In the second, the performance is measured of a conventional and an improved trench cover design on surface water dynamics, in limiting biological intrusion, and under both natural and enhanced precipitation regimes. The third experiment evaluates leaching and transport of solutes in sandy silt backfill used in shallow land burial at Los Alamos and compares results with laboratory-derived parameter estimates. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  1. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  2. Development of a digital land cover data base for the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Kirk, William

    1994-01-01

    Digital land cover and terrain data of the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems Alaska Field Office for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. These and other environmental data were incorporated into a Fish and Wildlife Service geographic information system to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan and an environmental impact statement for the refuge and to assist in research and management of the refuge.

  3. Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    disabling the armor accompanying the force at a rapid pace. After nearly two hours of continuous attempts to extract forces from the beach, radio...the heavy surf . These factors, combined with the lack of integration between the ground maneuver plan and naval gunfire support, resulted in the...from the beaches due to the surf , causing slight delays that had little effect on the course of the landings and subsequent actions. At Yellow Beach

  4. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa A.; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  5. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  6. Agricultural Intensification in the Brazilian Agricultural-Forest Frontier: Land Use Responses to Development and Conservation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, R.; Koh, I.; le Polain de Waroux, Y.; Lambin, E.; Kastens, J.; Brown, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural expansion, extensive cattle ranching, and deforestation remain pressing challenges for sustainable development and climate mitigation throughout South America. In response to these challenges, national and local governments, as well as private and non-governmental actors have developed new forest conservation governance mechanisms. The objective of this study is to better understand how conservation policies interact with supply chain development to influence land use. In particular, we endeavor to understand the timing and spatial patterns of crop and cattle intensification, an understudied phenomenon that is critical to understanding the future of agricultural-forest frontiers and the impacts of conservation policies. We focus on Mato Grosso, the largest soy and cattle producing state in Brazil, which spans the Cerrado and Amazon biomes and has experienced higher levels of deforestation for agricultural expansion than any other state globally over the last decade. Using a newly created spatially explicit data set of land use intensity, supply chain development, and forest policy, we find that agricultural intensification is occurring rapidly in the region, but is only partially driven by changes in conservation policies. The intensification of cattle production is the result of improvements in deforestation monitoring, penalties, and enforcement, and increased land scarcity. Crop intensification, in contrast, preceded increases in conservation restrictions, and is associated with the positive spillovers resulting from agribusiness agglomeration and development. These results suggest that intensification is not a foregone conclusion of increasing forest conservation restrictions, but is highly dependent on wider development processes. A combined effort to direct agribusiness development away from forest regions via tax credits and subsidized credit, when applied in concert with stringent conservation requirements, could help promote intensification

  7. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  8. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  9. New protocetid whale from the middle eocene of pakistan: birth on land, precocial development, and sexual dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Gingerich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protocetidae are middle Eocene (49-37 Ma archaeocete predators ancestral to later whales. They are found in marine sedimentary rocks, but retain four legs and were not yet fully aquatic. Protocetids have been interpreted as amphibious, feeding in the sea but returning to land to rest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two adult skeletons of a new 2.6 meter long protocetid, Maiacetus inuus, are described from the early middle Eocene Habib Rahi Formation of Pakistan. M. inuus differs from contemporary archaic whales in having a fused mandibular symphysis, distinctive astragalus bones in the ankle, and a less hind-limb dominated postcranial skeleton. One adult skeleton is female and bears the skull and partial skeleton of a single large near-term fetus. The fetal skeleton is positioned for head-first delivery, which typifies land mammals but not extant whales, evidence that birth took place on land. The fetal skeleton has permanent first molars well mineralized, which indicates precocial development at birth. Precocial development, with attendant size and mobility, were as critical for survival of a neonate at the land-sea interface in the Eocene as they are today. The second adult skeleton is the most complete known for a protocetid. The vertebral column, preserved in articulation, has 7 cervicals, 13 thoracics, 6 lumbars, 4 sacrals, and 21 caudals. All four limbs are preserved with hands and feet. This adult is 12% larger in linear dimensions than the female skeleton, on average, has canine teeth that are 20% larger, and is interpreted as male. Moderate sexual dimorphism indicates limited male-male competition during breeding, which in turn suggests little aggregation of food or shelter in the environment inhabited by protocetids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Discovery of a near-term fetus positioned for head-first delivery provides important evidence that early protocetid whales gave birth on land. This is consistent with skeletal

  10. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume IV. The environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Many Indian tribes own rich deposits of very valuable energy resources. Existing and proposed uses of these tribal resources range from limited development of small oil and gas fields to large-scale extraction and conversion of coal, uranium, and oil shale. The adverse environmental impacts of such projects may create a conflict between a tribe's environmental policies and its economic, employment, and other long-term goals. The purpose of this volume is to provide tribal decision makers with reference documents on the mechanisms that are available to resolve such conflicts. This report focuses on the role of existing environmental laws in enabling tribes to achieve the needed balance among its objectives. Over a dozen major Federal statutes have been enacted to achieve this purpose. One law, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), provides procedures to ensure that environmental factors are included in the Federal decision-making process. Numerous other laws, such as the Clean Air Act, have been enacted to prevent or control any negative environmental impacts of actual projects. This volume documents the key provisions of the laws and regulations, and discusses their effectiveness in meeting total needs. Also, tribal options to strengthen these mechanisms are highlighted. Sections II and III report on the role of NEPA in tribal development decisions. Section IV reviews those laws and regulations that control project operations.

  11. Sphagnum peatland development at their southern climatic range in West Siberia: trends and peat accumulation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregon, Anna; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    A region of western Siberia is vulnerable to the predicted climatic change which may induce an important modification to the carbon balance in wetland ecosystems. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of peat (carbon) accumulation and its patterns at the southern climatic range of Sphagnum peatlands in western Siberia. Visible and physical features of peat and detailed reconstructions of successional change (or sediment stratigraphies) were analysed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are situated close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. Our results suggest that Siberian peatlands exhibit a general trend towards being a carbon sink rather than a source even at or near the southern limit of their distribution. Furthermore, two types of peat accumulation were detected in the study area, namely persistent and intermittent. As opposed to persistent peat accumulation, the intermittent one is characterized by the recurrent degradation of the upper peat layers at the marginal parts of raised bogs. Persistent peat accumulation is the case for the majority of Sphagnum peatlands under current climatic conditions. It might be assumed that more peat will accumulate under the 'increased precipitation' scenarios of global warming, although intermittent peat accumulation could result in the eventual drying that may change peatlands from carbon sinks to carbon sources

  12. Development of disposable membrane hydrophones for a frequency range from 1MHz to 10MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Wan; Ohm, Won-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-11-01

    A method for fabricating disposable membrane hydrophones is presented. The disposable hydrophones are intended for onetime use in such damaging environments as chemically contaminating fluids and high-amplitude (peak amplitude ∼100MPa) shock wave fields, where the use of commercial membrane hydrophones is not recommended. Fabrication of a hydrophone is done using only off-the-shelf components and hand tools, which translates into ease of fabrication and orders-of-magnitude reduction in unit cost. In particular, poling and sputtering, the two processes that are chiefly responsible for the cost and difficulty associated with the conventional fabrication method, are replaced with the use of pre-poled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-coated aluminum foils, respectively. Despite the seemingly crude construction, these disposable hydrophones can exhibit voltage sensitivity response that compares favorably with that of commercial hydrophones. For example, one prototype having a 2mm×2mm active element shows the end-of-cable voltage sensitivity of -270 (±1.9) dB re 1V/μPa over the frequency range of 1-10MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...... on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... downscaling procedure based on expert-judgement and pairwise comparison is presented to obtain quantitative socio-economic parameters, e.g. prices and productivity estimates that are input to the ACCELERATES integrated land use model. In the first step, the global driving forces are identified and quantified...

  14. Future hydrological alterations in the Mekong Delta under the impact of water resources development, land subsidence and sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duc Dang

    2018-02-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Depending on hydrological characteristics of each region (river-dominated, transitional or tidal, the influence of each potential driver may vary. The operation of proposed hydropower dams would change river-dominated upper floodplain’s water levels by 26 to 70% and −0.8 to −5.9% in the dry and wet season respectively, but the impact diminishes throughout the floodplains. In the wet season, the upper Vietnamese Delta changes from a transitional stage to a river-dominated stage, and localized water infrastructure development in the upper delta has the greatest effect on water levels in the region. Land subsidence combined with sea level rise could have the greatest future influence on flooding in the delta if current rates are extrapolated. Sustainable water management strategies are thus necessary to mitigate changes in the floodplains and delta and increase resilience to sea level rise and land subsidence.

  15. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  16. Land use change and conversion effects on ground water quality trends: An integration of land change modeler in GIS and a new Ground Water Quality Index developed by fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtarian, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Margherita, Ferrante; Gea, Oliveri Conti; Mortezazadeh, Shima

    2018-04-01

    This study aggregated Land Change Modeller (LCM) as a useful model in GIS with an extended Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) developed by fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models to investigate the effect of land use change and conversion on groundwater quality being supplied for drinking. The model's performance was examined through an applied study in Shiraz, Iran, in a five year period (2011 to 2015). Four land use maps including urban, industrial, garden, and bare were employed in LCM model and the impact of change in area and their conversion to each other on GWQI changes was analysed. The correlation analysis indicated that increase in the urban land use area and conversion of bare to the residential/industrial land uses, had a relation with water quality decrease. Integration of LCM and GWQI can accurately and logically provide a numerical analysis of the possible impact of land use change and conversion, as one of the influencing factors, on the groundwater quality. Hence, the methodology could be used in urban development planning and management in macro level. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Development of ductile long-range ordered alloys for fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    A series of Fe-base ordered alloys with compositions (Fe,Ni,Co) 3 V are developed for fusion reactor applications. The alloys from cubic ordered structure similar to AuCu 3 below their critical ordering temperature. The alloys in the ordered state are ductile with elongation in excess of 35% at room temperture. Tensile tests of the ordered alloys at elevated temperatures indicate an unusually attractive mechanical behavior. Their strength, instead of decreasing as with conventional alloys, increases with temperature because of ordering effects. As a result, the ordered alloys are much stronger than 316 stainless steel, particularly at elevated temperatures

  18. Development of a flat-field spectrometer with a wideband Ni/C multilayer grating in the 1–3.5 keV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imazono, Takashi [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7, Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0216 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    To develop a flat-field spectrometer with coverage of the 1–3.5 keV range, a wideband Ni/C multilayer grating was invented. The multilayer consists of two kinds of layer structures. One is a conventional periodic multilayer of thickness D{sub 1} = 5.6 nm, Ni thickness ratio to the multilayer period γ{sub 1} = 0.5 and the number of layers N{sub 1} = 79. Both the first and last layers are Ni. The other is a C/Ni bilayer of D{sub 2} = 8.4 nm, γ{sub 2} = 0.53 and N{sub 2} = 2. The first layer is C and then Ni. The aperiodic multilayer from the topmost C/Ni bilayer was coated on a laminar-type grating having an effective grating constant of 1/2400 mm, groove depth of 2.8 nm, and duty ratio (land width/groove period) of 0.5. In a preliminary experiment, the diffraction efficiency was in excess of 0.8% in the energy range of 2.1-3.3 keV and the maximum of 5.4% at 3.1 keV at a constant angle of incidence of 88.54°, which is considerably higher than that of an Au-coated grating before deposition of the multilayer.

  19. Soil health in the Mediterranean region: Development and consolidation of a multifactor index to characterize the health of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eshel; Guy, Levy; Oshri, Rinot; Michael, Borisover; Uri, Yermiyahu; Leah, Tsror; Hanan, Eizenberg; Tal, Svoray; Alex, Furman; Yael, Mishael; Yosef, Steinberger

    2017-04-01

    that are difficult to control), soil-borne diseases, and pesticide fixation and release. We, a group of more than ten Israeli scientists, have recently started a multidisciplinary study aimed at developing and consolidating a multiparameter soil-health index to characterize the health of agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions. Such an index will enable us to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of different cultivation managements and reclamation activities. In order to achieve our goal, a three steps approach was adopted: 1) acquiring a multivariate component database (about 42 variables) that will be quantified in the laboratory and in the fields in two soil types of the most important agricultural region of Israel, at three different soil usage: orchard, field crops and "native" as a reference. The acquired biological, physical, and chemical variables comprise basic quantitative values in the soil health of agricultural land; (2) developing a multivariate soil-health index based on a multivariate correlation, in addition to conducting meetings with farmers and panel discussions with other scientists in the field. The whole study angled to evaluate the relative contribution of each of the biotic and abiotic parameters in order to develop a model related to soil health; and (3) to validate the efficiency of the developed index for characterizing and assessing soil-health state at the various agricultural regions in Israel where conservation and reclamation activities took place. We are open to extend our study to other areas with a Mediterranean climate and look forward to establishing cooperative activities with other research groups.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  1. Development of deforestation and land cover database for Bhutan (1930-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Satish, K V; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Murthy, Y V N Krishna; Dadhwal, V K

    2016-12-01

    Bhutan is a mountainous country located in the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. This study has quantified the total area under land cover types, estimated the rate of forest cover change, analyzed the changes across forest types, and modeled forest cover change hotpots in Bhutan. The topographical maps and satellite remote sensing images were analyzed to get the spatial patterns of forest and associated land cover changes over the past eight decades (1930-1977-1987-1995-2005-2014). Forest is the largest land cover in Bhutan and constitutes 68.3% of the total geographical area in 2014. Subtropical broad leaved hill forest is predominant type occupies 34.1% of forest area in Bhutan, followed by montane dry temperate (20.9%), montane wet temperate (18.9%), Himalayan moist temperate (10%), and tropical moist sal (8.1%) in 2014. The major forest cover loss is observed in subtropical broad leaved hill forest (64.5 km 2 ) and moist sal forest (9.9 km 2 ) from 1977 to 2014. The deforested areas have mainly been converted into agriculture and contributed for 60.9% of forest loss from 1930 to 2014. In spite of major decline of forest cover in time interval of 1930-1977, there is no net rate of deforestation is recorded in Bhutan since 1995. Forest cover change analysis has been carried out to evaluate the conservation effectiveness in "Protected Areas" of Bhutan. Hotspots that have undergone high transformation in forest cover for afforestation and deforestation were highlighted in the study for conservation prioritisation. Forest conservation policies in Bhutan are highly effective in controlling deforestation as compared to neighboring Asian countries and such service would help in mitigating climate change.

  2. The association of visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing with ankle dorsiflexion range-of-motion and hip abductor muscle strength among healthy female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Einstein, Ofira; Kozol, Zvi

    2018-05-01

    To explore the association between ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), and hip abductor muscle strength, to visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing. Cross-sectional. Gymnasium of participating teams. 37 female volleyball players. Quality of movement in the frontal-plane, sagittal-plane, and overall (both planes) was visually rated as "good/moderate" or "poor". Weight-bearing Ankle DF ROM and hip abductor muscle strength were compared between participants with differing quality of movement. Weight-bearing DF ROM on both sides was decreased among participants with "poor" sagittal-plane quality of movement (dominant side: 50.8° versus 43.6°, P = .02; non-dominant side: 54.6° versus 45.9°, P = .01), as well as among participants with an overall "poor" quality of movement (dominant side: 51.8° versus 44.0°, P movement (53.9° versus 46.0°, P = .02). No differences in hip abductor muscle strength were noted between participants with differing quality of movement. Visual assessment of jump-landing can detect differences in quality of movement that are associated with ankle DF ROM. Clinicians observing a poor quality of movement may wish to assess ankle DF ROM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Land use, environmental change, and sustainable development: The role of institutional diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Young

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the “tragedy of the commons” is common currency in popular accounts of problems arising in human-environment relations, empirical research has shown that common-property systems do not always lead to tragic outcomes. Moreover, systems of private property or public property, often proposed as solutions to the tragedy of the commons, can generate tragedies of their own that are equally severe. The challenge we face is to develop strategies for avoiding these tragedies featuring structures of property rights that are most likely to lead to sustainable outcomes in specific situations ranging from local communities reliant on the harvest of renewable resources to the global system facing the prospect of climate change. Successful governance systems typically involve regulatory, top-down strategies, normative, bottom-up strategies, or some combination of the two. What is needed to achieve sustainable results is a­ diagnostic approach that matches institutions to specific biophysical and socioeconomic conditions in contrast to an ideological approach that advocates the application of one system of property rights to all situations.

  4. Development and characterization of real-time wide-energy range personal neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tsujimura, Norio (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center); Yamano, Toshiya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Okamoto, Eisuke

    1994-04-01

    The authors developed a real-time personal neutron dosimeter which could give neutron dose equivalent over wide energy region from thermal to 10 odd MeV by using 2 silicon detectors, fast neutron sensor and slow neutron sensor. The energy response of this dosimeter was evaluated under thermal neutron field, monoenergetic neutron field between 200 keV and 15 MeV, and moderated [sup 252]Cf neutron field. The neutron dose equivalent was estimated by adding neutron dose equivalent below 1 MeV given by slow neutron sensor and that above 1 MeV by fast neutron sensor. It was verified from various field tests that this dosimeter is able to give neutron dose equivalent within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy in reactor, accelerator, fusion research and nuclear fuel handling facilities. This dosimeter has more than one order higher sensitivity than conventional personal neutron dosimeters and is insensitive to [gamma]-rays up to about 500 mSv/h. This dosimeter will soon be commercially available as a personal dosimeter which gives neutron and [gamma]-ray dose equivalents simultaneously by installing [gamma]-ray silicon sensor. (author).

  5. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-05

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon.

  6. Spectral-analysis-based extraction of land disturbances arising from oil and gas development in diverse landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lantz, Nicholas; Guindon, Bert; Jiao, Xianfen

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and frequent monitoring of land surface changes arising from oil and gas exploration and extraction is a key requirement for the responsible and sustainable development of these resources. Petroleum deposits typically extend over large geographic regions but much of the infrastructure required for oil and gas recovery takes the form of numerous small-scale features (e.g., well sites, access roads, etc.) scattered over the landscape. Increasing exploitation of oil and gas deposits will increase the presence of these disturbances in heavily populated regions. An object-based approach is proposed to utilize RapidEye satellite imagery to delineate well sites and related access roads in diverse complex landscapes, where land surface changes also arise from other human activities, such as forest logging and agriculture. A simplified object-based change vector approach, adaptable to operational use, is introduced to identify the disturbances on land based on red-green spectral response and spatial attributes of candidate object size and proximity to roads. Testing of the techniques has been undertaken with RapidEye multitemporal imagery in two test sites located at Alberta, Canada: one was a predominant natural forest landscape and the other landscape dominated by intensive agricultural activities. Accuracies of 84% and 73%, respectively, have been achieved for the identification of well site and access road infrastructure of the two sites based on fully automated processing. Limited manual relabeling of selected image segments can improve these accuracies to 95%.

  7. Determining an appropriate method for the purpose of land allocation for ecotourism development (case study: Taleghan County, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, H; Kafaky, S Babaie; Saffari, A; Monavari, S M

    2016-11-01

    Appropriate management and planning of suitable areas for the development of ecotourism activities can play an important role in ensuring proper use of the environment. Due to the complexity of nature, applying different tools and models-particularly multi-criteria methods-can be useful in order to achieve these goals. In this study, to indicate suitable areas (land allocation) for ecotourism activities in Taleghan county, weighted linear combination (WLC) using geographical information system (GIS), fuzzy logic, and analytical network process (ANP) were used. To compare the applicability of each of these methods in achieving the goal, the results were compared with the previous model presented by Makhdoum. The results showed that the WLC and ANP methods are more efficient than the Makhdoum model in allocating lands for recreational areas and ecotourism purposes since concomitant use of fuzzy logic and ANP for ranking and weighing the criteria provides us with more flexible and logical conditions. Furthermore, the mentioned method makes it possible to involve ecological, economic, and social criteria simultaneously in the evaluation process in order to allocate land for ecotourism purposes.

  8. Implications of the regional haze rule on renewable and wind energy development on native American lands in the west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, T.L.; Auberle, W.M.; Duque, E.P.N.; Jeffery, W.D.; LaRoche, D.R.; Masayesva, V.; Smith, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    A study conducted at Northern Arizona University investigated the barriers and opportunities facing Native American tribes in the West when considering development of their renewable energy resources in order to reduce regional haze. This article summarizes some of the findings of that work with special attention to wind energy. Background information is presented concerning the Regional Haze Rule and the Western Regional Air Partnership, and some of the circumstances surrounding development of tribal energy resources. An assessment of tribal energy issues revealed that many Native American tribes are interested in developing their renewable resources. However, this development should occur within the context of maintaining and strengthening their cultural, social, economic and political integrity. Furthermore, it is shown that Native American lands possess an abundant wind resource. A list of potential actions in which tribes may participate prior to or during development of their wind or renewable resources is provided. (author)

  9. Report on the Development of a Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) Educational Technician Program (Museum and Archive Use).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelin, Joel

    A close range photogrammetry (CRP) technician training program was developed at Miami-Dade Community College and used to teach the technology to 16 students. Although the results of the study show that it is possible to teach CRP in a two-year program, the technology is too new in the United States to support a sustaining educational program. The…

  10. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Land Management Practices and the Development of Marshlands to Rice Fields in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabimana, M. R.; Blach, D.; Mwiza, F.; Muzungu, E.; Swaminathan, R.; Tate, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Rwanda, a small country with the highest population density in Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the world's poorest countries. Although agriculture is the backbone of Rwandan economy, agricultural productivity is extremely low. Over 90 % of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and only 52 % of the total land surface area is arable. Of this land, approximately 165,000 hectares are marshlands, of which only 57 % has been cultivated. Rwandan government has invested in the advancement of agriculture with activities such as irrigation, marshland reclamation, and crop regionalization. In 2001, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) released the Rural Sector Support Program (RSSP), which aimed at converting marshlands into rice fields at various development sites across the country. The focus of this project was to monitor rice fields in Rwanda utilizing NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager. Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to depict the progress of marshland to rice field conversion as it highlights the presence of irrigated rice fields from the surrounding area. Additionally, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used to estimate rice yield at RSSP sites. Various simulations were run to find perfect conditions for cultivating the highest yield for a given farm. Furthermore, soil erosion susceptibility masks were created by combining factors derived from ASTER, MERRA, and ground truth data using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The end results, maps, and tutorials were delivered to the partners and policy makers in Rwanda to help make informed decisions. It can be clearly seen that Earth observations can be successfully used to monitor agricultural and land management practices as a cost effective method that will enable farmers to improve crop yield production and food security.

  11. NERIS workshop. Lasting contaminations and land development. After Fukushima: the possibility of a lasting radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The document contains the contributions proposed during a workshop and the content of discussions after these contributions. For the first day, case studies are thus reported and commented: land contamination in Japan after the Fukushima accident, the CENTRACO plant accident, medium and long term stakes within the context of a lasting contamination by pesticides (the case of chlordecone pollution in the French West Indies), the complex and multiple actor challenges in the case of long duration radiological contamination for land agriculture, a lasting contamination in urban environment (the case of Metaleurop). The second session addressed the conditions and means for preparedness of local actors to a lasting radioactive contamination: the Norwegian approach, how to take the post-accidental perspective into account in the local safeguard plans, the PRIME project (research project on radio-ecological sensitivity indices and multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial territory), the pilot radiation protection project of the Montbeliard district, the OPAL project (to provide the local information commissions with post-accidental zoning information on the different French nuclear sites)

  12. A COMBINED FUZZY MCDM APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING THE SUITABLE LANDS FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT: AN EXAMPLE FROM BANDAR ABBS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dadras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the suitable lands for urban dev elopment in Bandar Abbas city based on its real world use regarding specific crite ria and sub-criteria. The city of Bandar Abbas is considered as the most important commer cial and economic city of Iran. It is also considered as one of the major cities of Iran which has played a pivotal role in the country's development and progress in recen t years especially after the end of Iran-Iraq war owing to its embracing the country's m ain commercial ports. This process has caused the immigration rate into the city to rise significantly over the past 20 years. Thus, the development of the city is meanwhile c onsidered as a high priority. Bandar Abbas city does not have a rich capacity for g rowth and development due to its special geographical situation being located in coastal border. Among the limitations placed in the city's development way, natural limit ations (heights and sea shore in the northern and southern parts of the city and struc tural limitations (military centers in the east and west sides of the city may be referred . Therefore, identifying the suitable lands for urban development within Bandar Abbas city l imits is becoming an essential priority. Therefore, d ifferent quantitative and quali tative criteria have been studied in order to select and identify these lands. The struct ures of qualitative criteria for most parts involve ambiguities and vagueness. This leads us to use Fuzzy logic in this study as a natural method for determining the solutions fo r problems of Multi- criteria decision making (MCDM. In the current research, a com bination of MCDM methods has been presented for analysis. To assignee weights of the criteria Fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process is used for land selection and Fuzzy TOPSIS (method for order priority by similarity to ideal solution is utilized to choose the alternative that is the most appropriate through these criteria weights. The

  13. Potential Economic and Development Prospects of Non Timber Forest Products in Community Agroforestry Land around Sibolangit Tourism Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oding Affandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The communities who live around Sibolangit Tourism Park have developed nontimber forest products (NTFP in their own agroforestry lands. This research evaluates the potential economic and development prospects from NTFP development in the Park by examining: (1 type of NTFP and economic value from community agrofrestry land, (2 contribution of NTFPs on household income, (3 development prospects of NTFP-based agroforestry around Sibolangit Tourism Park. The research was conducted in two selected villages around Sibolangit Tourism Park: Sembahe Village and Batu Mbelin Village. The research took place over a period between June and August 2016. Research data was obtained from in-depth interviews and observations. A descriptive method was used to analyze and describe facts related to the research aims. The type of NTFPs cultivated by communities at the research sites include mangosteen, durian, garcinia, candlenut, lanzones, lansium, bitter bean, and areca nut (as their forestry component and ginger, turmeric, chili, papaya, etlingera, and banana (as the agriculture component. Most NTFPs are cultivated as a comercial product. The economic value of NTFPs in Batu Mbelin Village has reached Rp. 547,275,000/year or contribute 80.07% of total family income. Meanwhile, the economic value of NTFPs in Sembahe Village has reached Rp 682,100,000/year, contributing to 78.75% of total household income. Therefore, the prospects for supporting and expanding NTFP in agroforestry plots in and around Sibolangit Tourism Park has high potential for supporting household income

  14. Land cover classification using reformed fuzzy C-means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper uses segmentation based on unsupervised clustering techniques for classification of land cover. ∗ ... and unsupervised classification can be solved by FCM. ..... They also act as input to the development and monitoring of a range of ...

  15. Land development assessment on the preserved Al Somalia Island/UAE using multi-temporal aerial photographs and GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to apply the most appropriate change detection techniques to assess land development achievements on Al Sammalyah Island, off the coast of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates capital city. This was accomplished by mapping trajectory of land cover change of the whole island between 1999 and 2005. Another objective was to assess the level of development that occurred on the island and the level of change in the local environment. Available historical large scale aerial photographs from the late nineties to the most recent 2005 were used for the multi temporal study. Geographic information systems (GIS) layers were created by on-screen digitizing of corrected and co-registered images. A GIS overlay analysis combined with post classification change detection method analysis schema was adopted. Results of the current study demonstrate intense land development occurring on the Al Sammalyah Island; vegetation cover extent has increased from 3.742 km/sup 2/ (1.44 miles/sup 2/) in 1999 to 5.101 km/sup 2/ (1.97 miles/sup 2/) in 2005 that corresponds to 36.3% increase over this period. The study also shows that this increase in vegetation extent is mostly attributed to the increase in mangrove planted areas alone with an aerial increase from 2.256 km/sup 2/ (0.87 miles/sup 2/) in 1999 to 3.568 km/sup 2/ (1.38 miles/sup 2/) in 2005, an increase of 58.2% in seven years. (author)

  16. Two-phase 1D+1D model of a DMFC: development and validation on extensive operating conditions range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R.; Parenti, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    A two-phase 1D+1D model of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is developed, considering overall mass balance, methanol transport in gas phase through anode diffusion layer, methanol and water crossover. The model is quantitatively validated on an extensive range of operating conditions, 24 polarisation curves. The model accurately reproduces DMFC performance in the validation range and, outside this, it is able to predict values under feasible operating conditions. Finally, the estimations of methanol crossover flux are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to experimental measures and the main local quantities' trends are coherent with results obtained with more complex models. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Development of test practice requirements for a standard method on fracture toughness testing in the transition range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.E.; Zerbst, U.; Heerens, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the resolution of several issues that are relevant to the ductile to brittle transition range of structural steels. One of this issues was to compare a statistical-based weakest-link method to constraint data adjustment methods for modeling the specimen size effects on fracture toughness. Another was to explore the concept of a universal transition temperature curve shape (Master Curve). Data from a Materials Properties Council round robin activity were used to test the proposals empirically. The findings of this study are inclosed in an activity for the development of a draft standard test procedure ''Test Practice for Fracture Toughness in the Transition Range''. (orig.) [de

  18. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability

  19. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability.

  20. Development of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Field testing of biointrustion barriers at closed-out waste disposal sites at Los Alamos and in the experimental clusters are reported. The final results of an experiment designed to measure the extent of contaminant transport to the surface of a SLB facility, and the influence of plants on this relationship, are presented. An experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system is described and current field data are presented. 11 references, 11 figures, 5 tables

  1. The Economic Development of Natural Resources: Fracking and Self-Regulation in the Market for Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Kubik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this piece is to apply some of the lessons learned during the period of industrialization in 19th century Europe to the study of the effects and appropriate regulation of the contemporary process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in the natural gas industry. An attempt is made to support the conclusion that the harmful side effects associated with the creation of self-regulating markets for land, labor and money during the 19th century is paralleled today by the self-regulating character of the process of hydraulic fracturing. As a result, the negative consequences associated with industrialization are been visited again on present day market economies.

  2. Land Suitability Assessment for Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celián Román-Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa L. is an oilseed with potential for use as a raw material in second-generation biofuels. Camelina has a seed yield of up to 2380 kg·ha−1 and contains around 45% fatty acids. Selection of a suitable site is critical for production optimization. The objective of this study was to determine Chilean agro-climatic suitability for establishing camelina as a productive alternative. Climate and soil requirements and geographical restraints were evaluated for the species, considering the climatological characteristics of its regions of origin, as well as regions where camelina is successfully grown in the rest of the world. The variables considered included factors (maximum temperatures of the warmest month, water deficits, and degree days and limitations (altitude, geomorphology, and current land use, which permitted the evaluation of the national territory for a certain level of suitability. It was determined that 1.3% of the national territory (960,664 ha has some degree of suitability for camelina adoption. Between the Biobío and Los Lagos regions, 49.0% of the land (471,203 ha is in the category of no thermic restrictions, with mild water restrictions, and mild soil restrictions or without information, which can be used for camelina production. The Los Ríos region has 21.4% surface area (321,176 ha with some level of suitability for camelina, the most suitable region to establish this crop in Chile. This research has provided valuable information applicable to new species and geographic areas which facilitate the adaptation of agricultural and forestry production to global changes.

  3. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  4. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  5. Human Driving Forces and Their Impacts on Land Use/Land Cover. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Susanne

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module explains that land use/cover change has occurred at all times in all…

  6. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Peri-Urban Land Use Change in a Developed City under Four Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Rothwell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Present decisions about urbanization of peri-urban (PU areas may contribute to the capacity of cities to mitigate future climate change. Comprehensive mitigative responses to PU development should require integration of urban form and food production to realise potential trade-offs. Despite this, few studies examine greenhouse gas (GHG implications of future urban development combined with impacts on PU food production. In this paper, four future scenarios, at 2050 and 2100 time horizons, were developed to evaluate the potential GHG emissions implications of feeding and housing a growing urban population in Sydney, Australia. The scenarios were thematically downscaled from the four relative concentration pathways. Central to the scenarios were differences in population, technology, energy, housing form, transportation, temperature, food production and land use change (LUC. A life cycle assessment approach was used within the scenarios to evaluate differences in GHG impacts. Differences in GHG emissions between scenarios at the 2100 time horizon, per area of PU land transformed, approximated 0.7 Mt CO2-e per year. Per additional resident this equated to 0.7 to 6.1 t CO2-e per year. Indirect LUC has the potential to be significant. Interventions such as carbon capture and storage technology, renewables and urban form markedly reduced emissions. However, incorporating cross-sectoral energy saving measures within urban planning at the regional scale requires a paradigmatic shift.

  7. Securing Communal Land Rights to Achieve Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Critical Analysis and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Andrew Clarke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of sustainable development gains increasing traction under international law, effective and scalable policies to translate these principles into practice remain largely beyond reach. This article analyses one possible strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa - increasing security of communal tenure to improve resource management and achieve rural sustainable development. Although this approach has attracted some attention, particularly with management responsibility of communal property increasingly devolved to the community-level, the expected results in terms of more sustainable resource exploitation and sounder environmental management have yet to be realised. Through critical analysis, with particular emphasis on the Gestion Terroir approach in Burkina Faso , the article explores the reasons behind the limited success. The article suggests that greater emphasis must be placed on bridging statutory command-and-control regimes with community-based models. Focusing on the links between communal land tenure and environmental management, and effectively embedding community land management institutions within existing environmental governance structures offers a practical model to promote sustainable development.

  8. Geothermal development on federal lands: the impediments and potential solutions. Final report, September 6, 1977--January 13, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeland, G.V.; Sebian, D.J.; Whitenight, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    It is concluded that the regulatory program devised by the Bureau of Land Management and the US Geological Survey to implement the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 has been ineffective thus far in encouraging private enterprise to invest in and develop this resource. After seven years, there is still no commercial production or utilization of the geothermal resource underlying federal lands. There are a number of factors--such as the unknown character of the resource and the less-than-perfect technologies for utilizing it and disposing of the resulting wastes--which are retarding the growth of a geothermal industry. However, would-be developers point to the complexity of the federal geothermal leasing and post-leasing requirements as the major impediment, and, specifically, the repetitive environmental review procedures involved. A fundamental fault in the regulatory process is that there is no provision for identification of the resource before a lease is issued. Identification of its characteristics is mandatory before the use to be made of it can be determined, if indeed it is found to be adequate and economic for any use. A very large percentage of the exploratory holes drilled will be abandoned as non-productive of a usable resource, in which case there is no need for the long term commitment of a lease. A streamlined regulatory process was designed to overcome these and other problems. If adopted, it would provide for orderly development of the resource and adequately protect the public interest and the environment.

  9. Development of a New Data Tool for Computing Launch and Landing Availability with Respect to Surface Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. Lee; Altino, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch has a long history of expertise in the modeling and computation of statistical launch availabilities with respect to weather conditions. Their existing data analysis product, the Atmospheric Parametric Risk Assessment (APRA) tool, computes launch availability given an input set of vehicle hardware and/or operational weather constraints by calculating the climatological probability of exceeding the specified constraint limits, APRA has been used extensively to provide the Space Shuttle program the ability to estimate impacts that various proposed design modifications would have to overall launch availability. The model accounts for both seasonal and diurnal variability at a single geographic location and provides output probabilities for a single arbitrary launch attempt. Recently, the Shuttle program has shown interest in having additional capabilities added to the APRA model, including analysis of humidity parameters, inclusion of landing site weather to produce landing availability, and concurrent analysis of multiple sites, to assist in operational landing site selection. In addition, the Constellation program has also expressed interest in the APRA tool, and has requested several additional capabilities to address some Constellation-specific issues, both in the specification and verification of design requirements and in the development of operations concepts. The combined scope of the requested capability enhancements suggests an evolution of the model beyond a simple revision process. Development has begun for a new data analysis tool that will satisfy the requests of both programs. This new tool, Probabilities of Atmospheric Conditions and Environmental Risk (PACER), will provide greater flexibility and significantly enhanced functionality compared to the currently existing tool.

  10. Development and Validation of a Microtiter Plate-Based Assay for Determination of Bacteriophage Host Range and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages, which are the natural predators of bacteria, have re-emerged as an attractive alternative to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phages are highly specific at the species and strain level and measurement of the phage host range plays an important role in utilizing the phage as antimicrobials. The most common method for phage host range determination has been to spot phage lysates on soft agar overlays and observe plaque formation. In this study, a liquid culture-based assay was developed in a 96-well microtiter plate format to measure the phage host range and virulence for a collection of 15 Salmonella phages against a panel of 20 Salmonella strains representing 11 serovars. This method was compared to a traditional spot method. The majority of the host range results from two methods were in agreement including in cases where a bacterial strain was insensitive to the phage. Each method produced a false-negative result in 19/300 (6% of the measured phage-host combinations when compared to the other method. The spot method tended to indicate greater phage sensitivity than the microtiter assay even though direct comparisons of the response magnitude between the two methods is difficult since they operate on different mechanisms. The microtiter plate assay was able to provide data on both the phage host range and virulence in greater resolution in a high-throughput format.

  11. Development and Validation of a Microtiter Plate-Based Assay for Determination of Bacteriophage Host Range and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yicheng; Wahab, Laith; Gill, Jason J

    2018-04-12

    Bacteriophages, which are the natural predators of bacteria, have re-emerged as an attractive alternative to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phages are highly specific at the species and strain level and measurement of the phage host range plays an important role in utilizing the phage as antimicrobials. The most common method for phage host range determination has been to spot phage lysates on soft agar overlays and observe plaque formation. In this study, a liquid culture-based assay was developed in a 96-well microtiter plate format to measure the phage host range and virulence for a collection of 15 Salmonella phages against a panel of 20 Salmonella strains representing 11 serovars. This method was compared to a traditional spot method. The majority of the host range results from two methods were in agreement including in cases where a bacterial strain was insensitive to the phage. Each method produced a false-negative result in 19/300 (6%) of the measured phage-host combinations when compared to the other method. The spot method tended to indicate greater phage sensitivity than the microtiter assay even though direct comparisons of the response magnitude between the two methods is difficult since they operate on different mechanisms. The microtiter plate assay was able to provide data on both the phage host range and virulence in greater resolution in a high-throughput format.

  12. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... hand, the government is also working to increase national economic growth by promoting private-sector investment in both agriculture and forest resources – two sectors that compete for the same areas intended for protection. This thesis explores how these contradictory drivers of land-use changes...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture...

  13. A Comparison of the Impacts of Wind Energy and Unconventional Gas Development on Land-use and Ecosystem Services: An Example from the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kendall M; Nguyen, Michael N; McClung, Maureen R; Moran, Matthew D

    2018-05-01

    The United States energy industry is transforming with the rapid development of alternative energy sources and technological advancements in fossil fuels. Two major changes include the growth of wind turbines and unconventional oil and gas. We measured land-use impacts and associated ecosystem services costs of unconventional gas and wind energy development within the Anadarko Basin of the Oklahoma Woodford Shale, an area that has experienced large increases in both energy sectors. Unconventional gas wells developed three times as much land compared to wind turbines (on a per unit basis), resulting in higher ecosystem services costs for gas. Gas wells had higher impacts on intensive agricultural lands (i.e., row crops) compared to wind turbines that had higher impacts on natural grasslands/pastures. Because wind turbines produced on average less energy compared to gas wells, the average land-use-related ecosystem cost per gigajoule of energy produced was almost the same. Our results demonstrate that both unconventional gas and wind energy have substantial impacts on land use, which likely affect wildlife populations and land-use-related ecosystem services. Although wind energy does not have the associated greenhouse gas emissions, we suggest that the direct impacts on ecosystems in terms of land use are similar to unconventional fossil fuels. Considering the expected rapid global expansion of these two forms of energy production, many ecosystems are likely to be at risk.

  14. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  15. LAND USE CHANGE AND RECOMMENDATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PEATLAND FOR AGRICULTURE: Case Study at Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyunto Wahyunto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Time series satellite imageries of land use and land cover, ground truthing, and statistical data of land use change were analyzed for generating the dynamics of land use changes in the period of 1986-2008. Field observation, peat sampling, and peat analyses of representative land use types were undertaken to assess peat characteristics and its agricultural suitability. The study showed that within 22 years (1986-2008, the area of peat forests in Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts decreased as much as 13.6% from 391,902 ha to 328,078 ha. The current uses of the peatland in the two districts include oil palm plantation (8704 ha, smallholder rubber plantation (13,186 ha, annual crops (15,035 ha, mixed cropping of trees and annual crops (22,328 ha, and pineapple farming (11,744 ha. Our evaluation showed unconformity of the current uses of peatland with regulations and crops agronomic requirements such as peat thickness and maturity, rendering unsustainability. This study recommends that expansion of agriculture and plantation on peatland areas be limited over idle land within the agricultural production and conversion production forest areas. About 34,362 ha (9.7% of uncultivated log-over forest and shrubs can potentially be developed for agriculture. Peat soils with the thickness of >3 m should be allocated for conservation or forest protection due to low inherent soil fertility and high potential greenhouse gas emissions if converted for agriculture.

  16. Producing an integrated climate-land-energy-water (CLEW) model for glaciated regions in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, E. M.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Growing concern over the impact of climate change on global freshwater resources has spurred a demand for practical, basin-specific adaptation tools. The potential for water stress is particularly inflated in the glaciated watersheds of the developing world; widespread and rapid glacial retreat has forced regional resource managers to reconcile the reality of a diminishing supply with an overall increase in demand, while accounting for the underlying geopolitical and cultural context. An integrated approach, such as the development of a Climate-Land-Energy-Water (CLEW) model that examines relationships among climate, land-use, and the energy and water sectors, can be used to assess the impact of different climate change scenarios on basin sustainability and vulnerability. This study will first constrain the hydrologic budget in the Río Santa Watershed of Peru using satellite imagery, historical and contemporary stream discharge data, hydrologic modeling, climatic data analysis, and isotopic and chemical tracers. Ultimately, glacier retreat will be examined at the watershed scale and be used as an input in the CLEW model framework to assess hydrologic budget scenarios and the subsequent impact on regional economic and environmental sustainability.

  17. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  18. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon I: spatial variation and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N

    2006-06-01

    Surface water bodies are progressively subject to increasing stress as a result of environmentally degrading processes primarily related to anthropogenic activities. This study assesses and examines the impact of land use and land-based activities on the spatial variation in water quality of the Abou Ali River in North Lebanon. It is the first detailed study of its kind in Lebanon and adds to the existing knowledge by shedding light on a relatively small Mediterranean river in a developing country where there is a paucity of such studies. The assessment was conducted at the end of the dry season in 2002 and 2003 and the end of the wet season in 2003 and 2004. The study has demonstrated the importance of anthropogenic influences on the water quality of the Abou Ali River Basin, as concentrations of most contaminants were higher at locations with greatest human activity. The most adversely affected area was the section of the river that flows through an entirely urbanized and highly populated region, the Tripoli conurbation. Upstream rural sites were enriched by contaminants primarily from non-point sources such as agricultural runoff and poultry litter whereas contaminant concentrations at the urban sites were enriched by a combination of sewage discharge and flow of contaminants from upstream. If the Abou Ali River is to be utilized as a managed water resource and its water quality sustained, point source discharges will require treatment and land use management must be planned to minimize the impact of diffuse source pollution on the river. A high priority should be given to the implementation and enforcement of the precautionary and polluter pays principles. Moreover, an effective legal, economic and institutional framework is required to encourage investment in waste reduction and control and to introduce environmentally sound practices.

  19. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  20. Development of a general model to predict the rate of radionuclide release (source term) from a low-level waste shallow land burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Kempf, C.R.; Suen, C.J.; Mughabghab, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Federal Code of Regulations 10 CFR 61 requires that any near surface disposal site be capable of being characterized, analyzed, and modeled. The objective of this program is to assist NRC in developing the ability to model a disposal site that conforms to these regulations. In particular, a general computer model capable of predicting the quantity and rate of radionuclide release from a shallow land burial trench, i.e., the source term, is being developed. The framework for this general model has been developed and consists of four basic compartments that represent the major processes that influence release. These compartments are: water flow, container degradation, release from the waste packages, and radionuclide transport. Models for water flow and radionuclide transport rely on the use of the computer codes FEMWATER and FEMWASTE. These codes are generally regarded as being state-of-the-art and required little modification for their application to this project. Models for container degradation and release from waste packages have been specifically developed for this project. This paper provides a brief description of the models being used in the source term project and examples of their use over a range of potential conditions. 13 refs

  1. European Islands, Development and the Cohesion Policy: A Case Study of Kökar, Åland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A European Union initiative is seeking ways of determining the development potential of Europe’s lagging regions, which include various islands. On the basis of the policy review, methodology and data collected by the ongoing EUROISLANDS project, this paper present Kökar (population: 262, the easternmost municipality of the Åland Islands, as a prototype archipelago that is seriously challenged by its size and multiple peripherality. It reviews the state of its social and transportation infrastructure, and of its human and financial capital. While the situation is serious, there are opportunities for branding, for developing associated economic activity, as well for appealing to a new wave of residents.

  2. SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, Y; Penchev, P; Ringbaek, T Printz [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); Brons, S [Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, U [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. Methods: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2.25 mm2 and different lengths was developed and manufactured with rapid prototyping technique. The form of the 3D range-modulator was optimised for a spherical target volume with 5 cm diameter placed at 25 cm in a water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA package were carried out to evaluate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and simulate the resulting dose distribution. The fine and complicated contour form of the 3D range-modulator was taken into account by a specially programmed user routine. Additionally FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To verify the simulation results dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with a 400.41 MeV 12C beam. Results: The high resolution measurements show that the 3D range-modulator is capable of producing homogeneous 3D conformal dose distributions, simultaneously reducing significantly irradiation time. Measured dose is in very good agreement with the previously conducted FLUKA simulations, where slight differences were traced back to minor manufacturing deviations from the perfect optimised form. Conclusion: Combined with the advantages of very short treatment time the 3D range-modulator could be an alternative to treat small to medium sized tumours (e.g. lung metastasis) with the same conformity as full raster-scanning treatment. Further simulations and measurements of more complex cases will be conducted to investigate the full potential of the 3D

  3. Transforming ex-small scale mining land as farming areas for sustainable development and poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampa, I. W.; Markus, J. E. R.; Mudita, I. W.; Natonis, R. L.; Bunga, W.; Kaho, N. R.

    2018-03-01

    When the price of manganese ores in 2012, mining activities declined or even terminated. Ex-miners lose an important source of income, but they did not have any other alternative except going back to slash and burn cultivation, producing enough only for their own food. Their hope for a better live was gone and at the same time they faced stigmatisation as causing environmental degradation from the rest of the community. We carried out this case study to followex-miners in the Tubuhue village who organised themselves to do post-mining rehabilitation by turning the former mining site into an area of productive farming. In-depth interview, field observation and focus group discussion were conducted from 2015 to 2017. We found that during the period of mining boom, slash and burn cultivation decrease significantly but began to increase after no mining activities. Various social transformations took place along with this land use change, but the most important was the miners’ decision to do mining as an organised activity. A strong leader of this organization played a pivotal role in turning the former mining site into an area of productive sedentary farming. This was carried out by organizing the ex-miners into farmers groups and together, constructing drip and sprinkler irrigation networks to water their crops using rain water collected in the mining holes that they had turned into small check-dams. The leader expected that this farming could provide an alternative for ex-miners to obtain cash income to limit them going back doing swidden farming.

  4. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  5. Proposed spatial framework to develop land use in an environmentally-sensitive area: Case study, El-Daba'a region, Egypt Part I: Ecological value assessment using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jenaid, S.S.; Mohammed, W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a area in Egypt using GIS as a first step for the development of an environmental management plan for the area. The absence of environmental planning in the process of land use development may cause many significant negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological value and the general environmental conditions and the therefore reducing such negative impacts will improve land use development. The first part of sequel of two papers, which is a part of a sustainable land use development research program, aims at designing a spatial framework to improve land use planning and development in an environmental context. The research program deals with the problem of land use planning and development in an arid coastal area under environmentally sensitive conditions. The study area is El-Daba'a region, located in the northwestern coast of Egypt, which can be described as a wild area. The approach used in this paper consists of studying the spatial ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a region using different spatial data including maps and land sat remote sensing data. These data are used to create a series of superimposed informative layers managed by a geographic information system (GIS) to describe the spatial ecological characteristics of the study area. The developed GIS allow decision makers to handle large amounts of information simultaneously such as geology, geomorphology, land cover, wild life and many other different information layers. The system is designed to help decision makers to organize, relate, analyze and visualize the ecological data and information in the study area. The developed GIS system might be used to determine the probable effects of building a nuclear power station on the ecosystem. (author)

  6. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  7. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR, the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28 communities in the Sierra de Lacandón National Park (SLNP, the most ecologically biodiverse region in La Selva Maya and a core conservation zone of the MBR. Settler households are examined relative to a host of factors relating land use and land cover change. Specifically, demographic trends, political and socio-economic development, and ecological factors are described in this first detailed statistically-representative sample probing human population and environment interactions in an emerging agricultural frontier in Central America.

  8. Response of Land Use Planning in Less Developed Areas to Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiang-nan

    2012-01-01

    Under the background of economic globalization, the development mechanisms of various regions faces potential deep transformation, and the effective participation of less developed areas in China in economic globalization is of great significance to the sustainable development of Chinese economy and society. In this study, we summarized the characteristics and influences of economic globalization from the aspects of industrial recombination and transfer, competition, economic relevance and de...

  9. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...... and personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  10. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  11. Adaptive urban development : a symbiosis between cities on land and water in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ing. Rutger de Graaf

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive urban development is the design, construction and continuing evolution of urban areas to anticipate and react to changes in the environment and society. These changes include both processes within the city itself and external developments. It is expected that until 2100 a total of 5 billion

  12. Sustainable development of rural regions; Insights on land use and policy from the Shetlands Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Kanemasu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    To address rural diversity, a place-based approach to sustainable development becomes more relevant. Place-based approaches to development are said to strengthen the resilience of rural areas against global pressures by decreasing state dependencies and increasing the economic competitiveness of

  13. Listening to your audience: developing an educational tool to assist with recreation planning on private lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Daniel van Dijk; Gary T. Green; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    The Georgia Forestry Commission in conjunction with the U.S. Forest Service instituted the Forest Stewardship Program (FSP) in 1991. A growing component of the FSP is recreation, which is the component least understood by stewardship planners. A survey was developed to better understand the needs of planners with regard to developing forest recreation plans, and the...

  14. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national

  15. Regional impact assessment of land use scenarios in developing countries using the FoPIA approach: Findings from five case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, H.J.; Uthes, S.; Schuler, J.; Zhen, L.; Purushothaman, S.; Suarma, U.; Sghaier, M.; Makokha, S.; Helming, K.; Sieber, S.; Chen, L.; Brouwer, F.M.; Morris, J.; Wiggering, H.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of land use changes on sustainable development is of increasing interest in many regions of the world. This study aimed to test the transferability of the Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA), which was originally developed in the European context, to developing

  16. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  17. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This report is the Executive Summary for the other 5 volumes of the Study Report--see TID-28526/1-5. Information is provided here that the tribes can use to make energy-development decisions. The report is particularly concerned with management responsibilities and financial commitments that development will require on the part of the tribes and with the types of information and skilled personnel the tribes will need in the future to make informed decisions.

  18. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  19. Using unassisted ecosystem development to restore marginal land case study of post mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan

    2017-04-01

    When we evaluate efficiency of individual restoration measures we typically compare individual restoration treatments or compare them with initial state or similar ecosystem in surrounding landscape. We argue that sensible way to show added value of restoration measure is to compare them with unassisted ecosystem development. Case study of ecosystem development in Sokolov post mining district (Czech Republic) show that spontaneous succession of ecosystem can be, in many parameters, comparable with various reclamation approaches. In suitable substrates the succession is driven mainly by site topography. In sites which were leveled grassy vegetation develops. In sites where original wave like topography was preserved the ecosystem develops towards forest. In forest sites the development on most of the investigated ecosystem parameters (cower, biomass soil developments, water holding capacity, carbon storage) in succession sites is little bit slower compare to reclaimed plantation during first 15-20 years. However in older sites differences disappear and succession sites show similarity with restored sites. Despite similarity in these ecosystem functions possibilities of spontaneous sites for commercial use has to be explored.

  20. Vegetation development and native species establishment in reclaimed coal mine lands in Alberta : directions for reclamation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longman, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Design

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a study undertaken to evaluate reclamation vegetation at Coal Valley Mine in Alberta with respect to expected vegetation changes over time, establishing a successional model of vegetation development, and factors contributing to the observed patterns. Most of the expected vegetation trends were evident, including lower grass cover and height, lower legume cover, a higher degree of native plant species richness, and the establishment of woody species. Four vegetation communities (2 graminoid-dominated and 2 conifer-dominated) were identified in the study, for which a possible successional model was constructed. Vegetation dynamics for agronomic grasses, legumes, and tree cover were discussed. Areas with Lodgepole Pine were found to have higher species richness and cover. Concerns were raised that the identified trends may not in fact supply the expected opportunities for native species establishment. In order to facilitate the establishment of native species and better manage reclamation vegetation development, the author recommended that a conifer overstory be established to increase native richness and native cover, and that more appropriate seeding mixes be developed as certain agronomic species are detrimental to long-term goals. The author also recommended that site-specific seed mixes be developed according to end land-use goals, that a planting program for native plants and shrubs be developed, and that a monitoring program be established to better inform future reclamation efforts. The recommendations were designed to bring reclamation efforts into line with reclamation goals. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Development of Model for Pedestrian Gap Based on Land Use Pattern at Midblock Location and Estimation of Delay at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Adepu; Ashritha, Kilari; Kumar, Molugaram

    2018-04-01

    Walking has always been a prime source of human mobility for short distance travel. Traffic congestion has become a major problem for safe pedestrian crossing in most of the metropolitan cities. This has emphasized for providing a sufficient pedestrian gap for safe crossing on urban road. The present works aims in understanding factors that influence pedestrian crossing behaviour. Four locations were chosen for identification of pedestrian crossing behaviour, gap characteristics, waiting time etc., in Hyderabad city. From the study it was observed that pedestrian behaviour and crossing patterns are different and is influenced by land use pattern. A gap acceptance model was developed from the data for improving pedestrian safety at mid-block location; the model was validated using the existing data. Pedestrian delay was estimated at intersection using Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). It was observed that field delays are less when compared to delay arrived from HCM method.

  2. Development of ten microsatellite loci in the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Springmann, Marcus J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Wade, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed for the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, from Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing data. Ten of the 96 primer sets tested amplified consistently in 30 snails from Miami, Florida, plus 12 individuals representative of their native East Africa, Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 5.6 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 42 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and detect phylogeographic structuring among regional samples. The invasive A. fulica can cause extensive damage to important food crops and natural resources, including native flora and fauna. The loci characterized here will be useful for determining the origins and tracking the spread of invasions, detecting fine-scale spatial structuring and estimating demographic parameters.

  3. Developing a New North American Land Cover Product at 30m Resolution: Methods, Results and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, C.; Colditz, R. R.; Latifovic, R.; Llamas, R. M.; Pouliot, D.; Danielson, P.; Meneses, C.; Victoria, A.; Ressl, R.; Richardson, K.; Vulpescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land cover and land cover change information at regional and continental scales has become fundamental for studying and understanding the terrestrial environment. With recent advances in computer science and freely available image archives, continental land cover mapping has been advancing to higher spatial resolution products. The North American Land Change Monitoring System (NALCMS) remains the principal provider of seamless land cover maps of North America. Founded in 2006, this collaboration among the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States has released two previous products based on 250m MODIS images, including a 2005 land cover and a 2005-2010 land cover change product. NALCMS has recently completed the next generation North America land cover product, based upon 30m Landsat images. This product now provides the first ever 30m land cover produced for the North American continent, providing 19 classes of seamless land cover. This presentation provides an overview of country-specific image classification processes, describes the continental map production process, provides results for the North American continent and discusses future plans. NALCMS is coordinated by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and all products can be obtained at their website - www.cec.org.

  4. Urgency for sustainable development in coastal urban areas with reference to weather pattern, land use, and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Swarnalatha, K; Baiju, K V; Sankar, Divya

    2014-05-01

    Water pollution is one of the most critical problems affecting mankind. Weather pattern and land use of catchment area have significant role in quality of water bodies. Due to climate change, there is frequent variation in weather pattern all over the world. There is also rapid change in land use due to increase in population and urbanization. The study was carried out to analyze the effect of change in weather pattern during the monsoon periods of 2008 and 2012 on water quality of a tropical coastal lake system. The nature and extent of variation in different water quality parameters namely electrical conductivity (EC), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), turbidity, Secchi disk depth, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate (PO4), calcium (Ca), and water temperature as well as the effect of various land use activities in the lake basin on water quality have also been studied. There is significant reduction in precipitation, EC, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, turbidity, and Secchi disk depths whereas a significant rise in the BOD, PO4, Ca, and water temperature were observed in 2012. This significant reduction in electrical conductivity during 2012 revealed that because of less precipitation, the lake was separated from the sea by the sandbar during most of the monsoon period and thereby interrupted the natural flushing process. This caused the accumulation of organic matter including phosphate and thereby resulting reduction in clarity and chlorophyll-a (algae) in the lake. The unsustainable development activities of Thiruvanathapuram city are mainly responsible for the degradation of water bodies. The lack of maintenance and augmentation activities namely replacement of old pipes and periodical cleaning of pipe lines of the old sewer system in the city results in the bypass of sewage into water bodies. Because of the existence of the old sewerage system, no effort has been taken by the individual establishment/house of the city to provide their own

  5. HARDWARE AND ALGORITHMIC STRUCTURE OF MULTIPOSITION RADIO RANGEFINDING NAVIGATION AND LANDING AERO-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Kondrashov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The principles of formation of the structure and functioning algorithms are developed andpresented for multipositioning radio rangefinding land-based system which identifies the location ofcommuter aircrafts in the vertical and horizontal planes by the method of three ranges without usingaltimeter.Keywords: aircraft, commuter airlines, aeronavigation, landing, airborne radio ranging equipment,operation algorithms.

  6. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R. [Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth & Atmospheric Science

    2002-07-01

    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. (3) Shortening and exhumation of the suture zone peaked from 65 to 60 Ma on the basis of metamorphic and geochronologic data. (4) From 60 to 54 Ma, about 3 km of volcanic strata were deposited over deformed sedimentary strata of the Cantwell basin, and several granitic plutons (the McKinley sequence) were emplaced along the suture zone. (5) Following igneous activity, strike-slip displacement occurred from ca. 54 to 24 Ma along the Denali fault system, which had developed in the existing suture zone. (6) Regional transpressive shortening characterized the suture zone from ca. 24 Ma to the present. Regional subsidence resulted in Miocene coal seams up to 20 m thick and well-developed lacustrine deposits. Overlying the Miocene deposits are about 1.2 km of Pliocene and Holocene conglomeratic deposits. These mapping relationships provide evidence that regional shortening continues to the present in the eastern and central Alaska Range.

  7. Development of a Land Use Mapping and Monitoring Protocol for the High Plains Region: A Multitemporal Remote Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Nellis, M. Duane

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a practical protocol that employs multitemporal remotely sensed imagery, integrated with environmental parameters to model and monitor agricultural and natural resources in the High Plains Region of the United States. The value of this project would be extended throughout the region via workshops targeted at carefully selected audiences and designed to transfer remote sensing technology and the methods and applications developed. Implementation of such a protocol using remotely sensed satellite imagery is critical for addressing many issues of regional importance, including: (1) Prediction of rural land use/land cover (LULC) categories within a region; (2) Use of rural LULC maps for successive years to monitor change; (3) Crop types derived from LULC maps as important inputs to water consumption models; (4) Early prediction of crop yields; (5) Multi-date maps of crop types to monitor patterns related to crop change; (6) Knowledge of crop types to monitor condition and improve prediction of crop yield; (7) More precise models of crop types and conditions to improve agricultural economic forecasts; (8;) Prediction of biomass for estimating vegetation production, soil protection from erosion forces, nonpoint source pollution, wildlife habitat quality and other related factors; (9) Crop type and condition information to more accurately predict production of biogeochemicals such as CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gases that are inputs to global climate models; (10) Provide information regarding limiting factors (i.e., economic constraints of pumping, fertilizing, etc.) used in conjunction with other factors, such as changes in climate for predicting changes in rural LULC; (11) Accurate prediction of rural LULC used to assess the effectiveness of government programs such as the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Conservation Reserve Program; and (12) Prediction of water demand based on rural LULC that can be related to rates of

  8. Colonia development and land use change in Ambos Nogales, United States-Mexican border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela; Pfeifer, Edwin; Lam, Alven H.

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines a planning approach taken by a Federal Government partnership that is meant to promote sustainable development in the future, integrating both sides of the United States-Mexican border. The twin-city area of Nogales, Ariz., and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales, has a common borderland history of urban growth presumably based on changes in policy and economic incentives. We document changes over time in an attempt to identify colonia development and settlement patterns along the border, combining a community-participation approach with a remote-sensing analysis, to create an online mapping service.

  9. Tribal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lands (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  10. Sustainable land use and food security in developing countries: DLV's approach to policy support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Ruben, R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decades, major changes have taken place with regard to the available policy instruments for food security and rural development. These changes are reviewed against the background of the structural adjustment programmes carried out in the agricultural sector. The linkages between

  11. Food from dry lands. An integrated approach to planning of agricultural development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberda, Th.; Keulen, van H.; Seligman, N.G.; Wit, de C.T.

    1992-01-01

    This book centers around an analysis of the options for the agronomic development of semiarid regions with winter rains (i.e. Mediterranian regions). Crop and sheep husbandry systems were designed and integrated into agro-pastoral systems in which small-grain crops act as a buffer for feed

  12. Development of a Water-Quality Lab That Enhances Learning & Connects Students to the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enos-Berlage, Jodi

    2012-01-01

    A 3-week laboratory module was developed for an undergraduate microbiology course that would connect student learning to a real-life challenge, specifically a local water-quality project. The laboratory series included multiple field trips, sampling of soil and water, and subsequent analysis for bacteria and nitrate. Laboratory results confirmed…

  13. Rural Development Policies and Sustainable Land Use in the Hillside Areas of Honduras: a Quantitave Livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.; Pender, J.; Damon, A.; Schipper, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The survey was a research collaboration between International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Wageningen University and Research Center (WUR), and the National Program for Sustainable Rural Development (PRONADERS) of the Honduran Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (SAG).The data were

  14. Development and land use conflicts on the Ash River, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two white water rafting operators along the Ash River, both run by typical lifestyle entrepreneurs, who have dedicated considerable time, talent and capital resources to developing the rafting industry on the Ash. It is estimated that river rafting generates R1.6 million p.a. directly for the local economy and the ...

  15. Between Land and People: A Review of Socioeconomic Issues within the context of Rapid Development in Iskandar Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sultan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to globalization and economic competitiveness, Malaysia launched six economic development corridors, covering all the potential areas in Malaysia, and Johor Bahru is one of them. Iskandar Malaysia was launched in 2006 for future economic development in the country as well as to cater the needs of Johor Bahru to modernize its urban and economic infrastructure. Situated in a strategic location and space, Iskandar Malaysia is targeted to be the player of catalytic investment role that will bring direct and indirect investment to Johor. The whole landscape of Johor Bahru is now transforming dramatically, thus worrying the locals and the environmentalists. Environmental issues as well as the concern for social inequality issues have been raised by the locals. Hence, the aim of this study is to address the issues created by the rapid development of Iskandar Malaysia, particularly in Johor Bahru and Nusajaya. The objectives of this paper are to assess the consequences of the coastal land reclamation for Danga Bay waterfront city development and to identify the impact of new-build gentrification towards the local people. The research identifies key social and economic issues and the impacts of these issues have also been identified. To achieve the objective of the study a detailed review on secondary data has been done. The study found that more cooperation and attention from the local authorities, stakeholders and public is needed to ensure urban regeneration and to achieve the objective of social inclusiveness as promised by the vision of Iskandar Malaysia.

  16. Development of a conceptual framework of holistic risk assessment — Landfill as a particular type of contaminated land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, T.E., E-mail: t.e.butt@outlook.com [School of Architecture, Built & Natural Environments (SABNE), Faculty of Architecture, Computing & Engineering (FACE), Swansea Metropolitan, University of Wales Trinity Saint David - UWTSD, Mount Pleasant Campus, Swansea, SA1 6ED, Wales (United Kingdom); Javadi, A.A. [Department of Engineering, College of Engineering, Mathematics & Physical Sciences (CEMPS), University of Exeter, Harrison Building, North Park Road, Exeter, EX4 4QF, England (United Kingdom); Nunns, M.A. [Environment Agency, Bromholme Lane, Brampton, Huntingdon, PE28 4NE, England (United Kingdom); Beal, C.D. [Smart Water Research Centre (SWRC) and School of Engineering, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2016-11-01

    Landfills can be regarded as a particular type of contaminated land that has a potential to directly and indirectly pollute all of the four main spheres of the environment which are the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and eventually adversely impact the biosphere. Therefore, environmental risk assessment of a landfill has to be more integrated and holistic by virtue of its nature of being a multidimensional pollutant source. Despite this, although various risk assessment approaches have been adopted for landfill waste disposal sites, there are still wide-ranging knowledge gaps and limitations which need to be addressed. One important knowledge gap and limitation of current risk assessment approaches is the inability to fully identify, categorise and aggregate all individual risks from all combinations of hazards, pathways and targets/receptors (e.g. water, air, soil and biota) in connection to a certain landfill leachate and yet at any stage of the landfill cycle. So such an approach is required that could not only integrate all possible characteristics of varying scenarios but also contain the ability to establish an overall risk picture, irrespective of the lifecycle stage of the landfill (e.g. planning stage/pre-operation, in-operation or post-operation/closed). One such approach to address the wide-breadth of landfill impact risks is by developing a more holistic risk assessment methodology, whose conceptual framework is presented in this paper for landfill leachate in a whole-system format. This conceptual framework does not only draw together various constituting factors and sub-factors of risk assessment in a logical sequence and categorical order, but also indicates the “what, why, when and how” outputs of and inputs to these factors and sub-factors can be useful. The framework is designed to identify and quantify a range of risks associated with all stages of the landfill lifecycle, and yet in a more streamlined, logical, categorical and

  17. Development of a conceptual framework of holistic risk assessment — Landfill as a particular type of contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.E.; Javadi, A.A.; Nunns, M.A.; Beal, C.D.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills can be regarded as a particular type of contaminated land that has a potential to directly and indirectly pollute all of the four main spheres of the environment which are the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and eventually adversely impact the biosphere. Therefore, environmental risk assessment of a landfill has to be more integrated and holistic by virtue of its nature of being a multidimensional pollutant source. Despite this, although various risk assessment approaches have been adopted for landfill waste disposal sites, there are still wide-ranging knowledge gaps and limitations which need to be addressed. One important knowledge gap and limitation of current risk assessment approaches is the inability to fully identify, categorise and aggregate all individual risks from all combinations of hazards, pathways and targets/receptors (e.g. water, air, soil and biota) in connection to a certain landfill leachate and yet at any stage of the landfill cycle. So such an approach is required that could not only integrate all possible characteristics of varying scenarios but also contain the ability to establish an overall risk picture, irrespective of the lifecycle stage of the landfill (e.g. planning stage/pre-operation, in-operation or post-operation/closed). One such approach to address the wide-breadth of landfill impact risks is by developing a more holistic risk assessment methodology, whose conceptual framework is presented in this paper for landfill leachate in a whole-system format. This conceptual framework does not only draw together various constituting factors and sub-factors of risk assessment in a logical sequence and categorical order, but also indicates the “what, why, when and how” outputs of and inputs to these factors and sub-factors can be useful. The framework is designed to identify and quantify a range of risks associated with all stages of the landfill lifecycle, and yet in a more streamlined, logical, categorical and

  18. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  19. Addressing Issues for Land Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing

    2009-09-01

    Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; http://www.glp-beijing.org.cn/index.php and http://www.glp.hokudai.ac.jp) brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

  20. Determining the influence of Itaipu Lake on thermal conditions for soybean development in adjacent lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Riddle, C.; Werner, S. S.; Caramori, P.; Ricce, W. S.; Nitsche, P.; von Bertoldi, P.; de Souza, E. F.

    2015-10-01

    Previous numerical simulations have suggested that the area adjacent to Itaipu Lake in Southern Brazil is significantly affecting the local thermal regime through development of a lake breeze. This has led to concerns that soybean growth and development, and consequently yield, has been affected by the creation of the artificial lake in this important agricultural region, but a systematic climatological study of the thermal effects of Itaipu Lake has not been conducted. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial pattern of minimum and maximum air temperatures in a 10-km-wide area adjacent to Itaipu Lake as affected by distance from the water. Measurements were conducted over 3 years in seven transects along the shore of Itaipu Lake, with five weather stations placed in each transect. Phenological observations in soybean fields surrounding the weather stations were also conducted. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) analysis indicated no difference in the temperature time series as distance from water increased. Semivariograms showed that the random components in the air temperature were predominant and that there was no spatial structure to the signal. Wind direction measured over the three growing seasons demonstrated that, on average, the development of a lake breeze is limited to a few locations and a few hours of the day, supporting the temporal and spatial analysis. Phenological observations did not show differences in the timing of critical soybean stages. We suggest that the concerns that soybean development is potentially affected by the presence of Itaipu Lake are not supported by the thermal environment observed.