WorldWideScience

Sample records for range initial results

  1. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372 Creating initial pay ranges. (a) DHS must, after coordination with OPM, set the initial band rate ranges for the...

  2. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.

    2013-09-01

    rate hypotheses are assigned, the IOD problem is embarrassingly parallelizable. In this paper, a type of admissible-region analysis is proposed, based on bounds for range and range rate for a given orbital element partition, which can be used to limit the size of the hypothesis set. Specifically, given a bounded region of semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and right ascension, several inequalities are found that must be satisfied simultaneously, based on geometric and kinematic constraints such minimum (perigee) and maximum (apogee) orbit radius. For the angles-only case, additional constraints on range, implied by orientations of the possible orbit planes and by special solutions of Lambert's problem, are found for pairs of observations. The net range-range rate hypothesis set is then taken to be the most restrictive superposition of the different conditions. Initial orbit determination results will be presented for sets of perfect and noisy simulated data as well for real-world observations. When errors are introduced into the observations, the ability to derive accurate angle rates will suffer and this will affect the results. Therefore, we also include an analysis of the sensitivity of the range-range rate bounds with respect to errors in derived angle rates.

  3. Initial results from MARmara SuperSITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal; Favali, Paolo; Douglas, John; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Geli, Louis; Ergintav, Semih; Oguz Ozel, Asım; Tan, Onur; Gurbuz, Cemil; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    MARSite Project was initiated in November 2012 under the EC/FP-7 framework as an initiative towards establishment of new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused earth observation in Marmara Region. Within MARSite, collection of the first comprehensive data set of fluids composition around the Sea of Marmara has been accomplished and first insight in the geochemical features of the fluids are expelled from tectonic structures around the Sea of Marmara. GPS time series and velocity fields are periodically updated and a project proposal has been prepared for Supersite initiative to take SAR data and integrate the results with in-situ data sets, which is accepted by the scientific committee of GEOSS. In the meantime, special focus was given to develop the processing algorithms, starting from low level atmospheric correction to high level modeling routines. Considerable progress has been made in the novel design of a multiparameter borehole system consisting of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor also incorporating 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. Borehole and surface array locations and borehole bedrock depth of 137 m has been identified. A modeling scheme for the scenario earthquake simulation has been set up in order to realize processing of real-time high-rate GPS data and simulating of scenario earthquakes. The probability of occurrence for the fault segmentation in the Marmara region were calculated using the Poisson, BPT and BPT with a stress interaction models for time intervals of 5-10-30 and 50 years. High resolution seismic reflection and multibeam data in the easternmost Cinarcik basin obtained during the cruise MARMARA 2013 carried out onboard the CNR R/V Urania ship provided information on diffuse gravitational failures. An in situ multi-parameter observational system for landslide monitoring, including displacement, rainfall and seismic

  4. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  5. Aquarius: The Instrument and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, David M Le; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Ruf, C.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S.; Piepmeier, J.; Lindstrom, E.; Dinnat, E.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius was launched on June 10, 2011 aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory and the instrument has been operating continuously since the initial turned-on was completed on August 25. The initial observed antenna temperatures were close to predicted and the first salinity map was released in September. In order to map the ocean salinity field, Aquarius includes several special features such as the inclusion of a scatterometer to provide a roughness correction, measurement of the third Stokes parameter to correct for Faraday rotation, and fast sampling to mitigate the effects of RFI. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and an example of initial results. Details are covered in subsequent papers in the session on Aquarius

  6. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  7. Aquarius Third Stokes Parameter Measurements: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Vine, David M Le; Abraham, S.; Piepmeier, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched on June 10, 2011 and the Aquarius instrument has been collecting data continuously since late August. One of the unique features of the L-band radiometers comprising Aquarius is the presence of a polarimetric channel to measure the third Stokes parameter. The purpose is to provide a measure of Faraday rotation, which can be important for remote sensing at L-band, especially in the case of remote sensing of salinity which requires high precision. Initial results are presented here showing a reasonable agreement between retrieved and modeled Faraday rotation and also the "noisy" behavior at land-water boundaries and other mixed scenes predicted by theory.

  8. REXEBTS, design and initial commissioning results

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F; Jonson, B; Liljeby, L; Nyman, G H; Rensfelt, K G; Skeppstedt, Ö; Wolf, B

    2001-01-01

    The REXEDIS is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed particularly for charge breeding of rare and short-lived isotopes produced at ISOLDE for the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. Bunches of singly charged radioactive ions are injected into the EBIS and charge bred to a charge-to-mass ratio of approximately 1/4 and thereafter extracted and injected into a short LINAC. This novel concept, employing a Penning trap to bunch and cool the ions from an on-line mass separator prior to charge breeding in an EBIS, results in an efficient and compact system. In this article the final REXEBIS design is presented together with results from the first tests. (19 refs).

  9. ERNIE performance with TSA portals Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labov, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    This project extends the “Enhanced Radiological Nuclear Inspection and Evaluation” (ERNIE) system developed with CBP and DNDO to improve performance of PVT-based Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs). ERNIE was designed to be used with any RPM system. The first implementation was with the SAIC (Leidos) RPM-8 systems. In this project, we are demonstrating how effective the ERNIE approach can be when applied to the VM250 TSA portals used in NSDD programs. Part of the challenge in adapting ERNIE to handle VM250 portals is the lack of gamma spectral information. We report here on the first results showing how the ERNIE analysis can improve analysis of measurements with the VM250 RPMs.

  10. Initial results from the PIENU experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; Bruch, D. vom; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Cuen-Rochin, S.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, S.; Kettell, S. H.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L. S.; Malbrunot, C.; Mischke, R. E.; Numao, T.; Protopopescu, D.; Sher, A.; Vavilov, D.

    2017-11-01

    The pion branching ratio, R_{π } = { {Γ }(π + → e+ ν e + π +→ e+ ν e γ )}/{Γ (π + → μ + ν _{μ } + π + → μ + ν _{μ } γ )}, provides a sensitive test of lepton universality and constraints on many new physics scenarios. The theoretical uncertainty on the Standard Model prediction of R π is 0.02 %, a factor of twenty smaller than the experimental uncertainty. The analysis of a subset of data taken by the PIENU experiment will be presented. The result, R π = (1.2344 ± 0.0023( s t a t) ± 0.0019( s y s t)) ṡ 10-4 [1], is consistent with the Standard Model prediction and represents a 0.1 % constraint on lepton non-universality.

  11. Trillium 360 Seismometer Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Geoffrey; Devanney, Peter; Upadhyaya, Sarvesh

    2017-04-01

    Test results for Trillium 360 show this seismometer can resolve the Peterson New Low Noise Model down to 300 seconds period. This has been confirmed at multiple sites: Pinon Flat (California), Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (New Mexico) and Nanometrics (Ottawa, Canada). The Pinon Flat deployment captured the March 2, 2016 Mw=7.9 Indonesian event and showed a response coherent with reference sensors including an STS-1 at periods down to 0.0015 Hz. At frequencies below 0.0015 Hz the reference sensors showed a noncoherent spurious response, i.e. noise in the presence of signal, whereas the Trillium 360 was relatively unaffected. Magnetic sensitivity has been measured to be 0.01 m/s^2/T in two independent tests at ASL and Nanometrics. Temperature sensitivity is 3*10^-4 m/s^2/T. This combination of low sensitivity to both magnetic field and temperature is achieved through magnetic shielding which resolves the side effect of magnetic sensitivity in temperature-compensated ferromagnetic spring alloys. The T360 seismometer components are sufficiently miniaturized for deployment in a borehole. This enables low-noise performance even in an urban environment with thick sediments (at Nanometrics, Ottawa) since the seismometer can be emplaced in bedrock below surface sediments and away from surface noise.

  12. Initial results of small incision deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogla, Rajesh; Padmanabhan, Prema

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the results of replacing the posterior stroma and endothelium, using small incision deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK) surgical technique, in patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. Noncomparative case series. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients (six males and nine females) with endothelial dysfunction were included in this study. Through a 5-mm scleral incision, a deep lamellar pocket was created across the cornea, followed by excision of an 8.0-mm disk of posterior lamellar corneal tissue. Same size lamellar donor disk was prepared and placed in position without the need of suture fixation. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), refraction, endothelial cell density, corneal topography, and corneal thickness were analyzed. Average BSCVA preoperative was 20/200 (range 20/40 to hand movements (HM)), improving to 20/50 (range 20/20 to 20/120) at a mean follow-up of 7.2 months. Average refractive astigmatism at last follow-up was 1.46+/-1.21 diopters (range, 0 to 4 diopters). Preoperative average donor endothelial cell density was 2047+/-311 cells/mm2, and that at last follow-up was 1732+/-514 cells/mm2. Preoperative average pachymetry was 801.4+/-211.3 microm, improving to 553+/-90.4 microm at last follow-up. Initial results with small incision DLEK procedure indicate that it is a safe procedure that provides healthy donor endothelial cell count and function postoperatively, with encouraging visual results.

  13. Range imaging results from polar mesosphere summer echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Marius; Hoffmann, Peter; Rapp, Markus; Chen, Jenn-Shyong

    The range resolution of pulsed radars is usually limited by the transmitting pulse length and the sampling time. The so-called range imaging (RIM) has been developed to reduce these lim-itations. To apply this method the radar operates alternately over a set of distinct frequencies. Then the phase differences of the receiving signals can be used for optimization methods to generate high-resolution maps of reflections as function of range insight the pulse length. The technique has been implemented on the ALWIN VHF radar in Andenes (69) and the OSWIN VHF radar in Kühlungsborn (54N). Here we present results of the RIM method from measurements in polar mesosphere summer echoes -PMSE. These strong radar echoes are linked to ice particle clouds in the mesopause region. The dynamic of the PMSE can be reflected very well by RIM. The movement of PMSE and the edges of the extension can be tracked with a high altitude resolution. Comparisons between simultaneous measurements by RIM and by standard radar techniques demonstrate the advan-tages of RIM. Wave structures can be identified with RIM whereas they are not detectable with the lesser resolution of the standard measurements. Gravity wave parameter associated with these variations are estimated using the simultaneous measured velocity field.

  14. The Antarctic POLENET Project: Status, Initial Results, Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. J.; Wiens, D. A.; Winberry, J.; Smalley, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Nyblade, A.; Huerta, A. D.; Dalziel, I. W.; Bevis, M. G.; Aster, R. C.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2010-12-01

    Synoptic observational data are being provided by new arrays of GNSS and seismic sensors distributed across West Antarctica from the Antarctic Network (A-NET) component of the IPY Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET). Providing this invaluable new trove of data to the global science community and the major increase in observational capacity are the foremost achievements of POLENET during the IPY. Scientific investigations on a broad range of topics utilizing the new polar geophysical observations are underway and results are beginning to emerge. Initial results of GPS and gravity measurements show that uplift predictions from existing models of glacial isostatic adjustment do not match measured vertical crustal motion rates. These results have important implications for ancient and modern ice mass balance and modeling of sea level change. Seismic methods are revealing thinner crust and slow upper mantle velocities under West Antarctica compared with East Antarctica, compatible with warm, weak mantle beneath rifted crust. These results bear on modeling glacial isostatic adjustment and the dynamics of the west antarctic ice sheet, as well as continental evolution and intraplate deformation processes. Interdisciplinary studies between communities studying geophysical, climate, atmospheric and space weather phenomena have recently been initiated. The new observational capacity of the autonomous remote sensor network has clearly accelerated understanding of large-scale earth system processes, particularly feedbacks between the solid earth and ice sheets. However, enhanced modeling capabilities must be developed to integrate data sets, assimilate the improved data sets and boundary conditions effectively, and improve model predictions. POLENET infrastructure provides a framework for a collaborative, interdisciplinary, international observational network, highlighting a key challenge for future polar research.

  15. Attitude algorithm and initial alignment method for SINS applied in short-range aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Hui; He, Zhao-Cheng; You, Feng; Chen, Bo

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an attitude solution algorithm based on the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System and quaternion method. We completed the numerical calculation and engineering practice by adopting fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm in the digital signal processor. The state space mathematical model of initial alignment in static base was established, and the initial alignment method based on Kalman filter was proposed. Based on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, the short-range flight simulation test and the actual flight test were carried out. The results show that the error of pitch, yaw and roll angle is fast convergent, and the fitting rate between flight simulation and flight test is more than 85%.

  16. Global adjoint tomography: Perspectives, initial results and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Ebru; Zhu, Hejun; Peter, Daniel; Tromp, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    with higher-resolution (T > 9 s) and longer-duration (180 min) simulations to accommodate high-frequency body waves and major-arc surface waves, respectively, which help improve data coverage. Our ultimate aim is to use data from all available networks and earthquakes within the magnitude range of our interest which requires a solid framework to manage big data sets during pre-processing (i.e., data requests and quality checks, processing data, window selections etc.) and post-processing (i.e., pre-conditioning and smoothing kernels). We discuss the current status and future of global adjoint tomography based on our initial results as well as practical issues, such as handling big data in inversions and on high-performance computing systems.

  17. Do corporate environmental initiatives lead to results in SMEs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , it is relevant to study the situation between these two stages in order to identify to which extent corporate environmental initiatives actually lead to results and reductions. The research is based on data collected by surveys of industrial companies in Denmark in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. They information...

  18. Fusion via transpsoas lateral approach: considerations and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Abreu Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present some technical considerations about interbody fusion by direct lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach and its initial results. METHODS: Non-randomized prospective study of 14 patients undergoing interbody fusion via lateral approach, with evaluation of initial results and complications. RESULTS: We collected and analyzed data from 14 patients with a total of 27 levels operated. The average operative time was 146 minutes and blood loss was on average less than 50 ml. Ten patients required supplemental percutaneous fixation with pedicle screws. VAS scores for the lumbar region and lower limbs and ODI had significant improvement in the postoperative period. There was an associated case of postoperative infection and thromboembolism that required reoperations. CONCLUSION: This technique has revolutionized the care of patients requiring fusion of T6-7 to L4-5. Following the five basic steps and using intraoperative monitoring, this technique is safe and reproducible with encouraging clinical results and low rate of serious complications.

  19. Cabo Verde telemedicine program: initial results of nationwide implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Merrell, Ronald C; Lopes, Miguel; Azevedo, Vanda; Bekteshi, Flamur; Osmani, Kalterina L; Qesteri, Orland; Kucani, Julian; Lecaj, Ismet

    2014-11-01

    Telemedicine and e-health have been suggested as one solution for closing the health disparity gap between the developed world and the developing world. Yet evidence is lacking from current successful programs in the developing world and, in particular, from sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of our study was to present the preliminary results of our efforts in building the Integrated Telemedicine and e-Health Program for Cabo Verde (ITeHP-CV), with an emphasis on initial utilization and results. This is a prospective study of data collected while we worked to establish a fully functional, integrated national telemedicine network and virtual education network in Cabo Verde. We used the International Virtual e-Hospital Foundation strategic approach known as "initiate-build-operate-transfer" over a 26-month period (November 2011-December 2013). We describe herein the five main pillars of this process that have been implemented: (1) capacity building; (2) network development and deployment of equipment; (3) implementation of clinical telemedicine; (4) implementation of activities related to continuing medical education, delivered from within the country and from abroad; and (5) establishment and use of the electronic virtual library. Based on comprehensive technical and medical assessment of the country's needs, 10 fully functional telemedicine centers in all nine inhabited islands of the Republic of Cabo Verde have been established. RESULTS are presented under the five main pillars of capacity building, network deployment, implementation of clinical telemedicine, implementation of continuing medical education activities, and establishment of the electronic virtual library. The ITeHP-CV has been successfully launched, and the initial results are encouraging. The continuity of the program and sustainability are primary goals once the program is transferred fully to the Ministry of Health of Cabo Verde. A long-term follow-up study is required in order to ensure

  20. Initial Ion Results from the RENU2 Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M.; Lessard, M.; Lynch, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    RENU2 (Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling 2) is a multiple investigator sounding rocket campaign that was designed to transit the cusp region between 200 and 600 km and study particle processes during a neutral upwelling event. The RENU2 payload dayside observations will be compared with measurements made by the EISCAT Svalbard radars. This project aims to investigate the connection between ion upflows and outflows, and neutral upwelling from the topside ionosphere. Low-earth orbiting satellites are affected by these regions of enhanced neutral densities which decay their orbits due to satellite drag. Three electrostatic analyzers were flown to measure 2D ion distribution functions, providing observations of temperature enhancements, bulk velocity moments, anisotropy and conics. The thermal energy ion detector (HT) sweeps over an energy range of .12 to 22 eV and the medium energy detector (HM) has an energy range from 3.6 to 790 eV. The thermal mass ion detector (BPS) sweeps over the same energy range as the thermal energy detector, but also has a crude mass discriminator separating atomic oxygen from hydrogen. All of the detectors provide two dimensional phase space distributions; the thermal detectors have a cadence of 128 ms while the medium energy detector provides a distribution every 64 ms. These measurements of the upwelling process will be used as input for coupled models or be used as a metric to compare to what the models predict. During initial data analysis, we found nongyrotropy in the medium energy ions, a proton enhancement during an otherwise uneventful region, and three ion upflow events which will be further investigated.

  1. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-06-02

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status.

  2. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  3. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  4. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  5. Assessing Extreme Models of the Stober Synthesis Using Transients under a Range of Initial Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Look; Harris; McCormick

    1997-10-01

    29Si-NMR, conductimetry, and photon correlation spectroscopy are used to monitor the temporal profile of intermediate concentrations in Stober synthesis (i.e., ammonia-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane in a batch reactor). Extreme models of the process are assessed by examining the effect of initial composition on these transients (over a wider range of composition than attempted previously). The trends with initial composition suggest that the nucleation is rate-limited by the hydrolysis of the singly hydrolyzed monomer, the product of which probably phase separates. Moreover, the trends are consistent with the aggregation model discussed by G. H. Bogush and C. F. Zukoski (J. Colloid Interface Sci. 142, 1, 19 (1991) and by M. T. Harris (Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Tennessee, 1992). The trends are not consistent with a growth model without aggregation. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  6. The Faint Sky Variability Survey II: Initial Results

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, M. E.; Huber, M.E.; Howell, S. B.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the first results from the Faint Sky Variability Survey (Groot et al. 2000). The data consist of V-band light curves, BVI colours, astrometry, and morphology information on several hundred thousand point and extended sources in the magnitude range V=17-25. We discuss the first 30 survey fields covering an area of 8.4 square degrees towards moderate and high galactic latitudes. We analyse the quality of and discuss our differential photometry light curves. We employ statistical meth...

  7. Initial Data Analysis Results for ATD-2 ISAS HITL Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the operational procedures and information requirements for the core functional capabilities of the ATD-2 project, such as tactical surface metering tool, APREQ-CFR procedure, and data element exchanges between ramp and tower, human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations were performed in March, 2017. This presentation shows the initial data analysis results from the HITL simulations. With respect to the different runway configurations and metering values in tactical surface scheduler, various airport performance metrics were analyzed and compared. These metrics include gate holding time, taxi-out in time, runway throughput, queue size and wait time in queue, and TMI flight compliance. In addition to the metering value, other factors affecting the airport performance in the HITL simulation, including run duration, runway changes, and TMI constraints, are also discussed.

  8. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  9. Np Behavior in Synthesized Uranyl Phases: Results of Initial Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Judah I.; Douglas, Matthew; McNamara, Bruce K.; Clark, Sue B.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2004-09-28

    Initial tests were completed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for developing a potential mechanism to retard the mobility of neptunium at the Yucca Mountain repository. Neptunium is of concern because of its mobility in the environment and long half life, contributing a large percentage of the potential dose over extended times at the perimeter of the site. The mobility of neptunium could be retarded by associating with uranium mineral phases. The following four uranium mineral phases were examined and are potential secondary phases expected to form as a result of interactions of spent nuclear fuel with the local environment: meta-schoepite, studtite, uranophane, and sodium boltwoodite. The fate of the neptunium was examined in these synthetic experiments.

  10. Aquarius Retrieval of Sea Ice Thickness: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matthaeis, Paolo; Utku, C.; Le Vine, David M.; Moyer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius brightness temperature data are used to calculate sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. The method is based on the inversion of a radiative transfer model for icecovered sea. Using this technique, the initial sea ice thickness values retrieved from Aquarius data are compared to the SMOSIce Data as well as to estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. The results show similar trends between the SMOS- and Aquarius-derived sea ice thickness, however the Aquarius estimates tend to be higher and noisier than the corresponding SMOS values. The accuracy of retrieved Aquarius ice thickness is possibly influenced by uncertainties in the ancillary input parameters and by the coarser resolutions of Aquarius.

  11. Initial results from the fast imaging solar spectrograph (FISS)

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This collection of papers describes the instrument and initial results obtained from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS),  one of the post-focus instruments of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The FISS primarily aims at investigating structures and dynamics of  chromospheric features. This instrument is a dual-band Echelle spectrograph optimized for the simultaneous recording of the H I 656.3 nm band and the Ca II 854.2 nm band. The imaging is done with the fast raster scan realized by the linear motion of a two-mirror scanner, and its quality is determined by the performance of the adaptive optics of the telescope.    These papers illustrate the capability of the early FISS observations in the study of chromospheric features. Since the imaging quality has been improved a lot with the advance of the adaptive optics, one can obtain much better data with the current FISS observations.        This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in...

  12. Initial Results from the New Stress Map of Texas Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Modern techniques for characterizing tectonic stress orientation and relative magnitude have been successfully used for more than 35 years. Nevertheless, large areas of North America lack high spatial resolution maps of stress orientation, magnitude, and faulting regime. In Texas, for example, geothermal resources. This year, we launched the Texas Stress Map project to characterize tectonic stress patterns at higher spatial resolution across Texas and nearby areas. Following a successful effort just completed in Oklahoma, we will evaluate borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, shear wave anisotropy, and earthquake data. The principal data source will be FMI (fullbore formation microimager), UBI (ultrasonic borehole imager), cross-dipole sonic, density, and caliper logs provided by private industry. Earthquake moment tensor solutions from the U.S. Geological Survey, Saint Louis University and other sources will also be used. Our initial focus is on the Permian Basin and Barnett Shale petroleum plays due to the availability of data, but we will expand our analysis across the state as the project progresses. In addition, we hope to eventually apply the higher spatial resolution data coverage to understanding tectonic and geodynamic characteristics of the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Here we present early results from our work to constrain stress orientations and faulting regime in and near Texas, and we also provide a roadmap for the ongoing research.

  13. Initial results from a ROSAT deep survey in Lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. F.; Windhorst, R. A.; Maccacaro, T.; Burstein, D.; Franklin, B. E.; Griffiths, R. E.; Koo, D. C.; Mathis, D. F.; Morgan, W. A.; Neuschaefer, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from a deep (70 ksec) Rosat survey of the high galactic latitude selected area Lynx.3A are presented. Lynx.3A sensitivity was previously studied in both the optical radio, with deep Westerbork surveys and deep multicolor Charge Couple Device (CCD) images form the Palomar 200 inch Four-Shooter. About 70 x-ray sources were detected within the central 40 foot diameter region of the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), observed surface densities of approximately 200 x-ray sources/sq deg are suggested, and these x-ray sources alone account for approximately 30 percent of the cosmic x-ray background (0.9 to 2.2 keV). An initial look at the observed x-ray logN - logS curve is presented, but a detailed assessment requires further study. The 4 sigma limit of about 7 times 10 to the minus 15th power erg/s.sq cm (0.5 to 2.0 keV) is considerably deeper then the Einstein deep surveys, and of comparable sensitivity to the deepest current Rosat surveys. Cross correlation with our Four Shooter optical catalogs yields at least one likely optical candidate for nearly all of the Rosat x-ray sources; a number of the likely optical identifications have colors of quasi-stellar objects (and stellar PSF), but in other cases galaxies/groups are also viable candidates.

  14. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  15. Overview of Keda Torus eXperiment initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wandong; Lan, Tao; Mao, Wenzhe; Li, Hong; Xie, Jinlin; Liu, Ahdi; Wan, Shude; Wang, Hai; Zheng, Jian; Wen, Xiaohui; Zhou, Haiyang; You, Wei; Li, Chenguang; Bai, Wei; Tu, Cui; Tan, Mingsheng; Luo, Bing; Fu, Chenshuo; Huang, Fangcheng; Xu, Hangqi; Deng, Tijian; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhang, Sen; Adil, Yolbarsop; Hu, Jintong; Xiao, Bingjia; Luo, Zhengping; Wang, Huazhong; Shen, Biao; Fu, Peng; Yang, Lei; Song, Yuntao; Yang, Qingxi; Zheng, Jinxing; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Ping; Xiao, Chijin; Ding, Weixing

    2017-11-01

    The Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) is a new reversed field pinch (RFP) device at the University of Science and Technology of China. The construction and assembly of KTX, including the vacuum chamber, conducting shell, magnetic field windings, power supply system, active control coils, vacuum pump and data acquisition system, have been completed on August 1, 2015. Immediately following that, the first plasma was obtained on August 15, 2015. Intensive conditioning of the machine is underway to ramp up the plasma current toward its full operation. An active feedback mode control system has been built and has been implemented to control the error field around the vertical gaps of the conducting shell. The pulsed power supply systems of ohmic heating field and toroidal field (TF), using thyristor and energy storage capacitors, have been tested and commissioned. The TF power supply has flexibility in being able to operate with a reversed TF configuration and stable TF configuration. The fundamental diagnostic tools are developed for early KTX operation. Currently, the plasma current is up to 205 kA and the maximum discharge length is 21 ms, approaching to the conducting shell penetration time. Furthermore, typical RFP discharges are being produced with RFP state lasting 2 ms. These initial operation results for KTX are described in detail.

  16. NICER observations of highly magnetized neutron stars: Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Nynka, Melania; Kaspi, Victoria; Harding, Alice; Guver, Tolga; Lewandowska, Natalia; Majid, Walid; Ho, Wynn C. G.; NICER Team

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) was launched on June 3, 2017, and attached to the International Space Station. The large effective area of NICER in soft X-rays makes it a powerful tool not only for its primary science objective (diagnostics of the nuclear equation state) but also for studying neutron stars of various classes. As one of the NICER science working groups, the Magnetars and Magnetospheres (M&M) team coordinates monitoring and target of opportunity (ToO) observations of magnetized neutron stars, including magnetars, high-B pulsars, X-ray dim isolated neutron stars, and young rotation-powered pulsars. The M&M working group has performed simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the Crab and Vela pulsars, ToO observations of the active anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61, and a monitoring campaign for the transient magnetar SGR 0501+4516. Here we summarize the current status and initial results of the M&M group.

  17. Alternative multi-user interaction screen: initial ergonomic test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available . The study reveals that the sample group has a preferred starting point when initiating the interaction sequence. In addition, the authors report how some users contorted their bodies during the study....

  18. Assessing extreme models of the Stoeber synthesis using transients under a range of initial composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; McCormick, A.V. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Look, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harris, M.T. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Monodispersely sized micrometer-scale spherical colloids of metal oxides are important for the controlled fabrication of high quality ceramic materials. Their synthesis by the hydrolysis of metal alkoxides is of particular interest. {sup 29}Si-NMR, conductimetry, and photon correlation spectroscopy are used to monitor the temporal profile of intermediate concentrations in Stoeber synthesis (i.e., ammonia-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane in a batch reactor). Extreme models of the process are assessed by examining the effect of initial composition on these transients (over a wider range of composition than attempted previously). The trends with initial composition suggest that the nucleation is rate-limited by the hydrolysis of the singly hydrolyzed monomer, the product of which probably phase separates. Moreover, the trends are consistent with the aggregation model discussed by G.H. Bogush and C.F. Zukoski (J. Colloid Interface Sci. 142, 1, 19, 1991) and by M.T. Harris (Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Tennessee, 1992). The trends are not consistent with a growth model without aggregation.

  19. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Coe, D.; Capak, P.; Brammer, G., E-mail: lotz@stsci.edu [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 Sam Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope ? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5 σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands to 5 σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  20. Initial results of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroshige; Suda, Takashi; Ikeda, Norihiko; Okada, Morihito; Date, Hiroshi; Oda, Makoto; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2014-12-01

    As surgical robots have become increasingly used, verification of their usefulness in the general thoracic surgery field is required. Initial results of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in Japan were investigated. A questionnaire survey was performed to retrospectively examine the current status of robotic surgery for general thoracic disease in Japan. The subjects were 112 cases performed by the end of September 2012 at 9 institutions. There were 60 cases of primary lung cancer, 38 cases of anterior-middle mediastinal disease, and 14 cases of posterior mediastinal disease. In lung cancer cases, the operative time was 284.7 min, the blood loss was 129 mL, the drainage period was 3.3 days, and the conversion rate was 3.3 %. The incidence of postoperative complications was 6.7 %. The postoperative hospital stay was 8.2 days. In cases of anterior-middle mediastinal disease, the operative time was 184.3 min, the blood loss was 43.8 mL, the drainage period was 2.3 days, and there was no conversion. The incidence of postoperative complications was 7.9 %. The postoperative hospital stay was 7.1 days. In cases of posterior mediastinal disease, the operative time was 142.6 min, the blood loss was 61.4 mL, the drainage period was 1.6 days, and there was no conversion. No postoperative complication developed in any case. The postoperative hospital stay was 5 days. In all cases underwent robotic surgery, there was no operation related mortality. Robotic surgery was safely introduced, and the incidence of postoperative complications tended to be low, although the operative time was long. Preparations for its employment in advanced medical care and coverage by national health insurance are urgent issue.

  1. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Coe, D.; Grogin, N.; Capak, P.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Brammer, G.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S.; Porterfield, B.; Reid, N.; Robberto, M.; Royle, P.; Smith, L. J.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Sunnquist, B.; Surace, J.; Taylor, D. C.; Williams, R.; Bullock, J.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Natarajan, P.; Richard, J.; Robertson, B.; Tumlinson, J.; Zitrin, A.; Flanagan, K.; Sembach, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Mountain, M.

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5σ point-source depths of ˜29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10-100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ˜30-33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands to 5σ point-source depths of ˜26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  2. AMPERE: Project Implementation Overview and Initial Results (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Rock, K.; Dyrud, L. P.; Korth, H.; Waters, C. L.; Green, D. L.; Barnes, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    -degree latitude resolution. The architecture and performance of the AMPERE system are reviewed, and initial results of the dynamics of storm-time and other time-variable currents are presented.

  3. Initial results in SST-1 after up-gradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Khan, Z.; Tanna, V. L.; Prasad, U.; Paravastu, Y.; Raval, D. C.; Masand, H.; Kumar, Aveg; Dhongde, J. R.; Jana, S.; Kakati, B.; Patel, K. B.; Bhandarkar, M. K.; Shukla, B. K.; Ghosh, D.; Patel, H. S.; Parekh, T. J.; Mansuri, I. A.; Dhanani, K. R.; Varadharajulu, A.; Khristi, Y. S.; Biswas, P.; Gupta, C. N.; George, S.; Semwal, P.; Sharma, D. K.; Gulati, H. K.; Mahajan, K.; Praghi, B. R.; Banaudha, M.; Makwana, A. R.; Chudasma, H. H.; Kumar, M.; Manchanda, R.; Joisa, Y. S.; Asudani, K.; Pandya, S. N.; Pathak, S. K.; Banerjee, S.; Patel, P. J.; Santra, P.; Pathan, F. S.; Chauhan, P. K.; Khan, M. S.; Thankey, P. L.; Prakash, A.; Panchal, P. N.; Panchal, R. N.; Patel, R. J.; Mahsuria, G. I.; Sonara, D. P.; Patel, K. M.; Jayaswal, S. P.; Sharma, M.; Patel, J. C.; Varmora, P.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D. R.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Babu, G. R.; Panchal, A. G.; Vora, M. M.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, R.; Nimavat, H. D.; Shah, P. R.; Purwar, G.; Raval, T. Y.; Sharma, A. L.; Ojha, A.; Kumar, S.; Ramaiya, N. K.; Siju, V.; Gopalakrishna, M. V.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P. K.; Atrey, P. K.; Kulkarni, SV; Ambulkar, K. K.; Parmar, P. R.; Thakur, A. L.; Raval, J. V.; Purohit, S.; Mishra, P. K.; Adhiya, A. N.; Nagora, U. C.; Thomas, J.; Chaudhari, V. K.; Patel, K. G.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C. G.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, Ajay; Chaudhari, B.; Kaur, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Raju, D.; Kanabar, D. H.; Jha, R.; Das, A.; Bora, D.

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak has recently completed the 1st phase of up-gradation with successful installation and integration of all its First Wall components. The First Wall of SST-1 comprises of ∼ 3800 high heat flux compatible graphite tiles being assembled and installed on 132 CuCrZr heat sink back plates engraved with ∼ 4 km of leak tight baking and cooling channels in five major sub groups equipped with ∼ 400 sensors and weighing ∼ 6000 kg in total in thirteen isolated galvanic and six isolated hydraulic circuits. The phase-1 up-gradation spectrum also includes addition of Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) both on the in-board and out-board side, installation of fast reciprocating probes, adding some edge plasma probe diagnostics in the SOL region, installation and integration of segmented and up-down symmetric radial coils aiding/controlling plasma rotations, introduction of plasma position feedback and density controls etc. Post phase-I up-gradation spanning from Nov 2014 till June 2016, initial plasma experiments in up-graded SST-1 have begun since Aug 2016 after a brief engineering validation period in SST-1. The first experiments in SST-1 have revealed interesting aspects on the ‘eddy currents in the First Wall support structures’ influencing the ‘magnetic Null evolution dynamics’ and the subsequent plasma start-up characteristics after the ECH pre-ionization, the influence of the first walls on the ‘field errors’ and the resulting locked modes observed, the magnetic index influencing the evolution of the equilibrium of the plasma column, low density supra-thermal electron induced discharges and normal ohmic discharges etc. Presently; repeatable ohmic discharges regimes in SST-1 having plasma currents in excess of 65 KA (qa ∼ 3.8, BT = 1.5 T) with a current ramp rates ∼ 1.2 MA/s over a duration of ∼ 300 ms with line averaged densities ∼ 0.8 × 1019 and temperatures ∼ 200 eV with copious MHD signatures have been experimentally

  4. Initial Results from the UAVSAR Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Minchew, B. M.; Holt, B.; Hensley, S.

    2010-12-01

    In June 2010, the UAVSAR platform was deployed to the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in order to collect fully-polarimetric L-band radar data over the open water and along Gulf coastlines. The data from the 2-day campaign is now being used to study the extent and impact of the oil spill, both in the open water and within the coastal ecosystems. The UAVSAR campaign was initiated with three primary goals: (1) Develop and validate algorithms for improved discrimination of oil slicks on water and identification of oil properties from radar backscatter; (2) study the use of radar for determining the extent of oil penetration into sensitive coastal ecological zones, in particular, to map the spread of oil from the coastline into coastal wetlands; and (3) study the use of radar in identifying and monitoring the recovery of vegetation affected by oil. In addition, we intend for the information from this study to inform and enable use of high-resolution radar imagery in future emergency response efforts. A second flight in October 2010 is planned to repeat the collection of marshland and coastal data for the impact and recovery studies. The first deployment occurred while oil was still leaking from the Deepwater Horizon spill site. UAVSAR data was collected over the ocean along 22-km wide swaths covering the rig site and the area around it. Additional data was collected over the gulf extending ocean data extending east from the rig site to an area south of Pensacola, Florida; over the Franklin Eddy in the east-central Gulf of Mexico, and directly east of the Florida Keys. The processed data has a resolution of 7 m x 7 m. We are now using this data to study oil identification and characterization using polarimetric decomposition techniques. The UAVSAR instrument has a noise floor (noise-equivalent σ0) of ~-50 dB, at least 20 dB below that of most radars imaging the oil spill. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument is allowing us to

  5. Plasma Waves Near Saturn: Initial Results from Voyager 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-09

    terrestrial and Jovian originate from about 8.6. 7.3. and 5.2 Rs. vember to 01(X) on 13 November and again after 09(X) on 13 November. Under the assumption... Jovian magnetospheres (8). In spec. TIME (SEC) 0 10 20 30 40 trogram A. the chorus is completely ab- START TIME, 0326:10 SCET, NOVEMBER 13, 1980 sent and...6 weeks before closest approach. rotational control is difficult to under- with the observed location of the aurora Initially. the signals were

  6. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg2 of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in out...... the lessons learned during this pilot study....

  7. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg(2) of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in o...... the lessons learned during this pilot study....

  8. Spectral biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis: initial clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Yao; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a noninvasive method that utilizes multimodal spectroscopy towards the goal of a "spectral biopsy" of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We previously described an updated spectral biopsy system that allows acquisition of all three forms of spectroscopy through a single fiber optic probe and is composed of off-the-shelf OEM components that are smaller, cheaper, and enable a more clinic-friendly system. We present initial patient data acquired with the spectral biopsy system, the first from an extensive clinical study (n = 250) to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma). We also present our first attempts at analyzing this initial set of clinical data using statistical-based models, and with models currently being developed to extract biophysical information from the collected spectra, all towards the goal of noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis.

  9. Solar Influence on the North Atlantic Oscillation - Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Dacie, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Some initial investigations into various atmospheric phenomena and the influence of the solar cycle on weather have been made. Strongly negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices, which cause cold and dry winter weather in North West Europe, rarely occur during periods of high solar activity. Coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere is discussed, particularly in the context of Polar-night jet oscillation events (defined by Hitchcock et al., 2013) and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The energy of North Atlantic hurricanes (as indicated by the Accumulated Cyclone Energy Index, ACE) is also linked to solar activity, via UV heating at the tropopause (Elsner et al., 2010), and is suggested as a possible mechanism through which solar activity could influence the NAO. Finally the lack of solar influence on the NAO before $\\sim$ 1950 is addressed, with a possible cause being the smaller solar cycle amplitudes. This short report contains several ideas, which may be worth pursuing further.

  10. Shock initiation of nano-Al/Teflon: High dynamic range pyrometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-launched flyer plates (25 μm thick Cu) were used to impact-initiate reactive materials consisting of 40 nm Al particles embedded in TeflonAF polymer (Al/Teflon) on sapphire substrates at a stoichiometric concentration (2.3:1 Teflon:Al), as well as one-half and one-fourth that concentration. A high dynamic range emission spectrometer was used to time and spectrally resolve the emitted light and to determine graybody temperature histories with nanosecond time resolution. At 0.5 km s-1, first light emission was observed from Teflon, but at 0.6 km s-1, the emission from Al/Teflon became much more intense, so we assigned the impact threshold for Al/Teflon reactions to be 0.6 (±0.1) km s-1. The flyer plates produced a 7 ns duration steady shock drive. Emission from shocked Al/Teflon above threshold consisted of two bursts. At the higher impact velocities, the first burst started 15 ns after impact, peaked at 25 ns, and persisted for 75 ns. The second burst started at a few hundred nanoseconds and lasted until 2 μs. The 15 ns start time was exactly the time the flyer plate velocity dropped to zero after impact with sapphire. The first burst was associated with shock-triggered reactions and the second, occurring at ambient pressure, was associated with combustion of leftover material that did not react during shock. The emission spectrum was found to be a good fit to a graybody at all times, allowing temperature histories to be extracted. At 25 ns, the temperature at 0.7 km s-1 and the one-fourth Al load was 3800 K. Those temperatures increased significantly with impact velocity, up to 4600 K, but did not increase as much with Al load. A steady combustion process at 2800 (±100) K was observed in the microsecond range. The minimal dependence on Al loading indicates that these peak temperatures arise primarily from Al nanoparticles reacting almost independently, since the presence of nearby heat sources had little influence on the peak temperatures.

  11. Stent retriever technology: concept, application and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, S; Bösel, J; Hacke, W; Bendszus, M

    2012-11-01

    Stent retrievers are increasingly used for flow restoration and thrombectomy in acute embolic stroke. First clinical results support the potential of these new devices, in particular the ability to rapidly restore flow and effectively retrieve clots from large intracranial arteries, with favorable clinical results in preliminary patient series. This article reviews the concept and technical aspects of this new technique of endovascular stroke treatment and summarizes the first clinical results.

  12. Initial commissioning results with the NSCL Electron Beam Ion Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Lapierre, A.; Leitner, D.; Ottarson, J.; Portillo, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Bollen, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kester, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The ReA reaccelerator is being added to the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) fragmentation facility in order to provide exotic rare-isotope beams, not available at the Isotope Separation On-Line facilities, in the several-MeV/u energy range. The first stage of the NSCL reaccelerator complex, consisting of an EBIT charge breeder, a room-temperature radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and superconducting linear accelerator modules, has been completed and is being put into operation. Commissioning of the EBIT has started by extracting charge-bred residual gas ions, ions created from a Ne gas jet directed across the EBIT's electron beam and ions captured from an external test ion source. Charge-bred ions from the Ne gas jet have been extracted as a pulse and accelerated through the RFQ and the two cryomodules.

  13. Practical implementation of a particle filter data assimilation approach to estimate initial hydrologic conditions and initialize medium-range streamflow forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elizabeth; Wood, Andy; Nijssen, Bart; Mendoza, Pablo; Newman, Andy; Nowak, Kenneth; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    In an automated forecast system, hydrologic data assimilation (DA) performs the valuable function of correcting raw simulated watershed model states to better represent external observations, including measurements of streamflow, snow, soil moisture, and the like. Yet the incorporation of automated DA into operational forecasting systems has been a long-standing challenge due to the complexities of the hydrologic system, which include numerous lags between state and output variations. To help demonstrate that such methods can succeed in operational automated implementations, we present results from the real-time application of an ensemble particle filter (PF) for short-range (7 day lead) ensemble flow forecasts in western US river basins. We use the System for Hydromet Applications, Research and Prediction (SHARP), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in collaboration with the University of Washington, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. SHARP is a fully automated platform for short-term to seasonal hydrologic forecasting applications, incorporating uncertainty in initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs) and in hydrometeorological predictions through ensemble methods. In this implementation, IHC uncertainty is estimated by propagating an ensemble of 100 temperature and precipitation time series through conceptual and physically-oriented models. The resulting ensemble of derived IHCs exhibits a broad range of possible soil moisture and snow water equivalent (SWE) states. The PF selects and/or weights and resamples the IHCs that are most consistent with external streamflow observations, and uses the particles to initialize a streamflow forecast ensemble driven by ensemble precipitation and temperature forecasts downscaled from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). We apply this method in real-time for several basins in the western US that are important for water resources management, and perform a hindcast

  14. Litter decomposition patterns and dynamics across biomes: Initial results from the global TeaComposition initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Ika; Kappel Schmidt, Inger; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Beier, Claus

    2017-04-01

    Litter decomposition represents one of the largest fluxes in the global terrestrial carbon cycle and a number of large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process. However, previous studies were most often based on site-specific litters and methodologies. The contrasting litter and soil types used and the general lack of common protocols still poses a major challenge as it adds major uncertainty to meta-analyses across different experiments and sites. In the TeaComposition initiative, we aim to investigate the potential litter decomposition by using standardized substrates (tea) for comparison of temporal litter decomposition rates across different ecosystems worldwide. To this end, Lipton tea bags (Rooibos and Green Tea) has been buried in the H-A or Ah horizon and incubated over the period of 36 months within 400 sites covering diverse ecosystems in 9 zonobiomes. We measured initial litter chemistry and litter mass loss 3 months after the start of decomposition and linked the decomposition rates to site and climatic conditions as well as to the existing decompositions rates of the local litter. We will present and discuss the outcomes of this study. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to colleagues from more than 300 sites who were participating in the implementation of this initiative and who are not mentioned individually as co-authors yet.

  15. The August 2011 URSI World Day campaign: Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, Thomas J.; Liu, Guiping; England, Scott L.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Erickson, Philip J.; Lyashenko, Mykhaylo V.; Milla, Marco; Chau, Jorge; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Zhou, Qihou; Stromme, Anja; Paxton, Larry J.

    2015-11-01

    During a 10-day URSI World Day observational campaign beginning on August 1, 2011, an isolated, major geomagnetic storm occurred. On August 5, Kp reached values of 8- and Dst dropped to -113 nT. The occurrence of this isolated storm in the middle of a 10-day URSI World Day campaign provides and unprecedented opportunity to observe the coupling of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere and to evaluate the varied effects that occur in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Dramatic changes in the ionosphere are seen at every one of the active radar stations, extending from Greenland down to equatorial Peru in the American sector and at middle latitudes in Ukraine. Data from TIMED and THEMIS are shown to support initial interpretations of the observations, where we focus on processes in the middle latitude afternoon sector during main phase, and the formation of a dense equatorial ionosphere during storm recovery. The combined measurements strongly suggest that the changes in ionospheric conditions observed after the main storm phase can be attributed in large part to changes in the stormtime thermosphere. This is through the generation of disturbance dynamo winds and also global neutral composition changes that either reduce or enhance plasma densities in a manner that depends mainly upon latitude. Unlike larger storms with possibly more sustained forcing, this storm exhibits minimal effects of persistent meridional stormtime wind drag, and little penetration of solar wind electric potentials to low latitudes. It is, therefore, an outstanding example of an impulsive event that exhibits longer-term effects through modification of the background atmosphere.

  16. Gene Therapy for Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, William J; Schiffman, Joyce C; Davis, Janet L; Porciatti, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Phillip; Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D; Yuan, Huijun; Lalwani, Anil; Lam, Byron L; Guy, John

    2016-03-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a disorder characterized by severe and rapidly progressive visual loss when caused by a mutation in the mitochondrial gene encoding NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4). We have initiated a gene therapy trial to determine the safety and tolerability of escalated doses of an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV) expressing a normal ND4 complementary DNA in patients with a G to A mutation at nucleotide 11778 of the mitochondrial genome. In this prospective open-label trial (NCT02161380), the study drug (self-complementary AAV [scAAV]2(Y444,500,730F)-P1ND4v2) was intravitreally injected unilaterally into the eyes of 5 blind participants with G11778A LHON. Four participants with visual loss for more than 12 months were treated. The fifth participant had visual loss for less than 12 months. The first 3 participants were treated at the low dose of vector (5 × 10(9) vg), and the fourth participant was treated at the medium dose (2.46 × 10(10) vg). The fifth participant with visual loss for less than 12 months received the low dose. Treated participants were followed for 90 to 180 days and underwent ocular and systemic safety assessments along with visual structure and function examinations. Five legally blind patients with G11778A LHON. Loss of visual acuity. Visual acuity as measured by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) eye chart remained unchanged from baseline to 3 months in the first 3 participants. For 2 participants with 90-day follow-up, acuity increased from hand movements to 7 letters in 1 and by 15 letters in 1, representing an improvement equivalent to 3 lines. No one lost vision, and no serious adverse events were observed. Minor adverse events included a transient increase of intraocular pressure (IOP), exposure keratitis, subconjunctival hemorrhage, a sore throat, and a transient increase in neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against AAV2 in 1 participant. All blood samples were negative

  17. KITSAT-1 Cosmic Ray Experiment-Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Min

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The KITSAT-1 was successfully launched on August 11, 1992, into a near circular, 1300-km-high orbit with an 66 deg inclination. The satellite carries a solid state detector module to measure the high energy particle flux originating mostly from the inner radiation belt. We describe here the objectives of the experiment, the detector structure, and the preliminary result.

  18. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  19. Range imaging observations of PMSE using the EISCAT VHF radar: Phase calibration and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel phase calibration technique for use with the multiple-frequency Range IMaging (RIM technique is introduced based on genetic algorithms. The method is used on data collected with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT VHF radar during a 2002 experiment with the goal of characterizing the vertical structure of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE over northern Norway. For typical Doppler measurements, the initial phases of the transmitter and receiver are not required to be the same. The EISCAT receiver systems exploit this fact, allowing a multi-static configuration. However, the RIM method relies on the small phase differences between closely spaced frequencies. As a result, the high-resolution images produced by the RIM method can be significantly degraded if not properly calibrated. Using an enhanced numerical radar simulator, in which data from multiple sampling volumes are simultaneously generated, the proposed calibration method is validated. Subsequently, the method is applied to preliminary data from the EISCAT radar, providing first results of RIM images of PMSE. Data using conventional analysis techniques, and confirmed by RIM, reveal an often-observed double-layer structure with higher stability in the lower layer. Moreover, vertical velocity oscillations exhibit a clear correlation with the apparent motion of the layers shown in the echo power plots.

  20. Development of a global tsunami source database - initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis can be triggered by various sources; most commonly earthquakes, volcanoes or landslides. The characterization of tsunami offspring is an important element in the development of tsunami hazard and risk assessments. The world's known tsunami sources have been investigated in various projects and studies, especially with regard to of earthquakes. Some regions have been examined numerous times by researchersand have presented differing results as a result of varying methodologies and data contributions. In addition, certain tsunami sources have very few studies or singular studies associated with them. Thus, the development of a unified, global database which collects all these sources and their so-far identified characteristics is an important step to provide a shared repository for researchers for the development of future models. A collection of more than 50 detailed probabilistic and deterministic tsunami hazard and risk assessments has been taken out and carefully reviewed.This information about tsunami sources has been compiled and geocoded where possible. In addition, paleoseismic and neo-tectonic studies have been used in conjunction with up-to-date instrumental and historic earthquake catalogues to estimate return periods of megathrust earthquake events and to provide sufficiently well constrained estimates of magnitude-dependent earthquake return periods. The variability of these results is also presented within the database. The sources use a simple 3D geometry based on earthquake locations and focal mechanisms which additionally provide information to model characteristic events of each source. The study provides a detailed catalogue of tsunami source geometries, most of which are subduction zone interfaces, spanning from well-studied regions such as the Chile trench to small local sources like the Yap Trench near Palau in the western Pacific or the potentially subducting Northern Algerian front. In addition to earthquake sources, a database of

  1. Initial results from an online breast augmentation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, V Leroy; Watson, Marla E; Boswell, C B; Centeno, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    Data have been lacking to answer many questions raised in the clinical literature and by the US Food and Drug Administration with regard to patient satisfaction with breast implants, informed consent, the impact of augmentation on quality of life, repeat operations, and other issues related to breast augmentation. The authors conducted an online survey of women with and without breast implants to collect data on key issues related to breast augmentation. A survey including 177 questions was posted on the Web site www.implantinfo.com for 6 months, from August 2001 to February 2002. The survey was aimed at women who had undergone augmentation and those who were considering augmentation but had not yet undergone surgery. The raw data were analyzed by Data Harbor (Chicago, IL), an independent data management and technology development company with experience in managing large, complex medical databases. The survey was completed by 4011 women, including 2273 who had received breast implants and 1738 who were considering augmentation. Among the key findings: More than half of the women who had undergone breast augmentation and those who were considering the procedure thought about the decision for at least 3 years before proceeding. Most women who underwent breast augmentation (88%) were satisfied with the results, and 93% said they would recommend the procedure to friends or family members. Nearly all women who received implants thought the surgery improved their overall appearance (92%) and self-confidence (82%) but said it did not result in significant changes in their marriage/dating activities, careers, or social lives. At least 92% said their surgeons had answered their questions and listened to their concerns, and more than 75% said they remembered being informed of the risks of surgery. The percentage of women with breast pain was greater among women with implants than among those without. However, other physical symptoms, such as those associated with

  2. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aldering, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antilogus, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aragon, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baltay, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bongard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buton, C [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Childress, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Copin, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Gangler, E. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Loken, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pain, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Pecontal, E. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Pereira, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Perlmutter, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rabinowitz, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rigaudier, G. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Ripoche, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Runge, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scalzo, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Smadja, G. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Tao, C. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, C. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France)

    2017-07-06

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  3. New results on initial state & quarkonia with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia Araya, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Weak bosons do not interact strongly with the dense and hot medium formed in the nuclear collisions, thus should be sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions (nPDFs). The in-medium modification of heavy quarkonium states plays an important role in studying the hot and dense medium formed in the larger collision systems. The ATLAS detector, optimized for searching new physics in proton-proton collisions, is especially well equipped to measure Z, W bosons and quakonium in the high occupancy environment produced in heavy-ion collisions. We will present recent results on the Z boson and quarkonia yields as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity, from the ATLAS experiment.

  4. Successful intracardiac robotic surgery: initial results from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Go

    2010-01-01

    : The purpose of this study is to report our 2-year experience of performing endoscopic intracardiac procedures using the da Vinci Surgical System. Our teams at Kanazawa University and Tokyo Medical University groups began using the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) in 2005. This series represents the first Japanese application of robotic technology for totally endoscopic open-heart surgery. : From January 2008 to February 2009, 10 patients (mean age: 46.8 ± 16.3 years, 70% women) underwent endoscopic atrial septal defect closure and resection of the left atrial myxoma using the da Vinci Surgical System and peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass technique. Of the 10 patients, nine were classified as New York Heart Association class II and 1 patient exhibited atrial arrhythmias. In addition, two patients required mitral valve plasty (n = 2) and tricuspid annuloplasty (n = 1). : Mean da Vinci Surgical System working time was 140.7 ± 57.4 minutes. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times were 103.1 ± 37.1 and 30.0 ± 16.9 minutes, respectively. There were no conversions to sternotomy or small thoracotomy. There were no hospital deaths. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stays were 1 day and 3.1 ± 0.3 days, respectively. All patients appreciated the cosmetic result and fast recovery. : Closed-chest atrial septal defect closure and myxoma resection performed using robotic techniques achieved excellent results and rapid postoperative recovery and provided an attractive cosmetic advantage over median sternotomy.

  5. Multi-slice CT urography after diuretic injection: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Wildberger, J.E.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Borchers, H. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of CT urography (CTU) using a multi-slice (MS) scanner and to find out whether a low-dose diuretic injection is advantageous for the opacification of the urinary tract. Methods: MS-CTU was performed in 21 patients with urologic diseases. In 5/21 patients, 250 ml of physiologic saline solution were injected. In 16/21 patients, 10 mg of furosemide were injected 3-5 min before contrast material administration. A 4x2.5 mm collimation with a pitch of 1.25 and a tube curent of 100-150 mA were used. Scan time was 12-16 sec. 3 mm thin axial images with an overlap of 67% were reconstructed. Multiplanar maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were postprocessed to obtain urographic views. Bone structures were eliminated using the volume-of-interest method. Results: Furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU achieved either near complete or complete opacification in 30/32 (94%) ureters and in 32/32 (100%) pelvicaliceal systems up to a serum creatinine of 150 {mu}mol/l. In our series, only one CTU scan per patient was needed to obtain a diagnostic urogram after 10 min of contrast material injection. Ureteral compression was not necessary. When physiologic saline solution was used instead of furosemide, the radiopacity inside the enhanced pelvicalices was 4-5 times higher and more inhomogeneous. Diuretic-enhanced MS-CTU was more accurate in the depiction of pelvicaliceal details. In combination with furosemide, calculi were well identified inside the opacified urine and were safely differentiated from phleboliths. Postprocessing times of up to 20 minutes were problematic as were contrast-enhanced superimposing bowel loops on MIP images. Conclusion: Preliminary results demonstrate a good feasibility of furosemide-enhanced MS-CTU for obtaining detailed visualization of the entire upper urinary tract. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung zur Durchfuehrbarkeit der CT Urographie (CTU) mit einem Multidetektor(MD)-Computertomographen und ob eine

  6. An interactive surgical planning tool for acetabular fractures: initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincek Borut

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetabular fractures still are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of complex anatomy, involved surgical access to fracture sites and the relatively low incidence of these lesions. Proper evaluation and surgical planning is necessary to achieve anatomic reduction of the articular surface and stable fixation of the pelvic ring. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of preoperative surgical planning in acetabular fractures using a new prototype planning tool based on an interactive virtual reality-style environment. Methods 7 patients (5 male and 2 female; median age 53 y (25 to 92 y with an acetabular fracture were prospectively included. Exclusion criterions were simple wall fractures, cases with anticipated surgical dislocation of the femoral head for joint debridement and accurate fracture reduction. According to the Letournel classification 4 cases had two column fractures, 2 cases had anterior column fractures and 1 case had a T-shaped fracture including a posterior wall fracture. The workflow included following steps: (1 Formation of a patient-specific bone model from preoperative computed tomography scans, (2 interactive virtual fracture reduction with visuo-haptic feedback, (3 virtual fracture fixation using common osteosynthesis implants and (4 measurement of implant position relative to landmarks. The surgeon manually contoured osteosynthesis plates preoperatively according to the virtually defined deformation. Screenshots including all measurements for the OR were available. The tool was validated comparing the preoperative planning and postoperative results by 3D-superimposition. Results Preoperative planning was feasible in all cases. In 6 of 7 cases superimposition of preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up CT showed a good to excellent correlation. In one case part of the procedure had to be changed due to impossibility of fracture reduction from an ilioinguinal approach

  7. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  8. Initial results from the newborn hearing screening programme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2013-03-02

    INTRODUCTION: Hearing screening programmes aim to detect hearing loss in the neonate. The Health Service Executive (HSE) South was the first phase of a national roll-out of a neonatal hearing screening programme in Ireland, going live on 28 April 2011. RESULTS: Over 11,738 babies have been screened for permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) during the first 12 months. The percentage of eligible babies offered hearing screening was 99.2 %. Only 0.2 % (n = 25) of those offered screening declined. 493 (4 %) were referred for immediate diagnostic audiological assessment. The average time between screen and diagnostic audiology appointment was 2 weeks. 15 (1.3\\/1,000) babies have been identified with a PCHI over the 12-month period. 946 (4 %) babies screened were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for >48 h. The prevalance of PCHI is 7.3\\/1,000 in the NICU population compared to 0.6\\/1000 in the well baby population. 214 (1.8 % of total babies screened) had a clear response in the screening programmes, but were deemed to be at risk of an acquired childhood hearing impairment. These babies will be reassessed with a diagnostic audiology appointment at 8-9 months of age. To date, there is one case of acquired hearing impairment through this targeted follow-up screen. Of the 15 cases of PCHI identified, 8 (53 %) of these had one or more risk factors for hearing loss and 7 (37 %) were admitted to the NICU for >48 h. Four babies were referred for assessment at the National Cochlear Implant Centre.

  9. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date concerning MMS formation flying. The MMS spacecraft spin at a rate of 3.1 RPM, with spin axis roughly aligned with Ecliptic North. Several booms are used to deploy instruments: two 5 m magnetometer booms in the spin plane, two rigid booms of length 12.5 m along the positive and negative spin axes, and four flexible wire booms of length 60 m in the spin plane. Minimizing flexible motion of the wire booms requires that reorientation of the spacecraft spin axis be kept to a minimum: this is limited to attitude maneuvers to counteract the effects of gravity-gradient and apparent solar motion. Orbital maneuvers must therefore be carried out in essentially the nominal science attitude. These burns make use of a set of monopropellant hydrazine thrusters: two (of thrust 4.5 N) along the spin axis in each direction, and eight (of thrust 18 N) in the spin plane; the latter are pulsed at the spin rate to produce a net delta-v. An on-board accelerometer-based controller is used to accurately generate a commanded delta-v. Navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the MOC Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for maneuver design. These commands are then uplinked to the spacecraft and executed autonomously using the controller, with the ground monitoring the burns in real time.

  10. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  11. An interactive surgical planning tool for acetabular fractures: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Jürgen; Keel, Marius; Harders, Matthias; Marincek, Borut; Székely, Gábor; Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2010-08-04

    Acetabular fractures still are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of complex anatomy, involved surgical access to fracture sites and the relatively low incidence of these lesions. Proper evaluation and surgical planning is necessary to achieve anatomic reduction of the articular surface and stable fixation of the pelvic ring. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of preoperative surgical planning in acetabular fractures using a new prototype planning tool based on an interactive virtual reality-style environment. 7 patients (5 male and 2 female; median age 53 y (25 to 92 y)) with an acetabular fracture were prospectively included. Exclusion criterions were simple wall fractures, cases with anticipated surgical dislocation of the femoral head for joint debridement and accurate fracture reduction. According to the Letournel classification 4 cases had two column fractures, 2 cases had anterior column fractures and 1 case had a T-shaped fracture including a posterior wall fracture.The workflow included following steps: (1) Formation of a patient-specific bone model from preoperative computed tomography scans, (2) interactive virtual fracture reduction with visuo-haptic feedback, (3) virtual fracture fixation using common osteosynthesis implants and (4) measurement of implant position relative to landmarks. The surgeon manually contoured osteosynthesis plates preoperatively according to the virtually defined deformation. Screenshots including all measurements for the OR were available.The tool was validated comparing the preoperative planning and postoperative results by 3D-superimposition. Preoperative planning was feasible in all cases. In 6 of 7 cases superimposition of preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up CT showed a good to excellent correlation. In one case part of the procedure had to be changed due to impossibility of fracture reduction from an ilioinguinal approach. In 3 cases with osteopenic bone patient

  12. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  13. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  14. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of power system control using wind farms with grid support.......This report describes initial results with simulation of power system control using wind farms with grid support....

  15. Post-orogenic evolution of mountain ranges and associated foreland basins: Initial investigation of the central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas; Sinclair, Hugh; Ford, Mary; Naylor, Mark

    2017-04-01

    documented mountain range/foreland basin systems in the world. Initial results of a review of the low-temperature thermochronological data using inverse modelling, illustrates the asymmetric exhumation of the mountain range, and the diachronous timing of decelerated exhumation linked to the transition to post-orogenesis. This study is part of the Orogen project, an academic-industrial collaboration (CNRS-BRGM-TOTAL).

  16. High-Maneuverability Airframe: Initial Investigation of Configuration’s Aft End for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    High-Maneuverability Airframe: Initial Investigation of Configuration’s Aft End for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability by Sidra ...for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability Sidra I. Silton and Frank Fresconi Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Maneuverability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sidra I. Silton and Frank Fresconi 5d. PROJECT

  17. Lynx home range and movements in Montana and Wyoming: Preliminary results [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Tom Laurion

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary telemetry data suggest that lynx in Montana and Wyoming have large home ranges; this result supports the Koehler and Aubry (1994) contention that lynx from southern lynx populations have large spatial-use areas. Annual home ranges of males were larger than females. Straight-line, daily travel distance averaged 2 to 4 km, which is similar to northern...

  18. Initial Comparison of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) with Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, Tomoo; Driscoll, Kevin; Heckman, Stan; Boccippio, Dennis; Koshak, William; Christian, Hugh

    1999-01-01

    The mapping of the lightning optical pulses detected by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is compared with the radiation sources by Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) for three thunderstorms observed during and overpasses on 15 August 1998. The comparison involves 122 flashes including 42 ground and 80 cloud flashes. For ground flash, the LIS recorded the subsequent strokes and changes inside the cloud. For cloud flashes, LIS recorded those with higher sources in altitude and larger number of sources. The discrepancies between the LIS and LDAR flash locations are about 4.3 km for cloud flashes and 12.2 km for ground flashes. The reason for these differences remain a mystery.

  19. Method and First Results of Calculation of Slant-Range Differences to Active Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, F. I.; Kalyuzhny, N. A.; Sybiryakova, Ye. S.; Shulga, A. V.; Gorbanev, Yu. M.

    2015-09-01

    A method for calculation of slant-range differences to the active geostationary telecommunication satellite (GEO Telecom Satellite) is described in the article. The method is developed in the “Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory” Research Institute. The results of observation of the “Eutelsat- 25C” and “Eutelsat-13B” satellites with two receiving stations of digital satellite TV are discussed. The accuracy of determination of slant-range differences to the GEO Telecom Satellite is presented.

  20. Short-range guiding can result in the formation of circular aggregates in myxobacteria populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Janulevicius

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxobacteria are social bacteria that upon starvation form multicellular fruiting bodies whose shape in different species can range from simple mounds to elaborate tree-like structures. The formation of fruiting bodies is a result of collective cell movement on a solid surface. In the course of development, groups of flexible rod-shaped cells form streams and move in circular or spiral patterns to form aggregation centers that can become sites of fruiting body formation. The mechanisms of such cell movement patterns are not well understood. It has been suggested that myxobacterial development depends on short-range contact-mediated interactions between individual cells, i.e. cell aggregation does not require long-range signaling in the population. In this study, by means of a computational mass-spring model, we investigate what types of short-range interactions between cells can result in the formation of streams and circular aggregates during myxobacterial development. We consider short-range head-to-tail guiding between individual cells, whereby movement direction of the head of one cell is affected by the nearby presence of the tail of another cell. We demonstrate that stable streams and circular aggregates can arise only when the trailing cell, in addition to being steered by the tail of the leading cell, is able to speed up to catch up with it. It is suggested that necessary head-to-tail interactions between cells can arise from physical adhesion, response to a diffusible substance or slime extruded by cells, or pulling by motility engine pili. Finally, we consider a case of long-range guiding between cells and show that circular aggregates are able to form without cells increasing speed. These findings present a possibility to discriminate between short-range and long-range guiding mechanisms in myxobacteria by experimentally measuring distribution of cell speeds in circular aggregates.

  1. Short-Range Guiding Can Result in the Formation of Circular Aggregates in Myxobacteria Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janulevicius, A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Picioreanu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that upon starvation form multicellular fruiting bodies whose shape in different species can range from simple mounds to elaborate tree-like structures. The formation of fruiting bodies is a result of collective cell movement on a solid surface. In the course of

  2. Initial results from the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R RFP device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist\\ad{2 }, A.; Malmberg, J.-A.

    2001-11-01

    The EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch (RFP) device has recently resumed operation after a major rebuild including the replacement of the graphite armour with molybdenum limiters, a fourfold increase of the shell time constant, and the replacement of the helical coil used for the toroidal field with a conventional solenoid-type coil. Wall-conditioning using hydrogen glow discharge cleaning was instrumental for successful RFP operation. Carbon was permanently removed from the walls during the first week of operation. The initial results from RFP operation with relatively low plasma currents in the range Ip = 70-100 kA are reported. RFP discharges are sustained for more than three shell times. Significant improvements in plasma parameters are observed, compared to operation before the rebuild. There is a substantial reduction in the carbon impurity level. The electron density behaviour is more shot-to-shot reproducible. The typical density is ne = 0.5-1×1019 m-3. Monitors of Hα line radiation indicate that the plasma wall interaction is more toroidally symmetric and that there is less transient gas release from the wall. The minimum loop voltage is in the range Vt = 28-35 V, corresponding to a reduction by a factor of two to three compared to the value before the rebuild.

  3. Fractional Differential Equations in Terms of Comparison Results and Lyapunov Stability with Initial Time Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Yakar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative behavior of a perturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative that differs in initial position and initial time with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative has been investigated. We compare the classical notion of stability to the notion of initial time difference stability for fractional-order differential equations in Caputo's sense. We present a comparison result which again gives the null solution a central role in the comparison fractional-order differential equation when establishing initial time difference stability of the perturbed fractional-order differential equation with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation.

  4. Design of and initial results from a Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Glowacki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of a Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC is described and initial results obtained from HIRAC are presented. The ability of HIRAC to perform in-situ laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH and HO2 radicals with the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE technique establishes it as internationally unique for a chamber of its size and pressure/temperature variable capabilities. In addition to the FAGE technique, HIRAC features a suite of analytical instrumentation, including: a multipass FTIR system; a conventional gas chromatography (GC instrument and a GC instrument for formaldehyde detection; NO/NO2, CO, O3, and H2O vapour analysers. Ray tracing simulations and NO2 actinometry have been utilized to develop a detailed model of the radiation field within HIRAC. Comparisons between the analysers and the FTIR coupled to HIRAC have been performed, and HIRAC has also been used to investigate pressure dependent kinetics of the chlorine atom reaction with ethene and the reaction of O3 and t-2-butene. The results obtained are in good agreement with literature recommendations and Master Chemical Mechanism predictions. HIRAC thereby offers a highly instrumented platform with the potential for: (1 high precision kinetics investigations over a range of atmospheric conditions; (2 detailed mechanism development, significantly enhanced according to its capability for measuring radicals; and (3 field instrument intercomparison, calibration, development, and investigations of instrument response at a range of atmospheric conditions.

  5. Initial results of the management of aortoiliac aneurysms with GORE® Excluder® Iliac Branched Endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhofer, S; Mansour, R; Ghotbi, R

    2015-12-01

    We prospectively observed the outcomes of all patients (N.=15) with an aortoiliac and a common iliac artery aneurysm who were electively treated with the GORE® Excluder® Iliac Branched Endoprosthesis (IBE) with regard to clinical, anatomical and radiological results. We evaluated operative mortality, aneurysm rupture rate and aneurysm related mortality as well as conversion to open surgery, incidence of endoleak, rate of aneurysm migration, aneurysm enlargement, graft patency, reintervention rate and the clinical outcome. Postoperative follow-up included a computed tomography angiography (CTA) before discharge, clinical evaluation and Duplex ultrasound or CTA 3 weeks after the intervention and Duplex ultrasound every 3 months afterwards. Mean patient age was 79 years (range 61-83 years); f/m: 1/2; mean follow-up was 9 months; 80% of the patients presented 2 or more major comorbidities and 1/3 were considered to be not eligible for open repair. Mean hospitalization time was 5 days. Technical success rate was 93.3% (intent-to-treat basis). Mortality within 30 days was 0%; there were no ruptures; type II endoleak directly after the procedure occurred in 20%, dropping to 13.3% after 3 months. We defined the initial technical success in absence of type I endoleaks. The initial technical success rate was 100%. No IBE occlusion or type Ia, Ib or III endoleak was observed during the postoperative follow-up (mean follow-up: 9 months). All of the internal iliac side branches remained patent. Reintervention rate, buttock claudication rate and pelvic complication rate were 0%. The GORE® IBE provides a new and safe alternative for the management of complete endovascular repair of an extensive aortoiliac or common iliac aneurysm while maintaining pelvic blood flow in iliac branched devices. Due to the lower complexity if compared to previous endovascular or hybrid methods, it should be performed in every anatomically suitable case.

  6. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  7. Initial 2-year results of CardioCel® patch implantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy, Carine; Michielon, Guido; Robertus, Jan Lukas; Lacour-Gayet, François; Ghez, Olivier

    2017-10-24

    We present the initial 2-year results of CardioCel® patch (Admedus Regen Pty Ltd, Perth, WA, Australia) implantation in paediatric patients with congenital heart diseases. This was a single-centre retrospective study with prospectively collected data of all patients aged 18 years and under operated for congenital heart disease. The patch was introduced in 2014, with clinical practice committee approval and a special consent in case of an Ozaki procedure. Standard follow-up was performed with systematic clinical exams and echocardiograms. In case of reoperation or graft failure, the patch was removed and sent for a histological examination. Between March 2014 and April 2016, 101 patients had surgical repair using a CardioCel patch. The mean age was 22 (±36.3) months, and the mean weight was 9.7 (±10.3) kg. No infections and no intraoperative implantation difficulties were associated with the patch. The median follow-up period was 212 (range 4-726) days. The overall 30-day postoperative mortality was 3.8% (n = 4), none of which were related to graft failure. Five children were reoperated because of graft failure, 4 of whom had the patch implanted for aortic and were aged less than 10 days. The indications for patch implantation in the aortic position were aortopulmonary window, truncus arteriosus, coarctation and aortic arch hypoplasia repair. The median time between the first and the second operation for graft failure was 245 (range 5-480) days. Our experience shows that the patch is well tolerated in the septal, valvar and pulmonary artery positions. However, we experienced graft failures in infants in the aortic position.

  8. Results of penetrating keratoplasty performed with a femtosecond laser zigzag incision initial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Marjan; Kim, Matthew; Steinert, Roger F

    2007-12-01

    To determine the initial outcomes of utilizing a femtosecond laser to perform penetrating keratoplasty incisions in a zigzag pattern. Retrospective consecutive surgical series. Patients undergoing full-thickness corneal transplant surgery in a referral academic practice. The IntraLase femtosecond laser performed matching donor and host zigzag incisions in a consistent pattern in 13 eyes of 13 patients. Topographically determined astigmatism, imaging of incisions by anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). Postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 to 9 months. Mean astigmatism was astigmatism was 4.25 D from month 3 onward. Nine eyes (69%) had or =20/30 by month 3; the eighth eye had improved to 20/25 by month 6. Optical coherence tomography images showed excellent anterior and posterior wound alignment, including one eye where the running suture loosened and was fully removed before month 3. The femtosecond laser-generated zigzag incision is biomechanically stable, resulting in excellent wound apposition, wound integrity with minimal suture tension, and recovery of good levels of BSCVA with moderate astigmatism within months of surgery.

  9. [TSH-reference range of adults: results from the population-based study KORA F4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, K; Ittermann, T; Heier, M; Kirchberger, I; Völzke, H; Wallaschofski, H; Below, H; Nauck, M; Meisinger, C

    2014-02-01

    There is no valid nationwide reference value for Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for German adults because of different iodine supply and different laboratory equipment, however, reference values for single regions of Germany have been defined. The aim of this study was to find a reference value for South Germany and to compare this with results of other population-based studies. 3080 individuals from the KORA-F4 study (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) at the age range of 32 to 81 years were examined regarding their thyroid characteristics (anamnesis, sonography and clinical chemistry). After excluding individuals with known as well as unknown thyroid disorders revealed by the KORA study, there were 710 thyroid-healthy individuals left to evaluate TSH-, fT3- and fT4-reference ranges. For thyroid-healthy men and women we evaluated a TSH-reference range of 0.52-3.60 mIU/l on Siemens Vista Analysers with a median of 1.49 mIU/l. We could not find any statistically significant influence of age or sex. Median iodine excretion in urine was 118.6 µg/g creatinine in our healthy population which is above the recommended target value of 100 µg/g. The TSH-reference value of the South German population is higher than the one assessed in the Northeast-German SHIP-study 10 years ago. For the definition of a TSH-reference value, population-based and apparatus-specific examinations are necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Yellowstone ‘hot spot’ track results from migrating Basin Range extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Anderson, Don L.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Lustrino, Michele; King, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Whether the volcanism of the Columbia River Plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone (western U.S.) is related to a mantle plume or to plate tectonic processes is a long-standing controversy. There are many geological mismatches with the basic plume model as well as logical flaws, such as citing data postulated to require a deep-mantle origin in support of an “upper-mantle plume” model. USArray has recently yielded abundant new seismological results, but despite this, seismic analyses have still not resolved the disparity of opinion. This suggests that seismology may be unable to resolve the plume question for Yellowstone, and perhaps elsewhere. USArray data have inspired many new models that relate western U.S. volcanism to shallow mantle convection associated with subduction zone processes. Many of these models assume that the principal requirement for surface volcanism is melt in the mantle and that the lithosphere is essentially passive. In this paper we propose a pure plate model in which melt is commonplace in the mantle, and its inherent buoyancy is not what causes surface eruptions. Instead, it is extension of the lithosphere that permits melt to escape to the surface and eruptions to occur—the mere presence of underlying melt is not a sufficient condition. The time-progressive chain of rhyolitic calderas in the eastern Snake River Plain–Yellowstone zone that has formed since basin-range extension began at ca. 17 Ma results from laterally migrating lithospheric extension and thinning that has permitted basaltic magma to rise from the upper mantle and melt the lower crust. We propose that this migration formed part of the systematic eastward migration of the axis of most intense basin-range extension. The bimodal rhyolite-basalt volcanism followed migration of the locus of most rapid extension, not vice versa. This model does not depend on seismology to test it but instead on surface geological observations.

  11. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: results from a focus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Groot, Marieke; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Menten, Johann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-03-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project, aimed to build a taxonomy of IPC initiatives applicable across diseases, healthcare sectors and systems. The taxonomy of IPC initiatives was developed in cooperation with an international and multidisciplinary focus group of 18 experts. Subsequently, a consensus meeting of 10 experts revised a preliminary taxonomy and adopted the final classification system. Consisting of eight categories, with two to four items each, the taxonomy covers the process and structure of IPC initiatives. If two items in at least one category apply to an initiative, a minimum level of integration is assumed to have been reached. Categories range from the type of initiative (items: pathway, model or guideline) to patients' key contact (items: non-pc specialist, pc specialist, general practitioner). Experts recommended the inclusion of two new categories: level of care (items: primary, secondary or tertiary) indicating at which stage palliative care is integrated and primary focus of intervention describing IPC givers' different roles (items: treating function, advising/consulting or training) in the care process. Empirical studies are required to investigate how the taxonomy is used in practice and whether it covers the reality of patients in need of palliative care. The InSuP-C project will test this taxonomy empirically in selected initiatives using IPC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Monitoring snow avalanches in the medium range by a network of infrasonic arrays: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ulivieri, giacomo; marchetti, emanuele; ripepe, maurizio; durand, nathalie; frigo, barbara; chiambretti, igor; segor, valerio

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring of small-to-medium sized avalanches activity represents a crucial parameter to compare predictions and real effects. However, at present natural avalanche activity is mainly based on field observations, which have a limited range and are possible only during the daylight. Since 2009, the Department of Earth Sciences of University of Florence in collaboration with the Regione Valle d'Aosta is using the infrasonic array technology for near real-time monitoring of natural and artificial avalanche activity in the Alpine area. The results obtained during the last 3 years indicate that small-to-medium sized snow avalanches can be detected in the short-to-medium range distance (2-6 km). However, despite single array analysis allows to recognise many natural (microbarom, earthquakes, avalanches) and artificial (airplane, explosions) infrasound sources by using apparent velocity criterion, any unique identification and precise location of infrasonic sources is not possible without any additional information. In order to solve this problem, the monitoring system is upgraded by installing two additional arrays. In fact, a network of 3 arrays is operating since December 2012 around the MonteRosa and Cervino international ski resorts on the related massifs. Each infrasonic array consists of 4 infrasonic sensors deployed in triangular geometry and ~150 m of aperture. Data are sampled at 100 Hz and transmitted in real-time to Department of Earth Sciences in Florence for near real-time (<2 minutes) processing. The network has improved the capability in locating avalanches sources in a medium range distance (from 6 km to more than 10 km). In fact, the 3 arrays are covering an area of ~ 250 km2. Efficiency of source location and sensitivity of this infrasonic array network are tested by using artificial triggered avalanches: avalanches can now be located with a precision of ~ 1 km. Information on geographical position, origin time and infrasonic energy will be supplied to

  13. Performance Analysis of BDS Satellite Orbits during Eclipse Periods: Results of Satellite Laser Ranging Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Hanbing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of BeiDou satellite orbits during eclipse periods is an important part of the performance analysis of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS. Accuracy evaluation of satellite orbits in ephemeris of BDS during eclipse periods can provide support for the service performance assessment. It also helps to find possible deficiencies in the orbit modeling during eclipse periods, which may further contribute to the improvements of functional models for precise orbit determination. The effects of eclipse periods on the orbits of the three types of satellites of BDS are analyzed with the satellite laser ranging (SLR observations ranging from January 2014 to July 2015. At the same time, the orbit radial accuracy of BDS broadcast and precise ephemeris are validated. The results show that, obvious orbit accuracy decrease can be observed in both broadcast and precise ephemeris for IGSO/MEO satellites during eclipse periods (especially the yaw-maneuver periods. And orbit radial errors of IGSO/MEO satellites in broadcast ephemeris reach 1.5~2.0 m, and exceed 10.0 cm for that in precise ephemeris. Performance decrease of the GEO satellite orbit during eclipse arcs can hardly be revealed by the orbit radial residual series. During non-eclipse periods, radial accuracy of IGSO/MEO and GEO satellite orbits in broadcast ephemeris are better than 0.5 m and 0.9 m respectively. The radial accuracy of IGSO/MEO satellite orbits in precise ephemeris are better than 10.0 cm and that of the GEO satellite is about 50.0 cm with a systematic bias of 40.0 cm around.

  14. Risk factors for nonadherence to warfarin: results from the IN-RANGE study†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Alec B.; Localio, A. Russell; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Cruess, Dean G.; Christie, Jason D.; Gross, Robert; Parker, Catherine S.; Price, Maureen; Metlay, Joshua P.; Cohen, Abigail; Newcomb, Craig W.; Strom, Brian L.; Laskin, Mitchell S.; Kimmel, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Warfarin is widely used to prevent stroke and venous thromboembolism despite its narrow therapeutic window. Warfarin nonadherence is a substantial problem, but risk factors have not been well elucidated. Methods A prospective cohort study of adults initiating warfarin at two anticoagulation clinics (University and VA-affiliated) was performed to determine factors affecting nonadherence to warfarin. Nonadherence, defined by failure to record a correct pill bottle opening each day, was measured daily via electronic medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) caps. A multivariable explanatory model using logistic regression for longitudinal data was used to identify risk factors for nonadherence. Results One hundred eleven subjects were followed for a median of 137 days. Warfarin nonadherence was common (4787 of 22425 or 21% of patient-days observed). Factors independently associated with higher odds of nonadherence included education beyond high school (odds ratio (OR) 1.8 (95%CI 1.2–2.7)), lower Short Form (SF)-36 mental component score (OR 1.4 (1.1–1.6) for each 10 point decrease); and impaired cognition (≤19 points) on the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE) (OR 2.9 (1.7–4.8)). Compared to currently employed subjects, unemployed (OR 0.6 (0.3–1.2)) and retired (OR 0.5 (0.3–0.8)) subjects had somewhat improved adherence; disabled subjects over age 55 had worse adherence (OR 1.8 (1.1–3.1)) than younger disabled subjects (OR 0.8 (0.4–1.5)). Conclusions Poor adherence to warfarin is common and risk factors are related to education level, employment status, mental health functioning, and cognitive impairment. Within the carefully controlled anticoagulation clinic setting, such patient-specific factors may be the basis of future interventions to improve nonadherence. PMID:18271059

  15. A Large-Scale Initiative Inviting Patients to Share Personal Fitness Tracker Data with Their Providers: Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevnick, Joshua M; Fuller, Garth; Duncan, Ray; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-01-01

    Personal fitness trackers (PFT) have substantial potential to improve healthcare. To quantify and characterize early adopters who shared their PFT data with providers. We used bivariate statistics and logistic regression to compare patients who shared any PFT data vs. patients who did not. A patient portal was used to invite 79,953 registered portal users to share their data. Of 66,105 users included in our analysis, 499 (0.8%) uploaded data during an initial 37-day study period. Bivariate and regression analysis showed that early adopters were more likely than non-adopters to be younger, male, white, health system employees, and to have higher BMIs. Neither comorbidities nor utilization predicted adoption. Our results demonstrate that patients had little intrinsic desire to share PFT data with their providers, and suggest that patients most at risk for poor health outcomes are least likely to share PFT data. Marketing, incentives, and/or cultural change may be needed to induce such data-sharing.

  16. STATUS OF DISINVESTMENT INITIATIVES IN LATIN AMERICA: RESULTS FROM A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND A QUESTIONNAIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirrezabal, Ion; Burgon, Joseph; Stewart, Gavin; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2017-09-28

    Disinvestment of existing healthcare technologies that deliver low or no health benefit for their cost can be used as a tool to improve access to effective technologies, while ensuring the long-term sustainability of healthcare systems. The objective of this research was to identify disinvestment initiatives in Latin American countries (LAC). First, a systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted. In February 2015, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and LILACS were searched for relevant journal articles, including terms related to "disinvestment," "reallocation," "obsolete technologies," and "Latin America." Additionally, a manual search of documents from Latin American health technology assessment agencies was performed. Second, an online questionnaire was sent to experts in LAC to assess whether unpublished real-life disinvestment initiatives exist. Questionnaire results were collected in September 2015. From the SLR, 350 records were selected for screening following de-duplication and eleven articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Only two of these reported information on initiatives potentially identifiable as disinvestment-investment activities in Brazil and Peru. Nine respondents completed the questionnaire, and four reported that disinvestment initiatives had been conducted in their respective organizations in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. This lack of agreement between the SLR and the questionnaire responses shows that disinvestment initiatives are ongoing, despite being under reported. Many challenges need to be overcome for a disinvestment initiative to be successful, and sharing particular experiences with the international community would increase the chances of positive outcomes. The present study highlights the need for publication of such experiences in LAC.

  17. Quality initiatives: improving patient flow for a bone densitometry practice: results from a Mayo Clinic radiology quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Kenneth T; Valley, Timothy B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies have been used in manufacturing for some time. However, Lean Six Sigma process improvement methodologies also are applicable to radiology as a way to identify opportunities for improvement in patient care delivery settings. A multidisciplinary team of physicians and staff conducted a 100-day quality improvement project with the guidance of a quality advisor. By using the framework of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control), time studies were performed for all aspects of patient and technologist involvement. From these studies, value stream maps for the current state and for the future were developed, and tests of change were implemented. Comprehensive value stream maps showed that before implementation of process changes, an average time of 20.95 minutes was required for completion of a bone densitometry study. Two process changes (ie, tests of change) were undertaken. First, the location for completion of a patient assessment form was moved from inside the imaging room to the waiting area, enabling patients to complete the form while waiting for the technologist. Second, the patient was instructed to sit in a waiting area immediately outside the imaging rooms, rather than in the main reception area, which is far removed from the imaging area. Realignment of these process steps, with reduced technologist travel distances, resulted in a 3-minute average decrease in the patient cycle time. This represented a 15% reduction in the initial patient cycle time with no change in staff or costs. Radiology process improvement projects can yield positive results despite small incremental changes.

  18. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning

  19. Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA): Results From Four Target Regions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, R. J.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a worldwide network of long- term research sites established to assess the impacts of climate change in sensitive native alpine communities. Many alpine species face habitat fragmentation and loss, and even extinction because they are adapted to cold temperatures and very limited in their geographic distribution. This study summarizes the data collected from four sites comprised of three to four summits each in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain ranges of California. The 14 summits cover elevational gradients ranging from 3170m to 4285m. On each summit, habitat characteristics, species composition, species cover, and frequency counts are recorded in sixteen 1m x 1m quadrats. Additional surveys on the percentage cover of surface types and of each species in eight larger plots extending to 10m below the summit focus on detecting changes in species richness and species migrations. Sites were analyzed both independently and as a group to explore similarities and differences in species composition, plant functional groups, phenology, and response to climate. A total of 124 species were identified across all sites. The summits within each site exhibited rich, heterogeneous plant communities, but ones in which most species were infrequent. Northern slopes generally had the highest vegetation cover and eastern slopes, the lowest. Elevation, aspect, and substrate all strongly influenced community composition. The average minimum winter soil temperature varied by more than 10C between the lowest and highest sites in the gradient. Resampling over time will allow us to discern trends in species diversity and temperature, and assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems. Results from this work will contribute to a predictive understanding of shifts in the distribution of alpine species with climate warming in the western U.S.; expand existing long

  20. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Liebrecht, C.; Martin, S.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Fourre, R.; McCarthy, M.; Maynard, N.; Berthelier, J.; Steigies, C.

    2008-12-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to E x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's of km to > 500 km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (< 8 Hz) magnetic field irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data set represents a treasure trove of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the

  1. Bird populations in coastal habitats, Arctic National Wildlife Range, Alaska: Results of 1978 and 1979 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the coastal zone of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, the highest breeding populations of birds occurred in wet and flooded sedge tundra areas surrounded by...

  2. Initial results on the use of pH-stat titration (AIDA method) for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CO2titration curve, after an initial lag Phase, is well interpolated by a straight line, whose slope is proportional to the photosynthetic CO2uptake, until photosynthesis becomes limited probably due to nutrients limitation. Preliminary experimental results confirm that, under comparable test conditions, activity estimation ...

  3. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and

  4. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing.

  5. HCV Treatment Initiation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from ERCHIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adeel; Ren, Yanjie; Puenpatom, Amy; Arduino, Jean Marie; Kumar, Ritesh; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Newer directing antiviral agents against HCV (DAAs) are safe and efficacious in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether availability of these newer DAAs has resulted in more persons with CKD initiating HCV treatment remains unknown. Methods We identified HCV+ persons in ERCHIVES. We excluded HIV+ and HBsAg+ and those with missing HCV RNA and eGFR data. We determined the CKD stage according to National Kidney Foundation criteria. We determined the number of persons initiated on any of the approved DAA-regimen (defined as >14 days of DAA prescription). Logistic regression analyses was used to determine factors associated with treatment initiation. Results Among 76,513 evaluable persons, 21.1% initiated DAA treatment. Initiation rates differed significantly by CKD stage: 21.1% (15,136/68,469) for eGFR>90mL/minute/1.73m2 and CKD stage-2; 14.0% 9853/6,086) for CKD stage 3; and 7.6% (148/1,958) for CKD stage-4/5. Those with CKD stage-3 were 35% less likely and those with CKD stage-4/5 were 65% less likely to initiate treatment with a DAA compared with those with baseline eGFR>90mL/minute/1.73m2. Those with Body Mass Index (BMI)>30 were more likely to initiate treatment (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.19,1.29). Treatment initiation was less likely in HCV genotype 2 or 3 and those with diabetes (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78,0.86), cardiovascular disease (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.68,0.78), alcohol abuse or dependence (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72,0.78) or cirrhosis (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80,0.89) at baseline. Conclusion Persons with more advanced CKD are less likely to receive treatment for HCV. Strategies are needed to improve treatment rates in the HCV/CKD population. Disclosures A. Butt, Merck: Investigator, Grant recipient. A. Puenpatom, Merck: Employee, Salary. J. M. Arduino, Merck: Employee, Salary. R. Kumar, Merck: Employee, Salary

  6. Factors associated with the frequency of initial total mastectomy: results of a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; James, Ted A; Single, Richard M; Onitilo, Adedayo A; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Barney, Tom; Bakerman, Jordan E; McCahill, Laurence E

    2013-05-01

    Several previous studies have reported conflicting data on recent trends in use of initial total mastectomy (TM); the factors that contribute to TM variation are not entirely clear. Using a multi-institution database, we analyzed how practice, patient, and tumor characteristics contributed to variation in TM for invasive breast cancer. We collected detailed clinical and pathologic data about breast cancer diagnosis, initial, and subsequent breast cancer operations performed on all female patients from 4 participating institutions from 2003 to 2008. We limited this analysis to 2,384 incident cases of invasive breast cancer, stages I to III, and excluded patients with clinical indications for mastectomy. Predictors of initial TM were identified with univariate analyses and random effects multivariable logistic regression models. Initial TM was performed on 397 (16.7%) eligible patients. Use of preoperative MRI more than doubled the rate of TM (odds ratio [OR] = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.58-3.77; p < 0.0001). Increasing tumor size, high nuclear grade, and age were also associated with increased rates of initial TM. Differences by age and ethnicity were observed, and significant variation in the frequency of TM was seen at the individual surgeon level (p < 0.001). Our results were similar when restricted to tumors <20 mm. We identified factors associated with initial TM, including preoperative MRI and individual surgeon, that contribute to the current debate about variation in use of TM for the management of breast cancer. Additional evaluation of patient understanding of surgical options and outcomes in breast cancer and the impact of the surgeon provider is warranted. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of geopotential from satellite-to-satellite range rate data: Numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobe, Glenn E.; Bose, Sam C.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for high-resolution geopotential field estimation by recovering the harmonic coefficients from satellite-to-satellite range rate data is presented and tested against both a controlled analytical simulation of a one-day satellite mission (maximum degree and order 8) and then against a Cowell method simulation of a 32-day mission (maximum degree and order 180). Innovations include: (1) a new frequency-domain observation equation based on kinetic energy perturbations which avoids much of the complication of the usual Keplerian element perturbation approaches; (2) a new method for computing the normalized inclination functions which unlike previous methods is both efficient and numerically stable even for large harmonic degrees and orders; (3) the application of a mass storage FFT to the entire mission range rate history; (4) the exploitation of newly discovered symmetries in the block diagonal observation matrix which reduce each block to the product of (a) a real diagonal matrix factor, (b) a real trapezoidal factor with half the number of rows as before, and (c) a complex diagonal factor; (5) a block-by-block least-squares solution of the observation equation by means of a custom-designed Givens orthogonal rotation method which is both numerically stable and tailored to the trapezoidal matrix structure for fast execution.

  8. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O' Neill, Brian E., E-mail: BEOneill@houstonmethodist.org

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  9. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  10. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  11. Compact Low-Voltage, High-Power, Multi-beam Klystron for ILC: Initial Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teryaev, V. E. [Omega-P, New Haven; Shchelkunov, S. V. [Yale U.; Kazakov, S. Yu. [Fermilab; Hirshfield, J. L. [Yale U.; Ives, R. L. [Calabazas Creek Res. Inc., San Mateo; Marsden, D. [Calabazas Creek Res. Inc., San Mateo; Collins, G. [Calabazas Creek Res. Inc., San Mateo; Karimov, R. [Calabazas Creek Res. Inc., San Mateo; Jensen, R. [CPI, Palo Alto

    2015-10-20

    Initial test results of an L-band multi-beam klystron with parameters relevant for ILC are presented. The chief distinction of this tube from MBKs already developed for ILC is its low operating voltage of 60 kV, a virtue that implies considerable technological simplifications in the accelerator complex. To demonstrate the concept underlying the tubes design, a six-beamlet quadrant (a 54 inch high one-quarter portion of the full 1.3 GHz tube) was built and recently underwent initial tests, with main goals of demonstrating rated gun perveance, rated gain, and at least one-quarter of the full 10-MW rated power. Our initial three-day conditioning campaign without RF drive (140 microsec pulses @ 60 Hz) was stopped at 53% of full rated duty because of time-limits at the test-site; no signs appeared that would seem to prevent achieving full duty operation (i.e., 1.6 msec pulses @ 10 Hz). The subsequent tests with 10-15 microsec RF pulses confirmed the rated gain, produced output powers of up to 2.86 MW at 60 kV with high efficiency and 56 dB gain, and showed acceptable beam interception. These results suggest that a full version of the tube should be able to produce up to 11.5 MW. Follow-on tests are planned for later in 2015.

  12. Virtual enterprise architecture and methodology - Initial results from the Globeman21 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan; Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper will focus on presenting the initial results from the IMS project Globeman21 regarding generic models for Extended Enterprise Management (EEM). In particular the paper outlines a proposed architecture for the creation of virtual enterprises, industrial requirements regarding the generic...... models, terminology for describing extended enterprises, and initial considerations regarding a methodology for EEM. Globeman21 see the extended enterprise as a concept covering the totality of different concepts dealing with the expansion or extension of enterprise activities. One way of realising...... the concept of extended enterprise is through the creation of virtual enterprise, based on a more or less formalised network. This approach is the basis for the development of the generic EEM model within Globeman21....

  13. Risk factors for nonadherence to warfarin: results from the IN-RANGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Alec B; Localio, A Russell; Brensinger, Colleen M; Cruess, Dean G; Christie, Jason D; Gross, Robert; Parker, Catherine S; Price, Maureen; Metlay, Joshua P; Cohen, Abigail; Newcomb, Craig W; Strom, Brian L; Laskin, Mitchell S; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2008-09-01

    Warfarin is widely used to prevent stroke and venous thromboembolism despite its narrow therapeutic window. Warfarin nonadherence is a substantial problem, but risk factors have not been well elucidated. A prospective cohort study of adults initiating warfarin at two anticoagulation clinics (University and VA-affiliated) was performed to determine factors affecting nonadherence to warfarin. Nonadherence, defined by failure to record a correct pill bottle opening each day, was measured daily via electronic medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) caps. A multivariable explanatory model using logistic regression for longitudinal data was used to identify risk factors for nonadherence. One hundred eleven subjects were followed for a median of 137 days. Warfarin nonadherence was common (4787 of 22,425 or 21% of patient-days observed). Factors independently associated with higher odds of nonadherence included education beyond high school (odds ratio (OR) 1.8 (95%CI 1.2-2.7)), lower Short Form (SF)-36 mental component score (OR 1.4 (1.1-1.6) for each 10 point decrease); and impaired cognition (< or =19 points) on the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE) (OR 2.9 (1.7-4.8)). Compared to currently employed subjects, unemployed (OR 0.6 (0.3-1.2)) and retired (OR 0.5 (0.3-0.8)) subjects had somewhat improved adherence; disabled subjects over age 55 had worse adherence (OR 1.8 (1.1-3.1)) than younger disabled subjects (OR 0.8 (0.4-1.5)). Poor adherence to warfarin is common and risk factors are related to education level, employment status, mental health functioning, and cognitive impairment. Within the carefully controlled anticoagulation clinic setting, such patient-specific factors may be the basis of future interventions to improve nonadherence.

  14. Influence of Initial Geometry and Boundary Conditions on Flat Subduction Models and Resulting Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Moucha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical investigations of surface deformation in response to flat slab subduction began with seminal papers by Bird (1988) and Mitrovica et al. (1989). Recently, a number of numerical studies have begun to explore the complexity in the dynamics of flat-slab subduction initiation and continuation, but did not address the corresponding surface deformation (English et al., 2003; Pérez-Campos et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010; Jones et al., 2011; Arrial and Billen, 2013; Vogt and Gerya, 2014). Herein, we explore the conditions that lead to flat-slab subduction and characterize the resulting surface deformation using a 2D finite-difference marker-in-cell method. We specifically explore how initial model geometry and boundary conditions affect the evolution of the angle at which a slab subducts in the presence/absence of a buoyant oceanic plateau and the resulting surface topography. In our simulations, the surface is tracked through time as an internal erosion/sedimentation surface. The top boundary of the crust is overlaid by a "sticky" (viscous 10^17 Pa.s) water/air layer with correspondingly stratified densities. We apply a coupled surface processes model that solves the sediment transport/diffusion erosion equation at each time step to account for the corresponding crustal mass flux and its effect on crustal deformation. Model results show the initial angle of subduction has a substantial impact on the subduction angle of the slab and hence the evolution of topography. The results also indicate plate velocity and the presence of an oceanic plateau in a forced subduction only have a moderate effect on the angle of subduction.

  15. Mission Overview and Initial Observation Results of the X-Ray Pulsar Navigation-I Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyuan Zhang; Ping Shuai; Liangwei Huang; Shaolong Chen; Lihong Xu

    2017-01-01

    The newly launched X-ray pulsar navigation-I (XPNAV-1) is an experimental satellite of China that is designed for X-ray pulsar observation. This paper presents the initial observation results and aims to recover the Crab pulsar’s pulse profile to verify the X-ray instrument’s capability of observing pulsars in space. With the grazing-incidence focusing type instrument working at the soft X-ray band (0.5–10 keV), up to 162 segments of observations of the Crab pulsar are fulfilled, and more tha...

  16. Initial severity and efficacy of risperidone in autism: Results from the RUPP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S Z; Kodesh, A; Goldberg, Y; Reichenberg, A; Furukawa, T A; Kolevzon, A; Leucht, S

    2016-02-01

    Risperidone is a common psychopharmacological treatment for irritability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is not well-established how effective risperidone is across the initial symptom severity range. This study aims to examine the influence of baseline severity on the efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of ASD. Participants were from the NIMH funded RUPP multisite, randomized, double-blind trial that compared risperidone to placebo to treat autistic disorder with severe tantrums, aggression, or self-injury. Participants were aged 5 to 17, and randomly assigned to risperidone (n=49) or placebo (n=52). Baseline and change scores were computed with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) parent assessed scales with irritability as the primary outcome, as well as the clinician assessed ABC Irritability subscale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale. The relationship between baseline severity and change scores for the risperdone and placebo groups was examined with eight competing three-level mixed-effects models for repeated measure models. Significant (Prisperidone and placebo were observed from moderate to very severe baseline severity on irritability and lethargy. Initial severity values over approximately 30 had a strong effect on symptom change [irritability: effect size (ES)=1.9, number needed to treat (NNT)=2, lethargy ES=0.9, NNT=5]. Parents may expect benefits of risperidone on irritability and lethargy with moderate to severe symptoms of ASD. Registry name: ClinicalTrials.gov, trial identifier: NCT00005014, URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00005014?term=NCT00005014&rank=1, registered on March 31, 2000. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Schüler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1, the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  18. Results From the Data & Democracy Initiative to Enhance Community-Based Organization Data and Research Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wyn, Roberta; Zane, Jazmin I.; Wallace, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. In an era of community-based participatory research and increased expectations for evidence-based practice, we evaluated an initiative designed to increase community-based organizations’ data and research capacity through a 3-day train-the-trainer course on community health assessments. Methods. We employed a mixed method pre–post course evaluation design. Various data sources collected from 171 participants captured individual and organizational characteristics and pre–post course self-efficacy on 19 core skills, as well as behavior change 1 year later among a subsample of participants. Results. Before the course, participants reported limited previous experience with data and low self-efficacy in basic research skills. Immediately after the course, participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in data and research self-efficacy. The subsample reported application of community assessment skills to their work and increased use of data 1 year later. Conclusions. Results suggest that an intensive, short-term training program can achieve large immediate gains in data and research self-efficacy in community-based organization staff. In addition, they demonstrate initial evidence of longer-term behavior change related to use of data and research skills to support their community work. PMID:22594748

  19. Compact Multipurpose Mobile Laser Scanning System — Initial Tests and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Glennie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a prototype compact mobile laser scanning system that may be operated from a backpack or unmanned aerial vehicle. The system is small, self-contained, relatively inexpensive, and easy to deploy. A description of system components is presented, along with the initial calibration of the multi-sensor platform. The first field tests of the system, both in backpack mode and mounted on a helium balloon for real-world applications are presented. For both field tests, the acquired kinematic LiDAR data are compared with highly accurate static terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. These initial results show that the vertical accuracy of the point cloud for the prototype system is approximately 4 cm (1σ in balloon mode, and 3 cm (1σ in backpack mode while horizontal accuracy was approximately 17 cm (1σ for the balloon tests. Results from selected study areas on the Sacramento River Delta and San Andreas Fault in California demonstrate system performance, deployment agility and flexibility, and potential for operational production of high density and highly accurate point cloud data. Cost and production rate trade-offs place this system in the niche between existing airborne and tripod mounted LiDAR systems.

  20. Initial Results from ST7-Disturbance Reduction System on LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Charles; Barela, Phillip; Cutler, Curt; Denzin, Richard; Franklin, Garth; Gorelik, Jacb; Hsu, Oscar; Javidnia, Shahram; Li, Irena; Maghami, Peiman; Marrese-Reading, Colleen; Mehta, Jitendra; O'Donnell, James; Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Slutsky, Jacob; Thorpe, Ira; Umfress, S. Harper; Ziemer, John

    2017-01-01

    The European Space Agency LISA Pathfinder spacecraft was launched on December, 2, 2015 carrying the NASA contribution ST7-Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS). The objective of ST7-DRS is to demonstrate drag-free control and noise reduction technologies for future missions, especially a future space-based gravitational wave observatory. The system consists of a pair of Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster clusters and a computer with control algorithms. Data from the host platform is used for inertial and attitude sensing. ST7-DRS was initially powered on in January 2016 for an on-orbit check out and was fully commissioned in late June and early July. This presentation will report results relative to the 0.1 micro-Newton/ rt Hertz thrust noise requirement and the 10 nanometer/rt Hertz position control requirement. Preliminary extended mission results will be discussed. The work described here was funded by NASA.

  1. Initial Results of Aperture Area Comparisons for Exo-Atmospheric Total Solar Irradiance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. Carol; Litorja, Maritoni; Fowler, Joel B.; Butler, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In the measurement of exo-atmospheric total solar irradiance (TSI), instrument aperture area is a critical component in converting solar radiant flux to irradiance. In a May 2000 calibration workshop for the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the solar irradiance measurement community recommended that NASA and NISI coordinate an aperture area measurement comparison to quantify and validate aperture area uncertainties and their overall effect on TSI uncertainties. From May 2003 to February 2006, apertures from 4 institutions with links to the historical TSI database were measured by NIST and the results were compared to the aperture area determined by each institution. The initial results of these comparisons are presented and preliminary assessments of the participants' uncertainties are discussed.

  2. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 10 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 10 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  3. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  4. Contribution of muscle short-range stiffness to initial changes in joint kinetics and kinematics during perturbations to standing balance: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Friedl; Allen, Jessica L; Ting, Lena H

    2017-04-11

    Simulating realistic musculoskeletal dynamics is critical to understanding neural control of muscle activity evoked in sensorimotor feedback responses that have inherent neural transmission delays. Thus, the initial mechanical response of muscles to perturbations in the absence of any change in muscle activity determines which corrective neural responses are required to stabilize body posture. Muscle short-range stiffness, a history-dependent property of muscle that causes a rapid and transient rise in muscle force upon stretch, likely affects musculoskeletal dynamics in the initial mechanical response to perturbations. Here we identified the contributions of short-range stiffness to joint torques and angles in the initial mechanical response to support surface translations using dynamic simulation. We developed a dynamic model of muscle short-range stiffness to augment a Hill-type muscle model. Our simulations show that short-range stiffness can provide stability against external perturbations during the neuromechanical response delay. Assuming constant muscle activation during the initial mechanical response, including muscle short-range stiffness was necessary to account for the rapid rise in experimental sagittal plane knee and hip joint torques that occurs simultaneously with very small changes in joint angles and reduced root mean square errors between simulated and experimental torques by 56% and 47%, respectively. Moreover, forward simulations lacking short-range stiffness produced unreasonably large joint angle changes during the initial response. Using muscle models accounting for short-range stiffness along with other aspects of history-dependent muscle dynamics may be important to advance our ability to simulate inherently unstable human movements based on principles of neural control and biomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate cancer detection at rebiopsy after an initial benign diagnosis: results using sextant extended prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Ramos Moreira Leite

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sextant prostate biopsy remains the standard technique for the detection of prostate cancer. It is well known that after a diagnosis of small acinar proliferation (ASAP or high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN, the possibility of finding cancer is approximately 40% and 30%, respectively. OBJECTIVE: We aim to analyze follow-up biopsies on patients who initially received a benign diagnosis after exclusion of HGPIN and ASAP. METHODS: From July 2000 to December 2003, 1177 patients were submitted to sextant extended prostate biopsy in our hospital. The mean patient age was 65.5 years old, and the median number of fragments collected at biopsy was 13. HGPIN and ASAP were excluded from our study. We only considered patients who had a diagnosis of benign at the first biopsy and were subjected to rebiopsies up until May 2005 because of a maintained suspicion of cancer. RESULTS: Cancer was initially detected in 524 patients (44.5%, and the diagnosis was benign in 415 (35.3%. Rebiopsy was indicated for 76 of the latter patients (18.3% because of a persistent suspicion of cancer. Eight cases of adenocarcinoma (10.5% were detected, six (75% at the first rebiopsy. Six patients were submitted to radical prostatectomy, and all tumors were considered clinically significant. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that in extended prostate biopsy, the first biopsy detects more cancer, and the first, second, and third rebiopsies after an initial benign diagnosis succeed in finding cancer in 7.9% (6/55, 5.9% (1/15 and 20% (1/4 of patients, respectively.

  6. Defective replication initiation results in locus specific chromosome breakage and a ribosomal RNA deficiency in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Joseph C; Kwan, Elizabeth X; Pohl, Thomas J; Amemiya, Haley M; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2017-10-01

    A form of dwarfism known as Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is caused by recessive mutations in one of six different genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDC6, CDT1, and MCM5). These genes encode components of the pre-replication complex, which assembles at origins of replication prior to S phase. Also, variants in two additional replication initiation genes have joined the list of causative mutations for MGS (Geminin and CDC45). The identity of the causative MGS genetic variants strongly suggests that some aspect of replication is amiss in MGS patients; however, little evidence has been obtained regarding what aspect of chromosome replication is faulty. Since the site of one of the missense mutations in the human ORC4 alleles is conserved between humans and yeast, we sought to determine in what way this single amino acid change affects the process of chromosome replication, by introducing the comparable mutation into yeast (orc4Y232C). We find that yeast cells with the orc4Y232C allele have a prolonged S-phase, due to compromised replication initiation at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus located on chromosome XII. The inability to initiate replication at the rDNA locus results in chromosome breakage and a severely reduced rDNA copy number in the survivors, presumably helping to ensure complete replication of chromosome XII. Although reducing rDNA copy number may help ensure complete chromosome replication, orc4Y232C cells struggle to meet the high demand for ribosomal RNA synthesis. This finding provides additional evidence linking two essential cellular pathways-DNA replication and ribosome biogenesis.

  7. Patients Less Likely to Lose Weight Following a Knee Replacement: Results From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela A; Chang, Rowland W; Lee, Jungwha; Gilbert, Abigail L; Pinto, Daniel; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2017-10-01

    Knee replacement typically results in reduced pain and improved function, but it is unclear if these improvements lead to weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine weight change patterns preoperatively and postoperatively among overweight/obese knee replacement patients. The study evaluated 210 overweight/obese patients from the Osteoarthritis Initiative who underwent a knee replacement during an 8-year longitudinal study. Average annual weight changes during 1- to 2-year intervals prior to, including, and subsequent to knee replacement were categorized as loss (≥-2.5%), maintain (>-2.5% to <2.5%), and gain (≥2.5%). Weight changes across time intervals were compared using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusting for demographic, health, and knee factors. On average, patients lost -0.6 kg/y during the interval when the surgery was performed, but weight gain (0.9 kg/y) in the initial postoperative interval represented an overall net weight gain (0.3 kg/y) compared with presurgery. Continued weight gain (0.3 kg/y) was also seen among patients with additional follow-ups. Patients were significantly less likely to have a meaningful weight loss in the time interval immediately following the surgery compared with the interval in which the surgery took place (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.79). Overweight and obese patients initially lost weight during the interval including knee replacement; however, they were less likely to lose more than 2.5% of their weight in the 1 to 2 years immediately after the surgery. Knee replacement patients may benefit from weight management interventions both preoperatively and postoperatively.

  8. MR elastography of the head and neck: driver design and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, David K W; Bhatia, Kunwar S; Lee, Yolanda Y P; King, Ann D; Garteiser, Philippe; Sinkus, Ralph; Ahuja, Anil T

    2013-05-01

    The purpose was to describe the design and fabrication of a driver suitable for magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) of the head and neck and to assess its performance in evaluating human parotid gland, lymph nodes and thyroid at 3.0 T. A head and neck driver was fabricated using a commercial transducer, headrest mould and piston extension. Driver performance was tested using a motion-sensitized spin-echo MRE pulse sequence. Six healthy volunteers and three patients (two metastatic nodes and one papillary carcinoma) were evaluated using MRE. Viscoelastic maps were computed to obtain storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") of the normal parotid and thyroid, metastatic node and thyroid cancer. Reproducibility was assessed by coefficient of variation. All subjects completed MRE examination without discomfort. Initial G' and G" values were as follows: normal parotid gland, 1.12 kPa and 0.48 kPa; thyroid, 0.58 kPa and 0.42 kPa; metastatic node, 0.66 kPa and 0.58 kPa; and thyroid cancer, 0.17 kPa and 0.28 kPa. Based on parotid data, the coefficient of variation for G' and G" was 4.7% and 9.8%. A new MRE driver for head and neck was successfully implemented, and our initial results suggested the device was suitable for the mechanical assessment of tissues in the head and neck. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  10. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Iafrate, J.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasprzack, M.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufman, K.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kucharczyk, C.; Kudla, S.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kurdyumov, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Le Roux, A.; Leaci, P.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J. B.; Lhuillier, V.; Li, T. G. F.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lloyd, D.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; May, G.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Mokler, F.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Nardecchia, I.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishida, E.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega Larcher, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Ou, J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pindor, B.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poole, V.; Poux, C.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Roever, C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Soden, K.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stevens, D.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szeifert, G.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tang, L.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vlcek, B.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vrinceanu, D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wibowo, S.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yum, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X. J.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Buchner, S.; Cognard, I.; Corongiu, A.; D'Amico, N.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Guillemot, L.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hobbs, G. B.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Marshall, F. E.; Possenti, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Roy, J.; Stappers, B. W.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and Virgo. We do not see evidence for gravitational wave emission from any of the targeted sources but produce upper limits on the emission amplitude. We highlight the results from seven young pulsars with large spin-down luminosities. We reach within a factor of five of the canonical spin-down limit for all seven of these, whilst for the Crab and Vela pulsars we further surpass their spin-down limits. We present new or updated limits for 172 other pulsars (including both young and millisecond pulsars). Now that the detectors are undergoing major upgrades, and, for completeness, we bring together all of the most up-to-date results from all pulsars searched for during the operations of the first-generation LIGO, Virgo and GEO600 detectors. This gives a total of 195 pulsars including the most recent results described in this paper.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Paul Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Laboratories

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  12. Initial Results from the CHOOZ Long Baseline Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, M

    1998-01-01

    Initial results are presented from CHOOZ, a long-baseline reactor-neutrino vacuum-oscillation experiment. Electron antineutrinos were detected by a liquid scintillation calorimeter located at a distance of about 1 km. The detector was constructed in a tunnel protected from cosmic rays by a 300 MWE rock overburden. This massive shielding strongly reduced potentially troublesome backgrounds due to cosmic-ray muons, leading to a background rate of about one event per day, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the observed neutrino signal. From the statistical agreement between detected and expected neutrino event rates, we find (at 90% confidence level) no evidence for neutrino oscillations in the electron antineutrino disappearance mode for the parameter region given approximately by deltam**2 > 0.9 10**(-3) eV**2 for maximum mixing and (sin(2 theta)**2) > 0.18 for large deltam**2.

  13. Data processing and initial results from the CE-3 Extreme Ultraviolet Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian-Qing; Liu, Jian-Jun; He, Fei; Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; He, Ling-Ping; Chen, Bo; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Su, Yan; Zou, Yong-Liao; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander is used to observe the structure and dynamics of Earth's plasmasphere from the Moon. By detecting the resonance line emission of helium ions (He+) at 30.4 nm, the EUVC images the entire plasmasphere with a time resolution of 10 min and a spatial resolution of about 0.1 Earth radius (RE) in a single frame. We first present details about the data processing from EUVC and the data acquisition in the commissioning phase, and then report some initial results, which reflect the basic features of the plasmasphere well. The photon count and emission intensity of EUVC are consistent with previous observations and models, which indicate that the EUVC works normally and can provide high quality data for future studies.

  14. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  15. Initial test results of an ionization chamber shower detector for a LHC luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Datte, P S; Haguenauer, Maurice; Manfredi, P F; Manghisoni, M; Millaud, J E; Placidi, Massimo; Ratti, L; Riot, V J; Schmickler, Hermann; Speziali, V; Traversi, G; Turner, W C

    2003-01-01

    A novel segmented multigap pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for optimization of the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ionization chambers are to be installed in the front quadrupole and 0 degrees neutral particle absorbers in the high luminosity interaction regions (IRs) and sample the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast pulse-shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. In this paper, we report the initial results of our second test of this instrumentation in a super proton synchrotron (SPS) external proton beam. Single 300 GeV protons are used to simulate the hadronic/electromagnetic showers produced by the forward collision products from the interaction regions of the LHC. The capability of instrumentation to measure the luminosity of individual bunches in a 40 MHz bunch train is demonstrated. (10 refs) .

  16. A Versatile Molecular Beam Epitaxy System for Low-Temperature STM: Instrument Design and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam; Ding, Hao; Jeon, Sangjun; Yazdani, Ali

    Efficient combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is essential for engineering and studying new materials with topological and superconducting properties. Particularly valuable are the capabilities to grow clean material interfaces, single monolayer films, and 2D systems with proximitized superconductivity. A new MBE system designed for STM was constructed to allow reliable ultra-high vacuum sample transfer, growth between 77 K and 1500 K, direct current sample flashing, and RHEED surface monitoring. Six Knudsen cells and electron beam evaporators allow growth of a variety of superconducting, topological, and metallic films. UHV transfer from the MBE via a vacuum suitcase can be accomplished within an hour to preserve clean surfaces. Initial low-temperature STM results on bismuth and monolayer iron selenide (FeSe) films will be presented. This work is supported by the Moore Foundation, ONR, and NSF.

  17. Child sexual abuse and psychological impairment in victims: results of an online study initiated by victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.

  18. Is goniometry suitable for measuring ankle range of motion in female ballet dancers? An initial comparison with radiographic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Shave, Ruth M; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2011-06-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion to attain the demi-plié (weight-bearing full dorsiflexion [DF]) and en pointe (weight-bearing full plantar flexion [PF]) positions of ballet. However, techniques for assessing this amount of motion have not yet received sufficient scientific scrutiny. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences between weight-bearing goniometric and radiographic ankle range of motion measurements in female ballet dancers. Ankle range of motion in 8 experienced female ballet dancers was assessed by goniometry and 2 radiographic measurement methods. The latter were performed on 3 mediolateral x-rays, in demi-plié, neutral, and en pointe positions; one of them used the same landmarks as goniometry. DF values were not significantly different among the methods, but PF values were (P ballet dancers and suggest that goniometry may not be ideal for assessing ankle range of motion in these individuals. Therefore, further research is needed to standardize how DF and PF are measured in ballet dancers. Diagnostic, Level I.

  19. Towards a BCI for sensorimotor training: initial results from simultaneous fNIRS and biosignal recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Raphael; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Lambercy, Olivier; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Martin; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and initial results of a novel approach for robot assisted sensorimotor training in stroke rehabilitation. It is based on a brain-body-robot interface (B(2)RI), combining both neural and physiological recordings, that detects the intention to perform a motor task. By directly including the injured brain into the therapy, we ultimately aim at providing a new method for severely impaired patients to engage in active movement therapy. In the present study, seven healthy subjects performed an isometric finger pinching task while functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals from motor cortical areas and biosignals were recorded simultaneously. Results showed an insignificant increase in the blood pressure during the preparation period prior to motor execution. During the execution period, significant changes in oxy-and deoxyhemoglobin were found in the primary motor cortex, accompanied by an increase in blood pressure, respiration rate and galvanic skin response (GSR). Cortical measurements of premotor areas and heart rate revealed significant changes at the subject level with large inter-subject variability. The results presented here will serve as priors for the design of further studies to test the efficacy of the concept with stroke patients, and the found effects will provide a basis for the development of a classifier for a future B(2)RI.

  20. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Mission Status and Initial Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission is a component of the NASA Discovery Program. GRAIL is a twin-spacecraft lunar gravity mission that has two primary objectives: to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core; and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. GRAIL launched successfully from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011, executed a low-energy trajectory to the Moon, and inserted the twin spacecraft into lunar orbit on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. A series of maneuvers brought both spacecraft into low-altitude (55-km), near-circular, polar lunar orbits, from which they perform high-precision satellite-to-satellite ranging using a Ka-band payload along with an S-band link for time synchronization. Precise measurements of distance changes between the spacecraft are used to map the lunar gravity field. GRAIL completed its primary mapping mission on May 29, 2012, collecting and transmitting to Earth >99.99% of the possible data. Spacecraft and instrument performance were nominal and has led to the production of a high-resolution and high-accuracy global gravity field, improved over all previous models by two orders of magnitude on the nearside and nearly three orders of magnitude over the farside. The field is being used to understand the thickness, density and porosity of the lunar crust, the mechanics of formation and compensation states of lunar impact basins, and the structure of the mantle and core. GRAIL s three month-long-extended mission will initiate on August 30, 2012 and will consist of global gravity field mapping from an average altitude of 22 km.

  1. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  2. FREND experiment on ESA's TGO mission: science tasks, initial space data and expected results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Malakhov, Aleksey; Golovin, Dmitry; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Semkova, Jordanka

    2017-04-01

    The main science tasks are presented in details of the Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND) onboard the ESA's Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO). They are (I) mapping of water distribution in the shallow subsurface of Mars with the special resolution about 40 km, (II) measuring of the seasonal depositions of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the southern and northern hemispheres of Mars, and (III) monitoring of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar particle events (SPEs) on the low Mars orbit. The initial science data of FREND are described measured during the interplanetary cruise and at the initial stage of the orbital flight. These data allow to estimate the local radiation environment of TGO, which is produced by GCRs, and also the neutron albedo of the Mars surface, which is also produced by the bombardment by GCRs. Using the first FREND space data for in-space calibration, the background components are estimated for the future low-orbit mapping of neutrons from Mars. Using the first experimental data, expected science results of FREND are discussed. It is shown that joint analysis of the orbital neutron data from FREND onboard the TGO, the orbital neutron data from HEND onboard the Mars Odyssey and the surface neutron data from DAN onboard the Curiosity rover should allow to characterize the ground water/ice distribution on the surface of Mars and also to build the seasonal maps of atmospheric CO2 depositions for different intervals of Ls. Special and temporal variations of the Martian radiation environment should be measured as well. Finally, the most ambitious goal of the TGO multi-instrument studies could be testing the cross-correspondence between the water-rich spots on the surface with the local enhancements of methane in the atmosphere

  3. Clast Selection and Metallographic Cooling Rates: Initial Results on Type 1A and 2A Mesosiderites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Rubin, A. E.; Frasl, B.; Corrigan, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We initiated a comprehensive study on selected clasts and metal of mesosiderites using SEM, electron microprobe and the complete suite of noble gases. Here we report initial results on the petrography of selected clasts and metallographic cooling rates using the central Ni method used in sev-eral publications. We focus on the approach of selecting grains in least recrystallized mesosiderites. Hence, especially (lithic) clasts in type 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B are the first choice. They provide highest primitive-ness and least annealing/metamorphism. All grains selected should be in close proximity to each other. Lithic clasts in mesosiderites are of high interest be-cause of their igneous texture and similarity to eucrites and howardite petrography. We find pyrox-enes (px) and plagioclase (plag) attached to each other which implies a common formation history. It will be interesting to see differences and similarities in their noble gas inventory (CRE ages, trapped components and closure temperature). In addition, we will investi-gate variations of the lithic clasts toward similar grains in the thick sections which are not igneous. Plag grains are the best bases for noble gas measurements con-cerning He to Ar and Ar-Ar dating since it delivers im-portant target elements. We focus on plag grains in close contact to olivine (olv) / px grains to assess weth-er both grains show noble gas patterns being similar or different. Phosphate grains are suitable for Kr and Xe measurements since they yield REE abundances (tar-get elements).

  4. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDR-MIP) Initial Results and Future Experiment Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D. P.; Scott, V.; Lenton, A.; Vaughan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate threatening "severe, pervasive and irreversible" impacts. Inadequate emissions reduction is resulting in increased attention on Climate Intervention (CI) - deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth's radiation budget, or remove the primary greenhouse gas from the atmosphere - Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR). The majority of future scenarios that do not exceed 2°C warming by 2100 include CDR methods. At present, there is little consensus on the efficacy and impacts of CDR and proposed CDR methods. In response, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDR-MIP) has been initiated. This project brings together a suite of Earth System Models (ESMs) and Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICS) in a common framework to explore the potential, risks, and challenges of CDR and different proposed CDR methods. The first set of CDR-MIP experiments investigate climate "reversibility" and the response of the Earth system to idealized engineered permanent CO2 removal. Here we present early results of these experiments and also discuss the design and implementation of the next experiments that explore CDR via land use change and ocean alkalinization. In particular we will highlight which components of the simulated climate system exhibit "reversibility", when CO2 increases and then decreases, and the time scales over which this occurs. Many of the trends are similar in different models; however, there is some disagreement in the response of the simulated carbon cycle.

  5. Adrenal medullary transplantation to the caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Initial clinical results in 18 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G S; Burns, R S; Tulipan, N B; Parker, R A

    1989-05-01

    Results from a pilot study of adrenal medullary autotransplantation for Parkinson's disease are presented. Eighteen patients were studied; 12 were followed up for 1 year, and 6 were followed up for 6 months. Four of 12 patients showed distinct improvement in the signs and symptoms of their disease, as assessed using the Columbia Rating Scale, at 1 year; none showed distinct deterioration. The 6 patients who were followed up for only 6 months were an average of 20 years older and generally more severely affected. None distinctly improved. Morbidity was considered to be minor and transient among the first 12 patients, while 4 of the last 6 patients experienced alteration in mental status lasting as long as several months. This problem has led us to conclude that older patients with preexisting cognitive impairment should not be included in future studies until the benefits are more clearly established. However, we believe that the distinct and persistent improvement seen in some of the younger patients warrants the initiation of a well-designed, randomized, and controlled trial of adrenal medullary autotransplantation for the purpose of confirming these results and assessing the effect of the procedure on the natural progression of Parkinson's disease.

  6. Flow-system analysis of exfoliated pulmonary cells: results of initial characterization studies in hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Hansen, K.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Salzman, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of preliminary experiments to develop cytological and biochemical indicators for estimating damage to respiratory cells in test animals exposed by inhalation to toxic agents associated with nonnuclear energy production, the specific goal being the application of advanced multiparameter flow-systems technologies to the detection of early atypical cellular changes in lung epithelium. Normal Syrian hamster lung cell samples composed of histiocytes, leukocytes, macrophages, ciliated columnar cells, and epithelial cells were stained with fluorescent dyes specific for different biochemical parameters and were analyzed in liquid suspension as they flowed through a chamber intersecting a laser beam of exciting light. Multiple sensors measured the total or two-color fluorescence and light scatter on a cell-by-cell basis. Cellular parameters proportional to optical measurements (i.e., cell size, DNA content, total protein, nonspecific esterase activity, nuclear and cytoplasmic diameters) were displayed as frequency distribution histograms. Lung cell samples were also separated according to various cytological parameters and identified microscopically. The basic operating features of the methodology are discussed briefly, along with specific examples of preliminary results illustrating the initial characterization of exfoliated pulmonary cells from normal hamsters. As the flow technology is adapted further to the analysis of respiratory cells, measurements of changes in physical and biochemical properties as a function of exposure to toxic agents will be performed.

  7. Female-pitched sound-producing voice prostheses--initial experimental and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torn, M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J M; de Vries, M P; Mahieu, H F

    2001-10-01

    In order to improve voice quality in female laryngectomees and/or laryngectomees with a hypotonic pharyngo-oesophageal segment, a sound-producing voice prosthesis was designed. The new source of voice consists of either one or two bent silicone lips which perform an oscillatory movement driven by the expired pulmonary air that flows along the outward-striking lips through the tracheo-oesophageal shunt valve. Four different prototypes of this pneumatic sound source were evaluated in vitro and in two female laryngectomees, testing the feasibility and characteristics of this new mechanism for alternative alaryngeal voice production. In vivo evaluation included acoustic analyses of both sustained vowels and read-aloud prose, videofluoroscopy, speech rate, and registration of tracheal phonatory pressure and vocal intensity. The mechanism proved feasible and did not result in unacceptable airflow resistance. The average pitch of voice increased and clarity improved in female laryngectomees. Pitch regulation of this prosthetic voice is possible with sufficient modulation to avoid monotony. The quality of voice attained through the sound-producing voice prostheses depends on a patient's ability to let pulmonary air flow easily through the pharyngo-oesophageal segment without evoking the low-frequency mucosal vibrations that form the regular tracheo-oesophageal shunt voice. These initial experimental and clinical results provide directions for the future development of sound-producing voice prostheses. A single relatively long lip in a container with a rectangular lumen that hardly protrudes from the voice prosthesis may have the most promising characteristics.

  8. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  9. Real-time ultrasound elasticity of the breast: initial clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Richard G

    2010-06-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a real-time elasticity imaging (EI) ultrasound (US) system in the characterization of breast lesions as benign or malignant. A total of 208 patients with 251 lesions were scheduled to undergo a US-guided breast biopsy for a mass identified on B-mode US, and each received a real-time elasticity image of the lesion before the biopsy. The lesion size measurements were obtained, and the EI/B-mode size ratio was obtained. The pathology report was obtained and correlated with the EI/B-mode ratio. An EI/B-mode ratio equal to or greater than 1 was considered malignant lesion, whereas EI/B-mode ratios of less than 1 were considered benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 251 lesions biopsied, 197 were pathologically benign, and 54 were malignant. Of the 54 malignant lesions, all had an EI/B-mode ratio equal to or greater than 1. Of the 197 benign lesions, 187 had an EI/B-mode ratio of less than 1. Ten benign lesions had an EI/B-mode ratio of greater than 1. The benign lesions that had an EI/B-mode ratio of greater than 1 were lesions with dense fibrosis, and in addition, a characteristic artifact was identified, which was visualized in all simple and complex cysts. The results correspond with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 95%, a positive predictive value of 84%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. Initial results of a real-time EI system for characterization of breast lesions suggest this technique can provide significant new diagnostic information. As a result, this information may significantly improve the ability to select patients for breast biopsy, resulting in a reduction in the number of benign breast biopsies.

  10. An intercomparison of POLARIS measurement results from the DTU-ESA Facility and from the ESTEC Near-Field Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report documents an intercomparison of measurement results of the POLARIS antenna from measurement at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in August 2011 and from measurement at the ESTEC Near-Field Range in the fall 2012. The comparison was carried out at the DTU-ESA Facil......This report documents an intercomparison of measurement results of the POLARIS antenna from measurement at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in August 2011 and from measurement at the ESTEC Near-Field Range in the fall 2012. The comparison was carried out at the DTU...

  11. Existence Result for Nonlinear Initial Value Problems Involving the Difference of Two Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Nanware

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, monotone iterative technique for nonlinear initial value prob-lems involving the difference of two functions is developed. As an application ofthis technique, existence of solution of nonlinear initial value problems involvingthe difference of two functions is obtained.

  12. Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty: Strategic Initiatives for Institutional Value Proposition Based on Perspectives from a Range of Academic Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joseph A; Montgomery, Beronda L; Martinez Acosta, Veronica G

    2015-01-01

    The student and faculty make-up of academic institutions does not represent national demographics. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately underrepresented nationally, and particularly at predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Although significant efforts and funding have been committed to increasing points of access or recruitment of under-represented minority (URM) students and faculty at PWIs, these individuals have not been recruited and retained at rates that reflect their national proportions. Underrepresentation of URMs is particularly prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. This reality represents a national crisis given a predicted shortage of workers in STEM disciplines based on current rates of training of all individuals, majority and URM, and the intersection of this limitation with persistent challenges in the recruitment, training, retention and advancement of URMs who will soon represent the largest pool of future trainees. An additional compounding factor is the increasingly disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities at higher professorial and administrative ranks, thus limiting the pool of potential mentors who are correlated with successful shepherding of URM students through STEM training and development. We address issues related to improving recruitment and retention of URM faculty that are applicable across a range of academic institutions. We describe challenges with recruitment and retention of URM faculty and their advancement through promotion in the faculty ranks and into leadership positions. We offer specific recommendations, including identifying environmental barriers to diversity and implementing strategies for their amelioration, promoting effective and innovative mentoring, and addressing leadership issues related to constructive change for promoting diversity.

  13. Mission Overview and Initial Observation Results of the X-Ray Pulsar Navigation-I Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly launched X-ray pulsar navigation-I (XPNAV-1 is an experimental satellite of China that is designed for X-ray pulsar observation. This paper presents the initial observation results and aims to recover the Crab pulsar’s pulse profile to verify the X-ray instrument’s capability of observing pulsars in space. With the grazing-incidence focusing type instrument working at the soft X-ray band (0.5–10 keV, up to 162 segments of observations of the Crab pulsar are fulfilled, and more than 5 million X-ray events are recorded. Arrival times of photons are corrected to the solar system barycentre, and the 33 ms pulse period is sought out for Crab. Epoch folding of all the corrected photon times generates the refined pulse profile of Crab. The characteristic two-peak profile proves that the Crab pulsar has been clearly seen, so that the conclusion is made that XPNAV-1’s goal of being capable of observing pulsars is achieved.

  14. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  15. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of local grid control using wind farms with grid support. The focus is on simulation of the behaviour of the wind farms when they are isolated from the main grid and establish a local grid together with a few other grid components. The isolated subsystems used in the work presented in this report do not intend to simulate a specific subsystem, but they are extremely simplified single bus bar systems using only a few more components than the wind farm. This approach has been applied to make it easier to understand the dynamics of the subsystem. The main observation is that the fast dynamics of the wind turbines seem to be able to contribute significantly to the grid control, which can be useful where the wind farm is isolated with a subsystem from the main grid with surplus of generation. Thus, the fast down regulation of the wind farm using automatic frequency control can keep the subsystem in operation and thereby improve the reliability of the grid. (LN)

  16. Laser immunotherapy: initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Lunn, John A.; Adelsteinsson, Orn; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-02-01

    Laser Immunotherapy is an experimental treatment modality for late-stage, metastatic tumors, which targets solid primary and/or secondary tumors and utilizes an autologous vaccine-like approach to stimulate immune responses. Specifically, laser immunotherapy combines laser-induced in situ tumor devitalization with an immunoadjuvant for local immunostimulation. Here we report the initial results from a human breast cancer pilot trial with laser immunotherapy. Six stage III and IV cancer patients were treated, all of which were considered to be out of all other options, and preliminary data at the three-month examination are presented. The immediate goal of the trial was to determine the patient tolerance and the toxicity of the therapy, the optimal dose for the alteration of the course of the disease, and the reduction of the tumor burden. Each patient was individually evaluated for toxicity tolerance through physical exams and by appropriate supplemental and routine laboratory tests. Observable tumors in patients were followed with physical examination and radiological evaluations. Treatment efficacy was judged by the size and number of local and distant metastases before and after treatment.

  17. UK end-of-life care services in dementia, initiatives and sustainability: results of a national online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Sarah; Goodman, Claire; Robinson, Louise; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2016-10-14

    People living and dying with non-cancer diagnoses, including dementia, have poorer access to generalist and specialist palliative care than people with cancer, and experience worse outcomes in terms of pain and symptom control, and quality and experience of care. In the UK, the National Council for Palliative Care (NCPC) ran a national survey of services for end-of-life care for people with dementia (2008) in which 16 services were identified, and reported on case studies and examples of good practice. We updated the NCPC survey to review progress in previously identified services, identify factors that lead to sustainable services and identify new initiatives in this area of care. An online survey was developed and piloted before use. Initiatives were contacted via targeted (N=63) and open call invitations. The survey was made up of 5 sections. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. 15 services responded. They engaged in a wide range of activities predominately providing direct care (80%) and workforce development/advisory or educational activities (87%). Results suggest that sustainability of services is reliant on clinicians with a leadership role and wider system support through funding mechanisms and a minimum level of integration within normal service provision. Recent initiatives are largely built on the expertise of the nursing profession (with or without input from medical consultants), and driven mainly by the charity and hospice sector. This has generated a potential new model of care provision in end of life dementia care, 'Hospice-enabled Dementia Care'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  19. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Tonya S; Larson, Joseph C; Alghothani, Nora; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Cauley, Jane A; Chen, Zhao; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is a necessary component of bone, but its relation to osteoporotic fractures is unclear. Objective: We examined magnesium intake as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and altered bone mineral density (BMD). Design: This prospective cohort study included 73,684 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Total daily magnesium intake was estimated from baseline food-frequency questionnaires plus supplements. Hip fractures were confirmed by a medical record review; other fractures were identified by self-report. A baseline BMD analysis was performed in 4778 participants. Results: Baseline hip BMD was 3% higher (P 422.5 compared with magnesium. In contrast, risk of lower-arm or wrist fractures increased with higher magnesium intake [multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) for quintiles 4 and 5, respectively, compared with quintile 1; P-trend = 0.002]. In addition, women with the highest magnesium intakes were more physically active and at increased risk of falls [HR for quintile 4: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.16); HR for quintile 5: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.20); P-trend magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body, but this result does not translate into increased risk of fractures. A magnesium consumption slightly greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance is associated with increased lower-arm and wrist fractures that are possibly related to more physical activity and falls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. PMID:24500155

  20. Initial Surgical Experience with Aortic Valve Repair: Clinical and Echocardiographic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Francisco Diniz Affonso; Colatusso, Daniele de Fátima Fornazari; da Costa, Ana Claudia Brenner Affonso; Balbi Filho, Eduardo Mendel; Cavicchioli, Vinicius Nesi; Lopes, Sergio Augusto Veiga; Ferreira, Andrea Dumsch de Aragon; Collatusso, Claudinei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Due to late complications associated with the use of conventional prosthetic heart valves, several centers have advocated aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root replacement for patients with aortic valve insufficiency, in order to enhance late survival and minimize adverse postoperative events. Methods From March/2012 thru March 2015, 37 patients consecutively underwent conservative operations of the aortic valve and/or aortic root. Mean age was 48±16 years and 81% were males. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 54% and tricuspid in the remaining. All were operated with the aid of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Surgical techniques consisted of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron graft whenever it was dilated or aneurysmatic, using either the remodeling or the reimplantation technique, besides correcting leaflet prolapse when present. Patients were sequentially evaluated with clinical and echocardiographic studies and mean follow-up time was 16±5 months. Results Thirty-day mortality was 2.7%. In addition there were two late deaths, with late survival being 85% (CI 95% - 68%-95%) at two years. Two patients were reoperated due to primary structural valve failure. Freedom from reoperation or from primary structural valve failure was 90% (CI 95% - 66%-97%) and 91% (CI 95% - 69%-97%) at 2 years, respectively. During clinical follow-up up to 3 years, there were no cases of thromboembolism, hemorrhage or endocarditis. Conclusions Although this represents an initial series, these data demonstrates that aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root surgery can be performed with satisfactory immediate and short-term results. PMID:27556321

  1. Initial Results from the STEM Student Experiences Aboard Ships (STEMSEAS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Cooper, S. K.; Thomson, K.; Rabin, B.; Alberts, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Science Technology Engineering and Math Student Experiences Aboard Ships (STEMSEAS) program was created as a response to NSF's call (through GEOPATHS) for improving undergraduate STEM education and enhancing diversity in the geosciences. It takes advantage of unused berths on UNOLS ships during transits between expeditions. During its 2016 pilot year - which consisted of three transits on three different research vessels in different parts of the country, each with a slightly different focus - the program has gained significant insights into how best to create and structure these opportunities and create impact on individual students. A call for applications resulted in nearly 900 applicants for 30 available spots. Of these applicants, 32% are from minority groups underrepresented in the geosciences (Black, Hispanic, or American Indian) and 20% attend community colleges. The program was able to sail socioeconomically diverse cohorts and include women, veterans, and students with disabilities and from two- and four-year colleges. Twenty-three are underrepresented minorities, 6 attend community colleges, 5 attend an HBCU or tribal college, and many are at HSIs or other MSIs. While longer term impact assessment will have to wait, initial results and 6-month tracking for the first cohort indicate that these kinds of relatively short but intense experiences can indeed achieve significant impacts on students' perception of the geosciences, in their understanding of STEM career opportunities, their desire to work in a geoscience lab setting, and to incorporate geosciences into non-STEM careers. Insights were also gained into the successful makeup of mentor/leader groups, factors to consider in student selection, necessary pre- and post-cruise logistics management, follow-up activities, structure of activities during daily life at sea, increasing student networks and access to mentorships, and leveraging of pre-existing resources and ship-based opportunities

  2. Comparison of hybrid capture 2 High-Risk HPV results in the low positive range with cobas® HPV Test results from the ATHENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arundhati; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Sideri, Mario; Young, Stephen; Sharma, Abha; Behrens, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    The increasing importance of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing in cervical cancer screening warrants evaluation of HPV DNA tests with an equivocal zone requiring retesting of samples in the low positive range. To compare the results of the digene hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test (hc2), which has a manufacturer's recommended retesting zone with the cobas HPV Test, a real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification test without an equivocal range. A retrospective subanalysis of the ATHENA study comparing results for hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test and the cobas HPV Test using the LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (LA) and Sanger sequencing as comparators was performed. The ability of each test to detect high-grade cervical disease in the equivocal range was also evaluated. 5.2% of samples fell within the equivocal zone (RLU/CO 1.0-2.5) and required retesting with the hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. In this low-positive range the cobas HPV Test showed better positive percent agreement (PPA) than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test for LA and sequencing (84.2% vs.70.9% and 92.1% vs.82.5%, respectively). hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test and the cobas HPV Test demonstrated comparable sensitivity for detection of high-grade disease in the equivocal range. In the low cobas HPV Test range (cycle threshold [Ct] 40-35), the cobas HPV test again demonstrated a better PPA than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test with LA and sequencing as comparators and more high-grade disease was detected by the cobas HPV Test than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. The cobas HPV Test demonstrates reliable performance in the hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test equivocal zone, thus supporting it as an option for HPV testing that avoids the need for retesting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspect-dependent soil saturation and insight into debris-flow initiation during extreme rainfall in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Rengers, Francis K.; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrologic processes during extreme rainfall events are poorly characterized because of the rarity of measurements. Improved understanding of hydrologic controls on natural hazards is needed because of the potential for substantial risk during extreme precipitation events. We present field measurements of the degree of soil saturation and estimates of available soil-water storage during the September 2013 Colorado extreme rainfall event at burned (wildfire in 2010) and unburned hillslopes with north- and south-facing slope aspects. Soil saturation was more strongly correlated with slope aspect than with recent fire history; south-facing hillslopes became fully saturated while north-facing hillslopes did not. Our results suggest multiple explanations for why aspect-dependent hydrologic controls favor saturation development on south-facing slopes, causing reductions in effective stress and triggering of slope failures during extreme rainfall. Aspect-dependent hydrologic behavior may result from (1) a larger gravel and stone fraction, and hence lower soil-water storage capacity, on south-facing slopes, and (2) lower weathered-bedrock permeability on south-facing slopes, because of lower tree density and associated deep roots penetrating bedrock as well as less intense weathering, inhibiting soil drainage.

  4. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  5. The Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES): Overview and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; France, Kevin; Youngblood, Allison

    2018-01-01

    M-dwarf stars are prime targets for exoplanet searches because of their close proximity and favorable properties for both planet detection and characterization, with current searches around these targets having already discovered several Earth-sized planets within their star’s habitable zones. However, the atmospheric characterization and potential habitability of these exoplanetary systems depends critically on the high-energy stellar radiation environment from X-rays to NUV. Strong radiation at these energies can lead to atmospheric mass loss and is a strong driver of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres. Recently, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey provided the first comprehensive assessment of the high-energy radiation field around old, planet hosting M-dwarfs. However, the habitability and potential for such exoplanetary atmospheres to develop life also depends on the evolution of the atmosphere and hence the evolution of the incident radiation field. The strong high-energy spectrum of young M-dwarfs can have devastating consequences for the potential habitability of a given system. We, thus, introduce the Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES), a new HST-STIS observing campaign targeting 10 early-mid M dwarfs with known rotation periods, including 6 targets with known ages, to assess the evolution of the FUV radiation, including Lyα, of M-dwarf stars with stellar rotation period. We present the initial results of our survey characterizing the FUV emission features of our targets and the implications of our measurements for the evolution of the entire high-energy radiation environment around M-dwarfs from youth to old age.

  6. Initial reconstruction results from a simulated adaptive small animal C shaped PET/MR insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiou, Nikos [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras (Greece); Charalampos, Tsoumpas [Division of Biomedical Imaging, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    Traditionally, most clinical and preclinical PET scanners, rely on full cylindrical geometry for whole body as well as dedicated organ scans, which is not optimized with regards to sensitivity and resolution. Several groups proposed the construction of dedicated PET inserts for MR scanners, rather than the construction of new integrated PET/MR scanners. The space inside an MR scanner is a limiting factor which can be reduced further with the use of extra coils, and render the use of non-flexible cylindrical PET scanners difficult if not impossible. The incorporation of small SiPM arrays, can provide the means to design adaptive PET scanners to fit in tight locations, which, makes imaging possible and improve the sensitivity, due to the closer approximation to the organ of interest. In order to assess the performance of such a device we simulated the geometry of a C shaped PET, using GATE. The design of the C-PET was based on a realistic SiPM-BGO scenario. In order reconstruct the simulated data, with STIR, we had to calculate system probability matrix which corresponds to this non standard geometry. For this purpose we developed an efficient multi threaded ray tracing technique to calculate the line integral paths in voxel arrays. One of the major features is the ability to automatically adjust the size of FOV according to the geometry of the detectors. The initial results showed that the sensitivity improved as the angle between the detector arrays increases, thus better angular sampling the scanner's field of view (FOV). The more complete angular coverage helped in improving the shape of the source in the reconstructed images, as well. Furthermore, by adapting the FOV to the closer to the size of the source, the sensitivity per voxel is improved.

  7. NASADEM Initial Production Processing Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing with Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at one-arcsecond spacing and delivered by continent: North America, South America, Australia, Eurasia, Africa, and Island Groups. We are in the production phase of the project. This involves radar interferometry (InSAR) processing on thousands of radar datatakes. New phase unwrapping and height ripple error correction (HREC) procedures are applied to the data. The resulting strip DEMs and ancillary information are passed to a back-end processor to create DEM mosaics and new geocoded single-swath products. Manual data quality assessment (QA) and fixes are performed at several steps in the processing chain. Post-production DEM void-filling is described in a companion AGU Fall Meeting presentation. The team completed the InSAR processing for all continents and the manual QA of the strip DEMs for more than half the world. North America strip DEM void areas are reduced by more than 50%. The ICESat data is used for height ripple error correction and as control for continent-scale adjustment of the strip DEMs. These ripples are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. After an initial assessment of the NASADEM production processing for the Americas, we further refined the selection of ICESat data for control by excluded data over glaciers, snow cover, forest clear cuts, and sloped areas. The HREC algorithm reduces the North America ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m.

  8. Initial results of the oesophageal and gastric cancer registry from the Comunidad Valenciana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrig, Javier; Mingol, Fernando; Martí, Roberto; Puche, José; Trullenque, Ramón; Barreras, José Antonio; Asencio, Francisco; Aguiló, Javier; Navarro, José Manuel; Alberich, Carmen; Salas, Dolores; Lacueva, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the initial results of the oesophagogastric cancer registry developed for the Sociedad Valenciana de Cirugía and the Health Department of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). Fourteen of the 24 public hospitals belonging to the Comunidad Valenciana participated. All patients with diagnosis of oesophageal or gastric carcinomas operated from January 2013 to December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and pathological data were analysed. Four hundred and thirty-four patients (120 oesophageal carcinomas and 314 gastric carcinomas) were included. Only two hospitals operated more than 10 patients with oesophageal cancer per year. Transthoracic oesophaguectomy was the most frequent approach (84.2%) in tumours localized within the oesophagus. A total gastrectomy was performed in 50.9% patients with gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) carcinomas. Postoperative 30-day and 90-day mortality were 8% and 11.6% in oesophageal carcinoma and 5.9 and 8.6% in gastric carcinoma. Before surgery, middle oesophagus carcinomas were treated mostly (76,5%) with chemoradiotherapy. On the contrary, lower oesophagus and GOJ carcinomas were treated preferably with chemotherapy alone (45.5 and 53.4%). Any neoadjuvant treatment was administered to 73.6% of gastric cancer patients. Half patients with oesophageal carcinoma or gastric carcinoma received no adjuvant treatment. This registry revealed that half patients with oesophageal cancer were operated in hospitals with less than 10 cases per year at the Comunidad Valenciana. Also, it detected capacity improvement for some clinical outcomes of oesophageal and gastric carcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Tonya S; Larson, Joseph C; Alghothani, Nora; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Cauley, Jane A; Chen, Zhao; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-04-01

    Magnesium is a necessary component of bone, but its relation to osteoporotic fractures is unclear. We examined magnesium intake as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and altered bone mineral density (BMD). This prospective cohort study included 73,684 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Total daily magnesium intake was estimated from baseline food-frequency questionnaires plus supplements. Hip fractures were confirmed by a medical record review; other fractures were identified by self-report. A baseline BMD analysis was performed in 4778 participants. Baseline hip BMD was 3% higher (P 422.5 compared with <206.5 mg Mg/d. However, the incidence and RR of hip and total fractures did not differ across quintiles of magnesium. In contrast, risk of lower-arm or wrist fractures increased with higher magnesium intake [multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) for quintiles 4 and 5, respectively, compared with quintile 1; P-trend = 0.002]. In addition, women with the highest magnesium intakes were more physically active and at increased risk of falls [HR for quintile 4: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.16); HR for quintile 5: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.20); P-trend < 0.001]. Lower magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body, but this result does not translate into increased risk of fractures. A magnesium consumption slightly greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance is associated with increased lower-arm and wrist fractures that are possibly related to more physical activity and falls.

  10. Measuring success: Results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthon, J. Margo Brooks; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Design Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Participants Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Methods Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities’ graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Results Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%–10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%–5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %–0.3%, p ≥ .001). Conclusions Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. PMID:24880900

  11. The importance of leadership in Soldiers' nutritional behaviors: results from the Soldier Fueling Initiative program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Theresa K; Cable, Sonya J; Jin, Wana K; Robinson, Ayanna; Dennis, Sabriya D; Vo, Linda T; Prosser, Trish J; Rawlings, Jess A

    2013-01-01

    Improving Soldiers' nutritional habits continues to be a concern of the US Army, especially amidst increasing obesity and high injury rates. This study examines leadership influence on nutritional behaviors within the context of the Soldier Fueling Initiative, a program providing nutrition education and improved dining facility menus to Soldiers in Basic Combat Training (BCT) and Advanced Individual Training (AIT). A mixed methods design using surveys (N=486) and focus groups (N=112) was used to collect data at Fort Jackson, SC, and Fort Eustis, VA, in 2011. Survey results showed 75% of Soldiers in BCT believed their drill sergeant was helpful in making performance-enhancing food choices, and 86% agreed their drill sergeant believed it is important to eat for performance. Soldiers in AIT perceived their cadre as less helpful than their BCT drill sergeants and agreed less frequently that the AIT cadre believed it was important to eat for performance (Pnutritional attitudes and behaviors in both BCT and AIT. Focus groups revealed 5 key themes related to cadre influence and nutrition behavior (listed in order of most to least frequent): (1) cadre influence food choices through consequences related to selection, (2) cadre teach Soldiers how to eat, (3) cadre rush Soldiers to eat quickly to return to training, (4) cadre influence choice through example but often do not make healthy choices, and (5) cadre have no influence on food choices. Leaders influence most Soldiers' nutrition practices within the training environment, particularly within BCT. Given that leader influence can impact Soldiers' attitudes and behaviors, it is critical that military leaders become knowledgeable about optimal nutrition practices to disseminate appropriate information to their Soldiers, avoid reprimand associated with trainees' food choices, reinforce key messages associated with nutrition programming, and lead by example in their own food choices.

  12. Bumblebees require visual pollen stimuli to initiate and multimodal stimuli to complete a full behavioral sequence in close-range flower orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Saskia; Gottlieb, Robin; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    Flower visits are complex encounters, in which animals are attracted by floral signals, guided toward the site of the first physical contact with a flower, land, and finally take up floral rewards. At close range, signals of stamens and pollen play an important role to facilitate flower handling in bees, yet the pollen stimuli eliciting behavioral responses are poorly known. In this study, we test the response of flower-naive bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris ) toward single and multimodal pollen stimuli as compared to natural dandelion pollen. As artificial pollen stimuli, we used the yellow flavonoid pigment quercetin, the scent compound eugenol, the amino acid proline, the monosaccharide glucose, and the texture of pollen-grain-sized glass pellets as a tactile stimulus. Three test stimuli, dandelion pollen, one out of various uni- and multimodal stimulus combinations, and a solvent control were presented simultaneously to individual bumblebees, whose response was recorded. The results indicate that bumblebees respond in an irreversible sequence of behavioral reactions. Bumblebees approached the visual stimulus quercetin as often as natural dandelion pollen. An additional olfactory stimulus resulted in slightly more frequent landings. The multimodal stimulus combinations including visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile stimuli elicited approaches, antennal contacts, and landings as often as natural pollen. Subsequent reactions like proboscis extension, mandible biting, and buzzing were more often but not regularly observed at dandelion pollen. Our study shows that visual signals of pollen are sufficient to trigger initial responses of bumblebees, whereas multimodal pollen stimuli elicit full behavioral response as compared to natural pollen. Our results suggest a major role of pollen cues for the attraction of bees toward flowers and also explain, why many floral guides mimic the visual signals of pollen and anthers, that is, the yellow and UV-absorbing color, to

  13. Resonant Frequency Control For the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ: Control Framework and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Edelen, J. P.; Nicklaus, D.; Steimel, J.

    2016-12-16

    For the PIP-II Injector Test (PI-Test) at Fermilab, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is designed to accelerate a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA, H- beam to 2.1 MeV under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) RF operation. The available headroom of the RF amplifiers limits the maximum allowable detuning to 3 kHz, and the detuning is controlled entirely via thermal regulation. Fine control over the detuning, minimal manual intervention, and fast trip recovery is desired. In addition, having active control over both the walls and vanes provides a wider tuning range. For this, we intend to use model predictive control (MPC). To facilitate these objectives, we developed a dedicated control framework that handles higher-level system decisions as well as executes control calculations. It is written in Python in a modular fashion for easy adjustments, readability, and portability. Here we describe the framework and present the first control results for the PI-Test RFQ under pulsed and CW operation.

  14. Iterative reconstruction techniques for computed tomography part 2: initial results in dose reduction and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heer, Linda M. de [Cardiothoracic Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gelre Hospital, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    To present the results of a systematic literature search aimed at determining to what extent the radiation dose can be reduced with iterative reconstruction (IR) for cardiopulmonary and body imaging with computed tomography (CT) in the clinical setting and what the effects on image quality are with IR versus filtered back-projection (FBP) and to provide recommendations for future research on IR. We searched Medline and Embase from January 2006 to January 2012 and included original research papers concerning IR for CT. The systematic search yielded 380 articles. Forty-nine relevant studies were included. These studies concerned: the chest(n = 26), abdomen(n = 16), both chest and abdomen(n = 1), head(n = 4), spine(n = 1), and no specific area (n = 1). IR reduced noise and artefacts, and it improved subjective and objective image quality compared to FBP at the same dose. Conversely, low-dose IR and normal-dose FBP showed similar noise, artefacts, and subjective and objective image quality. Reported dose reductions ranged from 23 to 76 % compared to locally used default FBP settings. However, IR has not yet been investigated for ultra-low-dose acquisitions with clinical diagnosis and accuracy as endpoints. Benefits of IR include improved subjective and objective image quality as well as radiation dose reduction while preserving image quality. Future studies need to address the value of IR in ultra-low-dose CT with clinically relevant endpoints. (orig.)

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter K-Band (26 GHz) Signal Analysis: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.; Heckman, D.

    2017-11-01

    Lower frequency telemetry bands are becoming more limited in bandwidth due to increased competition between flight projects and other entities. Higher frequency bands offer significantly more bandwidth and hence the prospect of much higher data rates. Future or prospective flight projects considering higher frequency bands such as Ka-band (32 GHz) for deep-space and K-band (26 GHz) for near-Earth telemetry links are interested in past flight experience with available received data at these frequencies. Given that there is increased degradation due to the atmosphere at these higher frequencies, there is an effort to retrieve flight data of received signal strength to analyze performance under a variety of factors. Such factors include elevation angle, season, and atmospheric conditions. This article reports on the analysis findings of over 10 million observations of received signal strength of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft collected between 2014 and 2017. We analyzed these data to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions, season, and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis, we have confirmed the safety of using a 3-dB margin for preflight planning purposes. These results suggest that a 3-dB margin with respect to adverse conditions will ensure a 98 to 99 percent data return under 95 percent weather conditions at 26 GHz (K-band), thus confirming expectations from link budget predictions. The results suggest that this margin should be applicable for all elevation angles above 10 deg. Thus, missions that have sufficient power for their desired data rates may opt to use 10 deg as their minimum elevation angle. Limitations of this study include climate variability and the fact that the observations require removal of hotbody noise in order to perform an adequate cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis, which is planned for a future comprehensive study. Flight projects may use other link margins

  16. Development and initial results of a mandatory department of surgery faculty mentoring pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Petrusa, Emil; Hodin, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Mentoring of junior faculty by senior faculty is an important part of promotion and/or tenure and enhanced job satisfaction. This study reports the development and results to date of a faculty mentorship program in surgery. We implemented a departmental faculty mentoring program in July 2014 that consisted of both structured and informal meetings between junior faculty mentees and assigned senior faculty mentors. All senior faculty mentors attended a brief mentor training session. We then developed an evidence-based mentorship instrument that featured standardized metrics of academic success. This instrument was completed by each mentee, and then reviewed at the junior faculty's annual career conference with their division chief. A survey was distributed in July 2015 to assess junior faculty satisfaction with the new mentorship program. Junior or senior faculty consisted of six of three women and 16 of 11 men, respectively. Junior faculty members were aged 40 ± 3 y and had been an attending for 4 ± 2 y. Mentorship meetings occurred approximately three times during the year (range = 0-10). Total meeting time with senior mentors per meeting was a mean of 40 min (range = 0-300 min). Over 75% of junior faculty members were very or somewhat satisfied with the mentorship program and would like to continue in the program. The best aspect of the program was the opportunity to meet with an accomplished surgeon outside their division. Opportunities to improve the program included better matching of mentor to mentee by disease or research focus. Interestingly, almost the entire junior faculty members tended to have at least two other mentors besides the mentor assigned to them in this program. In terms of program outcomes, junior faculty members agreed that the mentorship program improved their overall career plans and enhanced their involvement in professional organizations but has not yet helped with academic productivity, home and/or work balance, and overall

  17. Blow-up results for systems of nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary positive initial energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Tang Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial boundary value problem for a system of nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations in a bounded domain is considered. We prove the existence of local solutions by using a successive approximation method. Then, we show blow-up results with arbitrary positive initial energy by a concavity method. Also estimates for the lifespan of solutions are given.

  18. Is mercury in Tibetan Medicine toxic? Clinical, neurocognitive and biochemical results of an initial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallon, Sarah; Dory, Yahav; Barghouthy, Yazeed; Tamdin, Tsewang; Sangmo, Rigzin; Tashi, Jamyang; Yangdon, Sonam; Yeshi, Tenzin; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Rotenberg, Michal; Cohen, Elinor; Harlavan, Yehudit; Sharabi, Galit; Bdolah-Abram, Tali

    2017-02-01

    Mercury an important therapeutic substance in Tibetan Medicine undergoes complex "detoxification" prior to inclusion in multi-ingredient formulas. In an initial cross-sectional study, patients taking Tibetan Medicine for various conditions were evaluated for mercury toxicity. Two groups were identified: Group 1, patients taking " Tsothel" the most important detoxified mercury preparation and Group 2, patients taking other mercury preparations or mercury free Tibetan Medicine. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry of Tibetan Medicine showed mercury consumption 130 µg/kg/day (Group 1) and 30 µg/kg/day (Group 2) ( P ≤ 0.001), levels above EPA (RfDs) suggested threshold (0.3 µg/kg /day) for oral chronic exposure. Mean duration of Tibetan Medicine treatment was 9 ± 17 months (range 3-116) (Group 1) and 5 ± 1.96 months (range 1-114) (Group 2) (NS) with cumulative days of mercury containing Tibetan Medicine, 764 days ± 1214 (range 135-7330) vs. 103 days ± 111 (range 0-426), respectively ( P ≤ 0.001). Comparison of treatment groups with healthy referents (Group 3) not taking Tibetan Medicine showed no significant differences in prevalence of 23 non-specific symptoms of mercury toxicity, abnormal neurological, cardiovascular and dental findings and no correlation with mercury exposure variables; consumption, cumulative treatment days, blood/ urine Hg. Liver and renal function tests in treatment groups were not significantly increased compared to referents, with mean urine Beta2 Microglobulin within the normal range and not significantly associated with Hg exposure variables after correcting for confounding variables. Neurocognitive testing showed no significant intergroup differences for Wechsler Memory Scale, Grooved Pegboard, Visual Retention, but Group1 scores were better for Mini-Mental, Brief Word Learning, Verbal Fluency after correcting for confounding variables. These results suggest mercury containing Tibetan Medicine does not

  19. Community Priorities for Hospital-Based Prevention Initiatives: Results From a Deliberating Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marthe R; Realmuto, Lindsey; Scherer, Maya; Kamler, Alexandra; Weiss, Linda

    2017-06-21

    Internal revenue service provisions require not-for-profit hospitals to provide "community benefit." In addition, the Affordable Care Act requires these hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments that involve appropriate stakeholders. These requirements signal government interest in creating opportunities for developing programs that are well tailored and responsive to the needs of the communities served. Gaining meaningful input from residents is a critical aspect of these processes. To implement public deliberations that explore local resident priorities for use of a hospital's community benefit resources to prevent chronic disease. Public deliberation is a method of community engagement that can provide guidance to decision makers on value-laden issues when technical solutions alone are inadequate to provide direction or set priorities. Three deliberations featuring presentations by experts and discussions among participants were convened with a cross section of residents in Brooklyn, New York. Participants were asked whether new hospital initiatives should prioritize: clinical prevention, community-based interventions, or action on broader policies affecting population health. Pre- and postsurveys, as well as qualitative methods, were used to assess knowledge and attitudes. Postdeliberation, participants had significant changes in knowledge, particularly on the impact of education on health. Participants prioritized community-based and policy interventions over expanding clinical prevention capacity. Public deliberation offers a method to probe informed constituent views of how a hospital can best promote its community's health. Informed local residents felt that hospitals should frame health-promoting activities more broadly than is current practice. Not-for-profit hospitals gain significant tax advantages. Increased insurance rates suggest that some hospitals will experience savings in uncompensated care that can be used to promote health more

  20. Evaluation of the Early Results of the Initial 500 Cardiac Operations Performed in a New Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Erdoğan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The initial 500 cases of a new center which is established in a province having no history of open heart surgery are evaluated with respect to mortality especially.Methods: A total of 500 patients underwent operations at our clinic between March 2008 and November 2009. Of these patients 373 (74.6% were male, 127 (25.4% were female and the mean age was 64.15±11.54. Four hundred eleven patients had coronary artery disease (19 had left ventricular aneurysm, 46 patients had coronary artery disease together with heart valve disease (of these 2 had ascending aortic aneurysm, 1 had left ventricular aneurysm, 1 had rupture of sinus valsalva aneurysm, 30 patients had valvular disease ( 1 had also patent ductus arteriosus, 4 patients had type 1 aortic dissection, 4 patients had ascending aortic aneurysm (3 had aortic valve disease, 4 patients had coarctation of the aorta, and 1 of the patients underwent surgery with the diagnosis of secundum atrial septal defect. Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 2% with 10 patients. The reasons of deaths were; low cardiac output in 3, renal insufficiency in 2, peroperative myocardial infarction in 2, bleeding in 1, lung complications in 1 and cardiac tamponade in 1. Fifteen patients (3% due to bleeding caused for surgical re-exploration. Postoperative atrial fibrillation developed in 97 patients (19.4%. Four patients (0.8% suffered wound infections on saphenous vein region, one patient (0.2% developed mediastinitis. Three patients (0.6% had neurological complications (two patients developed hemiplegia, one suffered from persistent tonic-clonic convultion. Prolonged entubation, prolonged intensive care unit stay and readmission to intensive care were other complications with rates of 20 (4%, 31(6.2% and 13(2.6% respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that there is a strong relationship between peroperative myocard infarction and mortality, and patients who had diminished renal functions

  1. 76 FR 50998 - Certain Lined Paper Products From People's Republic of China: Initiation and Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Lined Paper Products From People's Republic of China: Initiation and... Republic of China; Notice of Antidumping Duty Orders: Certain Lined Paper Products from India, Indonesia... for the purpose of revoking, in part, the antidumping duty order on certain lined paper products...

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  3. Recidivism among Child Sexual Abusers: Initial Results of a 13-Year Longitudinal Random Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the initial analysis of data from a random sample of all those charged with child sexual abuse in Idaho over a 13-year period, only one predictive variable was found that related to recidivism of those convicted. Variables such as ethnicity, relationship, gender, and age differences did not show a significant or even large association with…

  4. Review of dWindDS Model Initial Results; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-06-17

    The dWindDS model analyses the market diffusion of distributed wind generation for behind the meter applications. It is consumer decision based and uses a variety of data sets including a high resolution wind data set. It projects market development through 2050 based on input on specified by the user. This presentation covers some initial runs with draft base case assumptions.

  5. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: Results from a focus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Ewert (Benjamin); F. Hodiamont (Farina); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); S. Payne (Sheila); M. Groot (Marieke); J. Hasselaar (Jeroen); J. Menten (Johann); L. Radbruch (Lukas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research

  6. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: results from a focus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewert, B.; Hodiamont, F.; Wijngaarden, J. van; Payne, S.; Groot, M.; Hasselaar, J.G.J.; Menten, J.; Radbruch, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project,

  7. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See Brass Sheet and..., supplier relationships, or customer base. In its initial submission, dated May 17, 2010, TUNA and Lamina y... also maintained relationships with additional suppliers for other material, finished goods and services...

  8. Dietary Patterns and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women: Results From the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Bernhard; Crandall, Carolyn J; Wu, Chunyuan; LeBlanc, Erin S; Shikany, James M; Carbone, Laura; Orchard, Tonya; Thomas, Fridtjof; Wactawaski-Wende, Jean; Li, Wenjun; Cauley, Jane A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    Considerable efforts have been undertaken to relate single nutrients to bone health. To this point, results are inconsistent. Suboptimal single nutrient intake does not occur in isolation but rather reflects a poor diet quality. To assess the association between adherence to a diet quality index constructed on the basis of dietary recommendations or existing healthy dietary patterns and fractures in postmenopausal women. Post hoc analysis was conducted of longitudinal data from 40 clinical centers throughout the United States included in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study. Participants in the prospective cohort included 93 676 women who were eligible for the WHI if they were aged 50 to 79 years. Recruitment was conducted from October 1, 1993, to December 31, 1998, with the study ending August 29, 2014. The WHI food frequency questionnaire was used to derive nutrient and food intake at baseline. Diet quality and adherence were assessed by scores on the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), a 9-category measure of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern; the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), a 100-point measure of 12 food components; the 11-item Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010); or the 8-component Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. Outcome measures included incident total and hip fractures. Hazard ratios (HRs) by quintiles of dietary index scores were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Of the 93 676 participants, 90 014 were included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [7.4]) years. During a median follow-up time of 15.9 years, there were 2121 cases of hip fractures and 28 718 cases of total fractures. Women scoring in the highest quintile (Q5) of the aMED index had a lower risk for hip fractures (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.97), with an absolute risk reduction of 0.29% and a number needed to treat of 342 (95% CI, 249-502). No association between the aMED score and

  9. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhogora, Wilbroad; Padovani, Renato; Msaki, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR). The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al) at a source image distance (SID) of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program.

  10. Initial quality performance results using a phantom to simulate chest computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhogora Wilbroad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a homemade phantom for quantitative quality control in chest computed radiography (CR. The phantom was constructed from copper, aluminium, and polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA plates as well as Styrofoam materials. Depending on combinations, the literature suggests that these materials can simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of lung, heart, and mediastinum. The lung, heart, and mediastinum regions were simulated by 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm copper plates, respectively. A test object of 100 mm x 100 mm and 0.2 mm thick copper was positioned to each region for CNR measurements. The phantom was exposed to x-rays generated by different tube potentials that covered settings in clinical use: 110-120 kVp (HVL=4.26-4.66 mm Al at a source image distance (SID of 180 cm. An approach similar to the recommended method in digital mammography was applied to determine the CNR values of phantom images produced by a Kodak CR 850A system with post-processing turned off. Subjective contrast-detail studies were also carried out by using images of Leeds TOR CDR test object acquired under similar exposure conditions as during CNR measurements. For clinical kVp conditions relevant to chest radiography, the CNR was highest over 90-100 kVp range. The CNR data correlated with the results of contrast detail observations. The values of clinical tube potentials at which CNR is the highest are regarded to be optimal kVp settings. The simplicity in phantom construction can offer easy implementation of related quality control program.

  11. Prostate cancer detection at rebiopsy after an initial benign diagnosis: results using sextant extended prostate biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Ramos Moreira Leite; Luiz Heraldo Camara-Lopes; José Cury; Marcos F. Dall'Oglio; Adriana Sañudo; Miguel Srougi

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sextant prostate biopsy remains the standard technique for the detection of prostate cancer. It is well known that after a diagnosis of small acinar proliferation (ASAP) or high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the possibility of finding cancer is approximately 40% and 30%, respectively. OBJECTIVE: We aim to analyze follow-up biopsies on patients who initially received a benign diagnosis after exclusion of HGPIN and ASAP. METHODS: From July 2000 to December 2003...

  12. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6 month followup results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Hye Jung; Jeong, Hae Woong; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Young Mi [Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Chul [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up. We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=2), and StarClose (n=1) in this study. Four patients were implanted with 2 VCDs at the each side of bilateral femoral arteries, while the remaining 8 patients were inserted 1 VCD at the right femoral artery. Ultrasonography was performed within 10 days and at approximately 6 months after the angiographic procedure. Ultrasonographic morphology of the attached VCD and its relationship with the arterial wall were analyzed. Initial ultrasonography revealed the attached VCD as the relevant unique structure with successful deployment and hemostasis. Follow-up ultrasonography demonstrated partial absorption of hemostatic materials in cases of Angio-Seal (n=3), FemoSeal (n=5), and ExoSeal (n=3), changes in the soft tissue surrounding the femoral artery in case of Angio-Seal (n=1), arterial intimal hyperplasia in cases of FemoSeal (n=3), and no gross changes as compared with the initial ultrasonographic findings in cases of Perclose (n=2) and StarClose (n=1). Initial ultrasonographic evaluation reflected the unique structure of each VCD, with most of them being easily distinguishable. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed various changes in the affected vessels.

  13. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  14. Initial Results From SABSOON: A Coastal Ocean Observatory on the South Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. R.; Seim, H. E.

    2002-12-01

    The coastal ocean observing system for the South Atlantic Bight off the SE U.S. is in an early stage of development. However, the existing time series of meteorological and oceanographic observations illustrate the potential multidisciplinary applications of these data. Here, we will first review the existing observing system assets for the region in terms of spatial distributions and the parameters measured, then provide examples of results from the South Atlantic Bight Synoptic Offshore Observational Network (SABSOON), a dataset that strongly complements physical and biogeochemical studies in the region. Among the physical studies has been an examination of a thirteen-month record of vertically resolved currents (35 m depth) for variations in tidal flow. A harmonic analysis was carried out on each month. Subsequent study focused on variability in the largest semi-diurnal constituent. Stratification is found to cause significant shifts in vertical shear, ellipticity, tidal phase and ellipse orientation. Estimates of bed stress and roughness length also vary in time and suggest that surface gravity waves are modulating the properties of the benthic boundary layer and impacting tidal current speed. A linearized, one-dimensional momentum balance was used to estimate the eddy viscosity necessary to explain the vertical current structure. Vertical structure of the eddy viscosity was also found to vary with stratification and maximum values range from 0.01 to 0.05 m2/s. Comparison of the observations during unstratified conditions with a one-dimensional model that includes a turbulence closure scheme confirms observational estimates of a roughness length of 2-10 cm, consistent with a strong influence of the surface gravity wave field on the benthic boundary layer. Such physical studies have important implications for studies of the continental shelf biogeochemistry. Along with physical data, bio-optical measurements from SABSOON and ocean color satellite imagery

  15. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Kosmidis, Mary H; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Giorgos M; Sakka, Paraskevi; Arampatzi, Xanthi; Bougea, Anastasia; Labropoulos, Ioannis; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with a decreased risk of many degenerative diseases and cognitive function in particular; however, relevant information from Mediterranean regions, where the prototype Mediterranean diet is typically adhered to, have been very limited. Additionally, predefined Mediterranean diet (MeDi) scores with use of a priori cut-offs have been used very rarely, limiting comparisons between different populations and thus external validity of the associations. Finally, associations between individual components of MeDi (i.e., food groups, macronutrients) and particular aspects of cognitive performance have rarely been explored. We evaluated the association of adherence to an a priori defined Mediterranean dietary pattern and its components with dementia and specific aspects of cognitive function in a representative population cohort in Greece. Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), an on-going population-based study, exploring potential associations between diet and cognitive performance in a representative sample from Greek regions, were included in this analysis. Diagnosis of dementia was made by a full clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, while cognitive performance was assessed according to five cognitive domains (memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning, visuospatial perception) and a composite cognitive score. Adherence to MeDi was evaluated by an a priori score (range 0-55), derived from a detailed food frequency questionnaire. Among 1,865 individuals (mean age 73±6 years, 41% male), 90 were diagnosed with dementia and 223 with mild cognitive impairment. Each unit increase in the Mediterranean dietary score (MedDietScore) was associated with a 10% decrease in the odds for dementia. Adherence to the MeDi was also associated with better performance in memory, language, visuospatial perception and the composite cognitive score; the associations were

  16. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. One way to address the uncertainties in the HTGR analysis tools is to assess the sensitivity of critical parameters (such as the calculated maximum fuel temperature during loss of coolant accidents) to a few important input uncertainties. The input parameters were identified by engineering judgement in the past but are today typically based on a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) process. The input parameters can also be derived from sensitivity studies and are then varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, there is often no easy way to compensate for these uncertainties. In engineering system design, a common approach for addressing performance uncertainties is to add compensating margins to the system, but with passive properties credited it is not so clear how to apply it in the case of modular HTGR heat removal path. Other more sophisticated uncertainty modelling approaches, including Monte Carlo analysis, have also been proposed and applied. Ideally one wishes to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies, and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Therefore some safety analysis calculations may use a mixture of these approaches for different parameters depending upon the particular requirements of the analysis problem involved. Sensitivity analysis can for example be used to provide information as part of an uncertainty analysis to determine best estimate plus uncertainty results to the

  17. Long-term Results of Single-Agent Thalidomide as Initial Therapy for Asymptomatic (Smoldering or Indolent) Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler-Short, Kristen; Hayman, Suzanne; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kumar, Shaji; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Russell, Stephen J.; Lust, John A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Greipp, Philip R.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up results of a phase II trial of thalidomide for early stage multiple myeloma (MM). Patients were eligible if they had smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or indolent MM without need for immediate therapy. Thalidomide was initiated at a dose of 200 mg/day and adjusted as tolerated. Disease progression was defined using modified American Society of Hematology/Food and Drug Administration consensus panel criteria for SMM. Thirty-one patients were enrolled; 29 (19 SMM, 10 indolent MM) were eligible. The median age was 61 years. Median follow up of living patients was 10.2 years (range, 7.5–11.0 years). Ten patients (34%) had a partial response (PR) and nine had minimal response (MR) for an MR plus PR rate of 66%. The median time to progression (TTP) to symptomatic myeloma was 35 months. Median TTP was 61 months in those achieving PR, 39 months with MR, and 9 months among those failing to achieve either MR or PR, p=0.005. Median overall survival from diagnosis was 86 months; median survival from onset of symptomatic myeloma was 49 months. Grade 3–4 non-hematologic adverse events were noted in 55% of patients. Randomized trials are needed to determine the role of early therapy in SMM. PMID:20730790

  18. Modeling fluid flow and heat transfer at Basin and Range faults: preliminary results for Leach hot springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.

  19. Prostate cancer detection at rebiopsy after an initial benign diagnosis: results using sextant extended prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Katia Ramos Moreira; Camara-Lopes, Luiz Heraldo; Cury, José; Dall'oglio, Marcos F; Sañudo, Adriana; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-06-01

    Sextant prostate biopsy remains the standard technique for the detection of prostate cancer. It is well known that after a diagnosis of small acinar proliferation (ASAP) or high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the possibility of finding cancer is approximately 40% and 30%, respectively. We aim to analyze follow-up biopsies on patients who initially received a benign diagnosis after exclusion of HGPIN and ASAP. From July 2000 to December 2003, 1177 patients were submitted to sextant extended prostate biopsy in our hospital. The mean patient age was 65.5 years old, and the median number of fragments collected at biopsy was 13. HGPIN and ASAP were excluded from our study. We only considered patients who had a diagnosis of benign at the first biopsy and were subjected to rebiopsies up until May 2005 because of a maintained suspicion of cancer. Cancer was initially detected in 524 patients (44.5%), and the diagnosis was benign in 415 (35.3%). Rebiopsy was indicated for 76 of the latter patients (18.3%) because of a persistent suspicion of cancer. Eight cases of adenocarcinoma (10.5%) were detected, six (75%) at the first rebiopsy. Six patients were submitted to radical prostatectomy, and all tumors were considered clinically significant. Our data indicate that in extended prostate biopsy, the first biopsy detects more cancer, and the first, second, and third rebiopsies after an initial benign diagnosis succeed in finding cancer in 7.9% (6/55), 5.9% (1/15) and 20% (1/4) of patients, respectively.

  20. How healthcare systems evaluate their advance care planning initiatives: Results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Patricia D; Lee, Lydia D; Davison, Sara N; Simon, Jessica E

    2016-09-01

    Advance care planning initiatives are being implemented across healthcare systems around the world, but how best to evaluate their implementation is unknown. To identify gaps and/or redundancies in current evaluative strategies to help healthcare systems develop future evaluative frameworks for ACP. Systematic review. Peer-reviewed and gray literature searches were conducted till February 2015 to answer: "What methods have healthcare systems used to evaluate implementation of advance care planning initiatives?" A PICOS framework was developed to identify articles describing the implementation and evaluation of a health system-level advance care planning initiative. Outcome measures were mapped onto a conceptual quality indicator framework based on the Institute of Medicine and Donabedian models of healthcare quality. A total of 46 studies met inclusion criteria for analysis. Most articles reported on single parts of a healthcare system (e.g. continuing care). The most common outcome measures pertained to document completion, followed by healthcare resource use. Patient-, family-, or healthcare provider-reported outcomes were less commonly measured. Concordance measures (e.g. dying in place of choice) were reported by only 26% of studies. The conceptual quality indicator framework identified gaps and redundancies in measurement and is presented as a potential foundation from which to develop a comprehensive advance care planning evaluation framework. Document completion is frequently used to evaluate advance care planning program implementation; capturing the quality of care appears to be more difficult. This systematic review provides health system administrators with a comprehensive summary of measures used to evaluate advance care planning and may identify gaps in evaluation within their local context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Using X-ray computed tomography to evaluate the initial saturation resulting from different saturation procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun; Wildenschild, D; Jensen, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    for saturation. Evaluation of the different enhanced saturation techniques was done with Xray computed tomography (CT) and gravimetrically. The use of CT scanning makes it possible to observe the spatial distribution of wetting and non-wetting phases in the porous medium in a non-destructive way. In this case...... with pressurized nitrogen between each saturation and allowed to saturate for the same length of time for all the different procedures. Both gravimetric measurements and CT attenuation levels showed that venting the sample with carbon dioxide prior to saturation clearly improved initial saturation whereas the use...

  2. Students’ Recognition of European Identity: Initiation of Projects on the Range of Problems Dealing with the Danube Region Local Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Kichuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of identity as personal characteristic associated with the self-actualization process and depended on social context of his life activity. The students’ ability to their prosocial activity actualizes under social, dynamic changes, increasing globalization. The need of the students’ recognition of European identity is increasing because of European integration process of Ukraine. In this context the best practices of initiation of projects on the range of problems dealing with the local community development are given. This article is based on the students’ efficient inclusion to social projecting dealing with the Ukrainian Danube region effective development.

  3. Field testing for toxic algae with a microarray: initial results from the MIDTAL project

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, G.R.; Raine, R.; Medlin, L.; Chen, J.; Kooistra, W.; Barra, L.; Ruggiero, M.V.; Graneli, E.; Hagström, J.A.; Salomon, P.S.; Reguera, B.; Rodríguez, F.; Escalera, L.; Edvardsen, B.; Dittami, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key tasks in MIDTAL (MIcroarrays for the Detection of Toxic ALgae) is to demonstrate the applicability of microarrays to monitor harmful algae across a broad range of ecological niches and toxic species responsible for harmful algal events. Water samples are collected from a series of sites used in national phytoplankton and biotoxin monitoring across Europe. The samples are filtered; rRNA is extracted, labelled with a fluorescent dye and applied to a mi...

  4. DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS OF BONES AS A RESULT OF MYCOBACTERIAL PROCESS IN CHILDREN WITH INITIAL IMMUNODEFICIENCIES (CLINICAL, DIAGNOSTICAL AND TACTIC PECULIARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Mushkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial immunodeficiencies are genetically conditioned defects of immune system; they are the basis for generalized infections including those induced by mycobacteria of tuberculosis complex. The lesions of skeleton in those patients are of different types depending on the kind of immunodeficiency. The article presents the results of clinical observation, conservative and surgical treatment of 12 children with mycobacterial lesions of skeleton on the ground different initial immunodeficiencies — severe combined immune deficiency, chronic granulematosis and insufficiency of interferon and interleukin 12.Key words: children, initial immunodeficiency, mycobacterial infection, bone lesions, surgical treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 60–64

  5. Variation range of analysis results and development of analysis standards; Schwankungsbreiten von Analysenergebnissen und Entwicklung von Analysenstandards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohring, D. [ASA Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung e.V. im Hause der Abfallwirtschaftsgesellschaft des Kreises Warendorf mbH, Ennigerloh (Germany); Bahn, S. [IBA Ingenieurbuero fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Energietechnik GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Since around one and a half years operators of mechanical biological waste treatment plants have been required to comply and demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the German Landfill Ordinance (AbfAblV 2001). Efforts to solve the technical problems arising in mechanical biological waste treatment plants with regard to achieving the treatment goals and meeting the landfilling requirements have mostly been successful. However, there have also been difficulties in the analysis of sample material from mechanical biological waste treatment plants. These have been noticeable, amongst other things, in unexpectedly high scatters in the analysis results on samples of treated material. Furthermore, the determination of the soil mechanical parameters vane shear strength, axial deformation and monoaxial compression strength as required in the analysis instructions of the Landfill Ordinance has found to be inappropriate and in some cases impracticable. Numerous comparative analyses and studies haven been performed in response to these problems in evaluating analysis results and hence in demonstrating adherence to the prescribed values. The difficulties in determining the strength parameters specified in the Landfill Ordinance and the wide scatter of analysis results found in other parameters have been taken by ASA as an opportunity to initiate and coordinate projects for the standardisation of analysis methods. These are dedicated in particular to developing methods for determining soil mechanical parameters and standardising the sampling, sample preparation and analysis of mechanically and biologically treated waste material.

  6. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  7. Initial results from the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey in the Pegasus Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchin, Robert; Taylor, Rhys; AGES Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES), we have covered a 5deg x 4deg region centered on the Pegasus Cluster and its principal member, the elliptical galaxy NGC 7619, in the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen. The survey takes in the full redshift range of the cluster and the volume behind it out to 18,000 km/s. In the cluster and the volume we detect over 500 sources, many of which are previously uncataloged. These include five sources without obvious optical counterparts (three within the redshift range of the cluster, which are assumed to be members); of these, four (two within the cluster) have possible low surface-brightness counterparts identified on stacked and/or smoothed SDSS images, while the third remains without an optical counterpart. We also detect three low surface-brightness ultra-diffuse galaxies from the catalog of Shi et al. (2017) in HI for the first time, and find fourteen other HI sources where both a UDG and other potential counterparts are present in the beam, making an unambiguous association with the UDG not possible on the basis of this data alone. In addition to these, we detect N objects with HI and stellar streams.

  8. First Results of Using a UVTron Flame Sensor to Detect Alpha-Induced Air Fluorescence in the UVC Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita J. Crompton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC wavelength range (180–280 nm. A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref., 430-8587, Japan, designed to detect the UVC emissions from flames for fire alarm purposes, was tested in various gas atmospheres with a 210Po alpha source to determine if this could provide an avenue for stand-off alpha detection. The results of the experiments show that this detector is capable of detecting alpha-induced air fluorescence in normal indoor lighting conditions, as the interference from daylight and artificial lighting is less influential on this detection system which operates below the UVA and UVB wavelength ranges (280–315 nm and 315–380 nm respectively. Assuming a standard 1 r 2 drop off in signal, the limit of detection in this configuration can be calculated to be approximately 240 mm, well beyond the range of alpha-particles in air, which indicates that this approach could have potential for stand-off alpha detection. The gas atmospheres tested produced an increase in the detector count, with xenon having the greatest effect with a measured 52% increase in the detector response in comparison to the detector response in an air atmosphere. This type of alpha detection system could be operated at a distance, where it would potentially provide a more cost effective, safer, and faster solution in comparison with traditional alpha detection methods to detect and characterise alpha contamination in nuclear decommissioning and security applications.

  9. The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

  10. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  11. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer. Initial results using {sup 23}Na-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, T.; Apfaltrer, P.; Haneder, S.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Konstandin, S.; Schad, L. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Schmid-Bindert, G.; Manegold, C. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Interdisciplinary Thoracic Oncology; Wenz, F. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    {sup 23}Na-MRI has been proposed as a potential imaging biomarker for the assessment of tumor viability and the evaluation of therapy response but has not yet been evaluated in patients with lung cancer. We aimed to assess the feasibility of {sup 23}Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer. Three patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung were examined on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Feasibility of {sup 23}Na-MRI images was proven by comparison and fusion of {sup 23}Na-MRI with {sup 1}H-MR, CT and FDG-PET-CT images. {sup 23}Na signal intensities (SI) of tumor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the spinal canal were measured and the SI ratio in tumor and CSF was calculated. One chemonaive patient was examined before and after the initiation of combination therapy (Carboplatin, Gemcitabin, Cetuximab). All {sup 23}Na-MRI examinations were successfully completed and were of diagnostic quality. Fusion of {sup 23}Na-MRI images with {sup 1}H-MRI, CT and FDG-PET-CT was feasible in all patients and showed differences in solid and necrotic tumor areas. The mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF SI ratio were 13.3 {+-} 1.8 x 103 and 0.83 {+-} 0.14, respectively. In necrotic tumors, as suggested by central non-FDG-avid areas, the mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF ratio were 19.4 x 103 and 1.10, respectively. {sup 23}Na-MRI is feasible in patients with lung cancer and could provide valuable functional molecular information regarding tumor viability, and potentially treatment response. (orig.)

  12. Repeat vasectomy reversal after initial failure: overall results and predictors for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J; Sabanegh, E S

    1999-04-01

    We review the treatment outcomes for microsurgical reconstruction following failed vasectomy reversal and identify predictors for success. We performed a retrospective review of our experience with microsurgical reconstruction in 41 men who underwent 1 or more prior unsuccessful vasectomy reversal procedures. Of these patients 20 underwent bilateral (16) or unilateral (4) vasoepididymostomy, 11 underwent bilateral (7) or unilateral (4) vasovasostomy and 10 underwent unilateral vasoepididymostomy with contralateral vasovasostomy. Postoperative followup consisted of serial semen analyses and telephone interviews. Patency and pregnancy followup data were available in 33 and 31 patients, respectively. Five couples had ongoing uncorrected female factor infertility problems and were not included in pregnancy rate calculations. Mean obstructive interval was 10.6 years. Overall patency and pregnancy rates were 79 and 31%, respectively. Mean total motile sperm count for patients demonstrating patency at followup was 38.0 million. History of conception with the current partner was predictive of future conception with 4 of 5 nonremarried couples (80%) initiating a pregnancy versus 3 of 18 remarried couples (17%) (p = 0.006). Other factors, including smoking history and obstructive interval, did not correlate with postoperative success. Reconstruction with vasovasostomy on at least 1 side trended toward improved patency (p = 0.17) and pregnancy rates (p = 0.15), although they did not assume statistical significance. Microsurgical reconstruction following failed vasectomy reversal is associated with high patency and moderate pregnancy rates at short-term followup. In our series previous conception with the current partner was predictive of future conception after reconstruction. Urologists performing repeat vasectomy reversal must be familiar with microsurgical techniques, since almost three-quarters of patients will require at least unilateral vasoepididymostomy.

  13. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, One West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Boyles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I., E-mail: stovall.kevin@gmail.com [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  14. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. I. Survey Description, Data Analysis, and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, K.; Lynch, R. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Boyles, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Leake, S.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.

    2014-08-01

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > -40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of -1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M J). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  15. Successfully Reducing Hospitalizations of Nursing Home Residents: Results of the Missouri Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Popejoy, Lori; Vogelsmeier, Amy; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Greg; Flesner, Marcia; Crecelius, Charles; Ge, Bin; Petroski, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The goals of the Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI) for long-stay nursing home residents were to reduce the frequency of avoidable hospital admissions and readmissions, improve resident health outcomes, improve the process of transitioning between inpatient hospitals and nursing facilities, and reduce overall healthcare spending without restricting access to care or choice of providers. The MOQI was one of 7 program sites in the United States, with specific interventions unique to each site tested for the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) Innovations Center. A prospective, single group intervention design, the MOQI included an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) embedded full-time within each nursing home (NH) to influence resident care outcomes. Data were collected continuously for more than 3 years from an average of 1750 long-stay Medicare, Medicaid, and private pay residents living each day in 16 participating nursing homes in urban, metro, and rural communities within 80 miles of a major Midwestern city in Missouri. Performance feedback reports were provided to each facility summarizing their all-cause hospitalizations and potentially avoidable hospitalizations as well as a support team of social work, health information technology, and INTERACT/Quality Improvement Coaches. The MOQI achieved a 30% reduction in all-cause hospitalizations and statistically significant reductions in 4 single quarters of the 2.75 years of full implementation of the intervention for long-stay nursing home residents. As the population of older people explodes in upcoming decades, it is critical to find good solutions to deal with increasing costs of health care. APRNs, working with multidisciplinary support teams, are a good solution to improving care and reducing costs if all nursing home residents have access to APRNs nationwide. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Initial results of the California Testing and Inspection Program for solar equipment (TIPSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The California Energy Commission has accredited seven independent test laboratories to test solar collectors. Data for 65 collector models are tabulated. Terms used in the table are defined and ways to interpret the results are discussed. (MHR)

  17. Initial experience with a group presentation of study results to research participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Stephen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating with each participant after publication of the results. Methods Following the closeout and publication of a randomized clinical trial of saw palmetto for treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, patients were invited back to the research center to participate in a group presentation of the study results. Results Approximately 10% of participants attended one of two presentation sessions. Reaction to the experience of the group presentation was very positive among the attendees. Conclusion A group presentation to research participants is an efficient method of communicating study results to those who desire to be informed and was highly valued by those who attended. Prospectively planning for such presentations and greater scheduling flexibility may result in higher attendance rates. Trial Registration Number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00037154

  18. [Initial results of treatment with the new AO wrist joint arthrodesis plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, M; Kania, N M; Kluge, S; Bickert, B; Germann, G

    1999-07-01

    Although diagnosis and therapeutic options for post-traumatic, idiopathic, and degenerative wrist arthropathies have improved during recent years, total wrist fusion is still frequently regarded as a popular option of treatment. Fourty-one patients underwent wrist arthrodesis between May 1994 and April 1996 using the recently introduced new AO-plate after earlier wrist trauma or Kienböck's disease. Thirty-five patients were examined. The average follow-up time was 15 months. Hand function and active digital range of motion (ADROM) was assessed clinically, grip strength was measured using a Jamar-Dynamometer and the Dexter-Computer-System. Patient's daily activities and general postoperative quality of life were estimated with the new DASH-questionnaire. It can be concluded from our data, that the widely claimed complete pain relief after total wrist fusion does not match reality. Eighty percent of the patients complained about reduction of postoperative quality of life with impaired personal hygiene and functional deficits; however, the majority would undergo the procedure again. Seventy percent of the patients returned to their original occupation. The DASH-questionnaire proved to be a very useful and sensitive tool for evaluating the patient's problems at the upper extremity.

  19. Cardiovascular disease and mortality after breast cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Jin Park

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among older postmenopausal women. The impact of postmenopausal breast cancer on CVD for older women is uncertain. We hypothesized that older postmenopausal women with breast cancer would be at a higher risk of CVD than similar aged women without breast cancer and that CVD would be a major contributor to the subsequent morbidity and mortality.In a prospective Women's Health Initiative study, incident CVD events and total and cause-specific death rates were compared between postmenopausal women with (n = 4,340 and without (n = 97,576 incident invasive breast cancer over 10 years post-diagnosis, stratified by 3 age groups (50-59, 60-69, and 70-79.Postmenopausal women, regardless of breast cancer diagnosis, had similar and high levels of CVD risk factors (e.g., smoking and hypertension at baseline prior to breast cancer, which were strong predictors of CVD and total mortality over time. CVD affected mostly women age 70-79 with localized breast cancer (79% of breast cancer cases in 70-79 age group: only 17% died from breast cancer and CVD was the leading cause of death (22% over the average 10 years follow up. Compared to age-matched women without breast cancer, women age 70-79 at diagnosis of localized breast cancer had a similar multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-1.33 for coronary heart disease, a lower risk of composite CVD (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.00, and a higher risk of total mortality (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.39.CVD was a major contributor to mortality in women with localized breast cancer at age 70-79. Further studies are needed to evaluate both screening and treatment of localized breast cancer tailored to the specific health issues of older women.

  20. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of \\sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  1. Initial results of VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-Chain) over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    Whistler-mode waves in the VLF/ELF frequency range interact with high-energy (~10 keV) electrons to cause diffuse and pulsating auroras, and with MeV electrons in the radiation belts. However, simultaneous high-time resolution measurements of aurora and these waves have previously not been done sufficiently. We made a campaign observation of such high-time resolution measurements at Athabasca (54.72N, 246.69E, MLAT=61.3) and Fort Vermillion (58.38N, 243.99E, MLAT=64.5) using two loop antennas and several auroral cameras for February 16-26, 2012. The loop antennas at both stations measure east-west and north-south magnetic field variations with a sampling rate of 100 kHz. The panchromatic all-sky cameras at both stations measure auroras with a sampling rate of 30 Hz. The sampling timings of both instruments are corrected by GPS receivers. In addition we installed an oblique looking narrow-FoV EMCCD camera at Athabasca with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, to measure height variation of pulsating aurora. At Athabasca, routine measurements by an induction magnetometer, a proton photometer, an all-sky airglow imager, LF standard wave receiver, were also carried out. We also tried to compare these observations with satellite measurements by REIMEI, THEMIS, NOAA, and DMSP. In this presentation we will show initial results obtained from this comprehensive campaign of aurora and radio wave measurements at subauroral latitudes.

  2. Initial results of imaging melanoma metastasis in resected human lymph nodes using photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jithin; Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Vijn, Thomas W.; Wouters, Michel W.; van Boven, Hester; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Ruers, Theo J. M.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-09-01

    The pathological status of the sentinel lymph node is important for accurate melanoma staging, ascertaining prognosis and planning treatment. The standard procedure involves biopsy of the node and histopathological assessment of its status. Drawbacks of this examination include a finite sampling of the node with the likelihood of missing metastases, and a significant time-lag before histopathological results are available to the surgeon. We studied the applicability of photoacoustic computed tomographic imaging as an intraoperative modality for examining the status of resected human sentinel lymph nodes. We first applied the technique to image ex vivo pig lymph nodes carrying metastases-simulating melanoma cells using multiple wavelengths. The experience gained was applied to image a suspect human lymph node. We validated the photoacoustic imaging results by comparing a reconstructed slice with a histopathological section through the node. Our results suggest that photoacoustics has the potential to develop into an intraoperative imaging method to detect melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes.

  3. Initial results from a reconnaissance of cyanobacteria and associated toxins in Illinois, August--October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrio, Paul J.; Ostrodka, Lenna M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Good, Gregg; Holland, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Ten lakes and two rivers in Illinois were sampled in August–October 2012 to determine the concentrations and spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins throughout the State. The reconnaissance was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Sample results indicated that concentrations of both total cyanobacterial cells and microcystin were commonly at levels likely to result in adverse human health effects, according to World Health Organization guidance values. Concentrations generally decreased from August to October following precipitation events and lower temperatures.

  4. Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    High explosives science and technology (M-7) is currently working on the third round of formulation and testing of Remediated nitrate salt (RNS) surrogates. This report summarizes the calorimetry results from the 15% sWheat mixtures. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogate formulation and testing standard procedure", released February 16, 2016. Results from the first and second rounds of formulation and testing were documented in memoranda M7-16-6042 and M7-16-6053.

  5. Dual-energy CT angiography of the lung in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.; Michaely, H.J. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Campus Grosshadern, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Johnson, T.R.; Morhard, D.; Becker, C.; Reiser, M.; Nikolaou, K. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Campus Grosshadern, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT angiography (CTA) of the lung in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). 24 patients with suspected PE were examined with a single-acquisition, dual-energy CTA protocol (A-system: 140 kV/65 mAsref, B-system: 80 kV/190 mAsref) on a dual-source CT system. Lung perfusion was visualized by color-coding voxels containing iodine and air using dedicated dual-energy post-processing software. Perfusion defects were classified by two blinded radiologists as being consistent or non-consistent with PE. Subjective image quality of perfusion maps and CTA was rated using a 5-point scale (1: excellent, 5: poor). The reading of a third independent radiologist served as the standard of reference for the diagnosis of PE. In all patients with PE (n = 4), perfusion defects classified as being consistent with PE were identified in lung areas affected by PE. Both readers did not record perfusion defects classified as being consistent with PE in any of the patients without PE. Thus, on a per patient basis the sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of PE was 100% for both readers. On a per segment basis the sensitivity and specificity ranged between 60 - 66.7% and 99.5 - 99.8%. The interobserver agreement was good (k = 0.81). Perfusion defects rated as non-consistent with PE were most frequently caused by streak artifacts from dense contrast material in the great thoracic vessels. The median score of the image quality of both the perfusion maps and CTA was 2. In conclusion, dual-energy CTA of pulmonary embolism is feasible and allows the assessment of perfusion defects caused by pulmonary embolism. Further optimization of the injection protocol is required to reduce artifacts from dense contrast material. (orig.)

  6. Chest pain control with kinesiology taping after lobectomy for lung cancer: initial results of a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Andrea; Grande, Annamaria; Castiglioni, Massimo; Gasperini, Laura; Faini, Agnese; Spampatti, Sebastiano; Nardecchia, Elisa; Terzaghi, Lorena; Dominioni, Lorenzo; Rotolo, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Kinesiology taping (KT) is a rehabilitative technique performed by the cutaneous application of a special elastic tape. We tested the safety and efficacy of KT in reducing postoperative chest pain after lung lobectomy. One-hundred and seventeen consecutive patients, both genders, age 18-85, undergoing lobectomy for lung cancer between January 2013 and July 2015 were initially considered. Lobectomies were performed by the same surgical team, with thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) access. Exclusion criteria (n = 25 patients) were: previous KT exposure, recent trauma, pre-existing chest pain, lack of informed consent, >24-h postoperative intensive care unit treatment. After surgery, the 92 eligible patients were randomized to KT experimental group (n = 46) or placebo control group (n = 46). Standard postoperative analgesia was administered in both groups (paracetamol/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, epidural analgesia including opioids), with supplemental analgesia boluses at patient request. On postoperative day 1 in addition, in experimental group patients a specialized physiotherapist applied KT, with standardized tape length, tension and shape, over three defined skin areas: at the chest access site pain trigger point; over the ipsilateral deltoid/trapezius; lower anterior chest. In control group, usual dressing tape mimicking KT was applied over the same areas, as placebo. Thoracic pain severity score [visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging 0-10] was self-assessed by all patients on postoperative days 1, 2, 5, 8, 9 and 30. The KT group and the control group had similar demographics, lung cancer clinico-pathological features and thoracotomy/VATS ratio. Postoperatively, the two groups also resulted similar in supplemental analgesia, complication rate, mean duration of chest drainage and length of stay. There were no adverse events with KT application. After tape application, KT patients reported overall less thoracic pain than the

  7. Initial results of CryoSat-2 data from the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Poulsen, Stine; Stenseng, Lars; Skourup, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    between the SAR backscatter and the CryoSat-2 data. The surface elevation is extracted from an 80% threshold retracker and a five parameter - retracker, and this is given with respect to the DTU10 Mean Sea Surface model (MSS). The results are compared with an Envisat ASAR image, and we show...

  8. Analysis of Disposition Measures of Consistency with INTASC Principles: Results of an Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, William Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the results from a pilot effort to create and use a battery of instruments based on INTASC principles indicators of teacher dispositions. The original conception of the battery was designed on the taxonomy of increasing levels of inference. This means that the intent to measure included multiple instruments in…

  9. Initial imperfections for fea of tubular beams based on validated experiment results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, M.; Veljkovic, M.; Dubina, D.; Ungureanu, V.

    2016-01-01

    The experiment data available on 4-point bending experiments performed in Aus-tralia and Europe on tubular section beams are validated by FEA. Large scattering of available experiment results is investigated by detailed analysis of different geometrical imperfections. Loading set-up is analysed

  10. 77 FR 64953 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail... antidumping treatment as its predecessor. \\3\\ See, e.g., Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape from Italy... Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

  11. Tether dynamics and control results for tethered satellite system's initial flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, Jim D.; Flanders, Howard

    The recent Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) mission has provided a wealth of data concerning the dynamics of tethered systems in space and has demonstrated the effectiveness of operational techniques designed to control these dynamics. In this paper, we review control techniques developed for managing tether dynamics, and discuss the results of using these techniques for the Tethered Satellite System's maiden flight on STS-46. In particular, the flight results of controlling libration dynamics, string dynamics, and slack tether are presented. These results show that tether dynamics can be safely managed. The overall stability of the system was found to be surprisingly good even at relatively short tether lengths. In fact, the system operated in passive mode at a tether length of 256 meters for over 9 hours. Only monitoring of the system was required during this time. Although flight anomalies prevented the planned deployment to 20 km, the extended operations at shorter tether lengths have proven the viability of using tethers in space. These results should prove invaluable in preparing for future missions with tethered objects in space.

  12. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  13. 75 FR 67685 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... operations, supplier relationships or customer base in any meaningful way. In accordance with section 751(b...) supplier relationships, and (4) customer base. See, e.g., Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final Results..., supplier relationships, or customer base in a meaningful way. In its September 10, 2010, submission AMLT...

  14. Influence of a Company’s Social Initiatives on the Consumer Attitude towards It. Results of Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes an attempt to answer the question whether social initiatives undertaken by a company influence the consumer attitude towards it. The afore-mentioned aim has been achieved by presenting the results of experimental research. Six scenarios of social initiatives undertaken by a food sector company were used in the research. Research work was conducted using a sample of real consumers. It was shown that information about undertaking a single social initiative by a company does not lead to a more favourable consumer attitude towards it. The results obtained show that when undertaking a social programme, which is not consistent with the company’s actions to date, the attitude towards it can even become worse.

  15. Geospatial compilation of results from field sample collection in support of mineral resource investigations, Western Alaska Range, Alaska, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Benzel, William M.

    2015-07-16

    This Data Series summarizes results from July 2013 sampling in the western Alaska Range near Mount Estelle, Alaska. The fieldwork combined in situ and camp-based spectral measurements of talus/soil and rock samples. Five rock and 48 soil samples were submitted for quantitative geochemi­cal analysis (for 55 major and trace elements), and the 48 soils samples were also analyzed by x-ray diffraction to establish mineralogy and geochemistry. The results and sample photo­graphs are presented in a geodatabase that accompanies this report. The spectral, mineralogical, and geochemical charac­terization of these samples and the sites that they represent can be used to validate existing remote-sensing datasets (for example, ASTER) and future hyperspectral studies. Empiri­cal evidence of jarosite (as identified by x-ray diffraction and spectral analysis) corresponding with gold concentrations in excess of 50 parts per billion in soil samples suggests that surficial mapping of jarosite in regional surveys may be use­ful for targeting areas of prospective gold occurrences in this sampling area.

  16. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  17. Laparoscopic hysteropexy: the initial results of a uterine suspension procedure for uterovaginal prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Natalia; Slack, A; Jackson, S R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic hysteropexy, a surgical technique for the management of uterine prolapse, involving suspension of the uterus from the sacral promontory using bifurcated polypropylene mesh. The investigation was designed as a prospective observational study (clinical audit). The study was undertaken at a tertiary referral urogynaecology unit in the UK. The participants comprised 51 consecutive women with uterovaginal prolapse, who chose laparoscopic hysteropexy as one of the available surgical options. The hysteropexy was conducted laparoscopically in all cases. A bifurcated polypropylene mesh was used to suspend the uterus from the sacral promontory. The two arms of the mesh were introduced through bilateral windows created in the broad ligaments, and were sutured to the anterior cervix; the mesh was then fixed to the anterior longitudinal ligament over the sacral promontory, to elevate the uterus. Cure of the uterine prolapse was evaluated subjectively using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for vaginal symptoms (ICIQ-VS), and objectively by vaginal examination using the Baden-Walker halfway system and the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) scale. Operative and postoperative complications were also assessed. The mean age of the 51 women was 52.5 years (range 19-71 years). All were sexually active, and at least three of them expressed a strong desire to have children in the future. All were available for follow-up in clinic at 10 weeks, and 38 have completed the questionnaires. In 50 out of 51 women the procedure was successful, with no objective evidence of uterine prolapse on examination at follow-up; there was one failure. Significant subjective improvements in prolapse symptoms, sexual wellbeing and related quality of life were observed, as detected by substantial reductions in the respective questionnaire scores. Laparoscopic hysteropexy is both a feasible and an effective

  18. Geomorphic Segmentation, Hydraulic Geometry, and Hydraulic Microhabitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska - Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    river level. Hydraulic geometry relations indicated that local (at-a-station) channel adjustments of the Niobrara River to changing discharge are accommodated mainly by changes in velocity, and streamwise adjustments are accommodated through changes in channel width. Downstream hydraulic geometry relations are in general agreement with values previously published for rivers of the Great Plains, but coefficients are likely skewed low because the locations of the streamflow-gaging stations used in this analysis are located at natural or engineered constrictions and may not be accurately representing downstream adjustment processes of the Niobrara River. A demonstration analysis of hydraulic microhabitat attributes at a single station indicated that changes in velocity-related habitat types is the primary microhabitat adjustment over a range of discharges, but the magnitude of that adjustment for any particular discharge is temporally variable.

  19. [Psychosocial burdens in teaching proffession--initial results of Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyzalski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results obtained using a new tool for measuring psychosocial burdens in teaching profession--the Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT). In its first theoretical part, some typologies of stressors in teaching, developed in other countries, are presented and the need to construct a new tool in Poland is discussed. In this part, the construction process of the new tool and its three scales comprising: Conflict Situations, Organizational Burdens and Lack of Work Sense are described. The psychometric features of the new questionnaire (e.g., Cronbach a = 0.63-0.84) are also given. The results are based on a large random sample of teachers from the Łódz voivodeship. The results did not show significant differences in the level of occupational burdens between men and women. Generally, neither are seniority and age related to the level of burdens. One exception are Organizational burdens that slightly more affect older teachers. The study also showed the need to incorporate the activities at the organizational level into programs on occupational stress.

  20. Developing a conceptual approach for regional climate model evaluation: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Luca, A.; de Elía, R.; Laprise, R.

    2009-12-01

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are tools now commonly used for producing high-resolution simulations of present climate and of future climate change projections. One of the most elusive issues in regional climate modeling is model evaluation, not only due to a sparseness of climate observations but also because of the intrinsic complexities of this task. One important difficulty in model evaluation is that models may sometimes produce the right results for the wrong reason. For example, an RCM may properly simulate the daily average temperature over a given region, but this maybe the consequence of compensating errors. In the case of an RCM that produces excessive cloudiness, cooler days (i.e., negative bias) and warmer nights (i.e., positive bias) than observed are usually the net effects, but both bias compensate to produce a daily average temperature close to the observed one. The question that we would like to investigate in this research is directly linked to this issue: under what conditions are we to accept model results as good? The starting point in order to tackle this challenging issue is to suggest a definition of “model goodness". Following ideas borrowed from epistemology and logic, we may define that a model result is good, if it remains good "under all possible refinements". In this context, the term “refinement” can be understood as an increasingly detailed inspection of model results that may help to unmask good results brought by a compensation of errors. The specifics of how a refinement may work will be explained by describing the particular case of time-scale refinement. Consider a time series of hourly precipitation in a given region. The evaluation of the model may start, and usually does, by assessing the simulation of seasonal or monthly mean values against observed data (e.g., the annual cycle). Once these values have proven to be relatively well simulated, the evaluation can go on with the analysis of simulated precipitation

  1. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenxue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p p p Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  2. Advances in the diagnosis of hereditary kidney cancer: Initial results of a multigene panel test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian

    2017-11-15

    Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P genes included folliculin (FLCN) and fumarate hydratase (FH), which were altered in 1.8% and 1.3% of patients, respectively. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2), mesenchymal epithelial transition factor proto-oncogene (MET), and PMS1 homolog 2 (PMS2) had the highest rates of variants of unknown significance, which were identified in 2.7%, 2.2%, and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Early age of onset was the only factor that was identified as predictive of a positive test on multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.975; P = .0052) and may be the only identifying characteristic of low-penetrant syndromes, such as those associated with MITF (melanogenesis-associated transcription factor) mutations, which do not have singular histology or a family history of kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Initial Results from a Cartesian Three-Dimensional Parabolic Equation Acoustical Propagation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    run successfully. The code is written in the MATLAB language and runs in the MATLAB environment. The code has been implemented in two versions...originates from 3D propagation codes used for optical studies [3,4]. A trial MATLAB ®* version was written by John Colosi, from which this code was derived...100 0 100 200 300 400 500 E 5 kml two 19-m wav -. phM.23 Figure 6. The field resulting from propagation through internal waves of 10-rn amplitude and 95

  4. Robotic radical prostatectomy-a minimally invasive therapy for prostate cancer: results of initial 530 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tewari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In 2000, the number of new cases of prostate cancer was estimated at 5 13 000 worldwide [Eur J Cancer 2001; 37 (Suppl 8: S4]. In next 15 years, prostate cancer is predicted to be the most common cancer in men [Eur J Cancer 2001; 37 (Suppl 8: S4]. Radical prostatectomy is one of the most common surgical treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer. In spite of its excellent oncological results, due to the fear of pain, risk for side effects, and inconvenience (Semin Urol Oncol 2002; 20: 55, many patients seek alternative treatments for their prostate cancer. At Vattikuti Urology institute, we have developed a minimally invasive technique for treating prostate cancer, which achieves oncological results of surgical treatment without causing significant pain, large surgical incision, and side effects (BJU Int, 2003; 92: 205. This technique involves a da Vinci™ (Intuitive Surgical ®, Sunnyvale, CA surgical robot with 3-D stereoscopic visualization and ergonomic multijointed instruments. Presented herein are our results after treating 750 patients. Methods: We prospectively collected baseline demographic data such as age, race, body mass index (BMI, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume, Gleason score, percentage cancer, TNM clinical staging, and comorbidities. Urinary symptoms were measured with the international prostate symptom score (IPSS, and sexual health with the sexual health inventory of males (SHIM. In addition, the patients were mailed the expanded prostate inventory composite at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after the procedure. Results: Gleason seven or more cancer grade was noted in 33.5% of patients. The average BMI was high (27.7 and 87% patients had pathological stage PT2a-b. The mean operative time was 160 min and the mean blood loss was 153 cm3. No patient required blood transfusion. At 6 months 82% of the men who were younger and 75% of those older than 60 years had return of sexual

  5. Gibraltar Experiment: Summary of the Field Program and Initial Results of the Gibraltar Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    replenished by deep convection and mixing in late winter and partially drains for the rest of the year. The result suggests that the Mediterranean is not in...Scotia CANADA B3H 335 902-424-3674 J. C. Gascard Laboratoire d’Oceanographie Physique Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle 43-45, rue Cuvier 75231...YUGOSLAVIA Henri Lacombe Laboratoire d’Oceanographie Physique Museum d’Histoire Naturelle 43-45 rue Cuvier 75231 Paris Cedex 05 FRANCE Paul LaViolette NORDA

  6. Initial results with time series forecasting of TJ-II heliac waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, G., E-mail: gonzalo.farias@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso (Chile); Dormido-Canto, S. [Departamento de Informática y Automática, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión. CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Díaz, N. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-10-15

    This article discusses about how to apply forecasting techniques to predict future samples of plasma signals during a discharge. One application of the forecasting could be to detect in real time anomalous behaviors in fusion waveforms. The work describes the implementation of three prediction techniques; two of them based on machine learning methods such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines for regression. The results have shown that depending on the temporal horizon, the predictions match the real samples in most cases with an error less than 5%, even more the forecasting of five samples ahead can reach accuracy over 90% in most signals analyzed.

  7. Initial results on 5 MHz quartz oscillators equipped with BVA resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, R. J.; Emmons, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The techniques of fabricating BVA resonators are discussed in terms of aging, amplitude-frequency effect, and acceleration sensitivity. Results on 5 MHz resonators concerning aging versus drive level, reduced amplitude-frequency effect, frequency and phase stability performance, and frequency retrace following power interruption are presented. It is indicated that a zero aging rate is possible at a drive level which depends on the qaurtz material used. For natural AT quartz, a level of 70 to 90 micro W appears to be optimum, and for SC quartz approximately 160 micro W.

  8. a New 2.0-6.0 GHz Chirped Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer: Instrumental Analysis and Initial Molecular Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Nathan A.; Thomas, Javix; Jäger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie

    2017-06-01

    Low frequency microwave spectroscopy (lactate as a benchmark. Finally, initial results for several novel molecular systems studied using this new spectrometer, including the tetramer of 2-fluoroethanol, will be presented. C. Perez, S. Lobsiger, N. A. Seifert, D. P. Zaleski, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15.

  9. Tablets in Education. Results from the Initiative ETiE, for Teaching Plants to Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel; Atsikpasi, Pinelopi

    2017-01-01

    The study presents the results from the first phase of the initiative Emerging Technologies in Education. At this stage, we examined the learning outcomes from the use of tablets and an application as content delivery methods for teaching plants' parts, reproduction types and organs, photosynthesis, and respiration. The project lasted for four…

  10. Initial SAM Calibration Gas Experiments on Mars: Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Malespin, Charles A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Becker, Richard H,; Benna, Mehdi; Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freissinet, Caroline; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is equipped to analyze both martian atmospheric gases and volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials, with target measurements including chemical and isotopic composition (Mahaffy et al., 2012). To facilitate assessment of instrument performance and validation of results obtained on Mars, SAM houses a calibration cell containing CO2, Ar, N2, Xe, and several fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds (Franz et al., 2014; Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report describes the first two experiments utilizing this calibration cell on Mars and gives results from analysis of data acquired with the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). These data support the accuracy of isotope ratios obtained with the QMS (Conrad et al., 2016; Mahaffy et al., 2013) and provide ground-truth for reassessment of analytical constants required for atmospheric measurements, which were reported in previous contributions (Franz et al., 2015, 2014). The most significant implication of the QMS data involves reinterpretation of pre-launch contamination previously believed to affect only CO abundance measurements (Franz et al., 2015) to affect N2 abundances, as well. The corresponding adjustment to the N2 calibration constant presented here brings the atmospheric volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 retrieved by SAM into closer agreement with those reported by the Viking mission (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977).

  11. Connecting the disconnected: Preliminary results and lessons learned from a telepsychology initiative with special management inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batastini, Ashley B; Morgan, Robert D

    2016-08-01

    The use of telepsychology, such as videoconferencing (VC) systems, has been rapidly increasing as a tool for the provision of mental health services to underserved clients in difficult to access settings. Inmates detained in restrictive housing appear to be at an increased risk of experiencing emotional and behavioral disturbances compared to their general population counterparts, yet they are less likely to receive appropriate treatment due to security constraints. The primary purpose of this article is to describe the process of implementing a novel telepsychology intervention specifically designed to offer group therapy to high-security, administratively segregated inmates. In addition, preliminary results on treatment and therapeutic process outcomes in a sample of 49 participants are reported. Although some evidence indicated that telepsychology was less preferred than in-person sessions, group differences on measures of psychological functioning and criminal thinking were not found across 3 conditions (telepsychology, in-person, and a no-treatment control). Furthermore, a number of limitations associated with program implementation and study design suggest that results be interpreted with caution and should not be used to discount the use of telepsychology as a viable treatment delivery option. Recommendations for future development and evaluation of telepsychological programs are discussed within the context of correctional settings and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Initial SAM calibration gas experiments on Mars: Quadrupole mass spectrometer results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Malespin, Charles A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Becker, Richard H.; Benna, Mehdi; Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freissinet, Caroline; Manning, Heidi L. K.; Prats, Benito D.; Raaen, Eric; Wong, Michael H.

    2017-04-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is equipped to analyze both martian atmospheric gases and volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials, with target measurements including chemical and isotopic composition (Mahaffy et al., 2012). To facilitate assessment of instrument performance and validation of results obtained on Mars, SAM houses a calibration cell containing CO2, Ar, N2, Xe, and several fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds (Franz et al., 2014; Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report describes the first two experiments utilizing this calibration cell on Mars and gives results from analysis of data acquired with the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). These data support the accuracy of isotope ratios obtained with the QMS (Conrad et al., 2016; Mahaffy et al., 2013) and provide ground-truth for reassessment of analytical constants required for atmospheric measurements, which were reported in previous contributions (Franz et al., 2015, 2014). The most significant implication of the QMS data involves reinterpretation of pre-launch contamination previously believed to affect only CO abundance measurements (Franz et al., 2015) to affect N2 abundances, as well. The corresponding adjustment to the N2 calibration constant presented here brings the atmospheric volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 retrieved by SAM into closer agreement with those reported by the Viking mission (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977).

  13. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  14. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  15. Initial Results on Neutralized Drift Compression Experiments (NDCX-IA) for High Intensity Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Prabir K; Baca, David; Bieniosek, Frank; Coleman, Joshua E; Davidson, Ronald C; Efthimion, Philip; Eylon, Shmuel; Gilson, Erik P; Grant Logan, B; Greenway, Wayne; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Leitner, Matthaeus; Rose, David; Sefkow, Adam; Sharp, William M; Shuman, Derek; Thoma, Carsten H; Vanecek, David; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam neutralization and compression experiments are designed to determine the feasibility of using compressed high intensity ion beams for high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and for inertial fusion power. To quantitatively ascertain the various mechanisms and methods for beam compression, the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) facility is being constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In the first compression experiment, a 260 KeV, 25 mA, K+ ion beam of centimeters size is radially compressed to a mm size spot by neutralization in a meter-long plasma column and beam peak current is longitudinally compressed by an induction velocity tilt core. Instrumentation, preliminary results of the experiments, and practical limits of compression are presented. These include parameters such as emittance, degree of neutralization, velocity tilt time profile, and accuracy of measurements (fast and spatially high resolution diagnostic) are discussed.

  16. [Initial results of transurethral enucleation with bipolar system for benign prostate hypertrophy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Atsushi; Fukui, Koji; Togo, Yoshikazu; Kokura, Koji

    2010-07-01

    We have performed transurethral enucleation with bipolar system (TUEB) on 60 patients since April 2008. The patients were 61 to 81 years old (average 71.7 years old), and estimated prostate volumes were 25 cm3 to 80.43 cm3 (average 51.1 cm3). The weight of prostate removed was 8 g to 56 g (average 27.4 g) during the operations which lasted between 40 min to 200 min (average 117.5 min). The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life index (QOL) maximum flow rate (Q max) and average flow rate (Qave) were recorded before operation, and at 1 and at 3 months after operation. The results indicated a high safety with TUEB compared to TUR-P even for beginners. In conclusion, TUEB may become the most common approach in the treatment of BPH.

  17. Using Empirical Data to Estimate Potential Functions in Commodity Markets: Some Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Haven, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on estimating real and quantum potentials from financial commodities. The log returns of six common commodities are considered. We find that some phenomena, such as the vertical potential walls and the time scale issue of the variation on returns, also exists in commodity markets. By comparing the quantum and classical potentials, we attempt to demonstrate that the information within these two types of potentials is different. We believe this empirical result is consistent with the theoretical assumption that quantum potentials (when embedded into social science contexts) may contain some social cognitive or market psychological information, while classical potentials mainly reflect `hard' market conditions. We also compare the two potential forces and explore their relationship by simply estimating the Pearson correlation between them. The Medium or weak interaction effect may indicate that the cognitive system among traders may be affected by those `hard' market conditions.

  18. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  19. Using Empirical Data to Estimate Potential Functions in Commodity Markets: Some Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Haven, E.

    2017-07-01

    This paper focuses on estimating real and quantum potentials from financial commodities. The log returns of six common commodities are considered. We find that some phenomena, such as the vertical potential walls and the time scale issue of the variation on returns, also exists in commodity markets. By comparing the quantum and classical potentials, we attempt to demonstrate that the information within these two types of potentials is different. We believe this empirical result is consistent with the theoretical assumption that quantum potentials (when embedded into social science contexts) may contain some social cognitive or market psychological information, while classical potentials mainly reflect `hard' market conditions. We also compare the two potential forces and explore their relationship by simply estimating the Pearson correlation between them. The Medium or weak interaction effect may indicate that the cognitive system among traders may be affected by those `hard' market conditions.

  20. Optical design and initial results from NIST's AMMT/TEMPS facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Steven; Lane, Brandon; Neira, Jorge; Mekhontsev, Sergey; Vlasea, Mihaela; Hanssen, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    NIST's Physical Measurement and Engineering Laboratories are jointly developing the Additive Manufacturing Measurement Test bed (AMMT)/ Temperature and Emittance of Melts, Powders and Solids (TEMPS) facilities. These facilities will be co-located on an open architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system allowing users full access to the system's operation parameters. This will provide users with access to machine-independent monitoring and control of the powder bed fusion process. In this paper there will be emphasis on the AMMT, which incorporates in-line visible light collection optics for monitoring and feedback control of the powder bed fusion process. We shall present an overview of the AMMT/TEMPs program and it goals. The optical and mechanical design of the open architecture powder-bed fusion system and the AMMT will be also be described. In addition, preliminary measurement results from the system along with the current system status of the system the will be described.

  1. The Cluster Magnetic Field Investigation: overview of in-flight performance and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balogh

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of the magnetic field along the orbits of the four Cluster spacecraft is a primary objective of the mission. The magnetic field is a key constituent of the plasma in and around the magnetosphere, and it plays an active role in all physical processes that define the structure and dynamics of magnetospheric phenomena on all scales. With the four-point measurements on Cluster, it has become possible to study the three-dimensional aspects of space plasma phenomena on scales commeasurable with the size of the spacecraft constellation, and to distinguish temporal and spatial dependences of small-scale processes. We present an overview of the instrumentation used to measure the magnetic field on the four Cluster spacecraft and an overview the performance of the operational modes used in flight. We also report on the results of the preliminary in-orbit calibration of the magnetometers; these results show that all components of the magnetic field are measured with an accuracy approaching 0.1 nT. Further data analysis is expected to bring an even more accurate determination of the calibration parameters. Several examples of the capabilities of the investigation are presented from the commissioning phase of the mission, and from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date: the tail current sheet, the dusk side magnetopause and magnetosheath, the bow shock and the cusp. We also describe the data processing flow and the implementation of data distribution to other Cluster investigations and to the scientific community in general.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (instruments and techniques – magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics – space plasma physics (shock waves

  2. The Cluster Magnetic Field Investigation: overview of in-flight performance and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balogh

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of the magnetic field along the orbits of the four Cluster spacecraft is a primary objective of the mission. The magnetic field is a key constituent of the plasma in and around the magnetosphere, and it plays an active role in all physical processes that define the structure and dynamics of magnetospheric phenomena on all scales. With the four-point measurements on Cluster, it has become possible to study the three-dimensional aspects of space plasma phenomena on scales commeasurable with the size of the spacecraft constellation, and to distinguish temporal and spatial dependences of small-scale processes. We present an overview of the instrumentation used to measure the magnetic field on the four Cluster spacecraft and an overview the performance of the operational modes used in flight. We also report on the results of the preliminary in-orbit calibration of the magnetometers; these results show that all components of the magnetic field are measured with an accuracy approaching 0.1 nT. Further data analysis is expected to bring an even more accurate determination of the calibration parameters. Several examples of the capabilities of the investigation are presented from the commissioning phase of the mission, and from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date: the tail current sheet, the dusk side magnetopause and magnetosheath, the bow shock and the cusp. We also describe the data processing flow and the implementation of data distribution to other Cluster investigations and to the scientific community in general.Key words. Interplanetary physics (instruments and techniques – magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics – space plasma physics (shock waves

  3. Cryoplasty for femoropopliteal arterial disease: late angiographic results of initial human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Mario; Loyola, Soledad; Polydorou, Antonios; Papapavlou, Prodromos; Polydorou, Adamandia; Mendiz, Oscar; Joye, James D

    2004-11-01

    A new form of angioplasty, called cryoplasty, was developed to improve the late results typically associated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Cryoplasty combines the dilation force of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with the delivery of cold thermal energy to the vessel wall. This study reports the authors' early clinical experience with cryoplasty in patients with femoropopliteal disease. Fifteen patients with femoropopliteal arterial lesions were treated with cryoplasty (CryoVascular Systems, Los Gatos, CA). Cryoplasty was performed at 6 atm of pressure and delivered at -10 degrees C for 60 seconds. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured at baseline, 24 hours after cryoplasty, and at 1 and 3 months during follow-up. Repeated angiography was performed at 6 and 18 months to determine short-term and late primary patency. Cryoplasty was technically successful in 93% of patients (< 30% residual stenosis and less then grade C dissection). ABIs at baseline were 0.64 +/- 0.08 and improved the day after cryoplasty to 0.95 +/- 0.09 (P < .05). ABIs were well maintained at 1 and 3 months with measurements of 0.94 +/- 0.09 and 0.92 +/- 0.10, respectively (P < .05 vs baseline). Baseline angiographic diameter stenosis improved significantly immediately following cryoplasty (86% +/- 12% to 16% +/- 3%; P < .05). Angiography at 6 months revealed 0% binary restenosis and insignificant change in residual stenosis from the acute cryoplasty results (16 +/- 3% vs 21 +/- 5%; P = NS). Late angiographic follow-up at 14 months +/- 4 demonstrated primary patency of 83.3%. Cryoplasty was able to achieve substantial dilation of femoropopliteal lesions with well-preserved late angiographic patency. Cryoplasty represents a potential advance in the field of endovascular medicine.

  4. Improvement in cardioplegic perfusion technique in single aortic clamping - initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Marcelo Luiz Peixoto; dos Santos Júnior, Sérgio Francisco; de Sá, Juliano Cavalcante; Terrazas, Anderson da Silva; Trompieri, Daniel Francisco de Mendonça; de Sousa, Thierry Araújo Nunes; dos Santos, Gilmar Geraldo; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The most common method used for myocardial protection is administering cardioplegic solution in the coronary circulation. Nevertheless, protection may be achieved by intermittent perfusion of the coronary system with patient's own blood. The intermittent perfusion may be performed by multiple sequences of clamping and opening of the aortic clamp or due single clamping and accessory cannulation of the aortic root as in the improved technique proposed in this study, reperfusion without the need for multiple clamping of the aorta. Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome and the occurrence of neurological events in in-hospital patients submitted to myocardial revascularization surgery with the "improved technique" of intermittent perfusion of the aortic root with single clamping. Methods This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study that describes a myocardial management technique that consists of intermittent perfusion of the aortic root with single clamping in which 50 patients (mean age 58.5±7.19 years old) have been submitted to the myocardial revasculrization surgery under the proposed technique. Clinical and laboratory variables, pre- and post-surgery, have been assessed. Results The mean peak level of post-surgery CKMB was 51.64±27.10 U/L in the second post-surgery and of troponin I was 3.35±4.39 ng/ml in the fourth post-surgery, within normal limits. No deaths have occurred and one patient presented mild neurological disorder. Hemodynamic monitoring has not indicated any changes. Conclusion The myocardial revascularization surgery by perfusion with the improved technique with intermittent aortic root with single clamping proved to be safe, enabling satisfactory clinical results. PMID:25140473

  5. Initial experience with fecal microbiota transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection: transplant protocol and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ponte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI constitutes an important cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Recurrence after first-line treatment with antibiotics is high and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT may be effective for refractory and recurrent CDI. This series aims to describe the efficacy of FMT in the treatment of refractory and recurrent CDI. Methods: A prospectively recorded single-centre case series of patients with persistent or recurrent CDI treated with FMT between June 2014 and March 2015 was analyzed. Primary and secondary outcomes were defined as resolution of diarrhea without recurrence of CDI within 2 months after one or more FMT, respectively. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: 8 FMT were performed in 6 patients, 3 with refractory CDI and 3 with recurrent CDI. The median age of recipients was 71 years and 66.7% were women. One FMT was delivered through colonoscopy and the remaining 87.5% through esophagogastroduodenoscopy. One upper FMT was excluded due to recurrence of CDI after antibiotic exposure for a respiratory infection. The overall cure rate of FMT was total with lower route and 83.3% with upper route. Primary cure rate was achieved in 83.3% of patients and secondary cure rate was achieved in all patients. Median time to resolution of diarrhea after FMT was 1 day and no complications were reported during follow-up. Conclusion: FMT appears to constitute a safe and effective approach in the management of refractory and recurrent CDI. Difference between primary and secondary cure rates may result of insufficient restoration of intestinal microbiota with a single FMT.

  6. Imaging of patients with hippocampal sclerosis at 7 Tesla: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Tobias; Wanke, Isabel; Maderwald, Stefan; Woermann, Friedrich G; Kraff, Oliver; Theysohn, Jens M; Ebner, Alois; Forsting, Michael; Ladd, Mark E; Schlamann, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Focal epilepsies potentially can be cured by neurosurgery; other treatment options usually remain symptomatic. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the central imaging strategy in the evaluation of focal epilepsy. The most common substrate of temporal epilepsies is hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which cannot always be sufficiently characterized with current MR field strengths. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging at 7 Tesla in patients with focal epilepsy resulting from a HS and to improve image resolution at 7 Tesla in patients with HS. Six patients with known HS were investigated with T1-, T2-, T2(*)-, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-weighted sequences at 7 Tesla with an eight-channel transmit-receive head coil. Total imaging time did not exceed 90 minutes per patient. High-resolution imaging at 7 Tesla is feasible and reveals high resolution of intrahippocampal structures in vivo. HS was confirmed in all patients. The maximum non-interpolated in-plane resolution reached 0.2 x 0.2 mm(2) in T2(*)-weighted images. The increased susceptibility effects at 7 Tesla revealed identification of intrahippocampal structures in more detail than at 1.5 Tesla, but otherwise led to stronger artifacts. Imaging revealed regional differences in hippocampal atrophy between patients. The scan volume was limited because of specific absorption rate restrictions, scanning time was reasonable. High-resolution imaging at 7 Tesla is promising in presurgical epilepsy imaging. "New" contrasts may further improve detection of even very small intrahippocampal structural changes. Therefore, further investigations will be necessary to demonstrate the potential benefit for presurgical selection of patients with various lesion patterns in mesial temporal epilepsies resulting from a unilateral HS. Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Myocardial delayed contrast enhancement in patients with arterial hypertension: Initial results of cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Kjel [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: kjel_andersen@web.de; Hennersdorf, Marcus [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: hennersdorf@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Cohnen, Mathias [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: cohnen@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Blondin, Dirk [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Moedder, Ulrich [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: moedder@uni-duesseldorf.de; Poll, Ludger W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: poll@gmx.de

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: In arterial hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy comprises myocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and structural alterations of the coronary microcirculation. MRI enables the detection of myocardial fibrosis, infarction and scar tissue by delayed enhancement (DE) after contrast media application. Aim of this study was to investigate patients with arterial hypertension but without known coronary disease or previous myocardial infarction to detect areas of DE. Methods and material: Twenty patients with arterial hypertension with clinical symptoms of myocardial ischemia, but without history of myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries during coronary angiography were investigated on a 1.0 T superconducting magnet (Gyroscan T10-NT, Intera Release 8.0, Philips). Fast gradient-echo cine sequences and T2-weighted STIR-sequences were acquired. Fifteen minutes after injection of Gadobenate dimeglumine inversion recovery gradient-echo sequences were performed for detection of myocardial DE. Presence or absence of DE on MRI was correlated with clinical data and the results of echocardiography and electrocardiography, respectively. Results: Nine of 20 patients showed DE in the interventricular septum and the anteroseptal left ventricular wall. In 6 patients, DE was localized intramurally and in 3 patients subendocardially. There was a significant correlation between myocardial DE and ST-segment depressions during exercise and between DE and left-ventricular enddiastolic pressure. Patients with intermittent atrial fibrillation showed a myocardial DE more often than patients without atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: In our series, 45% of patients with arterial hypertension showed DE on cardiac MRI. In this clinical setting, delayed enhancement may be due to coronary microangiopathy. The more intramurally localization of DE, however, rather indicates myocardial interstitial fibrosis.

  8. Initial Continuous Chemistry Results From The Roosevelt Island Ice Core (RICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, -161.71° W) was drilled in 2011-13 at the top of the Roosevelt Island ice dome, a location surrounded by the Ross ice shelf. The RICE ice core provides a unique opportunity to look into the past evolution of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. Further the site has high accumulation; 0.26 m of ice equivalent is deposited annually allowing annual layer determination for many chemical parameters. The RICE core was drilled to bedrock and has a total length of 763 metres. Preliminary results derived from water isotopes suggest that the oldest ice reaches back to the Eemian, with the last glacial being compressed in the bottom 60 metres. We present preliminary results from the RICE ice core including continuous measurements of acidity using an optical dye method, insoluble dust particles, conductivity and calcium. The core was analyzed at the New Zealand National Ice Core Research Facility at GNS Science in Wellington. The analytical set up used to determine climate proxies in the ice core was a modified version of the Copenhagen CFA system (Bigler et al., 2011). Key volcanic layers have been matched to those from the WAIS record (Sigl et al., 2013). A significant anti-correlation between acidity and calcium was seen in the Holocene part of the record. Due to the proximity to the ocean a large fraction of the calcium originates from sea salt and is in phase with total conductivity and sodium. In combination with the insoluble dust record, calcium has been apportioned into ocean-related and dust-related sources. Variability over the Holocene is presented and attributed to changing inputs of marine and dust aerosols.

  9. Computer-aided detection in direct digital full-field mammography: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, F.; Fischer, U.; Obenauer, S.; Grabbe, E. [Department of Radiology, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    For the first time, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) allows computer-aided detection (CAD) analysis of directly acquired digital image data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a CAD system in patients with histologically correlated breast cancer depicted with FFDM. Sixty-three cases of histologically proven breast cancer detected with FFDM (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Buc, France) were analyzed using a CAD system (Image Checker V2.3, R2 Technology, Los Altos, Calif.). Fourteen of these malignancies were characterized as microcalcifications, 37 as masses, and 12 as both. The mammographic findings were categorized as BI-RADS 3 (n=5), BI-RADS 4 (n=17) and BI-RADS 5 (n=40). The sensitivity for malignant lesions and the rate of false-positive marks per image were calculated. The sensitivity and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. The sensitivity of the CAD R2 system in breast cancer seen on FFDM was 89% for microcalcifications [CI{sub 95%}=(70%; 98%)] and 81% for masses [CI{sub 95%}=(67%; 91%)]. As expected, the detection rate was higher in lesions categorized as BI-RADS 5 (37 of 40) compared with lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4 (11 of 17). In the group categorized as BI-RADS 3 the detection rate was 4 of 5 lesions; however, this group was very small. The rate of false-positive marks was 0.35 microcalcification marks/image and 0.26 mass marks/image. The overall rate of false-positive marks was 0.61 per image. CAD based on FFDM provides an optimized work flow. Results are equivalent to the results reported for CAD analysis of secondarily digitized image data. Sensitivity for microcalcifications is acceptable and for masses is low. The number of false-positive marks per image should be reduced. (orig.)

  10. Local Electrical Dyssynchrony during Atrial Fibrillation: Theoretical Considerations and Initial Catheter Ablation Results.

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    Pawel Kuklik

    Full Text Available Electrogram-based identification of the regions maintaining persistent Atrial Fibrillation (AF is a subject of ongoing debate. Here, we explore the concept of local electrical dyssynchrony to identify AF drivers.Local electrical dyssynchrony was calculated using mean phase coherence. High-density epicardial mapping along with mathematical model were used to explore the link between local dyssynchrony and properties of wave conduction. High-density mapping showed a positive correlation between the dyssynchrony and number of fibrillatory waves (R2 = 0.68, p<0.001. In the mathematical model, virtual ablation at high dyssynchrony regions resulted in conduction regularization. The clinical study consisted of eighteen patients undergoing catheter ablation of persistent AF. High-density maps of left atrial (LA were constructed using a circular mapping catheter. After pulmonary vein isolation, regions with the top 10% of the highest dyssynchrony in LA were targeted during ablation and followed with ablation of complex atrial electrograms. Catheter ablation resulted in termination during ablation at high dyssynchrony regions in 7 (41% patients. In another 4 (24% patients, transient organization was observed. In 6 (35% there was no clear effect. Long-term follow-up showed 65% AF freedom at 1 year and 22% at 2 years.Local electrical dyssynchrony provides a reasonable estimator of regional AF complexity defined as the number of fibrillatory waves. Additionally, it points to regions of dynamical instability related with action potential alternans. However, despite those characteristics, its utility in guiding catheter ablation of AF is limited suggesting other factors are responsible for AF persistence.

  11. The Distributed Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (DMIP 2): Overview and Initial NWS Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. B.; Koren, V.; Reed, S. M.; Zhang, Z.; Moreda, F.; Cui, Z.; Lei, F.; Cong, S.; Seo, D.

    2006-05-01

    The National Weather Service of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NWS) recognizes the need for a continued series of science experiments to guide its research into advanced hydrologic models for river and water resources forecasting. This need is accentuated by NOAA/NWS' recent advance into a broader spectrum of water resources forecasting, to complement its more traditional river and flash flood forecasting mission. To this end, the NOAA/NWS welcomes input and contributions from the national and international hydrologic research community in order to better fulfill its mandate to provide valuable products and services. In February of 2006, the Hydrology Laboratory (HL) of the NOAA /NWS Office of Hydrologic Development launched the second phase of the Distributed Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP 2). DMIP 2 follows the success of DMIP 1, which was completed in 2002. DMIP 1 provided a venue for researchers to compare their models with others and with NWS operational models, given a common set of forcings and verification data. The project attracted participants from 12 institutions based in Denmark, China, Canada, New Zealand, and the U.S. The experiments in DMIP 1 focused on the comparison of lumped and distributed models in hydrologically-simple regions. Models were forced with data used for NWS operational river forecasting. DMIP 1 results were mixed: in some basins, distributed models performed better than the NWS lumped model; in other cases the opposite was true. The DMIP 1 results were formally presented in a special issue of the Journal of Hydrology (Vol. 298, 2004). The scope of DMIP 2 is broader than that in DMIP 1 and is designed around two themes: 1) continued investigation of science questions pertinent to the DMIP 1 test sites, and 2) distributed and lumped model tests in hydrologically complex basins in the Sierra-Nevada mountains in the western U.S. DMIP 2 will benefit from data available from the Oklahoma

  12. US-China collaborative study of Western Tibet: progress report and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi Razi, A.; Huang, G.; Levin, V. L.; Roecker, S. W.; Ping, X.; Cao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    While Tibetan plateau has been the focus of numerous geophysical studies to date, logistics of access to the region resulted in the majority of them being concentrated on the eastern half of the plateau. At the same time global-scale studies suggest lateral variability in properties beneath the seemingly uniform plateau. We are conducting a passive seismological study to improve the degree of understanding of the western side of the Tibetan plateau, with crustal and uper mantle structure being the key objectives. Since the summer of 2007 we operate a broadband array in western Tibet, between longitudes of 79 and 83 deg. East. The array started with 10 nodes, and has been densified by additional 20 nodes in late summer of 2009. We expect the larger array to operate through the summer of 2011. We retrieved and archived data from the first 12 months of recording. Using these data, we develop preliminary constraints on the crustal structure of the region. We use P and S wave travel time data from local earthquakes to develop a 1D velocity model by simultaneously inverting for vertical velocity distribution and earthquake locations. Having examined records of over 300 events present in the Chinese national catalog, we retained data from 268 events that yielded approximately 1200 arrivals at nine sites for which data were recovered. A large fraction of these earthquakes are almost due north from our array, within the intense aftershock sequence that followed a March, 2008 M=7.2 earthquake on the TIbet -Tarim Basin border. Preliminary assessment of apparent P wave speed obtained using catalog earthquake locations showed a large scatter most likely caused by uncertainties in hypocentral parameters. We also use records of teleseismic P waves to develop crustal thickness constraints using receiver function analysis. Results we obtain are similar to other areas in TIbet, with a likely Moho-converted Ps phase seen at 8-10 s delay. A site near the Himalaya also shows evidence

  13. Initial Results from the Deep Drilling of Lake Junin, Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbell, D. T.; Abbott, M. B.; Weidhaas, N.; Hatfield, R. G.; Woods, A.; Hillman, A. L.; Tapia, P. M.; Chen, C. Y.; McGee, D.; Stoner, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Junín (11.0°S, 76.2°W, 4085 masl) is an intermontane, high-elevation lake in the inner-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere that spans 300 km2. With a maximum water depth of 12m, Lake Junin is dammed at its northern and southern ends by alluvial fans that emanate from glacial valleys in both cordillera. These fans can be traced to moraines that are >250 ka, indicating that the lake is at least this old. During the maximum extent of late Cenozoic glaciation, glaciers reached the lake edge but at no time over the last 1 million years, or more, has Lake Junín been overridden by ice. Lake Junín is thus one of the few lakes in the tropical Andes that predates the maximum extent of glaciation and is in a geomorphic position to record the waxing and waning of alpine glaciers in nearby cordillera. Sediment cores obtained between 1980 and 1996 reveal that sediment deposited during the last glacial cycle ( 30-16 ka) is dominated by glacial flour whereas sediment deposited during the last 16 ka consists predominantly of authigenic calcite (marl) with ostracod carapaces punctuated with intervals of gyttja and peat. In July and August of 2015, piston cores were obtained from three sites in Lake Junin. Multiple overlapping cores from the deepest water site (Site 1) extend to 100 m below lake floor (mblf), and those from two shallow water, paleoglacier-proximal sites (Sites 2 and 3) extend 23 and 51 mblf, respectively. Samples acquired at 8-cm resolution from Site 1 were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon [as Ca(Mg)CO3; TIC] by coulometry. Total carbon (TC) was analyzed by combusting 10 mg samples at 1000°C and quantifying the resultant CO2 by coulometry whereas TIC was analyzed by reacting 10 mg samples in 6N H3PO4 and quantifying the resultant CO2 by coulometry; TOC was determined from TOC=TC-TIC. Over the last glacial postglacial cycle (last 30 ka), mean CaCO3 and TOC concentrations in Site 1 cores are higher ( 33% and 7

  14. Longitudinal Study of the Impacts of a Climate Change Curriculum on Undergraduate Student Learning: Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin C. Burkholder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the efficacy of a semester-long undergraduate sustainability curriculum designed from a systems approach. The three-course curriculum, which incorporated environmental science and ethics courses along with an integrative course using a community-based learning pedagogy, was intended to provide students with experience using knowledge and skills from distinct disciplines in a holistic way in order to address the complex problems of the human acceptance of and response to anthropogenic climate change. In the fall of 2013, 23 of the 24 sophomore general education students enrolled in the three courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester; 17 of those same students completed the survey again in the spring of 2016, their senior year. Results, which focus on the 17 students who continued to participate through their senior year, were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The pre/post data from the surveys demonstrated significant improvement in climate literacy, certainty, concern and urgency over the course of the semester; the senior data indicated that those improvements were largely retained. The study also suggests that the nine-credit curriculum improved transferable skills such as interdisciplinary thinking, self-confidence and public speaking. A qualitative analysis of three student cases, informed by a focus group (n = 7 of seniors along with other sources of information, suggested retention of such transferable skills, and, in some cases, deeper involvement in climate and sustainability action.

  15. Sequential Blood Filtration for Extracorporeal Circulation: Initial Results from a Proof-of-Concept Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Micropore filters are used during extracorporeal circulation to prevent gaseous and solid particles from entering the patient’s systemic circulation. Although these devices improve patient safety, limitations in current designs have prompted the development of a new concept in micropore filtration. A prototype of the new design was made using 40-μm filter screens and compared against four commercially available filters for performance in pressure loss and gross air handling. Pre- and postfilter bubble counts for 5- and 10-mL bolus injections in an ex vivo test circuit were recorded using a Doppler ultrasound bubble counter. Statistical analysis of results for bubble volume reduction between test filters was performed with one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance using Bonferroni post hoc tests. Changes in filter performance with changes in microbubble load were also assessed with dependent t tests using the 5- and 10-mL bolus injections as the paired sample for each filter. Significance was set at p prototype showed improved bubble volume reduction, reaching statistical significance with three of the four commercial filters. All test filters showed decreased performance in bubble volume reduction when the microbubble load was increased. Findings from this research support the underpinning theories of a sequential arterial-line filter design and suggest that improvements in microbubble filtration may be possible using this technique. PMID:26357790

  16. Initial Results from SQUID Sensor: Analysis and Modeling for the ELF/VLF Atmospheric Noise

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    Huan Hao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the amplitude probability density (APD of the wideband extremely low frequency (ELF and very low frequency (VLF atmospheric noise is studied. The electromagnetic signals from the atmosphere, referred to herein as atmospheric noise, was recorded by a mobile low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID receiver under magnetically unshielded conditions. In order to eliminate the adverse effect brought by the geomagnetic activities and powerline, the measured field data was preprocessed to suppress the baseline wandering and harmonics by symmetric wavelet transform and least square methods firstly. Then statistical analysis was performed for the atmospheric noise on different time and frequency scales. Finally, the wideband ELF/VLF atmospheric noise was analyzed and modeled separately. Experimental results show that, Gaussian model is appropriate to depict preprocessed ELF atmospheric noise by a hole puncher operator. While for VLF atmospheric noise, symmetric α-stable (SαS distribution is more accurate to fit the heavy-tail of the envelope probability density function (pdf.

  17. A web application for moderation training: initial results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Reid K; Delaney, Harold D; Campbell, William; Handmaker, Nancy

    2009-10-01

    Eighty-four heavy drinkers who responded to a newspaper recruitment advertisement were randomly assigned to receive either (a) training in a Moderate Drinking protocol via an Internet-based program (www.moderatedrinking.com) and use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM; www.moderation.org) or (b) use of the online resources of MM alone. Follow-ups are being conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results of the recently completed 3-month follow-up (86% follow-up) indicated both groups significantly reduced their drinking based on these variables: standard drinks per week, percent days abstinent, and mean estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) per drinking day. Both groups also significantly reduced their alcohol-related problems. Relative to the control group, the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent and log drinks per drinking day. These short-term outcome data provide evidence for the effectiveness of both the Moderate Drinking Web application and of the resources available online at MM in helping heavy drinkers reduce their drinking and alcohol-related problems.

  18. Prevalence of the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: Results from the Second Measurement of the CARMEN Initiative

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    Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is associated with other cardiometabolic disorders and is considered a predictor of diabetes mellitus. In Cuba, its prevalence is not clearly known. Objective: to describe the prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted with an equal-probability sample stratified by age group and sex during 2010 and 2011. The sample consisted of 1108 patients aged 15 to 74 years from the municipality of Cienfuegos. The variables analyzed were: sex, age, skin color, waist circumference, triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype. Data are presented in tables and figures using absolute and relative frequencies. An analysis of the prevalence rates adjusted for age group and sex was performed. Results: prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was determined in 14.4 % of the study population. Women and white skin patients predominated, accounting for 17.3 % of the total population. The components of the phenotype show differences, hypertriglyceridemia is more common in males and all age groups (40.2 % while obesity measured by waist circumference predominates in women (33.4 %. Conclusions: women have a higher risk of developing hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype given the increased presence of obesity measured by waist circumference and elevated serum triglyceride level in all age groups, particularly in those over 45 years. This represents a significant cardiometabolic risk that requires preventive approaches.

  19. A web application for moderation training: Initial results of a randomized clinical trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Reid K.; Delaney, Harold D.; Campbell, William; Handmaker, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Eighty four heavy drinkers who responded to a newspaper recruitment ad were randomly assigned to receive either: a) training in a moderate drinking protocol via an Internet-based program (www.moderatedrinking.com) and use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM) (www.moderation.org) or b) use of the online resources of MM alone. Follow-ups are being conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results of the recently completed 3 month follow-up (86% follow-up) indicated both groups significantly reduced their drinking based on these variables: standard drinks per week; percent days abstinent; and mean BAC per drinking day. Both groups also significantly reduced their alcohol-related problems. Relative to the control group the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent and log Drinks per Drinking Day. These short-term outcome data provide evidence for the effectiveness of both the moderate drinking web application and of the resources available online at MM in helping heavy drinkers reduce their drinking and alcohol-related problems. PMID:19339137

  20. Application of an exogenous hyperoxic contrast agent in MR mammography: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Dorothee R.; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Rauscher, Alexander; Sedlacik, Jan; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    There is interest in applying novel methods to dynamic MR mammography (MRM). One such possibility is to administer an exogenous hyperoxic contrast agent, such as carbogen (95-98% O{sub 2} and 2-5% CO{sub 2}) or pure oxygen (100% O{sub 2}). We report our first experiences with these agents in a patient with an invasive lobular carcinoma. Fourteen dynamic series were acquired with an rf-spoiled 2D multislice gradient echo sequence, including three measurements while breathing air, four measurements with 100% oxygen, three measurements with air and four measurements with carbogen. Afterwards, 0.1 mmol/kg bw of Gd-DTPA was administered to obtain dynamic T1-weighted double-echo 3D axial gradient echo images (TR/TE{sub 1}/TE{sub 2}/{alpha}=7.8 ms/2 ms/4.76 ms/15 ) every 90 s up to 4.5 min after injection. The lesion was well delineated on the contrast-enhanced images, contrary to magnitude images reconstructed from the raw data sets acquired during air/oxygen/carbogen breathing. A ROI-based median-filtered signal-time course revealed a tumor signal increase of roughly 15% between scans acquired during air and oxygen breathing. Though preliminary, these first results are encouraging concerning the exploration of these alternative contrast agents in MRM in greater detail. (orig.)

  1. The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A: system development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nittis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational forecasting of ocean circulation and marine ecosystem fluctuations requires multi-parametric real-time measurements of physical and biochemical properties. The architecture of a system that is able to provide such measurements from the upper-thermocline layers of the Mediterranean Sea is described here. The system was developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System and incorporates state-of-the-art sensors for optical and chemical measurements in the upper 100 m and physical measurements down to 500 m. Independent moorings that communicate via hydro-acoustic modems are hosting the sensors. The satellite data transfer and the large autonomy allow for the operation of the system in any open-ocean site. The system has been in pre-operational use in the Cretan Sea since January 2000. The results of this pilot phase indicate that multi-parametric real-time observations with the M3A system are feasible, if a consistent maintenance and re-calibration program is followed. The main limitations of the present configuration of M3A are related: (a to bio-fouling that primarily affects the turbidity and secondarily affects the other optical sensors, and (b to the limited throughput of the currently used satellite communication system. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction Oceanography: physical (upper ocean process

  2. The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A: system development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nittis

    Full Text Available Operational forecasting of ocean circulation and marine ecosystem fluctuations requires multi-parametric real-time measurements of physical and biochemical properties. The architecture of a system that is able to provide such measurements from the upper-thermocline layers of the Mediterranean Sea is described here. The system was developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System and incorporates state-of-the-art sensors for optical and chemical measurements in the upper 100 m and physical measurements down to 500 m. Independent moorings that communicate via hydro-acoustic modems are hosting the sensors. The satellite data transfer and the large autonomy allow for the operation of the system in any open-ocean site. The system has been in pre-operational use in the Cretan Sea since January 2000. The results of this pilot phase indicate that multi-parametric real-time observations with the M3A system are feasible, if a consistent maintenance and re-calibration program is followed. The main limitations of the present configuration of M3A are related: (a to bio-fouling that primarily affects the turbidity and secondarily affects the other optical sensors, and (b to the limited throughput of the currently used satellite communication system.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction Oceanography: physical (upper ocean process

  3. Jupiter’s Magnificent AuroraI Lightshow: Initial observations and results from the Juno Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Bolton, Scott J.; Gladstone, Randy; Connerney, John E. P.; Adriani, Alberto; Kurth, William S.; Mauk, Barry; Valek, Philip; Levin, Steven; Hue, Vincent; Juno Mission Team

    2017-10-01

    The Juno spacecraft carries with it an impressive suite of instruments to study Jupiter’s aurora and its response to variations in Jupiter’s magnetosphere. The UV and near-infrared auroral emissions serve as a “witness plate” or “viewing screen” to some of the complex processes occurring in Jupiter’s giant magnetosphere. Observations by the particle instruments (JEDI and JADE) measure the electron and ion particle distributions at the spacecraft, while the MAG instrument measures the instantaneous magnitude and orientation of Jupiter’s magnetic field and the Waves instrument measures auroral plasma waves and radio emissions. With these measurements and model predictions of how the position of the spacecraft maps to the upper atmosphere of Jupiter in magnetic field coordinates, UVS and JIRAM can observe how Jupiter’s upper atmosphere reacts to the magnetospheric loading observed at Juno. We will present select results from the 6 successful perijoves to date and possibly something from the 8th Perijove planned for September 1st, 2017.

  4. Initial Results from the C1XS X-Ray Spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, M.; Kellett, B. J.; Maddison, B.. J.; Sreekumar, P.; Huovelin, J.; Howe, C. J.; Crawford, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    The Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission, which was successfully launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on 22 October, carried as part of its payload the C1XS Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spec-trometer [1]. It exploits heritage from the D-CIXS instrument [2] on ESA's SMART-1 mission. Whereas SMART-1 was a technology mission, Chandrayaan-1 is science oriented, with a far more favourable orbit for science measurements. C1XS is designed to measure abundances of major rock-forming elements (princi-pally Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe). The instrument has been commissioned, and is operating nominally. The Sun continues to show X-ray emission charac-teristic of the Solar minimum. As has been commented by [7], the onset of this solar maximum is significantly delayed. However, C1XS has been able to observe the Moon even in these very low illumination conditions. Figure 3 shows the result of an integration during an A class flare on the 12th Dec. 2008. Characteristic energy lines at Mg, Al and Si are clearly seen and resolved from the average extreme quiet time data background. This performance shows that the instrument is easily meeting its design requirements, and in the higher illumination conditions expected during the rest of the mission will be capable of meeting its science goals.

  5. Generation mechanism of S-bursts at Jupiter and Earth: Initial simulation result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.-J.; Ergun, R. E.; Bagenal, F.; Jones, S. T.; Parker, S. E.

    Measurements of S-bursts in decametric radio emissions from the Jovian ionosphere comprise less than 10 of the total observations Recently Ergun et al 2005 and Su et al 2005 explored a possible relationship between S-bursts and resonant Alfvén waves in Jupiter s upper ionosphere Electron acceleration or modulation may provide the physical mechanism that transfers energy from the Alfvén wave to the S-burst The modulated electron fluxes in turn may generate or modulate the generation of the S-burst emissions The first Earth-based S-burst observation was presented by Ergun et al 2005 with associated Alfvén waves and electron acceleration signatures In this presentation we will present the first simulation result of electron distributions associated with Alfvén waves at Jupiter and Earth using a linear newline gyrofluid model and a test particle method Ergun R E Y -J Su L A Andersson F Bagenal P A Delamere R L Lysak and R J Strangeway S-Bursts and the Jupiter ionospheric Alfvén resonator J Geophys Res in press 2005 Su Y -J S T Jones R E Ergun F Bagenal S E Parker P A Delamere and R L Lysak Io-Jupiter interaction Alfven wave propagation and ionospheric Alfven resonator J Geophys Res in review 2005

  6. Quantification of renal allograft perfusion using arterial spin labeling MRI: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Bilk, Philip; Kroepil, Patric; Blondin, Dirk [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Zgoura, Panagiota; Voiculescu, Adina [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of Nephrology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    To quantify renal allograft perfusion in recipients with stable allograft function and acute decrease in allograft function using nonenhanced flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-TrueFISP arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging. Following approval of the local ethics committee, 20 renal allograft recipients were included in this study. ASL perfusion measurement and an anatomical T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE) sequence were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). T2-weighted MR urography was performed in patients with suspected ureteral obstruction. Patients were assigned to three groups: group a, 6 patients with stable allograft function over the previous 4 months; group b, 7 patients with good allograft function who underwent transplantation during the previous 3 weeks; group c, 7 allograft recipients with an acute deterioration of renal function. Mean cortical perfusion values were 304.8 {+-} 34.4, 296.5 {+-} 44.1, and 181.9 {+-} 53.4 mg/100 ml/min for groups a, b and c, respectively. Reduction in cortical perfusion in group c was statistically significant. Our results indicate that ASL is a promising technique for nonenhanced quantification of cortical perfusion of renal allografts. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of ASL for monitoring renal allograft recipients. (orig.)

  7. Current discharge management of acute coronary syndromes: baseline results from a national quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, A; Pulver, L K; Oliver, K; Thompson, A

    2012-05-01

    Evidence-practice gaps exist in the continuum of care for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), particularly at hospital discharge. We aimed to describe the methodology and baseline results of the Discharge Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes (DMACS) project, focusing on the prescription of guideline-recommended medications, referral to cardiac rehabilitation and communication between the hospital, patient and their primary healthcare professionals. DMACS employed Drug Use Evaluation methodology involving data collection, evaluation and feedback, and targeted educational interventions. Adult patients with ACS discharged during a 4-month period were eligible to participate. Data were collected (maximum 50 patients) at each site through an inpatient medical record review, a general practitioner (GP) postal/fax survey conducted 14 days post discharge and a patient telephone survey 3 months post discharge. Forty-nine hospitals participated in the audit recruiting 1545 patients. At discharge, 57% of patients were prescribed a combination of antiplatelet agent(s), beta-blocker, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and/or angiotensin II-antagonist. At 3 months post discharge, 48% of patients reported using the same combination. Some 67% of patients recalled being referred to cardiac rehabilitation; of these, 33% had completed the programme. In total, 83% of patients had a documented ACS management plan at discharge. Of these, 90% included a medication list, 56% a chest pain action plan and 54% risk factor modification advice. Overall, 65% of GPs rated the quality of information received in the discharge summary as 'very good' to 'excellent'. The findings of our baseline audit showed that despite the robust evidence base and availability of national guidelines, the management of patients with ACS can be improved. These findings will inform a multifaceted intervention strategy to improve adherence to guidelines for the discharge management of

  8. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in <0.15 s by a combination of the capillary effect and blood pressure. The system may also be used to sample interstitial fluid, but the absence of blood pressure makes it necessary to enhance the capillary effect of the needle. This is accomplished by either electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed.

  9. Radiation control coatings installed on rough-surfaced built-up roofs -- Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have tracked the solar reflectance and thermal performance of small samples of various radiation control coatings on smooth surfaces for several years on a roof test facility in East Tennessee. The focus is on white coatings because of their potential to weather, causing the solar reflectance to decrease as the coatings age. Support of the federal New Technology Demonstration Program allowed them to extend the study to more samples on smooth surfaces and entire rough-surfaced roofs at a federal facility in the Panhandle of Florida. Two rough-surfaced, moderately well-insulated, low solar reflectance built-up roofs (BURs) were spray-coated with a latex-based product with ceramic beads added to improve solar reflectance. In the first three months after installation, the fresh BUR coatings showed a significant decrease in both the outside-surface temperature and the heat flux through the roof insulation. Average sunlit values were generated to exclude nighttime data, data on cloudy days, and data when the uncoated patch on one roof was more strongly shaded in mid-afternoon on sunny days. The average power demand during occupied periods for the first month with the coating for the building with the thermally massive roof deck was 13% less than during the previous month without the coating. For the other buildings with a lightweight roof deck but high internal loads, there were no clear average power savings due to the coating. The authors are continuing to monitor electricity use in these all-electric buildings to calibrate a model for the peak power and annual energy use of the buildings. Modeling results to be given at the end of the two year project will address the effect of roof R-value, geographic location, and solar reflectance, including the effect of weathering, on the performance of coated roofs. The calibrated models should allow one to segregate site-specific effects such as shading and large thermal mass.

  10. Single breath xenon polarization transfer contrast (SB-XTC): implementation and initial results in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradyan, Iga; Butler, James P; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Hrovat, Mirko; Dregely, Isabel; Ruset, Iulian; Topulos, George P; Frederick, Eric; Hatabu, Hiroto; Hersman, William F; Patz, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To implement and characterize a single-breath xenon transfer contrast (SB-XTC) method to assess the fractional diffusive gas transport F in the lung: to study the dependence of F and its uniformity as a function of lung volume; to estimate local alveolar surface area per unit gas volume SA/VGas from multiple diffusion time measurements of F; to evaluate the reproducibility of the measurements and the necessity of B1 correction in cases of centric and sequential encoding. Materials and Methods In SB-XTC three or four gradient echo images separated by inversion/saturation pulses were collected during a breath-hold in eight healthy volunteers, allowing the mapping of F (thus SA/VGas) and correction for other contributions such as T1 relaxation, RF depletion and B1 inhomogeneity from inherently registered data. Results Regional values of F and its distribution were obtained; both the mean value and heterogeneity of F increased with the decrease of lung volume. Higher values of F in the bases of the lungs in supine position were observed at lower volumes in all volunteers. Local SA/VGas (with a mean ± standard deviation of SA/VGas¯=89±30cm-1) was estimated in vivo near functional residual capacity. Calibration of SB-XTC on phantoms highlighted the necessity for B1 corrections when k-space is traversed sequentially; with centric ordering B1 distribution correction is dispensable. Conclusion SB-XTC technique is implemented and validated for in vivo measurements of local SA/VGas. PMID:23011916

  11. Impact of different study populations on reader behavior and performance metrics: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Pisano, Etta; Cole, Elodia; Myers, Kyle

    2017-03-01

    The FDA recently completed a study on design methodologies surrounding the Validation of Imaging Premarket Evaluation and Regulation called VIPER. VIPER consisted of five large reader sub-studies to compare the impact of different study populations on reader behavior as seen by sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, the area under the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve). The study investigated different prevalence levels and two kinds of sampling of non-cancer patients: a screening population and a challenge population. The VIPER study compared full-field digital mammography (FFDM) to screenfilm mammography (SFM) for women with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts. All cases and corresponding images were sampled from Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) archives. There were 20 readers (American Board Certified radiologists) for each sub-study, and instead of every reader reading every case (fully-crossed study), readers and cases were split into groups to reduce reader workload and the total number of observations (split-plot study). For data collection, readers first decided whether or not they would recall a patient. Following that decision, they provided an ROC score for how close or far that patient was from the recall decision threshold. Performance results for FFDM show that as prevalence increases to 50%, there is a moderate increase in sensitivity and decrease in specificity, whereas AUC is mainly flat. Regarding precision, the statistical efficiency (ratio of variances) of sensitivity and specificity relative to AUC are 0.66 at best and decrease with prevalence. Analyses comparing modalities and the study populations (screening vs. challenge) are still ongoing.

  12. Field data collection of miscellaneous electrical loads in Northern California: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Claybaugh, Erin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.

    2013-02-25

    This report describes efforts to measure energy use of miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs) in 880 San Francisco Bay Area homes during the summer of 2012. Ten regions were selected for metering: Antioch, Berkeley, Fremont, Livermore, Marin County (San Rafael, Novato, Fairfax, and Mill Valley), Oakland/Emeryville, Pleasanton, Richmond, San Leandro, and Union City. The project focused on three major categories of devices: entertainment (game consoles, set-top boxes, televisions and video players), home office (computers, monitors and network equipment), and kitchen plug-loads (coffee/espresso makers, microwave ovens/toaster ovens/toasters, rice/slow cookers and wine chillers). These categories were important to meter because they either dominated the estimated overall energy use of MELs, are rapidly changing, or there are very little energy consumption data published. A total of 1,176 energy meters and 143 other sensors were deployed, and 90% of these meters and sensors were retrieved. After data cleaning, we obtained 711 valid device energy use measurements, which were used to estimate, for a number of device subcategories, the average time spent in high power, low power and “off” modes, the average energy use in each mode, and the average overall energy use. Consistent with observations made in previous studies, we find on average that information technology (IT) devices (home entertainment and home office equipment) consume more energy (15.0 and 13.0 W, respectively) than non-IT devices (kitchen plug-loads; 4.9 W). Opportunities for energy savings were identified in almost every device category, based on the time spent in various modes and/or the power levels consumed in those modes. Future reports will analyze the collected data in detail by device category and compare results to those obtained from prior studies.

  13. Mathematical Modeling in Tobacco Control Research: Initial Results From a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feirman, Shari P; Donaldson, Elisabeth; Glasser, Allison M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Niaura, Ray; Rose, Shyanika W; Abrams, David B; Villanti, Andrea C

    2016-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has expressed interest in using mathematical models to evaluate potential tobacco policies. The goal of this systematic review was to synthesize data from tobacco control studies that employ mathematical models. We searched five electronic databases on July 1, 2013 to identify published studies that used a mathematical model to project a tobacco-related outcome and developed a data extraction form based on the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices. We developed an organizational framework to categorize these studies and identify models employed across multiple papers. We synthesized results qualitatively, providing a descriptive synthesis of included studies. The 263 studies in this review were heterogeneous with regard to their methodologies and aims. We used the organizational framework to categorize each study according to its objective and map the objective to a model outcome. We identified two types of study objectives (trend and policy/intervention) and three types of model outcomes (change in tobacco use behavior, change in tobacco-related morbidity or mortality, and economic impact). Eighteen models were used across 118 studies. This paper extends conventional systematic review methods to characterize a body of literature on mathematical modeling in tobacco control. The findings of this synthesis can inform the development of new models and the improvement of existing models, strengthening the ability of researchers to accurately project future tobacco-related trends and evaluate potential tobacco control policies and interventions. These findings can also help decision-makers to identify and become oriented with models relevant to their work. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. TU-A-BRD-01: Outcomes of Hypofractionated Treatments - Initial Results of the WGSBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, P [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ohri, N [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Joiner, M [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Kong, F [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia); Jackson, A [Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged in recent decades as a treatment paradigm that is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Clinical outcomes data are rapidly accumulating. Although published relations between outcomes and dose distributions are still sparse, the field has progressed to the point where evidence-based normal tissue dose-volume constraints, prescription strategies, and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) models can be developed. The Working Group on SBRT (WGSBRT), under the Biological Effects Subcommittee of AAPM, is a group of physicists and physicians working in the area of SBRT. It is currently performing critical literature reviews to extract and synthesize usable data and to develop guidelines and models to aid with safe and effective treatment. The group is investigating clinically relevant findings from SBRT in six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session of AAPM 2014, interim results are presented on TCP for lung and liver, NTCP for thoracic organs, and radiobiological foundations:• Lung TCP: Detailed modeling of TCP data from 118 published studies on early stage lung SBRT investigates dose response and hypothesized mechanisms to explain the improved outcomes of SBRT. This is presented from the perspective of a physicist, a physician, and a radiobiologist.• Liver TCP: For primary and metastatic liver tumors, individual patient data were extracted from published reports to examine the effects of biologically effective dose on local control.• Thoracic NTCP: Clinically significant SBRT toxicity of lung, rib / chest wall and other structures are evaluated and compared among published clinical data, in terms of risk, risk factors, and safe practice.• Improving the clinical utility of published toxicity reports from SBRT and Hypofractionated treatments. What do we want, and how do we get it? Methods

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for fetal oxygenation during maternal hypoxia: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, U.; Adam, G. [Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, UKE Hamburg (Germany); Tchirikov, M.; Schroeder, H. [Abt. fuer experimentelle Gynaekologie der Universitaetsfrauenklinik, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde, UKE, Hamburg (Germany); Koch, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, UKE Hamburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of fMRI to measure changes in fetal tissue oxygenation during acute maternal hypoxia in fetal lambs. Material and Methods: Two ewes carrying singleton fetuses (gestational age 125 and 131 days) underwent MR imaging under inhalation anesthesia. BOLD imaging of the fetal brain, liver and myocardium was performed during acute maternal hypoxia (oxygen replaced by N{sub 2}O). Maternal oxygen saturation and heart rate were monitored by a pulse-oxymeter attached to the maternal tongue. Results: Changes of fetal tissue oxygenation during maternal hypoxia were clearly visible with BOLD MRI. Signal intensity decreases were more distinct in liver and heart ({proportional_to}40%) from control than in the fetal brain ({proportional_to}10%). Conclusions: fMRI is a promising diagnostic tool to determine fetal tissue oxygenation and may open new opportunities in monitoring fetal well being in high risk pregnancies complicated by uteroplacentar insufficiency. Different signal changes in liver/heart and brain may reflect a centralization of the fetal blood flow. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung des Potentiales der funktionellen MRT (BOLD) in der Darstellung von Veraenderungen in der Sauerstoffsaettigung fetaler Gewebe waehrend akuter materner Hypoxie bei fetalen Laemmern. Material und Methoden: Die MR-Untersuchung wurde an zwei Mutterschafen mit 125 und 131 Tage alten Feten in Inhalationsnarkose durchgefuehrt. Die BOLD Messungen von fetaler Leber, Myokard und Gehirn erfolgten waehrend einer akuten Hypoxiephase des Muttertieres, in der Sauerstoff durch N{sub 2}O ersetzt wurde. Die materne Sauerstoffsaettigung und Herzfrequenz wurde durch ein Pulsoxymeter ueberwacht. Ergebnisse: Aenderungen der fetalen Gewebsoxygenierung waehrend einer akuten Hypoxiephase der Mutter waren mit der BOLD-MR-Bildgebung deutlich darstellbar. In der fetalen Leber und dem Myokard zeigte sich ein staerkerer Signalabfall um ca. 40% von den Kontrollwerten als im fetalen

  16. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion using time-resolved parallel 3D MRI - initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.; Buhmann, R.; Plathow, C.; Puderbach, M.; Kauczor, H.U. [Abt. Radiologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Innovative Krebsdiagnostik und -therapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Risse, F. [Abt. Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Innovative Krebsdiagnostik und -therapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Ley, S. [Abt. Radiologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Innovative Krebsdiagnostik und -therapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Meyer, F.J. [Abt. Innere Medizin III, Medizinische Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Purpose: to assess the use of time-resolved parallel 3D MRI for a quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Materials and methods: eight patients with pulmonary embolism or pulmonary hypertension were examined with a time-resolved 3D gradient echo pulse sequence with parallel imaging techniques (FLASH 3D, TE/TR: 0.8/1.9 ms; flip angle: 40 ; GRAPPA). A quantitative perfusion analysis based on indicator dilution theory was performed using a dedicated software. Results: patients with pulmonary embolism or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension revealed characteristic wedge-shaped perfusion defects at perfusion MRI. They were characterized by a decreased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and increased mean transit time (MTT). Patients with primary pulmonary hypertension or eisenmenger syndrome showed a more homogeneous perfusion pattern. The mean MTT of all patients was 3.3 - 4.7 s. The mean PBF and PBV showed a broader interindividual variation (PBF: 104-322 ml/100 ml/min; PBV: 8 - 21 ml/100 ml). Conclusion: time-resolved parallel 3D MRI allows at least a semi-quantitative assessment of lung perfusion. Future studies will have to assess the clinical value of this quantitative information for the diagnosis and management of cardiopulmonary disease. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation der zeitlich aufgeloesten 3D MRT mit paralleler Bildgebung (PAT) fuer die quantitative Analyse der Lungenperfusion bei Patienten mit kardiopulmonalen Erkrankungen. Material und Methoden: Acht Patienten mit Lungenembolie oder pulmonaler Hypertension wurden mit einer zeitlich aufgeloesten 3D Gradientenecho-Pulssequenz mit PAT (FLASH 3D, TE/TR: 0.8/1.9 ms; Flipwinkel: 40 ; GRAPPA) untersucht. Eine quantitative Perfusionsanalyse basierend auf der Indikator-Verduennungsmethode wurde mit einer dezidierten Software durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Patienten mit Lungenembolie oder chronischer thromboembolischer pulmonaler

  17. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  18. Factors initiating phytoplankton blooms and resulting effects on dissolved oxygen in Duwamish River estuary, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Eugene Brummer

    1969-01-01

    , as shown by studies of other estuarine environments by other workers, phytoplankton production increases when the zone of vertical turbulent mixing is not markedly deeper than the compensation depth. Phytoplankton cells produced in the surface waters sink, thereby contributing oxidizable organic matter to the bottom saline-water wedge. The maximum BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in this bottom wedge occurs in the same section of the estuary and ,at the same time as the maximum phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by chlorophyll a) and minimum DO (dissolved oxygen). Other sources of BOD occur in the estuary, and conditions of minimum discharge and tidal exchange assist in reducing DO. Nonetheless, the highly significant correlation of chlorophyll a with BOD throughout the summer indicates that respiration and decomposition of phytoplankton cells is dearly an important contributor of BOD. Increases in the biomass and resultant B0D of blooms because of increased effluent nutrients presumably would further decrease the concentration of DO. This possible effect of effluent nutrients was evaluated by laboratory .bioassays and by a comparison of mean annual biomasses in the estuary. A green algal population in vitro did increase in response to added effluent nutrients; however, the available field data suggest that a 46-percent increase in effluent discharge between 1965 and 1966 did not increase the estuary's phytoplankton biomass significantly.

  19. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc

    2016-10-01

    , and mean intensity, Imean, of the rainfall event, and (ii) using floating durations, D, and intensities, Ifl, based on the maximum values over floating periods of different duration. The resulting thresholds are considerably different (Imean = 6.20 Dtot-0.36 and Ifl_90% = 5.49 D-0.75, respectively) showing a strong dependence on the applied methodology. On the other hand, the definition of the thresholds is affected by several types of uncertainties. Data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to analyze the uncertainty associated with the spatial variability of the triggering rainfalls. The analysis indicates that the precipitation recorded by the nearby rain gauges can introduce major uncertainties, especially for convective summer storms. Thus, incorporating radar rainfall can significantly improve the accuracy of the measured triggering rainfall. Finally, thresholds were also derived according to three different criteria for the definition of the duration of the triggering rainfall: (i) the duration until the peak intensity, (ii) the duration until the end of the rainfall; and, (iii) the duration until the trigger of the torrential flow. An important contribution of this work is the assessment of the threshold relationships obtained using the third definition of duration. Moreover, important differences are observed in the obtained thresholds, showing that ID relationships are significantly dependent on the applied methodology.

  20. Federating clinical data from six pediatric hospitals: process and initial results for microbiology from the PHIS+ consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Warner, Phillip B; Mo, Peter; Levin, James E; Srivastava, Rajendu; Shah, Samir S; de Regt, David; Kirkendall, Eric; Bickel, Jonathan; Korgenski, E Kent; Precourt, Michelle; Stepanek, Richard L; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P; Keren, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Microbiology study results are necessary for conducting many comparative effectiveness research studies. Unlike core laboratory test results, microbiology results have a complex structure. Federating and integrating microbiology data from six disparate electronic medical record systems is challenging and requires a team of varied skills. The PHIS+ consortium which is partnership between members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network, the Children's Hospital Association and the University of Utah, have used "FURTHeR' for federating laboratory data. We present our process and initial results for federating microbiology data from six pediatric hospitals.

  1. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Monaghan, A. J.; Eisen, L.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Ochoa, C.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriquez, C. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In tropical and sub ]tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio ]economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data-- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation-- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  2. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  3. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Poudel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design: We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale, depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8% had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50% participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73 of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions: High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals.

  4. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxue; Tan, Wei; Luo, Danping; Lin, Jianhua; Yu, Yaoqing; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Wangyeng; Wu, Buling; Chen, Jun; He, Jiman

    2012-12-04

    Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 160-280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  5. Initial Results of Image-Guided Percutaneous Ablation as Second-Line Treatment for Symptomatic Vascular Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M., E-mail: Thompson.scott@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Medical School and the Mayo Clinic Medical Scientist Training Program, College of Medicine (United States); Callstrom, Matthew R., E-mail: callstrom.matthew@mayo.edu; McKusick, Michael A., E-mail: mckusick.michael@mayo.edu; Woodrum, David A., E-mail: woodrum.david@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and early effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line treatment for symptomatic soft-tissue vascular anomalies (VA).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective review was undertaken of all patients who underwent percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line therapy for treatment of symptomatic soft-tissue VA during the period from 1/1/2008 to 5/20/2014. US/CT- or MRI-guided and monitored cryoablation or MRI-guided and monitored laser ablation was performed. Clinical follow-up began at one-month post-ablation.ResultsEight patients with nine torso or lower extremity VA were treated with US/CT (N = 4) or MRI-guided (N = 2) cryoablation or MRI-guided laser ablation (N = 5) for moderate to severe pain (N = 7) or diffuse bleeding secondary to hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome (N = 1). The median maximal diameter was 9.0 cm (6.5–11.1 cm) and 2.5 cm (2.3–5.3 cm) for VA undergoing cryoablation and laser ablation, respectively. Seven VA were ablated in one session, one VA initially treated with MRI-guided cryoablation for severe pain was re-treated with MRI-guided laser ablation due to persistent moderate pain, and one VA was treated in a planned two-stage session due to large VA size. At an average follow-up of 19.8 months (range 2–62 months), 7 of 7 patients with painful VA reported symptomatic pain relief. There was no recurrence of bleeding at five-year post-ablation in the patient with hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome. There were two minor complications and no major complications.ConclusionImage-guided percutaneous ablation is a feasible, safe, and effective second-line treatment option for symptomatic VA.

  6. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  7. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    , radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes and dissolved noble gases also were measured to provide a dataset that will be used to help interpret the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater in subsequent reports. In total, 221 constituents were investigated for this study. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells in the CAMP study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 90 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. All organic constituents and most inorganic constituents that were detected in groundwater samples from the 90 grid wells

  8. Development of 22 new microsatellite loci for fishers (Martes pennanti) with variability results from across their range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Mark J.; Higley, Mark; Matthews, Sean M.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Barrett, Reginald H.; Palsboll, Per J.

    We developed 22 new microsatellite loci for the fisher (Martes pennanti), a North American mesocarnivore. The loci were developed with samples from the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, and were screened with samples from this population and four other populations. We observed a range

  9. Parents' Experiences of Receiving the Initial Positive Newborn Screening (NBS) Result for Cystic Fibrosis and Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudleigh, Jane; Buckingham, Sarah; Dignan, Jo; O'Driscoll, Sandra; Johnson, Kemi; Rees, David; Wyatt, Hilary; Metcalfe, Alison

    2016-12-01

    The clinical advantages of the newborn screening programme (NBS) in the UK are well described in the literature. However, there has been little exploration of the psychosocial impact on the family. This study followed the principles of grounded theory to explore parents' experiences of receiving the initial positive NBS result for their child with cystic fibrosis (CF) or sickle cell disease (SCD). Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 parents (12 mothers and 10 fathers) whose children had been diagnosed with CF or SCD via NBS and were under the age of 1 year at the time of interview. The main themes that arose from the data were; parents previous knowledge of the condition and the NBS programme, the method of delivery and parental reactions to the result, sharing the results with others, the impact on parental relationships and support strategies. Study conclusions indicate that most parents thought initial positive NBS results should be delivered by a health professional with condition specific knowledge, preferably with both parents present. Genetic counselling needs to include a focus on the impact of NBS results on parental relationships. Careful consideration needs to be given to strategies to support parents of babies who have positive NBS results both in terms of the psychological health and to assist them in sharing the diagnosis.

  10. Healthy competition drives success in results-based aid: Lessons from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Palmisano, Erin B; Dansereau, Emily; Schaefer, Alexandra; Woldeab, Alexander; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Salvatierra, Benito; Hernandez-Prado, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a three-operation strategy, and is a pioneer in the world of results-based aid (RBA) in terms of the success it has achieved in improving health system inputs following its initial operation. This success in meeting pre-defined targets is rare in the world of financial assistance for health. We investigated the influential aspects of SMI that could have contributed to its effectiveness in improving health systems, with the aim of providing international donors, bilateral organizations, philanthropies, and recipient countries with new perspectives that can help increase the effectiveness of future assistance for health, specifically in the arena of RBA. Qualitative methods based on the criteria of relevance and effectiveness proposed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Our methods included document review, key informant interviews, a focus group discussion, and a partnership analysis. A purposive sample of 113 key informants, comprising donors, representatives from the Inter-American Development Bank, ministries of health, technical assistance organizations, evaluation organizations, and health care providers. During May-October 2016, we interviewed regarding the relevance and effectiveness of SMI. Themes emerged relative to the topics we investigated, and covered the design and the drivers of success of the initiative. The success is due to 1) the initiative's regional approach, which pressured recipient countries to compete toward meeting targets, 2) a robust and flexible design that incorporated the richness of input from stakeholders at all levels, 3) the design-embedded evaluation component that created a culture of accountability among recipient countries, and 4) the reflective knowledge environment that created a culture of evidence-based decision-making. A regional approach involving all appropriate stakeholders, and based on knowledge sharing and

  11. Healthy competition drives success in results-based aid: Lessons from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel El Bcheraoui

    Full Text Available The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI is a three-operation strategy, and is a pioneer in the world of results-based aid (RBA in terms of the success it has achieved in improving health system inputs following its initial operation. This success in meeting pre-defined targets is rare in the world of financial assistance for health. We investigated the influential aspects of SMI that could have contributed to its effectiveness in improving health systems, with the aim of providing international donors, bilateral organizations, philanthropies, and recipient countries with new perspectives that can help increase the effectiveness of future assistance for health, specifically in the arena of RBA.Qualitative methods based on the criteria of relevance and effectiveness proposed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Our methods included document review, key informant interviews, a focus group discussion, and a partnership analysis.A purposive sample of 113 key informants, comprising donors, representatives from the Inter-American Development Bank, ministries of health, technical assistance organizations, evaluation organizations, and health care providers.During May-October 2016, we interviewed regarding the relevance and effectiveness of SMI. Themes emerged relative to the topics we investigated, and covered the design and the drivers of success of the initiative. The success is due to 1 the initiative's regional approach, which pressured recipient countries to compete toward meeting targets, 2 a robust and flexible design that incorporated the richness of input from stakeholders at all levels, 3 the design-embedded evaluation component that created a culture of accountability among recipient countries, and 4 the reflective knowledge environment that created a culture of evidence-based decision-making.A regional approach involving all appropriate stakeholders, and based on knowledge

  12. Impact of repeat HER2 testing after initial equivocal HER2 FISH results using 2013 ASCO/CAP guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Ping; Wang, Kun; Xu, Jie; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Fang; Wu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Long, Xiao-Xu; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Lin, Dan-Yi; Liu, Yan-Hui

    2017-12-01

    The updated 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing have made some major changes in HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) interpretation criteria with additional FISH equivocal cases. Repeat HER2 testing is recommended after initial HER2 FISH equivocal results; however, little is known about its impact on final HER2 status. The aim of this study is to investigate whether reflex test clarifies HER2 status, and to characterize clinicopathological features of the newly defined HER2 equivocal group. A total of 886 consecutive cases of primary invasive breast cancer conducted with dual-probe HER2 FISH testing between November 2013 and December 2015 were reviewed. HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH testing were performed on a different tissue block or a new specimen after initial HER2 FISH equivocal results. Compared to 2007 guideline, 85 (9.6%) cases changed their category by using 2013 guideline. The major change of the 85 cases is that 57 (6.4%) cases in HER2 FISH-negative category changed to equivocal, and the equivocal category cases increased from 36 to 67. HER2 FISH equivocal was significantly associated with HER2 IHC equivocal (2+) and chromosome 17 polysomy (P HER2 status in 33 and 42% of HER2 equivocal cases, respectively. Overall 32 (48%) initial HER2 equivocal cases stayed HER2 equivocal after repeat FISH and or IHC testing. These tumors were ER/PR+, with high KI-67 index. New guidelines classify more HER2 FISH equivocal cases. Repeat HER2 testing clarifies HER2 status in about 50% of initial HER2 FISH equivocal cases. In addition, HER2 equivocal cases merit further study as there is limited information about prognosis and optimal treatment strategy for this population.

  13. D Modelling of Archaeological Small Finds by a Low-Cost Range Camera: Methodology and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanelli, R.; Nascetti, A.; Di Rita, M.; Nigro, L.; Montanari, D.; Spagnoli, F.; Crespi, M.

    2017-05-01

    The production of reliable documentation of small finds is a crucial process during archaeological excavations. Range cameras can be a valid alternative to traditional illustration methods: they are veritable 3D scanners able to easily collect the 3D geometry (shape and dimensions in metric units) of an object/scene practically in real-time. This work investigates precisely the potentialities of a promising low-cost range camera, the Structure SensorTM by Occipital, for rapid modelling archaeological objects. The accuracy assessment was thus performed by comparing the 3D model of a Cipriot-Phoenician globular jug captured by this device with the 3D model of the same object obtained through photogrammetry. In general, the performed analysis shows that Structure Sensor is capable to acquire the 3D geometry of a small object with an accuracy comparable at millimeter level to that obtainable with the photogrammetric method, even though the finer details are not always correctly modelled. The texture reconstruction is instead less accurate. In the end, it can be concluded that the range camera used for this work, due to its low-cost and flexibility, is a suitable tool for the rapid documentation of archaeological small finds, especially when not expert users are involved.

  14. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; George, Julie; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Denaxas, Spiros; West, Robert; Smeeth, Liam; Timmis, Adam; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-02-01

    It is not known how smoking affects the initial presentation of a wide range of chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), nor the extent to which associations are heterogeneous. We estimated the lifetime cumulative incidence of 12 CVD presentations, and examined associations with smoking and smoking cessation. Cohort study of 1.93 million people aged ≥30years, with no history of CVD, in 1997-2010. Individuals were drawn from linked electronic health records in England, covering primary care, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction (MI) registry and cause-specific mortality (the CALIBER programme). During 11.6 million person-years of follow-up, 114859 people had an initial non-fatal or fatal CVD presentation. By age 90 years, current vs never smokers' lifetime risks varied from 0.4% vs 0.2% for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to 8.9% vs 2.6% for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Current smoking showed no association with cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death [hazard ratio (HR)=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.19).The strength of association differed markedly according to disease type: stable angina (HR=1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15),transient ischaemic attack (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.28-1.55), unstable angina (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.38-1.72), intracerebral haemorrhage (HR=1.61, 95% CI 1.37-1.89), heart failure (HR=1.62, 95% CI 1.47-1.79), ischaemic stroke (HR=1.90, 95% CI 1.72-2.10), MI (HR=2.32, 95% CI 2.20-2.45), SAH (HR= 2.70, 95% CI 2.27-3.21), PAD (HR=5.16, 95% CI 4.80-5.54) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (HR=5.18, 95% CI 4.61-5.82). Population-attributable fractions were lower for women than men for unheralded coronary death, ischaemic stroke, PAD and AAA. Ten years after quitting smoking, the risks of PAD, AAA (in men) and unheralded coronary death remained increased (HR=1.36, 1.47 and 2.74, respectively). The heterogeneous associations of smoking with different CVD presentations suggests different underlying mechanisms and have important

  15. Mechanisms associated with post-sunset convective initiation close to mountain ranges in Central ArgentinaMany thunderstorms in mid-latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salio, P. V.; Vidal, L.; Zipser, E. J.; Vila, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Many thunderstorms in mid-latitude South America stand out in satellite observations as being among the strongest anywhere on Earth in terms of satellite-based convective proxies, such as lightning flash rate per storm, prevalence for extremely tall, wide convective cores and broad stratiform regions. Knowing when and where strong convection is initiated is of great importance because of the close relationship between convective storms, heavy precipitation, and severe weather phenomena. This paper seeks to identify the most salient features associated with mesoscale and synoptic scale that condition the environment in which deep convection develops in mid-latitude South America region close to principal mountain barriers (e.g. the Andes). A specific region of complex terrain in Central Argentina, known as Sierras de Córdoba (SCBA), tend to show active initiation near the end of the afternoon (between 21Z and 00Z) during the warm season. These may become very long-lived systems with lifetimes that can exceed 24 hours and even in extreme cases can reach 60 hours. They have associated cloud shields, with large horizontal extent at the time of maturity (>250,000km2), more than twice the average size of MCSs born outside this particular region. These events are strongly favored by the presence of a mid-level trough with a surface cold front and a westerly jet stream aloft, which along with an intense low-level jet (SALLJ) and local circulations, combine to pre-condition the environment and develop deep moist convection in the region of interest in the afternoon on the east and west side of the topography. MCSs tend to detach from the topography and develop in the valley between the Andes and SCBA, or east away from SCBA, where convergence reaches a maximum in low levels as a consequence of the zonal shift of SALLJ. While the circulation associated with the SALLJ plays an important role in strengthening convergences on the mountain and provides moisture and heat from

  16. HCV treatment initiation in persons with chronic kidney disease in the directly acting antiviral agents era: Results from ERCHIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adeel A; Ren, Yanjie; Puenpatom, Amy; Arduino, Jean-Marie; Kumar, Ritesh; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi

    2017-12-22

    Newer direct acting antiviral agents against HCV (DAAs) are safe and efficacious in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether approval of newer DAAs has resulted in more persons with CKD initiating HCV treatment remains unknown. We identified HCV+ persons in ERCHIVES between October 1999 and July 2016. We excluded HIV+ and HBsAg+ and those with missing baseline HCV RNA and baseline eGFR data. We identified persons initiated on any approved DAA-regimen through July 2016, by CKD stage. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with treatment initiation. Among 83 706 evaluable persons, 21.1% initiated treatment. Rates differed significantly by CKD stage: 22.1% for eGFR>90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and CKD stage-2; 14.9% for CKD stage 3; and 8.0% for CKD stage-4/5. Those with CKD stage-3 were 33% less likely and those with CKD stage-4/5 were 60% less likely to initiate treatment with a DAA compared with those with baseline eGFR>90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Treatment initiation was less likely in HCV genotype 2 (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.53,0.66) or 3 (OR 0.53; 95%CI 0.47,0.61) and those with diabetes (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81,0.94), cardiovascular disease (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.70,0.84), alcohol abuse or dependence (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.70,0.79) or cirrhosis (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80,0.92) at baseline. Persons with more advanced CKD are less likely to receive treatment for HCV despite recent data on safety and efficacy. Strategies are needed to improve treatment rates in the HCV/CKD population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012 revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively. A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  18. Alternative calculations of individual patient time in therapeutic range while taking warfarin: results from the ROCKET AF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Daniel E; Hellkamp, Anne S; Yuan, Zhong; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R; Piccini, Jonathan P; Hankey, Graeme J; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L; Becker, Richard C; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M

    2015-03-03

    In the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban-Once-daily, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibition Compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, marked regional differences in control of warfarin anticoagulation, measured as the average individual patient time in the therapeutic range (iTTR) of the international normalized ratio (INR), were associated with longer inter-INR test intervals. The standard Rosendaal approach can produce biased low estimates of TTR after an appropriate dose change if the follow-up INR test interval is prolonged. We explored the effect of alternative calculations of TTR that more immediately account for dose changes on regional differences in mean iTTR in the ROCKET AF trial. We used an INR imputation method that accounts for dose change. We compared group mean iTTR values between our dose change-based method with the standard Rosendaal method and determined that the differences between approaches depended on the balance of dose changes that produced in-range INRs ("corrections") versus INRs that were out of range in the opposite direction ("overshoots"). In ROCKET AF, the overall mean iTTR of 55.2% (Rosendaal) increased up to 3.1% by using the dose change-based approach, depending on assumptions. However, large inter-regional differences in anticoagulation control persisted. TTR, the standard measure of control of warfarin anticoagulation, depends on imputing daily INR values for the vast majority of follow-up days. Our TTR calculation method may better reflect the impact of warfarin dose changes than the Rosendaal approach. In the ROCKET AF trial, this dose change-based approach led to a modest increase in overall mean iTTR but did not materially affect the large inter-regional differences previously reported. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00403767. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  20. Multicenter nit-occlud® PDA-R patent. Ductus arteriosus occlusion device trial: initial and six-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Miguel A; Trentacoste, Luis; Rivarola, Marcelo; Barbosa, Jesus Damsky; Lucini, Victorio; Peirone, Alejandro; Spillman, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Transcatheter closure of a moderate to large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) using conventional techniques is challenging. The Nit-Occlud® PDA-R trial can close a PDA up to 8 mm in diameter. We sought to report procedural and six-month efficacy and safety results of the multicenter Nit-Occlud® PDA-R trial. From June 2010 to February 2011, 43 patients were enrolled in three centers from Argentina. Median age was 4.5 (range 1.4-18.4 years) years old at catheterization, 70% were females and weight was 17.7 (range 10-67 kg). PDAs mean diameter was 2.98 ± 1.03 and ranged from 2 to 6.19 mm. About 11.6% were large (≥4 mm), whereas 32.6% were <2.5 mm. Median pulmonary artery mean pressure was 17 mm Hg (range 9-26 mm Hg). The device was implanted successfully in all patients. By echocardiography, trivial residual shunt was observed in 42% at the end of the procedure, in 28% at 24 hr, in 12.1% at one week, and none at three-months. There was one case of embolization (due to undersizing), that was treated successfully with a larger study device. There were no major short- or long-term complications. PDAs ranging from 2 to 6 mm can be effectively and safely closed using the Nit-Occlud® PDA-R device, with good procedural and six-month results. The Nit-Occlud® PDA-R emerges as an optimal alternative for closure of small to moderate PDAs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Involving local health departments in community health partnerships: evaluation results from the partnership for the public's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Hsu, Clarissa; Schwartz, Pamela M; Pearson, David; Greenwald, Howard P; Beery, William L; Flores, George; Casey, Maria Campbell

    2008-03-01

    Improving community health "from the ground up" entails a comprehensive ecological approach, deep involvement of community-based entities, and addressing social determinants of population health status. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of the Surgeon General, and other authorities have called for public health to be an "inter-sector" enterprise, few models have surfaced that feature local health departments as a key part of the collaborative model for effecting community-level change. This paper presents evaluation findings and lessons learned from the Partnership for the Public's Health (PPH), a comprehensive community initiative that featured a central role for local health departments with their community partners. Funded by The California Endowment, PPH provided technical and financial resources to 39 community partnerships in 14 local health department jurisdictions in California to promote community and health department capacity building and community-level policy and systems change designed to produce long-term improvements in population health. The evaluation used multiple data sources to create progress ratings for each partnership in five goal areas related to capacity building, community health improvement programs, and policy and systems change. Overall results were generally positive; in particular, of the 37 partnerships funded continuously throughout the 5 years of the initiative, between 25% and 40% were able to make a high level of progress in each of the Initiative's five goal areas. Factors associated with partnership success were also identified by local evaluators. These results showed that health departments able to work effectively with community groups had strong, committed leaders who used creative financing mechanisms, inclusive planning processes, organizational changes, and open communication to promote collaboration with the communities they served.

  2. Ranging the Results Achieved in Biomotoric and Specific-Motoric Skills in Handball Players and Non-Athletes Cadet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldijana Muratović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research is to establish differences in biomotoric space with young people at the age of cadets (14 ± 6 months; 15 ± 6 months from Montenegro. The study covers a sample of 500 respondents in total, where 400 of the students are not angaged in organized training process (non-athletes and 100 are handball players of organized trainings. Biomotoric space is treated with twenty one (21 variables that hypothetically cover the space of: segmented speed, flexibility, explosive leg power, explosive power of arm and shoulder, repetitive power, coordination and balance. The space of specific motoric abilities is tested with five (5 variables that hypotetically cover the space of: shot precision, ball handling capability, slalom running speed, speed in ball control in movement and speed of movement without ball. Data obtained from the tests is calculated on basic statistic approaches. The paper presents the rank of biomotoric and specific-motoric abilities for each group of respondents to the results obtained. The obtained results suggest the following conclusions as most significant: 1 in the space of biomotoric abilities better results achieved the handball players from the Continental region against those of Mediterranien; 2 in specific biomotoric abilities handball players from the Continental region marked better results as against those of the Mediterranien; 3 in biomotoric abilities handball players achieved better results in comparison with the non-athletes; and 4 in specific biomotoric abilities handball players achieved better results in comparison with the non-athletes.

  3. Parallel Mutations Result in a Wide Range of Cooperation and Community Consequences in a Two-Species Bacterial Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Douglas

    Full Text Available Multi-species microbial communities play a critical role in human health, industry, and waste remediation. Recently, the evolution of synthetic consortia in the laboratory has enabled adaptation to be addressed in the context of interacting species. Using an engineered bacterial consortium, we repeatedly evolved cooperative genotypes and examined both the predictability of evolution and the phenotypes that determine community dynamics. Eight Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains evolved methionine excretion sufficient to support growth of an Escherichia coli methionine auxotroph, from whom they required excreted growth substrates. Non-synonymous mutations in metA, encoding homoserine trans-succinylase (HTS, were detected in each evolved S. enterica methionine cooperator and were shown to be necessary for cooperative consortia growth. Molecular modeling was used to predict that most of the non-synonymous mutations slightly increase the binding affinity for HTS homodimer formation. Despite this genetic parallelism and trend of increasing protein binding stability, these metA alleles gave rise to a wide range of phenotypic diversity in terms of individual versus group benefit. The cooperators with the highest methionine excretion permitted nearly two-fold faster consortia growth and supported the highest fraction of E. coli, yet also had the slowest individual growth rates compared to less cooperative strains. Thus, although the genetic basis of adaptation was quite similar across independent origins of cooperative phenotypes, quantitative measurements of metabolite production were required to predict either the individual-level growth consequences or how these propagate to community-level behavior.

  4. Parallel Mutations Result in a Wide Range of Cooperation and Community Consequences in a Two-Species Bacterial Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Sarah M; Chubiz, Lon M; Harcombe, William R; Ytreberg, F Marty; Marx, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-species microbial communities play a critical role in human health, industry, and waste remediation. Recently, the evolution of synthetic consortia in the laboratory has enabled adaptation to be addressed in the context of interacting species. Using an engineered bacterial consortium, we repeatedly evolved cooperative genotypes and examined both the predictability of evolution and the phenotypes that determine community dynamics. Eight Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains evolved methionine excretion sufficient to support growth of an Escherichia coli methionine auxotroph, from whom they required excreted growth substrates. Non-synonymous mutations in metA, encoding homoserine trans-succinylase (HTS), were detected in each evolved S. enterica methionine cooperator and were shown to be necessary for cooperative consortia growth. Molecular modeling was used to predict that most of the non-synonymous mutations slightly increase the binding affinity for HTS homodimer formation. Despite this genetic parallelism and trend of increasing protein binding stability, these metA alleles gave rise to a wide range of phenotypic diversity in terms of individual versus group benefit. The cooperators with the highest methionine excretion permitted nearly two-fold faster consortia growth and supported the highest fraction of E. coli, yet also had the slowest individual growth rates compared to less cooperative strains. Thus, although the genetic basis of adaptation was quite similar across independent origins of cooperative phenotypes, quantitative measurements of metabolite production were required to predict either the individual-level growth consequences or how these propagate to community-level behavior.

  5. Initial results for the depth of the winds on Jupiter as inferred from the Juno gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, E.; Kaspi, Y.

    2017-09-01

    One of the primary goals of the Juno mission is to obtain a high precision gravity spectrum of the planet. Such data can be used to estimate the depth of Jupiter's observed cloud-level wind. Here we present the initial results from these gravity measurements which allow calculation of the depth and vertical profile of the observed zonal flows. In light of the Juno gravity measurement first results, we discuss the Juno gravity experiment and the implications regarding Jupiter's differential rotation and atmospheric flows. Particularly we focus on the odd gravity moments, which reflect asymmetries between the northern and southern hemispheres and therefore are a pure signature of the dynamics with no contribution from the static planet. We also discuss the contribution of the flow to the even harmonics and it's implications to the study of Jupiter's density structure and shape.

  6. Preliminary results of Terabit-per-second long-range free-space optical transmission Experiment THRUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giggenbach, D.; Poliak, J.; Mata-Calvo, R.; Fuchs, C.; Perlot, N.; Freund, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-10-01

    Future Very High Throughput Satellite Systems (VHTS) will perform at several Tbit/s throughput and thus face the challenge of limited feeder-link spectrum. Whereas with conventional RF feeder links several tens of ground gateway stations would be required, the total capacity can alternatively be linked through a single optical ground station using Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) techniques as known from terrestrial fiber communications. While intermittent link blockage by clouds can be compensated by ground station diversity, the optical uplink signal is directly affected by scintillation and beam wander induced by the atmospheric index-of-refraction turbulence. The transmission system must be capable to mitigate these distortions by according high-speed tracking and fading compensation techniques. We report on the design of a near-ground long-range (10km) atmospheric transmission test-bed which is, with its relatively low elevation of 1.8 degrees, exemplary for a worst case GEO uplink scenario. The transmitting side of the test-bed consists of a single telescope with a a fine pointing assembly in order to track the atmospheric angle-ofarrival and precisely aim towards the beacon of the receiver. On the other side of the test-bed, the receiver telescope is also capable of fine pointing by tracking the transmitted signal. The GEO uplink scenario is modelled by a precise scaling of the beam divergence and the receiver's field of view as well as by the beacon offset to model the point-ahead angle. In order to make the experimental test-bed correspond to an actual feeder link scenario, the link budget as well as the turbulence profile of the experimental scenario are modelled and compared to the GEO uplink. Several DWDM channels are multiplexed to reach the total link capacity of above one Tbit/s.

  7. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN, FEV1 < LLN, and FVC < LLN. The LLN values were determined by equations from the GLI and NHANES datasets. Spirometry interpreted using the NHANES III equations showed: 102 individuals (33.9%) with normal spirometry, 136 (45.2%) with an OVD pattern, 52 (17.3%) with a TRVD pattern, and 11 (3.7%) with a mixed pattern. When the spirometry data were interpreted using the GLI 2012 equations 2 (0.7%) individuals changed from OVD to NVP, 2 (0.7%) changed from NVP to OVD and 14 (4.7%) changed from TRVD to NVP. Using the GLI 2012 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  8. Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model: Benchmarks and Results from a Wide Range of Numerical Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification of uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.

  9. The impact of switching to the new global lung function initiative equations on spirometry results in the UK CF registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sanja; Stocks, Janet; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Aurora, Paul; Kirkby, Jane; Bourke, Stephen; Carr, Siobhán B; Gunn, Elaine; Prasad, Ammani; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Bilton, Diana

    2014-05-01

    The Quanjer et al. Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI)-2012 multi-ethnic all-age reference equations for spirometry are endorsed by all major respiratory societies and are the new gold standard. Before the GLI equations are implemented for use in CF patients, the impact of changing equations from those currently used needs to be better understood. Annual review data submitted to the UK CF Trust Registry between 2007 and 2011 were used to calculate %predicted FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC using three widely used reference equations (Wang-Hankinson and Knudson) and the new GLI-2012 equations. Overall, Knudson and Wang equations overestimated %predicted values in paediatric patients, such that a greater proportion of patients had lung function values in the normal range. Within individual patients, the impact of switching equations varied greatly depending on the patients' age, and which equations were used. A unified approach to interpreting spirometric lung function measurements would help facilitate more appropriate comparison both within and between centres and countries. Interpretation of longitudinal measurements using a continuous reference equation across all-ages, like the GLI, may further improve our understanding of CF lung disease. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Building Capacity for Trauma-Informed Care in the Child Welfare System: Initial Results of a Statewide Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason M; Campbell, Kimberly; Shanley, Paul; Crusto, Cindy A; Connell, Christian M

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to childhood trauma is a major public health concern and is especially prevalent among children in the child welfare system (CWS). State and tribal CWSs are increasingly focusing efforts on identifying and serving children exposed to trauma through the creation of trauma-informed systems. This evaluation of a statewide initiative in Connecticut describes the strategies used to create a trauma-informed CWS, including workforce development, trauma screening, policy change, and improved access to evidence-based trauma-focused treatments during the initial 2-year implementation period. Changes in system readiness and capacity to deliver trauma-informed care were evaluated using stratified random samples of child welfare staff who completed a comprehensive assessment prior to (N = 223) and 2 years following implementation (N = 231). Results indicated significant improvements in trauma-informed knowledge, practice, and collaboration across nearly all child welfare domains assessed, suggesting system-wide improvements in readiness and capacity to provide trauma-informed care. Variability across domains was observed, and frontline staff reported greater improvements than supervisors/managers in some domains. Lessons learned and recommendations for implementation and evaluation of trauma-informed care in child welfare and other child-serving systems are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenberg, E M; Dromain, C; Diekmann, F; Engelken, F; Krohn, M; Singh, J M; Ingold-Heppner, B; Winzer, K J; Bick, U; Renz, D M

    2014-01-01

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is slowly being introduced into clinical practice. • Access to breast MRI is limited by availability and lack of reimbursement. • Initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI than conventional mammography. • CESM showed a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography offers promise, seemingly providing information comparable to MRI.

  12. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  13. Two-dimensional high-resolution motility mapping in the isolated feline duodenum: methodology and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, W J; Dhanasekaran, S; Slack, J R; Stephen, B

    2001-08-01

    Several types of electrical events occur in the small intestine but their spatial and temporal contributions to overall motility are not clear. In order to quantify local motility in greater detail, a new technique of recording and analysing movements at multiple sites was developed. Use was made of isolated segments of feline duodenum superfused in a tissue bath. Multiple marker dots (20-75) were placed on the serosal surface by applying fine spots of candle soot in rectangular arrays (1-2 mm dot separation). A digital video camera was used to record spontaneous movements of the dots for periods of 10-30 min. After each experiment, 4-6 periods (10-60 s each) of video frames were transferred to a computer (25 fps, 720 x 576 pixels) and the movements of the dots was tracked every 40 ms using custom-made software. Initial results (eight experiments) show that spontaneous motility is remarkably variable, both in space and time. Three types of movement could be discerned: (i) periodic, rolling or pendular movements, with a frequency of approximately 15 min-1 occurring predominantly in the longitudinal direction; (ii) twitches, wherein a subset of dots were suddenly displaced longitudinally; and (iii) drifts of most of the dots in a circular or oblique direction. All three types of movement occurred throughout every recording session although their relative magnitudes differed greatly from moment to moment. Occasionally, it was possible to detect propagated 'contractions' with an apparent velocity of 10 mm s(-1). Immobilizing the preparation at one point by inserting a needle through the middle of the array of markers had a negligible effect on the displacements, whereas application of verapamil (10(-5) mol L(-1)) reduced or abolished motility. In summary, we present a new technique to map in detail two-dimensional motility at the surface of the intestine. Initial results seem to suggest that motility at the serosal surface is not uniform and highly anisotropic.

  14. Involving Local Health Departments in Community Health Partnerships: Evaluation Results from the Partnership for the Public’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Clarissa; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Pearson, David; Greenwald, Howard P.; Beery, William L.; Flores, George; Casey, Maria Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Improving community health “from the ground up” entails a comprehensive ecological approach, deep involvement of community-based entities, and addressing social determinants of population health status. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of the Surgeon General, and other authorities have called for public health to be an “inter-sector” enterprise, few models have surfaced that feature local health departments as a key part of the collaborative model for effecting community-level change. This paper presents evaluation findings and lessons learned from the Partnership for the Public’s Health (PPH), a comprehensive community initiative that featured a central role for local health departments with their community partners. Funded by The California Endowment, PPH provided technical and financial resources to 39 community partnerships in 14 local health department jurisdictions in California to promote community and health department capacity building and community-level policy and systems change designed to produce long-term improvements in population health. The evaluation used multiple data sources to create progress ratings for each partnership in five goal areas related to capacity building, community health improvement programs, and policy and systems change. Overall results were generally positive; in particular, of the 37 partnerships funded continuously throughout the 5 years of the initiative, between 25% and 40% were able to make a high level of progress in each of the Initiative’s five goal areas. Factors associated with partnership success were also identified by local evaluators. These results showed that health departments able to work effectively with community groups had strong, committed leaders who used creative financing mechanisms, inclusive planning processes, organizational changes, and open communication to promote collaboration with the communities they served. PMID:18259870

  15. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Waugh

    Full Text Available Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive at either urogenital (UGT and/or ocular sites (Oc, but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking, results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  16. Predicting the results of uterine artery embolization: correlation between initial intramural fibroid volume and percentage volume decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Sławomir; Szkodziak, Piotr; Woźniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Maciej; Wrona, Wojciech; Milart, Paweł; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Popajewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objective Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive treatment option for symptomatic fibroids. Long-term follow-up studies have shown that at five-year follow-up after UAE, up to 30% of patients required a hysterectomy. Therefore, it seems of utmost importance to identify patients, who are unlikely to benefit from UAE. It has been postulated that the percentage volume reduction of fibroids may predict long-term UAE outcome. The results of available studies are equivocal, therefore it seemed of interest to investigate the correlation between the preinterventional intramural fibroid volume and imaging outcome of UAE in premenopausal patients. Material and methods Uterine artery embolization was performed in 65 premenopausal patients with symptomatic, intramural fibroids. Dominant fibroid volume was assessed using an integrated VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) imaging program at baseline and 3 months after UAE. The percentage reduction of fibroid volume was calculated. The association between preinterventional fibroid volumes and percentage volume reductions was determined with the Spearman rank correlation test. Results Before UAE, the median dominant fibroid volume was 101 cm3 (range 23.6-610). At three-month follow-up the median dominant leiomyoma volume decreased to 50.4 cm3 (range 6.9-193.9). Median percentage reduction of fibroid volume three months after UAE was calculated at 50.1% (range 2.7-93.5). The Spearman correlation test between the preinterventional dominant fibroid volume and percentage volume reduction showed a statistically significant, positive correlation (R = 0.33; p = 0.006). Conclusions The percentage volume reduction of intramural leiomyomas after UAE seems to be more pronounced in the case of larger tumors. PMID:26327862

  17. Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD) of Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase satellite: specifications and initial evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Imachi, Tomohiko; Yagitani, Satoshi; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Matsuda, Shoya; Shoji, Masafumi; Kurita, Satoshi; Hori, Tomoaki; Shinbori, Atsuki; Teramoto, Mariko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Naoko; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Nomura, Reiko

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes the specifications and initial evaluation results of Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD), the key components for the electric field measurement of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase (ERG) satellite. WPT consists of two pairs of dipole antennas with 31-m tip-to-tip length. Each antenna element has a spherical probe (60 mm diameter) at each end of the wire (15 m length). They are extended orthogonally in the spin plane of the spacecraft, which is roughly perpendicular to the Sun and enables to measure the electric field in the frequency range of DC to 10 MHz. This system is almost identical to the WPT of Plasma Wave Investigation aboard the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, except for the material of the spherical probe (ERG: Al alloy, MMO: Ti alloy). EFD is a part of the EWO (EFD/WFC/OFA) receiver and measures the 2-ch electric field at a sampling rate of 512 Hz (dynamic range: ± 200 mV/m) and the 4-ch spacecraft potential at a sampling rate of 128 Hz (dynamic range: ± 100 V and ± 3 V/m), with the bias control capability of WPT. The electric field waveform provides (1) fundamental information about the plasma dynamics and accelerations and (2) the characteristics of MHD and ion waves in various magnetospheric statuses with the magnetic field measured by MGF and PWE-MSC. The spacecraft potential provides information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure combined with the electron density obtained from the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided by PWE-HFA. EFD has two data modes. The continuous (medium-mode) data are provided as (1) 2-ch waveforms at 64 Hz (in apoapsis mode, L > 4) or 256 Hz (in periapsis mode, L < 4), (2) 1-ch spectrum within 1-232 Hz with 1-s resolution, and (3) 4-ch spacecraft potential at 8 Hz. The burst (high-mode) data are intermittently obtained as (4) 2-ch waveforms at 512 Hz and (5) 4-ch spacecraft potential at 128 Hz and downloaded with the WFC

  18. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  19. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.

  20. Collagen cross-linking in early keratoconus with riboflavin in a femtosecond laser-created pocket: initial clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel femtosecond laser-assisted technique for intrastromal administration of riboflavin and higher fluence ultraviolet a (UVA) light in collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus. Ten eyes with early keratoconus were treated with CXL and followed for a mean of 26 months (range: 18 to 36 months). Using a femtosecond laser, a 100-microm deep, 7-mm diameter intrastromal pocket was created. Two 0.1-mL doses of 0.1% riboflavin solution were infused into the pocket and the cornea was irradiated with 7 mW/cm2 UVA light of mean 370 nm wavelength for 15 minutes. Mean uncorrected visual acuity improved from 20/40.5 to 20/32.5 best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was unchanged at 20/20, mean sphere was reduced by 0.50 diopters (D), mean cylinder was reduced by 0.90 D, and maximum mean keratometry (K) reduced from 48.7 to 47.90 D. No ectasia progression (defined as increase in K over 3-month follow-up) and no statistically significant change in endothelial cell count was noted during follow-up. The mean thinnest corneal thickness appeared to initially reduce but the mean returned to at least the preoperative level by 18 months. All patients returned to full activities within 1 day postoperative. No adverse effects were noted in any of the cases studies. This novel epithelium-sparing, rapid soak-and-treat method of intrastromal riboflavin instillation and higher fluence UVA light for CXL appears to be safe and effective. No negative biomechanical effect (ectasia/epithelial ingrowth) was noted due to the femtosecond laser-created pocket. Because minimal epithelial injury occurs using this technique, postoperative pain appears to be significantly reduced.

  1. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Mortality in a Large Multiethnic Postmenopausal Cohort-Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Klimentidis, Yann C; Bea, Jennifer W; Ernst, Kacey C; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether the relationship between anthropometric measurements of obesity and mortality varies according to age, race, and ethnicity in older women. Prospective cohort study of multiethnic postmenopausal women. Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study and clinical trials in 40 clinics. Postmenopausal women aged 50-79 participating in WHI (N = 161,808). Baseline height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on height and weight. Demographic, health, and lifestyle data from a baseline questionnaire were used as covariates. The outcome was adjudicated death (n = 18,320) during a mean follow-up of 11.4 ± 3.2 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) indicated that ethnicity and age modified (P mortality. Underweight was associated with higher mortality, but overweight or slight obesity was not a risk factor for mortality in most ethnic groups except for Hispanic women in the obesity I category (HR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.04-1.95). BMI was not or was only weakly associated with mortality in individuals aged 70-79 (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.85-0.95 for overweight; HR = 0.98, 95 CI = 0.92-1.06 for obese I; HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.00-1.23 for obese II; HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.92-1.26 for obese III). In contrast, higher central obesity measured using WC was consistently associated with higher mortality in all groups. Underweight is a significant risk factor for mortality in older women, and healthy BMI ranges may need to be specific for age, race, and ethnicity. The findings support a consistent relationship between central obesity and mortality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Immediate and intermediate-term results of optical coherence tomography guided atherectomy in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease: Initial results from the VISION trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawich, Ian; Paixao, Andre R.M. [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Peripheral Vascular Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos [Citizens Memorial Heart and Vascular Institute, Bolivar, MO (United States); University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Lendel, Vasili; Rodriguez-Araujo, Gerardo; Rollefson, William A.; Mego, David M. [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Peripheral Vascular Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Cilingiroglu, Mehmet, E-mail: Cilingiroglumehmet@gmail.com [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Peripheral Vascular Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Koc University, School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-10-15

    success, no device related complications and encouraging clinical results up to 6 months. • Histological analysis of the initial single-center experience of the VISION study suggested little injury to the media and adventitia.

  3. Full Life-Cycle Defect Management Assessment: Initial Inspection Data Collection Results and Research Questions for Further Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    It is often the case in software projects that when schedule and budget resources are limited, the Verification and Validation (V&V) activities suffer. Fewer V&V activities can be afforded and moreover, short-term challenges can result in V&V activities being scaled back or dropped altogether. As a result, too often the default solution is to save activities for improving software quality until too late in the life-cycle, relying on late-term code inspections followed by thorough testing activities to reduce defect counts to acceptable levels. As many project managers realize, however, this is a resource-intensive way of achieving the required quality for software. The Full Life-cycle Defect Management Assessment Initiative, funded by NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance under the Software Assurance Research Program, aims to address these problems by: Improving the effectiveness of early life-cycle V&V activities to make their benefits more attractive to team leads. Specifically, we focus on software inspection, a proven method that can be applied to any software work product, long before executable code has been developed; Better communicating this effectiveness to software development teams, along with suggestions for parameters to improve in the future to increase effectiveness; Analyzing the impact of early life-cycle V&V on the effectiveness and cost required for late life-cycle V&V activities, such as testing, in order to make the tradeoffs more apparent. This white paper reports on an initial milestone in this work, the development of a preliminary model of inspection effectiveness across multiple NASA Centers. This model contributes toward reaching our project goals by: Allowing an examination of inspection parameters, across different types of projects and different work products, for an analysis of factors that impact defect detection effectiveness. Allowing a comparison of this NASA-specific model to existing recommendations in the literature

  4. Design and initial results of a programme for routine standardised longitudinal follow-up after congenital heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sara K; Ravishankar, Chitra; Romano, Jennifer C; Kane, Kristin; Viers, Suzanne; Kennedy, Andrea; Burnham, Nancy; Lowery, Ray; Uzark, Karen; Retzloff, Lauren; Rome, Jonathon J; Rossano, Joseph W; Charpie, John R; Spray, Thomas L; Gaies, Michael G; Ohye, Richard G; Gaynor, J William

    2016-12-01

    With improvements in early survival following congenital heart surgery, it has become increasingly important to understand longer-term outcomes; however, routine collection of these data is challenging and remains very limited. We describe the development and initial results of a collaborative programme incorporating standardised longitudinal follow-up into usual care at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and University of Michigan (UM). We included children undergoing benchmark operations of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Considerations regarding personnel, patient/parent engagement, funding, regulatory issues, and annual data collection are described, and initial follow-up rates are reported. The present analysis included 1737 eligible patients undergoing surgery at CHOP from January 2007 to December 2014 and 887 UM patients from January 2010 to December 2014. Overall, follow-up data, of any type, were obtained from 90.8% of patients at CHOP (median follow-up 4.3 years, 92.2% survival) and 98.3% at UM (median follow-up 2.8 years, 92.7% survival), with similar rates across operations and institutions. Most patients lost to follow-up at CHOP had undergone surgery before 2010. Standardised questionnaires assessing burden of disease/quality of life were completed by 80.2% (CHOP) and 78.4% (UM) via phone follow-up. In subsequent pilot testing of an automated e-mail system, 53.4% of eligible patients completed the follow-up questionnaire through this system. Standardised follow-up data can be obtained on the majority of children undergoing benchmark operations. Ongoing efforts to support automated electronic systems and integration with registry data may reduce resource needs, facilitate expansion across centres, and support multi-centre efforts to understand and improve long-term outcomes in this population.

  5. Parenteral nutrition results in impaired lactose digestion and hexose absorption when enteral feeding is initiated in infant pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrin, Douglas G; Stoll, Barbara; Chang, Xiaoyan; Van Goudoever, Johannes B; Fujii, Hisao; Hutson, Susan M; Reeds, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    Preterm infants often receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before enteral feeding. Although TPN has been linked to mucosal atrophy, its effects on intestinal digestion, absorption, and metabolism are unknown. Our aim was to determine the effects of TPN on rates of intestinal nutrient absorption and metabolism in infant pigs after initiation of enteral feeding. Piglets were surgically implanted with catheters in the carotid artery, jugular vein, portal vein, and duodenum; an ultrasonic blood flow probe was inserted in the portal vein. Piglets were given TPN (TPN group) or enterally fed formula (enteral group) for 6 d. On day 7, both groups were enterally fed a milk-based formula, and the net portal absorption and metabolism of enteral [(2)H]glucose and [(13)C]leucine were measured. After enteral feeding began, portal blood flow increased by 27% and 41% above the basal rate in the enteral and TPN groups, respectively; oxygen consumption remained lower in the TPN group. During enteral feeding, the net portal absorption of glucose was lower in the TPN group and that of galactose was not significantly different between the groups; lactate release was higher in the TPN group. Portal absorption accounted for only approximately 37% of galactose intake in both groups. The TPN group had lower net portal absorption of arginine, lysine, threonine, and glycine. The portal absorption of dietary leucine was not significantly different between the groups; the arterial utilization and oxidation of leucine were significantly lower in the TPN group. Short-term TPN results in decreased lactose digestion and hexose absorption and increased intestinal utilization of key essential amino acids when enteral feeding is initiated in piglets.

  6. FOREST unbiased Galactic plane imaging survey with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (FUGIN). I. Project overview and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Tomofumi; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Kuno, Nario; Fujita, Shinji; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Torii, Kazufumi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kohno, Mikito; Kuriki, Mika; Tsuda, Yuya; Hirota, Akihiko; Ohashi, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Handa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Koide, Nagito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Tokuda, Kazuki; Seta, Masumichi; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Tachihara, Kengo; Sano, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Onodera, Sachiko; Oasa, Yumiko; Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Tsuboi, Masato; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Higuchi, Aya E.; Chibueze, James O.; Mizuno, Norikazu; Honma, Mareki; Muller, Erik; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Ozawa, Takeaki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Costes, Jean; Kuwahara, Sho

    2017-10-01

    The FUGIN project is one of legacy projects using a new multi-beam FOREST (four-beam receiver system on the 45 m telescope). This project aims to simultaneously investigate the distribution, kinematics, and physical properties of both diffuse and dense molecular gases in the Galaxy by observing 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 1-0 lines simultaneously. Mapping regions are parts of the first quadrant (10° ≤ l ≤ 50°, |b| ≤ 1°) and the third quadrant (198° ≤ l ≤ 236°, |b| ≤ 1°) of the Galaxy, where spiral arms, bar structure, and the molecular gas ring are included. This survey achieves the highest angular resolution to date (˜20″) for the Galactic plane survey in the CO J = 1-0 lines, which makes it possible to find dense clumps located farther away than the previous surveys. FUGIN will provide us an invaluable dataset for investigating the physics of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM), particularly the evolution of interstellar gas covering galactic-scale structures to the internal structures of giant molecular clouds, such as small filaments/clumps/cores. We present an overview of the FUGIN project, the observation plan and initial results. These results reveal wide-field and detailed structures of molecular clouds, such as entangled filaments that have not been obvious in previous surveys, and large-scale kinematics of molecular gas, such as spiral arms.

  7. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallenberg, E.M.; Renz, D.M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Dromain, C. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif cedex (France); Diekmann, F. [St. Joseph-Stift Bremen, Department of Medical Imaging, Bremen (Germany); Engelken, F.; Krohn, M.; Singh, J.M.; Bick, U. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ingold-Heppner, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Winzer, K.J. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Breast Center, Department of Gynecology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. (orig.)

  8. Disruption of M-T5, a novel myxoma virus gene member of poxvirus host range superfamily, results in dramatic attenuation of myxomatosis in infected European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, K; Lee, S F; Barry, M; Boshkov, L; McFadden, G

    1996-07-01

    Myxoma virus is a pathogenic poxvirus that induces a lethal myxomatosis disease profile in European rabbits, which is characterized by fulminating lesions at the primary site of inoculation, rapid dissemination to secondary internal organs and peripheral external sites, and supervening gram-negative bacterial infection. Here we describe the role of a novel myxoma virus protein encoded by the M-T5 open reading frame during pathogenesis. The myxoma virus M-T5 protein possesses no significant sequence homology to nonviral proteins but is a member of a larger poxviral superfamily designated host range proteins. An M-T5- mutant virus was constructed by disruption of both copies of the M-T5 gene followed by insertion of the selectable marker p7.5Ecogpt. Although the M-T5- deletion mutant replicated with wild-type kinetics in rabbit fibroblasts, infection of a rabbit CD4+ T-cell line (RL5) with the myxoma virus M-T5- mutant virus resulted in the rapid and complete cessation of both host and viral protein synthesis, accompanied by the manifestation of all the classical features of programmed cell death. Infection of primary rabbit peripheral mononuclear cells with the myxoma virus M-T5-mutant virus resulted in the apoptotic death of nonadherent lymphocytes but not adherent monocytes. Within the European rabbit, disruption of the M-T5 open reading frame caused a dramatic attenuation of the rapidly lethal myxomatosis infection, and none of the infected rabbits displayed any of the characteristic features of myxomatosis. The two most significant histological observations in rabbits infected with the M-T5-mutant virus were (i) the lack of progression of the infection past the primary site of inoculation, coupled with the establishment of a rapid and effective inflammatory reaction, and (ii) the inability of the virus to initiate a cellular reaction within secondary immune organs. We conclude that M-T5 functions as a critical virulence factor by allowing productive infection of

  9. China’s National Monitoring Program on Ecological Functions of Forests: An Analysis of the Protocol and Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the ecological functions of forests is important for sustainable forest management. In this study, we introduced the national monitoring program which has been used in China to evaluate the overall health status and ecological functions of forests. We also compared it to similar monitoring programs operating in Europe and the United States of America. We revealed the strength and drawbacks of China’s monitoring program by analyzing the initial evaluation results. Our analysis showed that among the three programs, the European program gives the most detailed measurements of conditions of forests while the U.S. program generates the most detailed information on individual trees. In comparison, China’s monitoring program has a higher spatial resolution but is narrowly focused on trees and uses coarse classifications of indicators. The health status of forests in China suggested that more resources should be invested to improve the health of existing forests, especially plantations. The limitations in China’s monitoring program need to be addressed to improve the accuracy of future assessments.

  10. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: initial results for vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A; Hillman, Robert E; Guttag, John V

    2014-06-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop noninvasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step toward this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, noninvasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to vocal cord nodules, a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over 5-min windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that intersubject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders.

  11. Integrated water vapor from IGS ground-based GPS observations. Initial results from a global 5-min data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, S.; Dick, G.; Gendt, G.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. 1 Geodesy and Remote Sensing

    2009-07-01

    Ground based GPS zenith path delay (ZPD) measurements are well established as a powerful tool for integrated water vapor (IWV) observation. The International GNSS Service (IGS) provides ZPD data of currently more than 300 globally distributed GPS stations. To derive IWV from these data, meteorological information (ground pressure and mean temperature above the station) are needed. Only a limited number of IGS stations is equipped with meteorological ground sensors up to now. Thus, meteorological data for IWV conversion are usually derived from nearby ground meteorological observations (ground pressure) and meteorological analyses (mean temperature). In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the applicability of ground pressure data from ECMWF meteorological analysis fields in this context. Beside simplified data handling (no single station data and quality control) this approach allows for IWV derivation if nearby meteorological stations are not available. Using ECMWF ground pressure and mean temperature data the new IGS 5-min ZPD data set has been converted to IWV for the first time. We present initial results from selected stations with ground meteorological sensors including pressure and temperature comparisons between ECMWF and local measurements. The GPS IWV is generally validated by comparison with ECMWF IWV. The ECMWF derived station meteorological data are compared with local measurements at all accordingly equipped stations. Based on this comparison, the mean error (in terms of standard deviation) introduced by time interpolation of the 6-hourly ECMWF data is estimated below 0.2 mm IWV. (orig.)

  12. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2002-01-01

    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  13. Default Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Early and Late Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eek-Sung; Yoo, Kwangsun; Lee, Young-Beom; Chung, Jinyong; Lim, Ji-Eun; Yoon, Bora; Jeong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is one of the neuroimaging candidate biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. However, no studies have investigated DMN connectivity at different stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of DMN connectivity and its breakdown among cognitively normal (CN), early MCI (EMCI), and late MCI (LMCI) subjects. Magnetic resonance imaging data and neuropsychological test scores from 130 subjects (CN=43, EMCI=47, LMCI=40) were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. DMN functional connectivity was extracted using independent components analysis and compared between groups. Functional connectivity in the precuneus, bilateral medial frontal, parahippocampal, middle temporal, right superior temporal, and left angular gyri was decreased in EMCI subjects compared with CN subjects. When the 2 MCI groups were directly compared, LMCI subjects exhibited decreased functional connectivity in the precuneus, bilateral medial frontal gyri, and left angular gyrus. There was no significant difference in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. Amyloid-positive EMCI subjects revealed more widespread breakdown of DMN connectivity than amyloid-negative EMCI subjects. A quantitative index of DMN connectivity correlated well with measures of cognitive performance. Our results suggest that the breakdown of DMN connectivity may occur in the early stage of MCI.

  14. Building a comprehensive team for the longitudinal care of single ventricle heart defects: Building blocks and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texter, Karen; Davis, Jo Ann M; Phelps, Christina; Cheatham, Sharon; Cheatham, John; Galantowicz, Mark; Feltes, Timothy F

    2017-07-01

    With increasing survival of children with HLHS and other single ventricle lesions, the complexity of medical care for these patients is substantial. Establishing and adhering to best practice models may improve outcome, but requires careful coordination and monitoring. In 2013 our Heart Center began a process to build a comprehensive Single Ventricle Team designed to target these difficult issues. Comprehensive Single Ventricle Team in 2014 was begun, to standardize care for children with single ventricle heart defects from diagnosis to adulthood within our institution. The team is a multidisciplinary group of providers committed to improving outcomes and quality of life for children with single ventricle heart defects, all functioning within the medical home of our heart center. Standards of care were developed and implemented in five target areas to standardize medical management and patient and family support. Under the team 100 patients have been cared for. Since 2014 a decrease in interstage mortality for HLHS were seen. Using a team approach and the tools of Quality Improvement they have been successful in reaching high protocol compliance for each of these areas. This article describes the process of building a successful Single Ventricle team, our initial results, and lessons learned. Additional study is ongoing to demonstrate the effects of these interventions on patient outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Integrated water vapor from IGS ground-based GPS observations: initial results from a global 5-min data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground based GPS zenith path delay (ZPD measurements are well established as a powerful tool for integrated water vapor (IWV observation. The International GNSS Service (IGS provides ZPD data of currently more than 300 globally distributed GPS stations. To derive IWV from these data, meteorological information (ground pressure and mean temperature above the station are needed. Only a limited number of IGS stations is equipped with meteorological ground sensors up to now. Thus, meteorological data for IWV conversion are usually derived from nearby ground meteorological observations (ground pressure and meteorological analyses (mean temperature. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the applicability of ground pressure data from ECMWF meteorological analysis fields in this context. Beside simplified data handling (no single station data and quality control this approach allows for IWV derivation if nearby meteorological stations are not available. Using ECMWF ground pressure and mean temperature data the new IGS 5-min ZPD data set has been converted to IWV for the first time. We present initial results from selected stations with ground meteorological sensors including pressure and temperature comparisons between ECMWF and local measurements. The GPS IWV is generally validated by comparison with ECMWF IWV. The ECMWF derived station meteorological data are compared with local measurements at all accordingly equipped stations. Based on this comparison, the mean error (in terms of standard deviation introduced by time interpolation of the 6-hourly ECMWF data is estimated below 0.2 mm IWV.

  16. Initial Results from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Van Allen Probes ECT Team

    2013-05-01

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of initial results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  17. Initial Results from the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric Atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) on the FASTSAT Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Rowland, Douglas; Keller, John W.; Chornay, Dennis; Khazanov, George; Herrero, Federico; Moore, Thomas E.; Kujawski, Joseph; Casas, Joseph C.; Wilson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The MINI-ME instrument is a collaborative effort between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the U.S. Naval Academy, funded solely through GSFC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) awards. It detects neutral atoms from about 10 eV to about 700 eV (in 30 energy steps) in its current operating configuration with an approximately 10 degree by 360 degree field-of-view, divided into six sectors. The instrument was delivered on August 3, 2009 to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for integration with the FASTSAT-HSV01 small spacecraft bus developed by MSFC and a commercial partner, one of six Space Experiment Review Board (SERB) experiments on FASTSAT and one of three GSFC instruments (PISA and TTI being the other two). The FASTSAT spacecraft was launched on November 21, 2010 from Kodiak, Alaska on a Minotaur IV as a secondary payload and inserted into a 650 km, 72 degree inclination orbit, very nearly circular. MINI-ME has been collecting science data, as spacecraft resources would permit, in "optimal science mode" since January 20, 2011. In this presentation, we report initial science results including the potential first observations of neutral molecular ionospheric outflow. At the time of this abstract, we have identified 15 possible molecular outflow events. All these events occur between about 65 and 82 degrees geomagnetic latitude and most map to the auroral oval. The MINI-ME results provide an excellent framework for interpretation of the MILENA data, two instruments almost identical to MINI-ME that will launch on the VISIONS suborbital mission

  18. Developing Methodologies for Applying TRMM-Estimated Precipitation Data to Hydrological Modeling of a South TX Watershed - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Previous experience with hydrological modeling in South Texas, which is located along the Texas-Mexico border, suggests that NWS ground measurements are too widely scattered to provide reliable precipitation input for modeling. In addition, a significant fraction of the study region is located at the edge of the coverage envelopes of the NWS NEXRAD weather radars present in the region limiting the accuracy of these systems to provide reliable precipitation estimates. Therefore, we are exploring whether TRMM estimated-precipitation data (3B42), in some form, can be used to support hydrological modeling in the Middle Rio Grande and Nueces River Basin watersheds. We have begun our modeling efforts by focusing on the middle Nueces watershed (7770 sq km). To model this largely rural watershed we selected the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Three precipitation datasets were selected for our initial model runs that include: (1) nearest NWS cooperative hourly rain gauge data, (2) three hourly TRMM 3B42 estimated precipitation, and (3) combination TRMM 3B42/NWS rain gauge datasets in which ground measurements are used for three hourly periods lacking high quality satellite microwave precipitation estimates as determined from TRMM 3G68 data. Three dataset were aggregated into an average daily estimate of precipitation for each TRMM grid cell. Manual calibration of was completed achieving model results that yield realistic monthly and annual water balances with both gauge and satellite estimate precipitation datasets. In the future, we plan to use the newly developed automatic calibration routine for SWAT, which is based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm, to optimize modeled discharge results from this study.

  19. Initial results in the development of a highly portable sensor for multi-faceted studies of ocean acidificatio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbacher, E.; Byrne, R. H.; Adornato, L.; Liu, X.

    2016-02-01

    The lowering of seawater pH due to increased anthropogenic carbon dioxide (known as ocean acidification, or OA) has received attention from scientists and lawmakers around the globe. It is generally recognized that many of the laboratories engaged in OA research do not possess the facilities or expertise necessary to measure carbon system parameters at the precision required to produce reliable, actionable results. To address this deficiency, we are developing the next evolution in carbon-system sensors. Drawing on our experience in developing and deploying our multi-parameter inorganic carbon analyzer (MICA) instruments, we will build a new system (MICA III) that will be easy to use and will require virtually no supporting infrastructure. Advances in commercial technology and refinement of our methods enables us to dramatically reduce the size and cost of MICA instrumentation. MICA III will measure three parameters: pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and total alkalinity (TA). Our instrument will include innovative designs for temperature compensation and total alkalinity measurements and will utilize an embedded display/user interface to produce a truly portable (about the size of a large briefcase) sensor for studies of OA and environmental change. Our goal is to develop an instrument that is easily deployed by both chemists and non-chemists to produce carbon system data fully consistent with best practices protocols. In this presentation we discuss overall objectives, highlight the key elements of our initial design, and present results from laboratory calibrations and measurements using certified reference materials. We also share plans for upcoming sensor field evaluations and future development of MICA III.

  20. ["Vibrant Soundbridge" middle ear implant for auditory rehabilitation in sensory hearing loss. I. Clinical aspects, indications and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazert, S; Shehata-Dieler, W E; Dieler, R; Helms, J

    2000-08-01

    The adequate therapy for patients suffering from a sensory hearing loss consists of fitting electronic hearing devices. Conventional hearing aids, however, present with significant inherent drawbacks such as insufficient amplification in the high frequency range, problems with the ear mold (feed back, occlusion, external otitis), or distortion of sound with an "unnatural" hearing impression. The partially implantable middle ear device Vibrant Soundbridge provides a sound wave conversion into mechanical vibrations at the middle ear ossicles using the Floating Mass Transducer (FMT). The audiological advantages are due to a direct moving force to the perilymph via incus and stapes. The Vibrant Soundbridge system is indicated in patients with a medium to severe symmetrical sensory hearing loss and a normal middle ear. Candidates need previous experience with conventional hearing aids without satisfactory results. The eight operated patients report a "natural" quality of sound and speech, a better hearing perception at high frequencies and the absence of feed back phenomena. Audiological evaluation and questionnair results support the patients subjective hearing impression. The Vibrant Soundbridge improves hearing quality in patients with sensory hearing loss. The hearing implant is indicated in particular in patients that are unable to wear conventional hearing aids.

  1. Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach

  2. Printed Three-dimensional Anatomic Templates for Virtual Preoperative Planning Before Reconstruction of Old Pelvic Injuries: Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Old pelvis fractures are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of their complex anatomy, difficult-to-access surgical sites, and the relatively low incidence of such cases. Proper evaluation and surgical planning are necessary to achieve the pelvic ring symmetry and stable fixation of the fracture. The goal of this study was to assess the use of three-dimensional (3D printing techniques for surgical management of old pelvic fractures. Methods: First, 16 dried human cadaveric pelvises were used to confirm the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models printed based on radiographic data. Next, nine clinical cases between January 2009 and April 2013 were used to evaluate the surgical reconstruction based on the 3D printed models. The pelvic injuries were all type C, and the average time from injury to reconstruction was 11 weeks (range: 8-17 weeks. The workflow consisted of: (1 Printing patient-specific bone models based on preoperative computed tomography (CT scans, (2 virtual fracture reduction using the printed 3D anatomic template, (3 virtual fracture fixation using Kirschner wires, and (4 preoperatively measuring the osteotomy and implant position relative to landmarks using the virtually defined deformation. These models aided communication between surgical team members during the procedure. This technique was validated by comparing the preoperative planning to the intraoperative procedure. Results: The accuracy of the 3D printed models was within specification. Production of a model from standard CT DICOM data took 7 hours (range: 6-9 hours. Preoperative planning using the 3D printed models was feasible in all cases. Good correlation was found between the preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up X-ray in all nine cases. The patients were followed for 3-29 months (median: 5 months. The fracture healing time was 9-17 weeks (mean: 10 weeks. No delayed incision healing, wound infection, or nonunions occurred. The

  3. How long does it take to initiate a child on long-term invasive ventilation? Results from a Canadian pediatric home ventilation program

    OpenAIRE

    Reshma Amin; Aarti Sayal; Faiza Syed; Cathy Daniels; Andrea Hoffman; Moraes, Theo J; Peter Cox

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the length of stay required to initiate long-term invasive ventilation at the authors’ institution, which would inform future interventional strategies to streamline the in-hospital stay for these families.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children initiated on invasive long-term ventilation via tracheostomy at the authors’ acute care centre between January 2005 and December 2013 was performed.RESULTS: Thirty-five children were initiated on long-term invasive venti...

  4. Relationship of sedentary behavior and physical activity to incident cardiovascular disease: results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lu, Bing; Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Going, Scott B; Garcia, Lorena; Allison, Matthew A; Sims, Stacy T; LaMonte, Michael J; Johnson, Karen C; Eaton, Charles B

    2013-06-11

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of sitting time and physical activity with risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sedentary behavior is recognized as a distinct construct beyond lack of leisure-time physical activity, but limited data exist on the interrelationship between these 2 components of energy balance. Participants in the prospective Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (n = 71,018), 50 to 79 years of age and free of CVD at baseline (1993 to 1998), provided information on sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting/day, and usual physical activity at baseline and during follow-up through September 2010. First CVD (coronary heart disease or stroke) events were centrally adjudicated. Sitting ≥10 h/day compared with ≤5 h/day was associated with increased CVD risk (hazard ratio: 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 1.29) in multivariable models including physical activity. Low physical activity was also associated with higher CVD risk (p for trend physical activity (p for interaction = 0.94), CVD risk was highest in inactive women (≤1.7 metabolic equivalent task-h/week) who also reported ≥10 h/day of sitting. Results were similar for coronary heart disease and stroke when examined separately. Associations between prolonged sitting and risk of CVD were stronger in overweight versus normal weight women and women 70 years of age and older compared with younger women. Prolonged sitting time was associated with increased CVD risk, independent of leisure-time physical activity, in postmenopausal women without a history of CVD. A combination of low physical activity and prolonged sitting augments CVD risk. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  6. How well are we supporting hospice staff? Initial results of the Survey of Team Attitudes and Relationships (STAR) validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaseem, Brye; Shea, Judy; Connor, Stephen R; Casarett, David

    2007-10-01

    Despite the emotional and interpersonal challenges that hospice staff face in providing care to patients near the end of life, no systematic effort has been made to evaluate the work environment that hospices provide to their staff. The aim of this project was to develop a job satisfaction survey that could be used to evaluate the hospice work environment and, ultimately, to guide interventions to improve the work experience for hospice staff. A first draft of the Survey of Team Attitudes and Relationships (STAR) was developed through semi-structured interviews with an interdisciplinary sample of staff from nine hospices, and then refined with input from additional interviews and from an expert panel. The draft was tested on larger samples of staff (n=160) from six hospices and revised with input from the expert panel. The final survey was tested with 599 staff from 10 hospices. The final survey contains 45 items in six domains: individual work rewards, teamwork, management support, organizational support, workload issues, and global assessment of job satisfaction. Items had excellent psychometric characteristics, with acceptable floor and ceiling effects. The overall STAR had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.93, indicating good homogeneity, and each domain had alpha values that are appropriate for between-group comparisons (range 0.74-0.84). These results suggest that the STAR offers a unique instrument to measure the work environment hospices provide to their staff.

  7. Enabling parents who smoke to prevent their children from initiating smoking: results from a 3-year intervention evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Dickinson, Denise

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate effects of a home-based antismoking socialization program on the initiation of smoking among children whose parents smoke. Three-year randomized controlled trial. Parents who were current smokers and had a child in the third grade who had not tried smoking were eligible; 873 parents-offspring pairs met these criteria, completed baseline interviews, and were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition; 776 children (89%) completed an interview 3 years after baseline and were included in the study. During 3 months, the intervention group (n = 371) received 5 printed activity guides, parenting tip sheets, child newsletters, and incentives; this group also received a booster activity guide 1 year later. The control group (n = 405) received fact sheets about smoking. Initiation of smoking (first instance of puffing on a cigarette) was reported by 12% vs 19% of children in the intervention vs control groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the control condition had twice the odds of reporting initiation of smoking as children in the intervention condition (adjusted odds ratio, 2.16; Psex, parent sex, parent race, parent educational achievement, child's best friends' smoking, parent smoking rate at baseline, and parent cessation status. Children in the pre-initiation phase of smoking who receive antismoking socialization from their parents are less likely to initiate smoking, even if their parents smoke.

  8. Stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and inverse treatment planning for advanced pleural mesothelioma. Feasibility and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenter, M.W.; Thilmann, C.; Hof, H.; Debus, J. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, S.; Hoess, A.; Partridge, M. [Dept. of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Haering, P. [Dept. of Central Dosimetry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Manegold, C. [Dept. of Medical Oncology/Internal Medicine, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg gGmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Wannenmacher, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Background and Purpose: Complex-shaped malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs) with challenging volumes are extremely difficult to treat by conventional radiotherapy due to tolerance doses of the surrounding normal tissue. In a feasibility study, we evaluated if inversely planned stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) could be applied in the treatment of MPM. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with unresectable lesions were treated after failure of chemotherapy. All patients were positioned using noninvasive patient fixation techniques which can be attached to the applied extracranial stereotactic system. Due to craniocaudal extension of the tumor, it was necessary to develop a special software attached to the inverse planning program KonRad, which can connect two inverse treatment plans and consider the applied dose of the first treatment plan in the area of the matchline of the second treatment plan. Results: Except for one patient, in whom radiotherapy was canceled due to abdominal metastasis, treatment could be completed in all patients and was well tolerated. Median survival after diagnosis was 20 months and after IMRT 6.5 months. Therefore, both the 1-year actuarial overall survival from the start of radiotherapy and the 2-year actuarial overall survival since diagnosis were 28%. IMRT did not result in clinically significant acute side effects. By using the described inverse planning software, over- or underdosage in the region of the field matchline could be prevented. Pure treatment time ranged between 10 and 21 min. Conclusion: This study showed that IMRT is feasible in advanced unresectable MPM. The presented possibilities of stereotactic IMRT in the treatment of MPM will justify the evaluation of IMRT in early-stage pleural mesothelioma combined with chemotherapy in a study protocol, in order to improve the outcome of these patients. Furthermore, dose escalation should be possible by using IMRT. (orig.)

  9. Results from Polish Spondyloarthritis Initiative registry (PolSPI) - methodology and data from - the first year of observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guła, Zofia; Barczyńska, Tacjana; Brzosko, Marek; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Jeka, Sławomir; Jodłowska-Cicio, Katarzyna; Kwaśny-Krochin, Beata; Leszczyński, Piotr; Lubiński, Łukasz; Łosińska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Buś, Katarzyna; Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Samborski, Włodzimierz; Schlabs, Małgorzata; Siedlar, Maciej; Sikorska, Dorota; Świerkot, Jerzy; Węgierska, Małgorzata; Wiland, Piotr; Korkosz, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Report on one-year results from the Polish Spondyloarthritis Initiative registry (PolSPI), containing the cross-sectional analysis of clinical and imaging data as well as database methodology. The PolSPI registry includes patients with axial (axSpA) and peripheral (perSpA) spondyloarthritis according to ASAS classification criteria, and/or patients with ankylosing spondylitis according to modified New York criteria, psoriatic arthritis according to CASPAR criteria, arthropathy in inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, juvenile spondyloarthritis or undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. Epidemiologic data and history of signs, symptoms and treatment of spondyloarthritis are collected and assessment of disease activity is performed. Radiographic images of sacroiliac joint, cervical and lumbar spine, and results of bone densitometry are collected. Every 6 months blood samples for inflammatory markers, and for long-term storage are taken. During a one-year period from September 2015 to August 2016, 63 patients were registered on an electronic database; 44 (69.8%) of patients were classified as axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and 19 (30.2%) as peripheral spondyloarthritis (perSpA) according to ASAS criteria. Statistically significant differences between axSpA and perSpA were discovered in the percentage of HLA-B27 antigen occurrence (92.6% and 50%, respectively), BASDAI (2.8% and 4.1%, respectively), DAS 28 (2.66% and 4.03%, respectively), percentage of peripheral arthritis (20% and 88.8%, respectively), enthesitis (26.7% and 70.6%, respectively), dactylitis (6.7% and 88.9%, respectively), as well as extra-articular symptoms: acute anterior uveitis (26.7% and 5.6%, respectively) and psoriasis (6.9% and 55.6%, respectively). Patients with axSpA had significantly higher mean grade of sacroiliac involvement according to New York criteria, higher mSASSS score, and lower T-score in femoral neck in bone densitometry. At the early stage of the disease patients with ax

  10. Tropical rain forest biogeochemistry in a warmer world: initial results from a novel warming experiment in a Puerto Rico tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Cavaleri, M. A.; Alonso-Rodríguez, A. M.; Kimball, B. A.; Wood, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical forests represent one of the planet's most active biogeochemical engines. They account for the dominant proportion of Earth's live terrestrial plant biomass, nearly one-third of all soil carbon, and exchange more CO2 with the atmosphere than any other biome. In the coming decades, the tropics will experience extraordinary changes in temperature, and our understanding of how this warming will affect biogeochemical cycling remains notably poor. Given the large amounts of carbon tropical forests store and cycle, it is no surprise that our limited ability to characterize tropical forest responses to climate change may represent the largest hurdle in accurately predicting Earth's future climate. Here we describe initial results from the world's first tropical forest field warming experiment, where forest understory plants and soils are being warmed 4 °C above ambient temperatures. This Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) was established in a rain forest in Puerto Rico to investigate the effects of increased temperature on key biological processes that control tropical forest carbon cycling, and to establish the steps that need to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to warming. In this talk we will describe the experimental design, as well as the wide range of measurements being conducted. We will also present results from the initial phase of warming, including data on how increased temperatures from infrared lamp warming affected soil moisture, soil respiration rates, a suite of carbon pools, soil microbial biomass, nutrient availability, and the exchange of elements between leaf litter and soil. These data represent a first look into tropical rain forest responses to an experimentally-warmed climate in the field, and provide exciting insight into the non-linear ways tropical biogeochemical cycles respond to change. Overall, we strive to improve Earth System Model parameterization of the pools and

  11. Racial and Ethnic Variations in Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Results From the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ange; Kapphahn, Kristopher; Desai, Manisha; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Simon, Michael S.; Bird, Chloe E.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Cote, Michele L.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Wakelee, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative Study, a longitudinal prospective cohort evaluation of postmenopausal women recruited from 40 clinical centers. Methods Lung cancer diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by pathology review. Baseline survey questionnaires collected sociodemographic and health information. Logistic regression models estimated incidence and mortality odds by race/ethnicity adjusted for age, education, calcium/vitamin D, body mass index, smoking (status, age at start, duration, and pack-years), alcohol, family history, oral contraceptive, hormones, physical activity, and diet. Results The cohort included 129,951 women—108,487 (83%) non-Hispanic white (NHW); 10,892 (8%) non-Hispanic black (NHB); 4,882 (4%) Hispanic; 3,696 (3%) Asian/Pacific Islander (API); 534 (< 1%) American Indian/Alaskan Native; and 1,994 (1%) other. In unadjusted models, Hispanics had 66% lower odds of lung cancer compared with NHW (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.5), followed by API (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) and NHB (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95). In fully adjusted multivariable models, the decreased lung cancer risk for Hispanic compared with NHW women attenuated to the null (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.99). In unadjusted models Hispanic and API women had decreased risk of death compared with NHW women (OR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.62] and 0.34 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.75, respectively); however, no racial/ethnic differences were found in risk of lung cancer death in fully adjusted models. Conclusion Differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality are associated with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. These findings suggest modifiable exposures and behaviors may contribute to differences in incidence of and mortality by race/ethnicity for postmenopausal women. Interventions focused on these factors may reduce racial/ethnic differences in lung

  12. Periodontal Disease and Incident Cancer Risk among Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, Ngozi N; Marshall, James R; Moysich, Kirsten; Genco, Robert J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Background: Periodontal pathogens have been isolated from precancerous and cancerous lesions and also shown to promote a procarcinogenic microenvironment. Few studies have examined periodontal disease as a risk factor for total cancer, and none have focused on older women. We examined whether periodontal disease is associated with incident cancer among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Our prospective cohort study comprised 65,869 women, ages 54 to 86 years. Periodontal disease information was obtained via self-report questionnaires administered between 1999 and 2003, whereas ascertainment of cancer outcomes occurred through September 2013, with a maximum follow-up period of 15 years. Physician-adjudicated incident total cancers were the main outcomes and site-specific cancers were secondary outcomes. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were conducted two-sided. Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.32 years, 7,149 cancers were identified. Periodontal disease history was associated with increased total cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20); findings were similar in analyses limited to 34,097 never-smokers (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). Associations were observed for breast (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), lung (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51), esophagus (HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.64-6.53), gallbladder (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01-2.95), and melanoma skin (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48) cancers. Stomach cancer was borderline (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.94-2.67). Conclusions: Periodontal disease increases risk of total cancer among older women, irrespective of smoking, and certain anatomic sites appear to be vulnerable. Impact: Our findings support the need for further understanding of the effect of periodontal disease on cancer outcomes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1255-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer

  13. Addressing regional disparities in pediatric oncology: Results of a collaborative initiative across the Mexican-North American border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera-Gomez, Rebeca; Ornelas, Mario; Nuno, Laura; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Ribeiro, Raul; Roberts, William

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is emerging as a major cause of childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries. In Mexico, cancer is the number one cause of death in children aged 5-14. Until recently, many children with cancer from Baja California, Mexico, went untreated. We reasoned that an initiative inspired by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) "twinning" model could successfully be applied to the San Diego-Tijuana border region. In 2008, a twinning project was initiated by Rady Children's Hospital, SJCRH, and the General Hospital Tijuana (GHT). Our aim was to establish a pediatric oncology unit in a culturally sensitive manner, adapted to the local healthcare system. An initial assessment revealed that despite existence of basic hospital infrastructure at the GHT, the essential elements of a pediatric cancer unit were lacking, including dedicated space, trained staff, and uniform treatment. A 5-year action plan was designed to offer training, support the staff financially, and improve the infrastructure. After 7 years, accomplishments include the opening of a new inpatient unit with updated technology, fully trained staff, and a dedicated, interdisciplinary team. Over 700 children have benefited from accurate diagnosis and treatment. Initiatives that implement long-term partnerships between institutions along the Mexican-North American border can be highly effective in establishing successful pediatric cancer control programs. The geographic proximity facilitated accelerated training and close monitoring of project development. Similar initiatives across other disciplines may benefit additional patients and synergize with pediatric oncology programs to reduce health disparities in underserved areas. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Synthetic range profiling, ISAR imaging of sea vessels and feature extraction, using a multimode radar to classify targets: initial results from field trials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdul Gaffar, MY

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available -based classification of small to medium sized sea vessels in littoral condition. The experimental multimode radar is based on an experimental tracking radar that was modified to generate SRP and ISAR images in both search and tracking modes. The architecture...

  15. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  16. The Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) Project: initial results and evaluation of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Friis-Møller, Nina; Kirk, Ole; Bannister, Wendy; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Reiss, Peter; Gill, John; Lewden, Charlotte; Phillips, Andrew; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Law, Matthew; Sterne, Jonathan; De Wit, Stephane; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-07-01

    The Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) Project aims to deliver a standardized method for coding the underlying cause of death in HIV-positive persons, suitable for clinical trials and epidemiologic studies. The project incorporates detailed data collection, a classification system, and a centralized adjudication process performed by 2 independent reviewers. The methodology was tested in the Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study , and independent reviews of causes of death were compared. Logistic regression models identified factors associated with initial agreement by reviewers on underlying cause of death. A total of 491 reported fatal cases were adjudicated; in only 5% of cases the cause of death remained undetermined after adjudication. Reviewers initially agreed on the underlying cause for 339 (69%) deaths. As compared with deaths due to AIDS-related causes, the odds of agreement were more than 80% lower when deaths were ultimately deemed to be due to non-AIDS-related causes (odds ratio = 0.17 [95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.37]) or undetermined causes (0.11 [0.04-0.36]). The odds of initial agreement were also lower for deaths occurring in subjects with hypertension (0.43 [0.22-0.85]) and depression (0.43 [0.23-0.80]). The extent and format of data collected in the CoDe Project appear to be sufficient for an informed review, and the proposed coding scheme is adequate for obtaining an underlying cause of death.

  17. Effectiveness of a computerized motivational intervention on treatment initiation and substance use: Results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Jennifer; Walters, Scott T; Tang, Liansheng; Taxman, Faye S

    2017-09-01

    As many as 80% of the nearly five million adults under community supervision (i.e., probation, parole) are substance involved; however, treatment utilization is low. Using a multi-site randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of in-person motivational interviewing (MI), a motivational computer intervention (MAPIT), or standard probation intake (SAU) to encourage treatment initiation among 316 substance-involved probationers in Dallas, Texas and Baltimore City, Maryland. Ninety-three percent (n=295) of participants completed the 2-month follow-up and 90% (n=285) completed the 6-month follow-up. At 2-months, individuals in the MAPIT condition were more likely to report treatment initiation compared to the SAU condition (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.06, 5.47) via intent-to-treat analysis, especially among those completing both sessions (RE=0.50, 95% CI=0.05, 0.95) via instrumental variable analysis. At 6-months, MAPIT approached significance for treatment initiation in both analyses. MI did not achieve significance in any model. We did not find any differential impact on substance use. The success of MAPIT suggests that an integrated health-justice computerized intervention as part of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) can be used to address public safety and health issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS, met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP. Median operative time (range: 157 (127–259 min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range were: International Prostate Symptom Score - 14 (1–19; Sexual Health Inventory for Men - 6 (−14–22; and NIH-CPSI total - 23.5 (13–33. Median length of follow-up (range was 34 (24–43 months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively.

  19. Convection-permitting WRF and TerrSysMP simulations for a European model domain - Implementation and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Klaus; Keune, Jessica; Gasper, Fabian; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Sulis, Mauro; Knist, Sebastian; Ohlwein, Christian; Kollet, Stefan; Simmer, Clemens; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    model at about 6.2 km resolution, also nested into the EUR-11 domain from research groups of the Hans Ertel Centre for Weather Research (HErZ) branch on Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics of the German Weather Service (DWD). We show initial results of January and July simulations with a focus on precipitation events and boundary layer processes. A comparison is done to radar rainfall estimates and flux measurements and in case of WRF also to coarser resolution simulations. The models run on the massively parallel 28-rack 5.9 PFLOP IBM Blue Gene/Q system JUQUEEN of the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC). A substantial effort in terms of application porting, tuning and optimisation is needed to efficiently operate geoscience codes on such highly scalable low-memory architectures. Only with large model domains and/or high spatial resolutions a good scaling behaviour seems achievable. TerrSysMP can meanwhile efficiently be run using the OASIS3-MCT coupler with over 32k processes.

  20. Initial Results of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics and irregularities inherent to the Earth's low latitude ionosphere.

  1. Sedentary Behavior as a Risk Factor for Physical Frailty Independent of Moderate Activity: Results From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Lindquist, Lee A; Chang, Rowland W; Semanik, Pamela A; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda S; Lee, Jungwha; Sohn, Min-Woong; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2015-07-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the association between baseline objectively measured sedentary time and 2-year onset of physical frailty. We studied 1333 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants 55 to 83 years of age who were at risk for physical frailty, as assessed via low gait speed (factors. The incidence of physical frailty in this high-risk group was 20.7 per 1000 person-years. Greater baseline sedentary time (adjusted HR = 1.36 per sedentary hour; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.79) was significantly related to incident physical frailty after control for time spent in moderate-intensity activities and other covariates. Our prospective data demonstrated a strong relationship between daily sedentary time and development of physical frailty distinct from insufficient moderate activity. Interventions that promote reductions in sedentary behaviors in addition to increases in physical activity may help decrease physical frailty onset.

  2. SAGA advances in ShApes, Geometry, and Algebra : results from the Marie Curie initial training network

    CERN Document Server

    Muntingh, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book summarizes research carried out in workshops of the SAGA project, an Initial Training Network exploring the interplay of Shapes, Algebra, Geometry and Algorithms. Written by a combination of young and experienced researchers, the book introduces new ideas in an established context. Among the central topics are approximate and sparse implicitization and surface parametrization; algebraic tools for geometric computing; algebraic geometry for computer aided design applications and problems with industrial applications. Readers will encounter new methods for the (approximate) transition between the implicit and parametric representation; new algebraic tools for geometric computing; new applications of isogeometric analysis, and will gain insight into the emerging research field situated between algebraic geometry and computer aided geometric design.

  3. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. Methods The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issues in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia participated in this assessment. Measures of compliance were developed based on indicators reported in the literature and by broad stakeholder involvement. We compared pre-post differences in dimension-specific and overall compliance-scores using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and the Friedman statistic. We described the spread of the data using the inter-quartile range and the Fligner-Killen statistic. Finally, we adjusted compliance scores for location and size using linear and logistic regression models. Results We performed a baseline and follow up assessment in 22 centers for substance abuse care and observed substantial and statistically significant improvements for overall compliance (pre: 60.9%; post: 79.1%) and for compliance in the dimensions 'care pathway' (pre: 66.5%; post: 83.5%) and 'organization and management' (pre: 50.5%; post: 77.2%). We observed improvements in the dimension 'environment and infrastructure' (pre: 81.8%; post: 95.5%) and in the dimension 'relations and user rights' (pre: 66.5%; post: 72.5%); however, these were not statistically significant. The regression analysis suggests that improvements in compliance are positively influenced by being located in the Barcelona region in case of the dimension 'relations and user rights'. Conclusion The positive results of this quality improvement initiative are possibly associated with the successful involvement of stakeholders, the consciously constructed feedback

  4. Measurements of Lyman-Alpha Escape From HST Far-UV Spectral SNAP Survey of 33 Starforming Galaxies: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This thesis will describe and analyze far-UV spectra from nearby starforming galaxies to investigate how line features like the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) line at 1216 Å are related to the local properties of the host galaxy. It has been suggested that Lyα can be used as a proxy for the escape of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation, the escape of of which from bright regions of galaxies is of particular interest. Most notably, the reionization epoch of neutral atomic hydrogen in the universe over a redshift range from z∼6 to z∼12, was highly dependent on the flux of ionizing LyC photons in the interstellar and intergalactic media. Expanding our understanding of the dynamics of the Lyα escape fraction (fLyα) from the local environment of its emission could be key to determining a total LyC escape fraction (fLyC) across all morphologies of galaxies. The wide range of Lyα emitters and absorbors (occasionally both) of this Cycle 22 SNAP survey observed by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provides a unique look at far-UV spectra in candidate LyC emitters. Lyα profiles are easily observable in short exposures, and line features discernable in the low-resolution G140L mode can inform and guide future observations by COS or other FUV spectroscopy.

  5. Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Link, Steven O.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Durham, Robin E.; Cruz, Rico O.; Mckee, Sadie A.

    2011-09-01

    During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation of disturbed sites is necessary to stabilize the soil, reduce invasion of these areas by exotic weeds, and to accelerate re-establishment of native plant communities. Seven revegetation units were identified on ALE based on soils and potential native plant communities at the site. Native seed mixes and plant material were identified for each area based on the desired plant community. Revegetation of locations affected by decommissioning of buildings and debris removal was undertaken during the winter and early spring of 2010 and 2011, respectively. This report describes both the details of planting and seeding for each of the units, describes the sampling design for monitoring, and summarizes the data collected during the first year of monitoring. In general, the revegetation efforts were successful in establishing native bunchgrasses and shrubs on most of the sites within the 7 revegetation units. Invasion of the revegetation areas by exotic annual species was minimal for most sites, but was above initial criteria in 3 areas: the Hodges Well subunit of Unit 2, and Units 6 and 7.

  6. Improving performance of long-term care networks at their initial stage: an empirical study of factors affecting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiola, Nunzio; Bianchi, Piervito

    2017-10-01

    Until now very little research has been carried out on the performance of health and human services networks in evolution. In particular, previous studies mainly referred to "centrally governed services networks" in the US context. According to Provan and Kenis (2008), these networks are "lead organization-governed", and are different from the "participant-governed" model or the "network administrative organization (NAO)" solution. We focused our attention on the Apulia region care services networks (Italy). In the last few years, the governance of these networks has passed from the "participant-governed" model to the NAO approach. We examined how the integration mechanisms work in this type of networks, and if there were challenges to tackle in order to improve their overall performance. These networks were examined at their initial stage, exactly when their governance model moved to a more integrated solution. We collected survey data from 17 health and human services networks out of 45 (38%). The research is carried out by means of statistical methods (OLS). The analysis is cross sectional. The implementation of "rational/technocratic" factors is important but not sufficient to enhance collaboration. The integration at the "professional level" should be kept in mind. In particular, the role of network (case) managers is paramount. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Initial Results from On-Orbit Testing of the Fram Memory Test Experiment on the Fastsat Micro-Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeond, Todd C.; Sims, W. Herb; Varnavas,Kosta A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    The Memory Test Experiment is a space test of a ferroelectric memory device on a low Earth orbit satellite that launched in November 2010. The memory device being tested is a commercial Ramtron Inc. 512K memory device. The circuit was designed into the satellite avionics and is not used to control the satellite. The test consists of writing and reading data with the ferroelectric based memory device. Any errors are detected and are stored on board the satellite. The data is sent to the ground through telemetry once a day. Analysis of the data can determine the kind of error that was found and will lead to a better understanding of the effects of space radiation on memory systems. The test is one of the first flight demonstrations of ferroelectric memory in a near polar orbit which allows testing in a varied radiation environment. The initial data from the test is presented. This paper details the goals and purpose of this experiment as well as the development process. The process for analyzing the data to gain the maximum understanding of the performance of the ferroelectric memory device is detailed.

  8. Patient-centered medical home initiative produced modest economic results for Veterans Health Administration, 2010-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul L; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Wong, Edwin S; Hernandez, Susan E; Batten, Adam; Lo, Sophie; Lemon, Jaclyn M; Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D

    2014-06-01

    In 2010 the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) began a nationwide initiative called Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) that reorganized care at all VHA primary care clinics in accordance with the patient-centered medical home model. We analyzed data for fiscal years 2003-12 to assess how trends in health care use and costs changed after the implementation of PACT. We found that PACT was associated with modest increases in primary care visits and with modest decreases in both hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions and outpatient visits with mental health specialists. We estimated that these changes avoided $596 million in costs, compared to the investment in PACT of $774 million, for a potential net loss of $178 million in the study period. Although PACT has not generated a positive return, it is still maturing, and trends in costs and use are favorable. Adopting patient-centered care does not appear to have been a major financial risk for the VHA. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. The ion experiment onboard the Interball-Aurora satellite; initial results on velocity-dispersed structures in the cleft and inside the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sauvaud

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The Toulouse ION experiment flown on the Russian Interball-Aurora mission performs simultaneous ion and electron measurements. Two mass spectrometers looking in opposing directions perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which points toward the sun, measure ions in the mass and energy ranges 1–32 amu and ~0–14 000 eV. Two electron spectrometers also looking in opposing directions perform measurements in the energy range ~10 eV–20 000 eV. The Interball-Aurora spacecraft was launched on 29 August 1996 into a 62.8° inclination orbit with an apogee of ~3 RE. The satellite orbital period is 6 h, so that every four orbits the satellite sweeps about the same region of the auroral zone; the orbit plane drifts around the pole in ~9 months. We present a description of the ION experiment and discuss initial measurements performed in the cusp near noon, in the polar cleft at dusk, and inside the proton aurora at dawn. Ion-dispersed energy structures resulting from time-of-flight effects are observed both in the polar cleft at ~16 hours MLT and in the dawnside proton aurora close to 06 hours MLT. Magnetosheath plasma injections in the polar cleft, which appear as overlapping energy bands in particle energy-time spectrograms, are traced backwards in time using a particle trajectory model using 3D electric and magnetic field models. We found that the cleft ion source is located at distances of the order of 18 RE from the earth at about 19 MLT, i.e., on the flank of the magnetopause. These observations are in agreement with flux transfer events (FTE occurring not only on the front part of the magnetopause but also in a region extending at least to dusk. We also show that, during quiet magnetic conditions, time-of-flight ion dispersions can also be measured inside the dawn proton aurora. A method similar to that used for the cleft is applied to these auroral energy dispersion signatures. Unexpectedly, the ion source is found to be at distances of the

  10. The ion experiment onboard the Interball-Aurora satellite; initial results on velocity-dispersed structures in the cleft and inside the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse ION experiment flown on the Russian Interball-Aurora mission performs simultaneous ion and electron measurements. Two mass spectrometers looking in opposing directions perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which points toward the sun, measure ions in the mass and energy ranges 1–32 amu and ~0–14 000 eV. Two electron spectrometers also looking in opposing directions perform measurements in the energy range ~10 eV–20 000 eV. The Interball-Aurora spacecraft was launched on 29 August 1996 into a 62.8° inclination orbit with an apogee of ~3 RE. The satellite orbital period is 6 h, so that every four orbits the satellite sweeps about the same region of the auroral zone; the orbit plane drifts around the pole in ~9 months. We present a description of the ION experiment and discuss initial measurements performed in the cusp near noon, in the polar cleft at dusk, and inside the proton aurora at dawn. Ion-dispersed energy structures resulting from time-of-flight effects are observed both in the polar cleft at ~16 hours MLT and in the dawnside proton aurora close to 06 hours MLT. Magnetosheath plasma injections in the polar cleft, which appear as overlapping energy bands in particle energy-time spectrograms, are traced backwards in time using a particle trajectory model using 3D electric and magnetic field models. We found that the cleft ion source is located at distances of the order of 18 RE from the earth at about 19 MLT, i.e., on the flank of the magnetopause. These observations are in agreement with flux transfer events (FTE occurring not only on the front part of the magnetopause but also in a region extending at least to dusk. We also show that, during quiet magnetic conditions, time-of-flight ion dispersions can also be measured inside the dawn proton aurora. A method similar to that used for the cleft is applied to these auroral energy dispersion signatures. Unexpectedly, the ion source is found to be

  11. First results of electric field and density observations by Cluster EFW based on initial months of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gustafsson

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Highlights are presented from studies of the electric field data from various regions along the Cluster orbit. They all point towards a very high coherence for phenomena recorded on four spacecraft that are separated by a few hundred kilometers for structures over the whole range of apparent frequencies from 1 mHz to 9 kHz. This presents completely new opportunities to study spatial-temporal plasma phenomena from the magnetosphere out to the solar wind. A new probe environment was constructed for the CLUSTER electric field experiment that now produces data of unprecedented quality. Determination of plasma flow in the solar wind is an example of the capability of the instrument.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (electric fields – Space plasma physics (electrostatic structures; turbulence

  12. First results of electric field and density observations by Cluster EFW based on initial months of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gustafsson

    Full Text Available Highlights are presented from studies of the electric field data from various regions along the Cluster orbit. They all point towards a very high coherence for phenomena recorded on four spacecraft that are separated by a few hundred kilometers for structures over the whole range of apparent frequencies from 1 mHz to 9 kHz. This presents completely new opportunities to study spatial-temporal plasma phenomena from the magnetosphere out to the solar wind. A new probe environment was constructed for the CLUSTER electric field experiment that now produces data of unprecedented quality. Determination of plasma flow in the solar wind is an example of the capability of the instrument.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (electric fields – Space plasma physics (electrostatic structures; turbulence

  13. Numerical results on the short-range spin correlation functions in the ground state of the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mingpu; Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-08-01

    Optical lattice experiments with ultracold fermion atoms and quantum gas microscopy have recently realized direct measurements of magnetic correlations at the site-resolved level. We calculate the short-range spin-correlation functions in the ground state of the two-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model with the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method. The results are numerically exact at half filling where the fermion sign problem is absent. Away from half filling, we employ the constrained path AFQMC approach to eliminate the exponential computational scaling from the sign problem. The constraint employs unrestricted Hartree-Fock trial wave functions with an effective interaction strength U , which is optimized self-consistently within AFQMC. Large supercells are studied, with twist averaged boundary conditions as needed, to reach the thermodynamic limit. We find that the nearest-neighbor spin correlation always increases with the interaction strength U , contrary to the finite-temperature behavior where a maximum is reached at a finite U value. We also observe a change of sign in the next-nearest-neighbor spin correlation with increasing density, which is a consequence of the buildup of the long-range antiferromagnetic correlation. We expect the results presented in this paper to serve as a benchmark as lower temperatures are reached in ultracold atom experiments.

  14. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation do not influence menopause-related symptoms: Results of the Women's Health Initiative Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Hedlin, Haley; Qin, FeiFei; Desai, Manisha; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perrin, Nancy; Manson, JoAnn E; Johnson, Karen C; Masaki, Kamal; Tylavsky, Frances A; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2015-07-01

    It is unknown whether supplementation with calcium and vitamin D has an impact on menopause-related symptoms. As part of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation Trial (CaD), women were randomized at 40 clinical sites to elemental calcium carbonate 1000 mg with vitamin D 400 IU daily or placebo. At the CaD baseline visit (year 1 or year 2) and during a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, participants provided data on menopause-related symptoms via questionnaires. Generalized linear mixed effects techniques were used to address research questions. After excluding participants with missing data (N=2125), we compared menopause-related symptoms at follow-up visits of 17,101 women randomized to CaD with those of 17,056 women given the placebo. Women in the CaD arm did not have a different number of symptoms at follow-up compared to women taking the placebo (p=0.702). Similarly, there was no difference between sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, or energy/fatigue at follow-up in those who were randomized to CaD supplementation compared to those taking the placebo. Our data suggest that supplementation with 1000 mg of calcium plus 400 IU of vitamin D does not influence menopause-related symptoms over an average of 5.7 years of follow-up among postmenopausal women with an average age of 64 at the WHI baseline visit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MR imaging of thrombi using EP-2104R, a fibrin-specific contrast agent: initial results in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, Elmar [University Hospital, Technical University (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [Technical University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wiethoff, Andrea J.; Graham, Phil B. [EPIX Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA (United States); Ibrahim, Tareq [Technical University Munich, German Heart Center Munich and Medical Clinic 1, Munich (Germany); Kelle, Sebastian; Nagel, Eike [German Heart Institute, Department of Cardiology, Berlin (Germany); Katoh, Marcus [University Hospital, Technical University (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Homburg (Germany); Oezgun, Murat; Maintz, David [University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Vymazal, Josef [Hospital Na Homolce, Praque (Czech Republic); Guenther, Rolf W. [University Hospital, Technical University (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    This study was an initial phase II trial in humans of molecular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for improved visualization of thrombi in vessel territories potentially responsible for stroke using a new fibrin-specific contrast agent (EP-2104R). Eleven patients with thrombus in the left ventricle (n=2), left or right atrium (n=4), thoracic aorta (n=4) or carotid artery (n=1) as verified by an index examination (ultrasound, computed tomography, or conventional MR) were enrolled. All MR imaging was performed on 1.5 T whole-body MR-system using an inversion-recovery black-blood gradient-echo sequence. The same sequence was performed before and 2-6 h after low-dose intravenous administration of 4{mu}mol/kg EP-2104R. Two investigators assessed image quality and signal amplification. Furthermore, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between the clot and the blood pool/surrounding soft tissue before and after administration of the contrast agent were compared using Student's t-test. MR imaging and data analysis were successfully completed in 10 patients. No major adverse effects occurred. On enhanced images, thrombi demonstrated high signal amplification, typically at the clot surface, with a significantly increased contrast in comparison to the surrounding blood pool and soft tissue (CNR for clot vs. blood pool, unenhanced and enhanced: 6{+-}8 and 29{+-}14; CNR for clot vs. soft tissue, unenhanced and enhanced: 0{+-}4 and 21{+-}13; P<0.01 for both comparisons). EP-2104R allows for molecular MR imaging of thrombi potentially responsible for stroke. High contrast between thrombus and surrounding blood and soft tissues can be achieved with enhanced imaging. (orig.)

  16. Hypertension management initiative: qualitative results from implementing clinical practice guidelines in primary care through a facilitated practice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Moy Lum-Kwong, Margaret; Von Sychowski, Shirley; Kandukur, Kishan

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the Hypertension Management Initiative (HMI) is to improve the management and control of hypertension by both primary care providers and patients. The HMI was in effect in 11 primary care sites across the province of Ontario, Canada. This was a qualitative study. Focus groups and a lobby survey were completed with a total of 199 of the 3934 patients enrolled in the study. Interviews with 41 participating health care providers from all sites were performed. A qualitative description approach was used to give a rich description of each informant's experiences. Patients expressed motivation and engagement in their own health care and became more knowledgeable about hypertension and how to manage it with their health care providers. Most reported satisfaction with the discipline of regular appointments and ongoing monitoring and counseling of the program including identifying and working on goals for their modifiable risk factors. Their health care providers felt the HMI program had a positive impact on the treatment and management of hypertension and also that it improved the functioning of the interprofessional team. The HMI helped to improve patient self-empowerment and self-management and also improved physicians' and nurses' confidence in diagnosing accurately and in hypertension management. Physician buy-in is key to maintaining clinical hypertension management. Interprofessional collaboration was improved for physicians and nurses but less so for pharmacists. Greater confidence among the nurses to manage hypertension more independently reduced demands on physician time. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Age at sexual initiation and number of sexual partners in the female Spanish population Results from the AFRODITA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjose, Silvia; Cortés, Xavier; Méndez, Cristina; Puig-Tintore, Lluis; Torné, Aureli; Roura, Esther; Bosch, F Xavier; Castellsague, Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The AFRODITA study was designed to describe patterns relating to the number of lifetime sexual partners (SP) and age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) by geographic region in a representative sample of Spanish women. A representative sample of the female Spanish population was obtained using the Access Panel Technique. Postal questionnaires were sent to 11,086 women aged 18-70 years. Data were collected on AFSI, number of sexual partners, contraceptive methods, cervical cancer screening and socio-demographic characteristics. The average AFSI was 20.9 years. AFSI below the age of 19 years was reported by 30.8% of the women. Among sexually active women, 70.6% reported being monogamous and 6.4% reported > or = 5 lifetime sexual partners. Younger age at interview was strongly related to earlier AFSI and to higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Women younger than 25 were 39 times more likely to have an AFSI before age 18 than women over age 55. The percentage of women aged less than 25 reporting two or more sexual partners was four times higher than that of women 56 and older. In the multivariate analysis, having two or more sexual partners was independently associated with young age, early AFSI, having ever used oral contraceptives, living in an urban area, having had a screening Pap test in the last 3 years, having a sexually transmitted infection and nuliparity. This study confirms important changes in the sexual behaviour of Spanish women. Younger cohorts show a younger age at sexual initiation and higher number of sexual partners. These are key factors that may induce changes in the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the cervical cancer incidence in Spain.

  18. Northern Forest DroughtNet: Initial results from a multi-year throughfall manipulation experiment in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, C.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Coble, A.; Jennings, K.; Asbjornsen, H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the Northern Forest region through the increased frequency and severity of drought events. However, our understanding of how the Northern Forest, which is adapted to humid temperate conditions, will respond to moderate to extreme droughts is limited. Given the important role that these forests play in protecting ecosystem services and in supplying forest products, enhancing our knowledge about impacts of drought is critical to ensuring effective forest management and adaptation to climate change. The Northern Forest DroughtNet project aims to simulate a four-year severe drought by removing 55% of the incoming throughfall; thus representing the 99th percentile of annual precipitation based on historic precipitation data in Durham, NH. This is accomplished using two replicated 900 m2 throughfall removal structures consisting of a network of gutters that capture and divert incoming precipitation away from the established treatment area. Data presented here will address the ecosystem response to the drought treatment over the course of the first year of the experiment as well as validate the effectiveness and artifacts of the throughfall removal structure. Response variables of interest include soil moisture content, above and below ground biomass production, litterfall, decomposition rates, leaf water potential, foliar gas exchange, and whole tree transpiration rates. Preliminary findings provide insight into the effectiveness of using throughfall manipulation experiments in a temperate forest ecosystem to simulate an extreme drought event, as well as initial tree physiological and growth responses in relation to soil moisture availability and the implications for future climate change impacts.

  19. A novel mechanism for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II targeting to L-type Ca2+channels that initiates long-range signaling to the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohan; Marks, Christian R; Perfitt, Tyler L; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Lee, Amy; Jacobson, David A; Colbran, Roger J

    2017-10-20

    Neuronal excitation can induce new mRNA transcription, a phenomenon called excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. Among several pathways implicated in E-T coupling, activation of voltage-gated L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs) in the plasma membrane can initiate a signaling pathway that ultimately increases nuclear CREB phosphorylation and, in most cases, expression of immediate early genes. Initiation of this long-range pathway has been shown to require recruitment of Ca 2+ -sensitive enzymes to a nanodomain in the immediate vicinity of the LTCC by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that activated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) strongly interacts with a novel binding motif in the N-terminal domain of Ca V 1 LTCC α1 subunits that is not conserved in Ca V 2 or Ca V 3 voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel subunits. Mutations in the Ca V 1.3 α1 subunit N-terminal domain or in the CaMKII catalytic domain that largely prevent the in vitro interaction also disrupt CaMKII association with intact LTCC complexes isolated by immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, these same mutations interfere with E-T coupling in cultured hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our findings define a novel molecular interaction with the neuronal LTCC that is required for the initiation of a long-range signal to the nucleus that is critical for learning and memory. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. A hydrophobic gel phantom for study of thermochemical ablation: initial results using a weak acid and weak base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselt, Andrew J; Edelman, Theresa L; Choi, Jeung H; Bischof, John C; Cressman, Erik N K

    2009-10-01

    To develop a model for study of exothermic chemical reactions potentially useful for tissue ablation. Seven gelatins ranging from 0.5% to 30% wt/vol with and without 15% or 30% caps and several commercial gels were evaluated. Baseline temperature measurements were taken. Acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide were sequentially injected over periods of 10-15 seconds in 1-mL aliquots, forming a discrete aqueous reaction chamber. Congo red pH indicator was included to assess the reaction. A thermocouple allowed data collection at completion of injection and every 15 seconds for 5 minutes. Injections were performed in triplicate, and average temperatures for each time point were reported. Gelatins fractured or refluxed even at the lowest concentrations tested. Most commercial gels proved too viscous and likewise led to reflux along the needle tract. A mineral oil-based gel was selected because of its ability to form a chamber without reflux or fracture and its clear colorless character, hydrophobic nature, chemical stability, viscosity, specific gravity, and cost. Temperatures during the first 60 seconds of the neutralization reaction showed an immediate increase that correlated well with concentration. The oil gel phantom is a safe, useful, readily available, inexpensive model to study mixing behaviors and maximum heating potentials for reactions that may prove useful in thermochemical tissue ablation for oncologic interventions. Measurable temperature changes occurred even at the lowest concentrations, and higher concentrations produced a greater release of heat energy.

  1. Association of Baseline Depressive Symptoms with Prevalent and Incident Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Hispanic Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Zambrana

    Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor

  2. Biochemical imaging of cervical intervertebral discs with glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Christoph; Mueller-Lutz, Anja; Zimmermann, Lisa; Boos, Johannes; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Antoch, Gerald; Miese, Falk [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Dusseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, Benjamin [Siemens Ltd. Australia, Healthcare Sector, Macquarie Park, NSW (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) imaging at 3T in the assessment of the GAG content of cervical IVDs in healthy volunteers. Forty-two cervical intervertebral discs of seven healthy volunteers (four females, three males; mean age: 21.4 ± 1.4 years; range: 19-24 years) were examined at a 3T MRI scanner in this prospective study. The MRI protocol comprised standard morphological, sagittal T2 weighted (T2w) images to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based grading system for cervical intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) and biochemical imaging with gagCEST to calculate a region-of-interest analysis of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). GagCEST of cervical IVDs was technically successful at 3T with significant higher gagCEST values in NP compared to AF (1.17 % ± 1.03 % vs. 0.79 % ± 1.75 %; p = 0.005). We found topological differences of gagCEST values of the cervical spine with significant higher gagCEST effects in lower IVDs (r = 1; p = 0). We could demonstrate a significant, negative correlation between gagCEST values and cervical disc degeneration of NP (r = -0.360; p = 0.019). Non-degenerated IVDs had significantly higher gagCEST effects compared to degenerated IVDs in NP (1.76 % ± 0.92 % vs. 0.52 % ± 1.17 %; p < 0.001). Biochemical imaging of cervical IVDs is feasible at 3T. GagCEST analysis demonstrated a topological GAG distribution of the cervical spine. The depletion of GAG in the NP with increasing level of morphological degeneration can be assessed using gagCEST imaging. (orig.)

  3. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM: Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Wazny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in

  4. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  5. [Attitudes towards professional euthanasia in the range between grement in the society and personal preferences--results of a representative examination of the German general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christina; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Klaiberg, Antje; Brähler, Elmar

    2003-08-01

    Several surveys of the German population concerning the attitude towards euthanasia in patients with terminal illness yielded contradictory results, ranging from high acquisition to high refusal rates. After a critical discussion of the methodological concepts of these investigations, we present the results of a representative study of 1957 German persons (age range: 14 - 96 years) which was performed by the institute USUMA in February 2001. Four different types of euthanasia were included in the study: active, passive, and indirect euthanasia as well as physician's assisted suicide. The affirmative response categories were "declared will and unbearable pain", "declared will", "referred will", and "in the responsibility of the physician". Additionally, we asked to state the personal preference in the case of an own incurable illness. The resulting frequency distributions stress the autonomy of the patients (declared will) and the legal forms of professional euthanasia (passive and indirect euthanasia), independent from the degree of pain. The rank order of the hypothetic personal preferences was: passive euthanasia (26.1 %), active euthanasia (21.1 %), indirect euthanasia (13.1 %) and assisted suicide (6.2 %). For each category the hypothetic personal will to utilize euthanasia personally is markedly lower than the consent to legalize euthanasia in the society. This points to a diminished readiness of the population to seek for euthanasia. Persons aged 60 years and above deny all types of euthanasia significantly more often than younger persons. Persons with subjectively bad health status prefer the category "in the responsibility of the physician" more often than healthy subjects. The representative study proves that there is no polarized public opinion concerning euthanasia, rather there is a picture of high complexity.

  6. New results of novel long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions at 7 and 13 TeV from CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, CMS reported the observation of a novel long-range two-particle angular correlation in high-multiplicity pp collisions at 7 TeV, where an enhanced correlation for particles emitted at similar azimuthal angle (phi) over a wide range in pseudorapidity (known as the ``ridge'') is observed. This ridge correlation phenomenon was not seen in pp collisions before but reminiscent of similar effect first seen in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, which is attributed to collective flow of a strongly interacting, expanding quark-gluon medium. Later on, similar ridge correlations were also observed in high-multiplicity pPb collisions and studied in great detail by all LHC experiments. The start of the LHC run 2 brought new opportunities of exploring novel QCD emergent phenomena in pp collisions at the highest energy ever achieved. First CMS results on QCD physics in pp collisions at 13 TeV are presented and compared to the 7 TeV data. This includes the measurement of charged particle multipl...

  7. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the results of the ANU's (Applied Meteorology Unit) Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds. The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The Keith Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A 7 year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. In all climatologies, the average and peak wind speeds were highly variable in time. This indicated that the development of a peak wind forecasting tool would be difficult. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. The climatologies and PDFs provide tools with which to make peak wind forecasts that are critical to safe operations.

  8. Initial presentation and late results of treatment of post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Mikhail; Savva, Natallia; Krasko, Olga; Mankovskaya, Svetlana; Branovan, Daniel I; Schmid, Kurt W; Demidchik, Yuri

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) that have arisen in the Belarusian childhood population exposed to the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident within a long-term period. The long-term treatment results were investigated in 1078 children and adolescents (Chernobyl radioiodine fallout was rather favorable. TT with RAI is recommended for minimizing loco-regional or distant relapses.

  9. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: Initial results for vocal fold nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.; Guttag, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to dev...

  10. The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1 Marla R Rogers2 1Alliance Wellness and Rehabilitation, Moose Jaw, 2College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Few community-based obesity reduction programs have been evaluated. After 153 community consultations, the City of Moose Jaw, SK, Canada, decided to initiate a free comprehensive program. The initiative included 71 letters of support from the Mayor, every family physician, cardiologist, and internist in the city, and every relevant community group including the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Canadian Cancer Society, and the Public Health Agency of Canada.Objective: To promote strong adherence while positively influencing a wide range of physical and mental health variables measured through objective assessment or validated surveys.Methods: The only inclusion criterion was that the individuals must be obese adults (body mass index >30 kg/m2. Participants were requested to sign up with a “buddy” who was also obese and identify three family members or friends to sign a social support contract. During the initial 12 weeks, each individual received 60 group exercise sessions, 12 group cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, and 12 group dietary sessions with licensed professionals. During the second 12-week period, maintenance therapy included 12 group exercise sessions (24 weeks in total.Results: To date, 243 people have been referred with 229 starting. Among those who started, 183 completed the program (79.9%, while 15 quit for medical reasons and 31 quit for personal reasons. Mean objective reductions included the following: 31.0 lbs of body fat, 3.9% body fat, 2.9 in from the waist, 2.3 in from the hip, blood cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg (all P<0.000. There were no changes in blood sugar levels. There was also statistically significant differences in aerobic fitness, self-report health, quality of

  11. [Functional electromyostimulation of the penile corpus cavernosum (FEMCC)]. Initial results of a new therapeutic option of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, C G; Weller, E; Noack, T; Djamilian, M H; Meschi, M; Truss, M; Jonas, U

    1996-07-01

    Transcutaneous application of low-frequency electric current in the treatment of partially or temporarily denervated striated muscles is widely used to prevent or treat muscular atrophy. Due to the high regenerative capacity of smooth muscle cells, this approach should be beneficial in the treatment of diseases with smooth muscle degeneration due to partial denervation. Our study was done to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of transcutaneous application of low-frequency electric current to the corpus cavernosum penis in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. After a comprehensive work-up, 22 patients with chronic erectile dysfunction (21/22 vasoactive nonresponders) received daily (3-5 x 20 min) transcutaneous functional electromyostimulation of the corpus cavernosum smooth muscles (FEMCC; zero line symmetric impulses of trapezoid shape, two-channel device with alternating stimulations, f = 10-20 Hz for channel I and 20-35 Hz for channel II; t(i) = 100-2000 microseconds, approx. 12 mA, rise time 0.5 s, stimulation time 5 s per channel, interval between stimulations 0.5 s). Five of 22 patients (23%) regained full spontaneous erections and another three (14%) responded to vasoactive drugs after FEMCC. Fourteen were FEMCC failures, including two who subjectively 'improved'. In a similar group of patients evaluated during the same period but receiving no therapy, no spontaneous improvement of the erectile function was observed. Our preliminary results suggest that FEMCC is feasible and results in an improvement of the erectile capacity in a significant proportion (37%) of patients. Further studies will be carried out to corroborate our results, to improve stimulation parameters and to evaluate selection criteria for FEMCC.

  12. Limiting and Enabling Factors of Collective Farmers' Marketing Initiatives: Results of a Comparative Analysis of the Situation and Trends in 10 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knickel, K.; Zerger, C.; Jahn, G.; Renting, H.

    2008-01-01

    Linked with the growing power of retailers, European farmers have gradually lost control over supply chains. The resulting pressure on producer prices and the decline in policy support underpin the need for collective action among farmers. Co-operative initiatives in production, processing, and

  13. Dependence of sports results on data of physical development, morphofunctional and special power preparedness of weight-lifters at the stage of initial preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bugaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the establishment of nature of the interrelation between sports results of weight-lifters and level of their special physical and morphofunctional preparedness. Material & Methods: 48 sportsmen of group of initial preparation of the first year of training were involved to the experiment. The research was conducted on the basis of the chair of weightlifting and boxing of Kharkov state academy of physical culture and CYSS “HTZ”. Results: the correlation between indicators of morphofunctional, high-speed and power and special (competitive preparedness of weight-lifters is revealed at the stage of initial preparation. The conducted research shows that the result of competitive exercises of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation, depends on power and high-speed and power preparedness. Conclusions: it is established that the correlation between results of competitive exercises and jumps uphill from the place, in length from the place, run on 30 m can demonstrate the interrelation of power and high-speed and power preparedness of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation.

  14. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 6010, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Chesley, Steve [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, Joshua [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, Alan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Michael [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  15. Cohort study for monitoring cardiovascular risk factors in children using a primary health care service: methods and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Rosa Gama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An awareness of the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors since childhood is essential to guide health promotion policies. The aim of this paper is to present, together with the main results, a methodological proposal to estimate both incidence and prevalence of these factors over time and their associated socio-demographic aspects in a population attending a primary health care unit, within Brazilian Unified National Health System. An open cohort design was adopted, starting in 2004 with a sample of 356 children aged between 5 and 9. In the second wave, in 2008, 126 children were enrolled and 205 were reevaluated. Socioeconomic variables, food intake, physical activity, anthropometric measures (weight, height and waist size, lipidogram and glycemia were collected. Results indicate a high prevalence of dyslipidemia, and an increase of excess weight and sedentary activity between both surveys. Some 55% of children were found to have lower values of HDL-cholesterol. The methodological proposal was considered adequate for the monitoring of cardiovascular disease predictors in poor urban populations.

  16. Cohort study for monitoring cardiovascular risk factors in children using a primary health care service: methods and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Sueli Rosa; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cardoso, Leticia de Oliveira; Chaves, Celia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Engstrom, Elyne Montenegro

    2011-03-01

    An awareness of the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors since childhood is essential to guide health promotion policies. The aim of this paper is to present, together with the main results, a methodological proposal to estimate both incidence and prevalence of these factors over time and their associated socio-demographic aspects in a population attending a primary health care unit, within Brazilian Unified National Health System. An open cohort design was adopted, starting in 2004 with a sample of 356 children aged between 5 and 9. In the second wave, in 2008, 126 children were enrolled and 205 were reevaluated. Socioeconomic variables, food intake, physical activity, anthropometric measures (weight, height and waist size), lipidogram and glycemia were collected. Results indicate a high prevalence of dyslipidemia, and an increase of excess weight and sedentary activity between both surveys. Some 55% of children were found to have lower values of HDL-cholesterol. The methodological proposal was considered adequate for the monitoring of cardiovascular disease predictors in poor urban populations.

  17. Performance of gadofosveset-enhanced MRI for staging rectal cancer nodes: can the initial promising results be reproduced?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijnen, Luc A.; Martens, Milou H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lambregts, Doenja M.J.; Maas, Monique; Bakers, Frans C.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cappendijk, Vincent C. [Jeroen Bosch Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, ' s Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Oliveira, Pedro [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, Department of Radiology, Porto (Portugal); Lammering, Guido [Maastro Clinic, Radiation Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Riedl, Robert G. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets, Geerard L. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    A previous study showed promising results for gadofosveset-trisodium as a lymph node magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to prospectively confirm the diagnostic performance of gadofosveset MRI for nodal (re)staging in rectal cancer in a second patient cohort. Seventy-one rectal cancer patients were prospectively included, of whom 13 (group I) underwent a primary staging gadofosveset MRI (1.5-T) followed by surgery (± preoperative 5 x 5 Gy) and 58 (group II) underwent both primary staging and restaging gadofosveset MRI after a long course of chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. Nodal status was scored as (y)cN0 or (y)cN+ by two independent readers (R1, R2) with different experience levels. Results were correlated with histology on a node-by-node basis. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) were 94 %, 79 % and 0.89 for the more experienced R1 and 50 %, 83 % and 0.74 for the non-experienced R2. R2's performance improved considerably after a learning curve, to an AUC of 0.83. Misinterpretations mainly occurred in nodes located in the superior mesorectum, nodes located in between vessels and nodes containing micrometastases. This prospective study confirms the good diagnostic performance of gadofosveset MRI for nodal (re)staging in rectal cancer. (orig.)

  18. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic implantation of artificial urinary sphincter in women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency incontinence: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Georges; Callerot, Pierre; Thoulouzan, Maxime; Valeri, Antoine; Perrouin-Verbe, Marie-Aimee

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility, safety, and functional results of robotic-assisted artificial urinary sphincter (R-AUS) laparoscopic implantation in women with stress urinary incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Six women underwent an R-AUS implantation between 2012 and 2013. The mean age was 65 ± 9.6 years. Five patients had previous surgery for incontinence. The mean duration of follow-up was 14.3 months. A transperitoneal approach with a lateral positioning of the robotic arms was performed. The cuff implantation, positioning of the reservoir, and the pump were carried out similarly to the laparoscopic technique. Operative time, intraoperative occurrence of injuries of the bladder or vagina, postoperative complications, and continence (pad per day) were assessed. The R-AUS implantation was feasible in all cases without intraoperative injury and 1 grade 1 postoperative complication. Mean operative time, postoperative bladder catheterization, and hospitalization time were 210 ± 32 minutes, 7 days, and 6 days, respectively. At the end of the follow-up, 83% of cases were fully continent. R-AUS implantation in incontinent women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency was feasible and safe with good functional results. More data are needed before concluding to the superiority of this new technique compared with open or laparoscopic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Whole-Ecosystem Warming Alters Vegetation Phenology in a Boreal Spruce Bog: Initial Results from the SPRUCE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Phenology is one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. However, the response of phenology to future environmental conditions still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9°C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu), where processed to yield quantitative measures of canopy color. These data are complemented by on-the-ground phenological data collected by human observers. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015. We observed a delay in senescence during autumn 2015 (2-5 days per degree of warming) and an advance in onset during spring 2016 (1-4 days per degree of warming). These patterns are robust across species and methods of phenological observation (i.e. camera-based vs. human observer). And, our results show very little evidence for photoperiod acting as a constraint on the response to warming. Early spring onset and consequent loss of frost hardiness in the warmest chambers proved disadvantageous when a brief period of extreme cold (to -12°C in the control chambers, to -3°C in the +9°C chambers) followed a month of generally mild weather. Foliage mortality for both Larix and Picea was immediate and severe, although both species subsequently re-flushed. These results give support for the hypothesis that warming may enhance the likelihood of spring frost

  20. The national neonatal screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark: results from the initial four years, 1999-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To describe the outcome of four years' nationwide neonatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in liveborn newborns. METHODS: Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed if specific Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in eluate from the PKU Guthrie filter paper card from a child....... Infants diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions and treated for three months with sulphadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid continuously. RESULTS: Eluates from PKU-cards from 262 912 newborns were analysed. The birth prevalence of congenital...... toxoplasma infection was 2.1 per 10 000 liveborns. Congenital toxoplasmosis was suspected in 96 infants and confirmed in 55. Forty seven children were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions soon after birth; 12 had clinical signs at this first examination. Of these, 5 had intracranial calcifications...

  1. [Indications and technique of the M-U abdominal incision and initial clinical results of modified abdominoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönig, J F; Hecker, J W

    1998-01-01

    The M-U-abdominoplasty introduced here has been developed to generate an even tightening of the central and the lateral parts of the abdominal wall. In contrary to the standard method, a more pronounced accentuation of the waist and an aesthetically more advantageous course of the scars can be achieved. Application of the M-U-abdominoplasty is especially recommended in cases of previous liposuction or undermining of the abdominal wall, resulting in a stronger relaxation of the lateral than the central parts. A stressed tightening of the lateral abdominal wall can be achieved by a soft coursed, M-shaped, cranial incision line, which is united with a broad U-shaped caudal incision line. The length of the U-incision determines the length of the M-shaped incision. Only a limited undermining of the abdominal wall above the umbilicus is needed, which minimises the risk of wound-healing impairment caused by nutrition defects.

  2. NGNP Point Design - Results of the Initial Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulic Assessments During FY-03, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald; James W. Sterbentz; Robert L. Sant; P. Bayless; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; W. K. Terry

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary preconceptual designs for two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), one for a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and one for a pebble bed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs are to meet three basic requirements: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 °C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The two efforts are discussed separately below. The analytical results presented in this report are very promising, however, we wish to caution the reader that future, more detailed, design work will be needed to provide final answers to a number of key questions including the allowable power level, the inlet temperature, the power density, the optimum fuel form, and others. The point design work presented in this report provides a starting point for other evaluations, and directions for the detailed design, but not final answers.

  3. Optical design and Initial Results from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's AMMT/TEMPS Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Steven; Lane, Brandon; Neira, Jorge; Mekhontsev, Sergey; Vlasea, Mihaela; Hanssen, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Physical Measurement and Engineering Laboratories are jointly developing the Additive Manufacturing Measurement Testbed (AMMT)/ Temperature and Emittance of Melts, Powders and Solids (TEMPS) facilities. These facilities will be co-located on an open architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system allowing users full access to the system's operation parameters. This will provide users with access to machine-independent monitoring and control of the powder bed fusion process. In this paper there will be emphasis on the AMMT, which incorporates in-line visible light collection optics for monitoring and feedback control of the powder bed fusion process. We shall present an overview of the AMMT/TEMPS program and its goals. The optical and mechanical design of the open architecture powder-bed fusion system and the AMMT will also be described. In addition, preliminary measurement results from the system along with the current status of the system will be described.

  4. Inversion of vegetation canopy reflectance models for estimating agronomic variables. I - Problem definition and initial results using the Suits model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, N.; Strebel, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    An important but relatively uninvestigated problem in remote sensing is the inversion of vegetative canopy reflectance models to obtain agrophysical parameters, given measured reflectances. The problem is here formally defined and its solution outlined. Numerical nonlinear optimization techniques are used to implement this inversion to obtain the leaf area index using Suits' canopy reflectance model. The results for a variety of cases indicate that this can be done successfully using infrared reflectances at different views or azimuth angles or a combination thereof. The other parameters of the model must be known, although reasonable measurement errors can be tolerated without seriously degrading the accuracy of the inversion. The application of the technique to ground based remote-sensing experiments is potentially useful, but is limited to the degree to which the canopy reflectance model can accurately predict observed reflectances.

  5. Six-Month Results From the Initial Randomized Study of the Ranger Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon in the Femoropopliteal Segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausback, Yvonne; Willfort-Ehringer, Andrea; Sievert, Horst; Geist, Volker; Lichtenberg, Michael; Del Giudice, Costantino; Sauguet, Antoine; Diaz-Cartelle, Juan; Marx, Claudia; Ströbel, Armin; Schult, Ingolf; Scheinert, Dierk

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Ranger paclitaxel-coated balloon vs uncoated balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal lesions. Between January 2014 and October 2015, the prospective, randomized RANGER SFA study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02013193) enrolled 105 patients with symptomatic lower limb ischemia (Rutherford category 2-4) and stenotic lesions in the nonstented femoropopliteal segment at 10 European centers. Seventy-one patients (mean age 68±8 years; 53 men) were enrolled in the Ranger drug-coated balloon (DCB) arm and 34 patients (mean age 67±9 years; 23 men) were assigned to the control group. Six-month analysis included angiographic late lumen loss and safety and clinical outcomes assessments. Baseline characteristics of the DCB and control groups were similar, as were lesion lengths (68±46 vs 60±48 mm; p=0.731), severity of calcification (p=0.236), and the prevalence of occlusions (34% vs 34%; p>0.999). At 6 months, late lumen loss was significantly less for the DCB group vs controls (-0.16±0.99 vs 0.76±1.4; p=0.002). The DCB group had significantly greater freedom from binary restenosis (92% vs 64%; p=0.005) and primary patency rates (87% vs 60%; p=0.014). Target lesion revascularization rates were 5.6% in the DCB group and 12% in the control group (p=0.475). No target limb amputations or device-related deaths occurred in either group. Six-month results suggest that Ranger DCB treatment effectively inhibited restenosis in symptomatic femoropopliteal disease, resulting in improved vessel patency and a low revascularization rate in the short term compared with uncoated balloon angioplasty.

  6. Effect of the thickness variation and initial imperfection on buckling of composite cylindrical shells: Asymptotic analysis and numerical results by BOSOR4 and PANDA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Wei; Elishakoff, Isaac; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Bushnell, David

    1998-01-01

    This study is an extension of a previous investigation of the combined effect of axisymmetric thickness variation and axisymmetric initial geometric imperfection on buckling of isotropic shells under uniform axial compression. Here the anisotropic cylindrical shells are investigated by means of Koiter's energy criterion. An asymptotic formula is derived which can be used to determine the critical buckling load for composite shells with combined initial geometric imperfection and thickness variation. Results are compared with those obtained by the software packages BOSOR4 and PANDA2.

  7. Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production: Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2003-01-01

    releases from active and inactive pipes and tank batteries. The leases are typical of many depleted and aging petroleum fields in Osage County, which ranks among the top oil and gas producing counties in Oklahoma with about 39,000 wells. Oil and gas production has occurred in Osage county for over one hundred years, but current production is mainly from stripper wells (averaging ~2.8 bbl/d oil and >30 bbl/d brine) that are shallow, mostly 300-700 m in depth, and produce from several sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. Results to date show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (~150,000 mg/L total dissolved solids), with relatively high concentrations of Mg, Sr, and NH4, but low SO4 and H2S. With the exception of Fe and Mn, the concentrations of trace metals are low. Results also show that some and, eventually, the bulk, of inorganic salts and some dissolved organic species in the released brine from both sites will reach Skiatook Lake. Results at the 'A' site show that the salts have essentially been removed from the sandy soil which formed in a surficial layer of eolian sand, but degraded and weathered oil persists on the surface of old oil and brine pits, close to sites of old tanks, on old channels that carried oil from tanks to the oil pits and other impacted areas. Results also show a plume of high salinity water (5,000-30,600 mg/L TDS) is present at intermediate depths that extend from below the old oil and brine pits to Skiatook Lake. No liquid petroleum was found in the contaminated groundwater, but soluble petroleum byproducts, including organic acid anions and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present. Results to date clearly show that significant amounts of salts from produced-water releases and petroleum hydrocarbons still remain in the soils and rocks of the impacted area after more than 60 years of natural attenuation. At the 'B' site significant amounts of produced water from the two active brine pits percolate into th

  8. Point Prevalence of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in New Zealand in 2015: Initial Results from the PINZ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Robert N; Evans, Helen M; Appleton, Laura; Bishop, Jonathan; Chin, Simon; Mouat, Stephen; Gearry, Richard B; Day, Andrew S

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) around the world is increasing. However, there is a scarcity of data on the epidemiology of pediatric IBD in the Southern Hemisphere. This study aimed to document the point prevalence of pediatric IBD in New Zealand on June 30, 2015. All patients in New Zealand, under 16 years of age, with a diagnosis of IBD on June 30, 2015 were identified. Demographic and disease phenotypic details were collected and entered into a secure database. Age-specific population data for New Zealand were obtained and national and regional prevalence rates were calculated. The point prevalence of pediatric IBD, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and inflammatory bowel disease unclassified in New Zealand on June 30, 2015 was (95% confidence intervals) 21.7 (18.9-24.8), 16.5 (14.0-19.2), 3.3 (2.2-4.6), and 1.9 (1.2-3.0) per 100,000 children, respectively. There was a striking disparity between the prevalence rates in the North and South Islands. The point prevalence of pediatric IBD in New Zealand represents the first-ever national, population-based prevalence rates of pediatric IBD published. Results from the Paediatric IBD in New Zealand (PINZ) study are also the first to show markedly higher prevalence rates of IBD in the southern part of a country compared with its northern counterpart. Ongoing prospective ascertainment of the incidence of pediatric IBD is required.

  9. Long-term results of first salvage treatment in CLL patients treated initially with FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Constantine S; O'Brien, Susan; Plunkett, William; Wierda, William; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Xuemei; Do, Kim-Anh; Cortes, Jorge; Khouri, Issa; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lerner, Susan; Keating, Michael J

    2014-11-13

    Although fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) together are established as a standard first-line treatment of younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), there is little information to guide the management of patients with CLL refractory to, or who have relapsed after, receiving frontline FCR treatment. To define optimal salvage strategy and identify patients unsuitable for retreatment with FCR, we examined the survival and treatment outcome of 300 patients enrolled in a phase 2 study of FCR. After a median 142 months of follow-up, 156 patients developed progressive CLL, with a median survival of 51 months after disease progression. The duration of first remission (REM1) was a key determinant of survival after disease progression and first salvage. Patients with a short REM1 (<3 years) had a short survival period, irrespective of salvage therapy received; these patients have high unmet medical needs and are good candidates for investigation of novel therapies. In patients with a long REM1 (≥3 years), salvage treatment with either repeat FCR or lenalidomide-based therapy results in subsequent median survival exceeding 5 years; for these patients, FCR rechallenge represents a reasonable standard of care. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Multiple-exchange-time xenon polarization transfer contrast (MXTC) MRI: initial results in animals and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregely, Isabel; Ruset, Iulian C; Mata, Jaime F; Ketel, Jeffrey; Ketel, Steve; Distelbrink, Jan; Altes, Talissa A; Mugler, John P; Wilson Miller, G; William Hersman, F; Ruppert, Kai

    2012-04-01

    Hyperpolarized xenon-129 is a noninvasive contrast agent for lung MRI, which upon inhalation dissolves in parenchymal structures, thus mirroring the gas-exchange process for oxygen in the lung. Multiple-exchange-time xenon polarization transfer contrast (MXTC) MRI is an implementation of the XTC MRI technique in four dimensions (three spatial dimensions plus exchange time). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of MXTC MRI for the detection of microstructural deformations of the healthy lung in response to gravity-induced tissue compression and the degree of lung inflation. MXTC MRI was performed in four rabbits and in three healthy human volunteers. Two lung function parameters, one related to tissue- to alveolar-volume ratio and the other to average septal-wall thickness, were determined regionally. A significant gradient in MXTC MRI parameters, consistent with gravity-induced lung tissue deformation in the supine imaging position, was found at low lung volumes. At high lung volumes, parameters were generally lower and the gradient in parameter values was less pronounced. Results show that MXTC MRI permits the quantification of subtle changes in healthy lung microstructure. Further, only structures participating in gas exchange are represented in MXTC MRI data, which potentially makes the technique especially sensitive to pathological changes in lung microstructure affecting gas exchange. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Maternal mortality at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Initial results from a reduction intervention strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Hernández-Alemán, Francisco; Anaya-Coeto, Sergio; Pozos-Cavanzo, José Luis; Chavarría-Olarte, María Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the preliminary results of a medical manager intervention to improve the quality of medical care during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium, on the maternal mortality rates in population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). We selected the 14 administrative delegations of IMSS that showed the highest rates and absolute numbers of maternal deaths in the years 1999 to 2001. Within this group, the manager medical staff developed activities for medical training of family physicians and gynecologists, to improve medical resources, to achieve a better coordination among medical services, to adequate reference of obstetrical complications to higher-level hospitals, and for monitoring of maternal mortality committees operation. The other 23 IMSS administrative delegations were used as controls. Maternal mortality rates fell down from 40.7 to 28.2 per 100,000 live births among the delegations included in the strategy (mean reduction 30.7%). Among the control delegations maternal mortality rate fell down 1.5% only (32.3 to 31.8 per 100,000 live births). A similar phenomenon was observed for the absolute number of maternal deaths, with a reduction of 36.7% and 8.4%, respectively. The improving intervention was associated with a noticeable reduction in the maternal mortality rate. It is necessary a long-term observation to confirm a cause-effect relationship.

  12. Microbial borehole observatories deployed within the oceanic crust: Design considerations and initial results from long-term colonization experiments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bach, W.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Hulme, S.; Toner, B. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    Borehole observatories developed for long-term sampling and monitoring in the subseafloor of the deep ocean must satisfy design and operation requirements that are similar to systems deployed on land. Many of these systems are used to achieve simultaneous hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological goals, requiring innovative design, installation, and operation. There are major logistical challenges for subseafloor observatories, the foremost being having to remotely access sites kilometers underwater using multiple oceanographic platforms (drill ship, surface ship, submersible, remotely-operated vehicle) and reliance on autonomous devices that are serviced only after several years. Contamination of the analytical environment is probable during installation operations, requiring vigilance during analysis for interpretation. Subseafloor observatories also require self-contained and robust instrumentation that can withstand long-term exposure to seawater at high pressures, elevated temperatures, a variety of redox conditions, and little to no access to external power. Although subseafloor borehole observatories have been in development for hydrologic monitoring for two decades, the inclusion of experimentation to examine the deep biosphere in the marine subsurface has only recently been developed. Results from some of the first microbial colonization experiments in young basaltic rocks on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge demonstrate in situ microbial-mineral interactions that can be identified using complementary geochemical and microbiological techniques. Mineral surfaces were first colonized by iron oxidizing bacteria, and as fluid composition changed, the microbial community became dominated by Firmicutes bacteria, some of which are phylogenetically similar to microbial communities observed in the terrestrial deep biosphere.

  13. Optical design and Initial Results from The National Institute of Standards and Technology’s AMMT/TEMPS Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Steven; Lane, Brandon; Neira, Jorge; Mekhontsev, Sergey; Vlasea, Mihaela; Hanssen, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) Physical Measurement and Engineering Laboratories are jointly developing the Additive Manufacturing Measurement Testbed (AMMT)/ Temperature and Emittance of Melts, Powders and Solids (TEMPS) facilities. These facilities will be co-located on an open architecture laser-based powder bed fusion system allowing users full access to the system’s operation parameters. This will provide users with access to machine-independent monitoring and control of the powder bed fusion process. In this paper there will be emphasis on the AMMT, which incorporates in-line visible light collection optics for monitoring and feedback control of the powder bed fusion process. We shall present an overview of the AMMT/TEMPS program and its goals. The optical and mechanical design of the open architecture powder-bed fusion system and the AMMT will also be described. In addition, preliminary measurement results from the system along with the current status of the system will be described. PMID:28579666

  14. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  15. Initial Results from Radiometer and Polarized Radar-Based Icing Algorithms Compared to In-Situ Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serke, David; Reehorst, Andrew L.; King, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In early 2015, a field campaign was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The purpose of the campaign is to test several prototype algorithms meant to detect the location and severity of in-flight icing (or icing aloft, as opposed to ground icing) within the terminal airspace. Terminal airspace for this project is currently defined as within 25 kilometers horizontal distance of the terminal, which in this instance is Hopkins International Airport in Cleveland. Two new and improved algorithms that utilize ground-based remote sensing instrumentation have been developed and were operated during the field campaign. The first is the 'NASA Icing Remote Sensing System', or NIRSS. The second algorithm is the 'Radar Icing Algorithm', or RadIA. In addition to these algorithms, which were derived from ground-based remote sensors, in-situ icing measurements of the profiles of super-cooled liquid water (SLW) collected with vibrating wire sondes attached to weather balloons produced a comprehensive database for comparison. Key fields from the SLW-sondes include air temperature, humidity and liquid water content, cataloged by time and 3-D location. This work gives an overview of the NIRSS and RadIA products and results are compared to in-situ SLW-sonde data from one icing case study. The location and quantity of super-cooled liquid as measured by the in-situ probes provide a measure of the utility of these prototype hazard-sensing algorithms.

  16. Computed tomography-guided implantation of 125 I seeds brachytherapy for recurrent multiple pulmonary oligometastases: initial experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT-guided percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using 125 I radioactive seeds for multiple pulmonary metastatic tumors. Material and methods : Between September 2013 and December 2015, 22 patients with multiple pulmonary metastases, who after conventional chemotherapy and trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE therapy were considered unable to withstand stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT, received CT-guided 125 I brachytherapy. Clinical data were studied retrospectively. A planning target volume of 90% (D90 was 120-160 Gy for 125 I seeds with an activity of 25.9 MBq. A CT-based evaluation performed 1, 2, and 6 months’ post-implantation enabled review of local control of tumors. Results : Twenty-two patients with 65 pulmonary metastases successfully completed treatment. The mean value for D90 for implantation for 125 I seeds was 132 Gy. Complete response (CR + partial response (PR was documented in 81.54%, 78.46%, and 78.46% of patients at 1, 2, and 6 months after implantation, respectively. Fourteen out of 22 patients had CR, 3 had PR, 2 had stable disease (SD, and 3 had progressive disease (PD. Most of the metastases (CR + PR + SD; 87.69% after 6 months were controlled by implantation. Conclusions : CT-guided 125 I brachytherapy is a safe and effective treatment for multiple pulmonary metastatic tumors, and can achieve good short-term local control, so long as the radiation dose is sufficient.

  17. Review of Results and Recommendations from the GCMRC 2000-2003 Remote-Sensing Initiative for Monitoring Environmental Resources Within the Colorado River Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2004-01-01

    In mid-2000, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) began a remote-sensing initiative to evaluate all remote-sensing technologies and methods that had potential for providing improved data (capability) for its various programs that monitor the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE). The primary objective of the initiative was to determine the most cost-effective data collection protocols for GCMRC programs that (1) provide the accuracies required for currently measured parameters, (2) provide additional parameters for ecological monitoring, (3) reduce environmental impact by being less invasive than current methods, and (4) expand geographic extent of current ground approaches. The initial phase of the remote-sensing initiative determined the types of sampling parameters and their required accuracies for monitoring. This information was used to determine the most appropriate sensors for evaluation. The initiative evaluated 25 different data collections over a three-year period; many more remote-sensing instruments were considered, but were not evaluated because they could not meet the basic requirements on spatial resolution, wavelength, positional accuracy, or elevation accuracy. It was hoped that the evaluations would lead to a minimum set of technologies that would satisfy many program requirements. The results from all of our evaluations are reviewed in this report and are briefly summarized in this report.

  18. Initial results of the FUSION-X-US prototype combining 3D automated breast ultrasound and digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefgen, Benedikt; Heil, Joerg; Barr, Richard G; Radicke, Marcus; Harcos, Aba; Gomez, Christina; Stieber, Anne; Hennigs, André; von Au, Alexandra; Spratte, Julia; Rauch, Geraldine; Rom, Joachim; Schütz, Florian; Sohn, Christof; Golatta, Michael

    2018-01-04

    To determine the feasibility of a prototype device combining 3D-automated breast ultrasound (ABVS) and digital breast tomosynthesis in a single device to detect and characterize breast lesions. In this prospective feasibility study, the FUSION-X-US prototype was used to perform digital breast tomosynthesis and ABVS in 23 patients with an indication for tomosynthesis based on current guidelines after clinical examination and standard imaging. The ABVS and tomosynthesis images of the prototype were interpreted separately by two blinded experts. The study compares the detection and BI-RADS® scores of breast lesions using only the tomosynthesis and ABVS data from the FUSION-X-US prototype to the results of the complete diagnostic workup. Image acquisition and processing by the prototype was fast and accurate, with some limitations in ultrasound coverage and image quality. In the diagnostic workup, 29 solid lesions (23 benign, including three cases with microcalcifications, and six malignant lesions) were identified. Using the prototype, all malignant lesions were detected and classified as malignant or suspicious by both investigators. Solid breast lesions can be localized accurately and fast by the Fusion-X-US system. Technical improvements of the ultrasound image quality and ultrasound coverage are needed to further study this new device. The prototype combines tomosynthesis and automated 3D-ultrasound (ABVS) in one device. It allows accurate detection of malignant lesions, directly correlating tomosynthesis and ABVS data. The diagnostic evaluation of the prototype-acquired data was interpreter-independent. The prototype provides a time-efficient and technically reliable diagnostic procedure. The combination of tomosynthesis and ABVS is a promising diagnostic approach.

  19. Design and initial results of a multi-phase randomized trial of ceftriaxone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Berry

    Full Text Available Ceftriaxone increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter, EAAT2, which might protect from glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. A trial using a novel three stage nonstop design, incorporating Phases I-III, tested ceftriaxone in ALS. Stage 1 determined the cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in subjects with ALS. Stage 2 evaluated safety and tolerability for 20-weeks. Analysis of the pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety was used to determine the ceftriaxone dosage for Stage 3 efficacy testing.In Stage 1, 66 subjects at ten clinical sites were enrolled and randomized equally into three study groups receiving intravenous placebo, ceftriaxone 2 grams daily or ceftriaxone 4 grams daily divided BID. Participants provided serum and cerebrospinal fluid for pharmacokinetic analysis on study day 7. Participants continued their assigned treatment in Stage 2. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB reviewed the data after the last participants completed 20 weeks on study drug.Stage 1 analysis revealed linear pharmacokinetics, and CSF trough levels for both dosage levels exceeding the pre-specified target trough level of 1 µM (0.55 µg/mL. Tolerability (Stages 1 and 2 results showed that ceftriaxone at dosages up to 4 grams/day was well tolerated at 20 weeks. Biliary adverse events were more common with ceftriaxone but not dose-dependent and improved with ursodeoxycholic (ursodiol therapy.The goals of Stages 1 and 2 of the ceftriaxone trial were successfully achieved. Based on the pre-specified decision rules, the DSMB recommended the use of ceftriaxone 4 g/d (divided BID for Stage 3, which recently closed.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00349622.

  20. Imaging of acute pulmonary embolism using a dual energy CT system with rapid kVp switching: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, Lucas L., E-mail: Lucas.Geyer@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael, E-mail: michael.scherr@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Körner, Markus, E-mail: markus.koerner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Wirth, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.wirth@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Deak, Paul, E-mail: paul.deak@ge.com [GE Healthcare, Oskar-Schlemmer-Straße 11, 80807 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: maximilian.reiser@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Linsenmaier, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.linsenmaier@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is considered as clinical gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). Whereas conventional CTPA only offers anatomic information, dual energy CT (DECT) provides functional information on blood volume as surrogate of perfusion by assessing the pulmonary iodine distribution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung perfusion imaging using a single-tube DECT scanner with rapid kVp switching. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with suspicion of acute PE underwent DECT. Two experienced radiologists assessed the CTPA images and lung perfusion maps regarding the presence of PE. The image quality was rated using a semi-quantitative 5-point scale: 1 (=excellent) to 5 (=non-diagnostic). Iodine concentrations were quantified by a ROI analysis. Results: Seventy perfusion defects were identified in 266 lung segments: 13 (19%) were rated as consistent with PE. Five patients had signs of PE at CTPA. All patients with occlusive clots were correctly identified by DECT perfusion maps. On a per patient basis the sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 88.9%, respectively, while on a per segment basis it was 40.0% and 97.6%, respectively. None of the patients with a homogeneous perfusion map had an abnormal CTPA. The overall image quality of the perfusion maps was rated with a mean score of 2.6 ± 0.6. There was a significant ventrodorsal gradient of the median iodine concentrations (1.1 mg/cm{sup 3} vs. 1.7 mg/cm{sup 3}). Conclusion: Lung perfusion imaging on a DE CT-system with fast kVp-switching is feasible. DECT might be a helpful adjunct to assess the clinical severity of PE.

  1. Investigating the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Johanna; Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    Fall-related injuries affect the lives of elderly to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental study investigates the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents. The intervention site is a nursing home in Sweden where impact absorbing flooring was installed in parts of one of six wards (six out of 10 apartments (excluding bathrooms), the communal dining-room and parts of the corridor). The impact absorbing flooring is a 12 mm thick closed cell flexible polyurethane/polyurea composite tile (500×500 mm) with an exterior surface of polyurethane/polyurea. A generalised linear model (log-binomial) was used to calculate the RR of injury from falls on impact absorbing flooring compared to falls on regular flooring, adjusted for age, body mass index, visual and cognitive impairments. During the study period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2014), 254 falls occurred on regular flooring and 77 falls on impact absorbing flooring. The injury/fall rate was 30.3% for falls on regular flooring and 16.9% for falls on impact absorbing flooring. Adjusted for covariates, the impact absorbing flooring significantly reduced the RR of injury in the event of a fall by 59% (RR 0.41 (95% Cl 0.20 to 0.80)). This is, to our knowledge, the first study evaluating the injury-reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring in a nursing home showing statistically significant effect. The results from this study are promising, indicating the considerable potential of impact absorbing flooring as a fall-related injury intervention among frail elderly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Individualized assessment and treatment program for alcohol dependence: results of an initial study to train coping skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Kadden, Ronald M; Kabela-Cormier, Elise

    2009-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) are among the most popular interventions offered for alcohol and other substance use disorders, but it is not clear how they achieve their effects. CBT is purported to exert its beneficial effects by altering coping skills, but data supporting coping changes as the mechanism of action are mixed. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a treatment in which coping skills were trained in a highly individualized way, allowing us to determine if such training would result in an effective treatment. Participants were assigned randomly to a comprehensive packaged CBT program (PCBT), or to an individualized assessment and treatment program (IATP). The IATP program employed experience sampling via cellphone to assess coping skills prior to treatment, and provided therapists with a detailed understanding of patients' coping strengths and deficits. Out-patient treatment. A total of 110 alcohol-dependent men and women. Participants in both conditions completed experience sampling of situations, drinking and coping efforts prior to, and following, 12 weeks of treatment. Time-line follow-back procedures were also used to record drinking at baseline and post-treatment. IATP yielded higher proportion of days abstinent (PDA) at post-treatment (P coping responses and less drinking in high-risk situations, as recorded by experience sampling at post-treatment. Post-treatment coping response rates were associated with decreases in drinking. The IATP approach was more successful than PCBT at training adaptive coping responses for use in situations presenting a high risk for drinking. The highly individualized IATP approach may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for alcohol-dependent patients.

  3. Integrated FDG-PET/CT for detection, therapy monitoring and follow-up of granulocytic sarcoma. Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, Philip; Werner, M.K.; Lichy, M.; Pfannenberg, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Haentschel, M.; Vogel, W. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Oeksuez, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas (GS) are rare extramedullary manifestations of myeloid or lymphoblastic leukaemia. Laboratory examinations are of limited use for diagnosis of extramedullary disease. Radiological imaging based on morphology is challenging. To date, the possible role of FDG-PET/CT as a method for combined metabolic and morphologic imaging is unclear. We present a series of 10 patients to evaluate the potential role of FDG-PET/CT in the management of GS. Patients, materials, methods: a retrospective evaluation of 18 FDG-PET/CT exams in 10 patients with histologically proven GS was performed. All scans included a contrast enhanced CT. The FDG uptake of GS was analyzed and the sensitivity of lesion detection was compared to PET and CT alone. The changes in FDG uptake after therapy were compared to morphological changes detected by CT and follow-up/clinical outcome. Results: 52 untreated or recurrent GS lesions were detected by FDG-PET/CT and all showed an increased FDG uptake with a mean SUVmax and SUVavg of 5.1 and 3.4, respectively. GS was multifocal in 8/10 patients. Combined PET/CT avoided 5 false positive findings compared to PET alone and 13 false negative findings and 1 false positive compared to CT alone. Changes in FDG uptake after therapy correlated with clinical outcome and were more reliable than CT assessment alone. PET/CT identified recurrent GS in 3 patients. Conclusion: viable GS are FDG-avid. Using this metabolic information and morphologic CT criteria, combined FDG-PET/CT was more accurate in lesion detection than FDG-PET or CT alone. Changes in FDG uptake after therapy might be a useful additional parameter for therapy monitoring. Therefore, FDG-PET/CU appears to be a promising diagnostic and monitoring tool in the management of patients with GS. (orig.)

  4. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Thi-Tu Bui

    2016-02-01

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