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Sample records for range hopping picture

  1. The mesoscopic conductance of disordered rings, its random matrix theory and the generalized variable range hopping picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotland, Alexander; Peer, Tal; Cohen, Doron; Budoyo, Rangga; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of the conductance of disordered rings requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo-Drude formulation. Assuming 'mesoscopic' circumstances the analysis of the electro-driven transitions shows similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We argue that the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix dictate the value of the conductance, and study its dependence on the disorder strength, ranging from the ballistic to the Anderson localization regime. An improved sparse random matrix model is introduced to capture the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture. (fast track communication)

  2. Variable range hopping in ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-04-01

    We report the variable range hopping in ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. It has been found that Mott variable range hopping dominant over Efros variable range hopping in all ZnO films. It also has been found that hopping distance and energy increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure.

  3. Vortex variable range hopping in a conventional superconducting film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percher, Ilana M.; Volotsenko, Irina; Frydman, Aviad; Shklovskii, Boris I.; Goldman, Allen M.

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of a disordered amorphous thin film of superconducting indium oxide has been studied as a function of temperature and magnetic field applied perpendicular to its plane. A superconductor-insulator transition has been observed, though the isotherms do not cross at a single point. The curves of resistance versus temperature on the putative superconducting side of this transition, where the resistance decreases with decreasing temperature, obey two-dimensional Mott variable-range hopping of vortices over wide ranges of temperature and resistance. To estimate the parameters of hopping, the film is modeled as a granular system and the hopping of vortices is treated in a manner analogous to hopping of charges. The reason the long-range interaction between vortices over the range of magnetic fields investigated does not lead to a stronger variation of resistance with temperature than that of two-dimensional Mott variable-range hopping remains unresolved.

  4. Range and energetics of charge hopping in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Zuo, Guangzheng; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-12-01

    The recent upswing in attention for the thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs) adds urgency to the need for a quantitative description of the range and energetics of hopping transport in organic semiconductors under relevant circumstances, i.e., around room temperature (RT). In particular, the degree to which hops beyond the nearest neighbor must be accounted for at RT is still largely unknown. Here, measurements of charge and energy transport in doped OSCs are combined with analytical modeling to reach the univocal conclusion that variable-range hopping is the proper description in a large class of disordered OSC at RT. To obtain quantitative agreement with experiment, one needs to account for the modification of the density of states by ionized dopants. These Coulomb interactions give rise to a deep tail of trap states that is independent of the material's initial energetic disorder. Insertion of this effect into a classical Mott-type variable-range hopping model allows one to give a quantitative description of temperature-dependent conductivity and thermopower measurements on a wide range of disordered OSCs. In particular, the model explains the commonly observed quasiuniversal power-law relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the conductivity.

  5. Understanding Mott's law from scaling of variable-range-hopping currents and intrinsic current fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasveer, W.F.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have used the master equation to simulate variable-range hopping (VRH) of charges in a strongly disordered d-dimensional energy landscape (d=1,2,3). The current distribution over hopping distances and hopping energies gives a clear insight into the difference between hops that occur most

  6. Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The effectiveness ratings for HOPS are as follows:Body odor. Early research suggests that applying a deodorant that ... specific zinc salt to the underarm can reduce body odor. Insomnia. Some research suggests that taking a combination ...

  7. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  8. On the range of validity of the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewerz, Carlo; Manteuffel, Andreas von; Nachtmann, Otto

    2008-01-01

    We derive correlated bounds on ratios of deep inelastic structure functions from the dipole picture of photon-hadron scattering at high energies. In particular we consider ratios of the longitudinal structure function, the total structure function, and the charm part of the latter. We also consider ratios of total structure functions taken at the same energy but at three different photon virtualities. It is shown that by confronting these bounds with experimental data we can significantly constrain the range of validity of the dipole picture.

  9. Quantum interference magnetoconductance of polycrystalline germanium films in the variable-range hopping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Peng, Liping; Zhang, Jicheng; Li, Jia; Zeng, Yong; Zhan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Weidong

    2018-06-01

    Direct evidence of quantum interference magnetotransport in polycrystalline germanium films in the variable-range hopping (VRH) regime is reported. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of germanium films fulfilled the Mott VRH mechanism with the form of ? in the low-temperature regime (?). For the magnetotransport behaviour of our germanium films in the VRH regime, a crossover, from negative magnetoconductance at the low-field to positive magnetoconductance at the high-field, is observed while the zero-field conductivity is higher than the critical value (?). In the regime of ?, the magnetoconductance is positive and quadratic in the field for some germanium films. These features are in agreement with the VRH magnetotransport theory based on the quantum interference effect among random paths in the hopping process.

  10. Adjusting Sensing Range to Maximize Throughput on Ad-Hoc Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Such a network is referred to as a multi-hop ad-hoc network, or simply a multi-hop network. Most multi-hop network protocols use some form of carrier sensing to determine if the wireless channel is in use...

  11. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  12. Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping and nonlinear transport in 1 T /1 T'-MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Steele, G. A.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied temperature- and electric-field-dependent carrier transport in single flakes of MoS2 treated with n -butyllithium. The temperature dependence of the four-terminal resistance follows the Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping conduction mechanism. From measurements in the Ohmic and non-Ohmic regime, we estimate the localization length and the average hopping length of the carriers, as well as the effective dielectric constant. Furthermore, a comparison between two- and four-probe measurements yields a contact resistance that increases significantly with decreasing temperature.

  13. Transport Properties of the Organic Conductor (TMTSF)2BrO4: Evidence of Variable Range Hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    A study of d.c. and microwave conductivity and thermoelectric power of the organic conductor (TMTSF)2BrO4 is presented. The transport properties are in qualitative agreement with charge transport via variable-range hopping among localized states. The localization is attributed to the anions, which...

  14. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ∼52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level

  15. Variable-range hopping in 2D quasi-1D electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teber, S.

    2005-12-01

    A semi-phenomenological theory of variable-range hopping (VRH) is developed for two-dimensional (2D) quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) systems such as arrays of quantum wires in the Wigner crystal regime. The theory follows the phenomenology of Efros, Mott and Shklovskii allied with microscopic arguments. We first derive the Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states, g(ε), where ε is the energy of the charge excitation. We then derive the main exponential dependence of the electron conductivity in the linear (L), i.e. σ(T) ∼ exp [-(T L /T) γL ], and current in the non-linear (NL), i.e. j(E) ∼ [-(E NL /E) γNL ], response regimes (E is the applied electric field). Due to the strong anisotropy of the system and its peculiar dielectric properties we show that unusual, with respect to known results, Coulomb gaps open followed by unusual VRH laws, i.e. with respect to the disorder-dependence of T L and E NL and the values of γ L and γ NL . (author)

  16. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ˜52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level.

  17. Polaron variable range hopping in TiO2-δ(-0.04=<δ=<0.2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heluani, S.P.; Comedi, D.; Villafuerte, M.; Juarez, G.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrical conduction in TiO 2-δ (-0.04= 2 +Ar gas atmospheres where changes in δ and film structure had been achieved by varying the O 2 flow rate and the substrate temperature. The electrical transport properties of these samples were investigated by measuring the conductivity as a function of temperature between 17K and room temperature. At the temperature range between 200 and 290K the best fit to the experimental data was obtained assuming a dependence characteristic of adiabatic variable range hopping. At lower temperature the activation energy for the conductivity tends to zero. The results suggest that the conduction mechanism is adiabatic small polaron hopping, which switches to conduction in a polaron band at low temperatures

  18. Low temperature resistivity studies of SmB6: Observation of two-dimensional variable-range hopping conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkova, Marianna; Batko, Ivan; Gabáni, Slavomír; Gažo, Emil; Konovalova, Elena; Filippov, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We studied electrical resistance of a single-crystalline SmB6 sample with a focus on the region of the "low-temperature resistivity plateau". Our observations did not show any true saturation of the electrical resistance at temperatures below 3 K down to 70 mK. According to our findings, temperature dependence of the electrical conduction in a certain temperature interval above 70 mK can be decomposed into a temperature-independent term and a temperature-activated term that can be described by variable-range hopping formula for two-dimensional systems, exp [ -(T0 / T) 1 / 3 ]. Thus, our results indicate importance of hopping type of electrical transport in the near-surface region of SmB6.

  19. Exact Results on Quantum Interference and Magnetoconductance in Variable-Range Hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yeong-Lieh; Nori, Franco

    1997-03-01

    We study quantum interference effects on the transition strength for strongly localized electrons hopping on 2D square and 3D cubic lattices in a magnetic field B. In 2D, we obtain closed-form expressions for the tunneling probability between two arbitrary sites by exactly summing the corresponding phase factors of all directed paths connecting them. An analytic expression for the magnetoconductance, as an explicit function of the magnetic flux, is derived. A positive MC is clearly observed when turning on the magnetic field. When the strength of B reaches a certain value, which is inversely proportional to twice the hopping length, the MC is increased by a factor of two compared to that at zero field. The periodicity in the flux of the MC is found to be equal to hc/2e. In the experimentally important 3D case, we show how the interference patterns and the small-B behavior of the magnetoconductance vary according to the orientation of B. Furthermore, for a 3D sample, the effect on the low-flux MC due to the randomness of the angles between the hopping direction and the orientation of B is examined analytically.(Y.-L. Lin and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 4580 (1996); Phys. Rev. B 53, 15543 (1996).

  20. Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from temperature-dependent to field-dependent variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, C Y; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B; Gómez-Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E 0 /E) 1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value E C (T) 2D =(E a E 0 1/3 /3) 3/4 determined by the scale factors E 0 and E a for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)

  1. Wheeled hopping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  2. Investigation of hopped frequency waveforms for range and velocity measurements of radar targets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kathree, U

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of radar, High Range Resolution (HRR) profiles are often used to improve target tracking accuracy in range and to allow the radar system to produce an image of an object using techniques such as inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR...

  3. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage were measured at 0.14−350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm−2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V−1s−1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  4. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hironori; Hirata, Kazuto

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage) were measured at 0.14-350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm-2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V-1s-1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  5. Two-dimensional variable range hopping in the spin-liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čulo, M.; Tafra, E.; Basletić, M.; Tomić, S.; Hamzić, A.; Korin-Hamzić, B.; Dressel, M.; Schlueter, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the measurements of the magnetotransport properties of the spin liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 . The temperature dependencies of dc resistivity and Hall coefficient R H as well as magnetoresistance at fixed temperatures in magnetic fields up to 5 T suggest that the charge transport takes place via 2D variable range hopping among localized states

  6. The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS): introduction to a novel, standardized, wide-range, high-quality, realistic picture database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Artur; Zurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Selecting appropriate stimuli to induce emotional states is essential in affective research. Only a few standardized affective stimulus databases have been created for auditory, language, and visual materials. Numerous studies have extensively employed these databases using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods. However, some limitations of the existing databases have recently been reported, including limited numbers of stimuli in specific categories or poor picture quality of the visual stimuli. In the present article, we introduce the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS), which consists of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs that are divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). Affective ratings were collected from 204 mostly European participants. The pictures were rated according to the valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance dimensions using computerized bipolar semantic slider scales. Normative ratings for the categories are presented for each dimension. Validation of the ratings was obtained by comparing them to ratings generated using the Self-Assessment Manikin and the International Affective Picture System. In addition, the physical properties of the photographs are reported, including luminance, contrast, and entropy. The new database, with accompanying ratings and image parameters, allows researchers to select a variety of visual stimulus materials specific to their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use by request at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl .

  7. Entanglement contour perspective for "strong area-law violation" in a disordered long-range hopping model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nilanjan; Sharma, Auditya

    2018-03-01

    We numerically investigate the link between the delocalization-localization transition and entanglement in a disordered long-range hopping model of spinless fermions by studying various static and dynamical quantities. This includes the inverse participation ratio, level statistics, entanglement entropy, and number fluctuations in the subsystem along with quench and wave-packet dynamics. Finite systems show delocalized, quasilocalized, and localized phases. The delocalized phase shows strong area-law violation, whereas the (quasi)localized phase adheres to (for large subsystems) the strict area law. The idea of "entanglement contour" nicely explains the violation of area law and its relationship with "fluctuation contour" reveals a signature at the transition point. The relationship between entanglement entropy and number fluctuations in the subsystem also carries signatures for the transition in the model. Results from the Aubry-Andre-Harper model are compared in this context. The propagation of charge and entanglement are contrasted by studying quench and wave-packet dynamics at the single-particle and many-particle levels.

  8. COMPARISON OF RANGE OF MOTION, STRENGTH, AND HOP TEST PERFORMANCE OF DANCERS WITH AND WITHOUT A CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlan, Benjamin R; Carcia, Christopher R; Christoforetti, John J; Martin, RobRoy L

    2016-08-01

    Dancers commonly experience anterior hip pain caused by femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) that interrupts training and performance in dance. A paucity of literature exists to guide appropriate evaluation and management of FAI among dancers. The purpose of this study was to determine if dancers with clinical signs of FAI have differences in hip range of motion, strength, and hop test performance compared to healthy dancers. Quasi-experimental, cohort comparison. Fifteen dancers aged between 18- 21 years with clinical signs of FAI that included anterior hip pain and provocative impingement tests were compared to 13 age-matched dancers for passive hip joint range of motion, isometric hip strength, and performance of the medial triple hop, lateral triple hop, and cross-over hop tests. No statistically significant differences in range of motion were noted for flexion (Healthy = 145° + 7°; FAI = 147° + 10°; p=0.59), internal rotation (Healthy = 63° + 7°; FAI = 61° + 11°; p=0.50), and external rotation (Healthy = 37° + 9°; FAI = 34° + 12°; p=0.68) between the two groups. Hip extension strength was significantly less in the dancers with FAI (224 + 55 Newtons) compared to the healthy group (293 ± 58 Newtons; F(1,26) = 10.2; p=0.004). No statistically significant differences were noted for flexion, internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, or adduction isometric strength. The medial triple hop test was significantly less in the FAI group (354 ± 43 cm) compared to the healthy group (410 ± 50 cm; F(1,26) = 10.3; p = 0.004). Similar results were observed for the lateral hop test, as the FAI group (294 ± 38 cm) performed worse than the healthy controls (344 ± 54cm; F(1,26) = 7.8; p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the FAI group (2.7 ± 0.92 seconds) and the healthy group (2.5 ± 0.75 seconds) on the crossover hop

  9. Raman, dielectric and variable range hopping nature of Gd2O3-doped K0.5N0.5NbO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Peddigari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN + x wt% Gd2O3 (x = 0 -1.5 ceramics have been prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The effect of Gd2O3 on the structural, microstructural and dielectric properties of KNN ceramics were studied systematically. The effect of Gd2O3 on phase transformation from orthorhombic to psuedocubic structure is explained interms of changes in the internal vibration modes of NbO6 octahedra. The Raman intensity of the stretching mode v1 enhanced and shifted toward higher wavenumber with Gd2O3 concentration, which is attributed to the increase in polarizability and change in the O-Nb-O bond angles. Microstructural analysis revealed that the grain size of the KNN ceramics decreases from 2.26 ± 1.07 μm to 0.35 ± 0.13 μm and becomes homogenous with an increase in Gd2O3 concentration. The frequency dependent dielectric spectra are analyzed by using Havriliak-Negami function. The fitted symmetry parameter and relaxation time (τ are found to be 0.914 and 8.78 × 10−10 ± 5.5 × 10−11 s, respectively for the sample doped with x = 1.0. The addition of Gd2O3 to the KNN shifted the polymorphic phase transition orthorhombic to tetragonal transition temperature (TO-T from 199oC to 85oC with enhanced dielectric permittivity (ε′ = 1139 at 1 MHz. The sample with x = 1.0, shown a high dielectric permittivity (ε′ = 879 and low dielectric loss (<5% in the broad temperature range (-140oC – 150oC with the Curie temperature 307 oC can have the potential for high temperature piezoelectric and tunable RF circuit applications. The temperature dependent AC-conductivity follows the variable range hopping conduction mechanism by obtaining the slope -0.25 from the ln[ln(ρac] versus ln(T graph in the temperature range of 133 K-308 K. The effect of Gd2O3 on the Mott’s parameters such as density of states (N(EF, hopping length (RH, and hopping energy (WH have been discussed.

  10. Hall effect in hopping regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  11. Hall effect in hopping regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  12. Structural, nanomechanical and variable range hopping conduction behavior of nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by the ambient environment assisted filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Rawal, Ishpal; Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Opto-Electronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films are grown by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc process. • Effect of gaseous environment on the properties of carbon films has been studied. • The structural and nanomechanical properties of carbon thin films have been studied. • The VRH conduction behavior in nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been studied. - Abstract: This paper reports the deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline carbon thin films by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique assisted with three different gaseous environments of helium, nitrogen and hydrogen. All the films are nanocrystalline in nature as observed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) measurements, which suggests that the nanocrystallites of size ∼10–50 nm are embedded though out the amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that the film deposited under the nitrogen gaseous environment has the highest sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio accompanied with the highest hardness of ∼18.34 GPa observed from the nanoindentation technique. The film deposited under the helium gaseous environment has the highest ratio of the area under the Raman D peak to G peak (A{sub D}/A{sub G}) and the highest conductivity (∼2.23 S/cm) at room temperature, whereas, the film deposited under the hydrogen environment has the lowest conductivity value (2.27 × 10{sup −7} S/cm). The temperature dependent dc conduction behavior of all the nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been analyzed in the light of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism and observed that all the films obey three dimension VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport.

  13. Bose-glass behavior in Bi2Sr2Ca1-xYxCu2O8 crystals with columnar defects: Experimental evidence for variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta Phuoc, V.; Sousa, R. de; Ammor, L.; Soret, J.C.; Ruyter, A.; Wahl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Disorder plays a crucial role in the static and dynamic properties of the mixed state of high-T c cuprates. A main feature of the diagram phase is the phase transition separating a high temperature vortex liquid-like state from a low temperature vortex solid-like state. In particular, the nature of the latter depends on the strength and the dimensionality of disorder. In the presence of an unidimensional disorder, Nelson and Vinokur predict a Bose-glass. In this paper, the authors concern themselves with the variable-range vortex hopping transport predicted in a Bose-glass. They report on vortex transport in Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1-x Y x Cu 2 O 8 crystals irradiated at different doses of heavy ions. They show evidence of a flux-creep resistivity typical of a variable-range vortex hopping mechanism as predicted by Nelson and Vinokur

  14. Development of a picture of the van der Waals interaction energy between clusters of nanometer-range particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, V.; Marlow, W.H.; Lu, J.X.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of the long-range Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction energy between condensed bodies is well known. However, its implementation for interacting bodies that are highly irregular and separated by distances varying from contact to micrometers has received little attention. As part of a study of collisions of irregular aerosol particles, an approach based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals interaction has been developed to compute the interaction energy between a sphere and an aggregate of spheres at all separations. In the first part of this study, the iterated sum-over-dipole interactions between pairs of approximately spherical molecular clusters are compared with the Lifshitz and Lifshitz-Hamaker interaction energies for continuum spheres of radii equal to those of the clusters' circumscribed spheres and of the same masses as the clusters. The Lifshitz energy is shown to converge to the iterated dipolar energy for quasispherical molecular clusters for sufficiently large separations, while the energy calculated by using the Lifshitz-Hamaker approach does not. Next, the interaction energies between a contacting pair of these molecular clusters and a third cluster in different relative positions are calculated first by coupling all molecules in the three-cluster system and second by ignoring the interactions between the molecules of the adhering clusters. The error calculated by this omission is shown to be very small, and is an indication of the error in computing the long-range interaction energy between a pair of interacting spheres and a third sphere as a simple sum over the Lifshitz energies between individual, condensed-matter spheres. This Lifshitz energy calculation is then combined with the short-separation, nonsingular van der Waals energy calculation of Lu, Marlow, and Arunachalam, to provide an integrated picture of the van der Waals energy from large separations to contact. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1983-09-01

    The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)

  16. Thermally activated phase slip and variable range hopping in Tm(Ba{sub 2-x}Pr{sub x})Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7+{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Z.; Khosroabadi, H.; Akhavan, M. [Magnet Research Laboratory (MRL), Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-05-01

    The magnetoresistance measurement of single phase polycrystalline TmBa{sub 2-x}Pr{sub x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7+{delta}} samples have been analyzed by the Ambegaokar and Halperine (AH) phase slip model. The magnetic field dependence of pinning energy power factors increase with the increase of Pr doping. The derived critical current density from the AH theory decreases with increasing magnetic field and Pr-doping for all superconducting samples. It shows that the Pr-doping plays the role of weak link. We have also investigated the normal state resistivity with the hopping model. We have found a CG-VRH cross-over with the increase of Pr content near metal insulator transition. The deacrease of the localization length of the carriers show that Pr-doping strongly localizes the carriers, and finally causes the suppression of superconductivity. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Hopping models for ion conduction in noncrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    semiconductors). These universalities are subject of much current interest, for instance interpreted in the context of simple hopping models. In the present paper we first discuss the temperature dependence of the dc conductivity in hopping models and the importance of the percolation phenomenon. Next......, the experimental (quasi)universality of the ac conductivity is discussed. It is shown that hopping models are able to reproduce the experimental finding that the response obeys time-temperature superposition, while at the same time a broad range of activation energies is involved in the conduction process. Again...

  18. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  19. Climate, weather, and hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    As climate and weather become more variable, hop growers face increased uncertainty in making decisions about their crop. Given the unprecedented nature of these changes, growers may no longer have enough information and intuitive understanding to adequately assess the situation and evaluate their m...

  20. Electron hopping through proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Warren, J. J.; Ener, M. E.; Vlček, Antonín; Winkler, J. R.; Gray, H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 256, 21-22 (2012), s. 2478-2487 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10124 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electron transfer * multistep tunneling * hopping maps Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 11.016, year: 2012

  1. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  2. Hip-Hop Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marcella Runell

    2009-01-01

    Hip-hop music and culture are often cited as being public pedagogy, meaning the music itself has intrinsic educational value. Non-profit organizations and individual educators have graciously taken the lead in utilizing hip-hop to educate. As the academy continues to debate its effectiveness, teachers and community organizers are moving forward.…

  3. Effective one-dimensionality of universal ac hopping conduction in the extreme disorder limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenological picture of ac hopping in the symmetric hopping model (regular lattice, equal site energies, random energy barriers) is proposed according to which conduction in the extreme disorder limit is dominated by essentially one-dimensional "percolation paths." Modeling a percolation path...... as strictly one dimensional with a sharp jump rate cutoff leads to an expression for the universal ac conductivity that fits computer simulations in two and three dimensions better than the effective medium approximation....

  4. Involvement of Vacuolar Sequestration and Active Transport in Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Hop Iso-?-Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelwood, L.A.; Walsh, M.C.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., has an exceptionally high content of secondary metabolites, the hop -acids, which possess a range of beneficial properties, including antiseptic action. Studies performed on the mode of action of hop iso--acids have hitherto been restricted to lactic acid bacteria.

  5. Picture perfect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Picture perfect’ – when perfection becomes the new normal This paper draws on perspectives from three different studies. One study, which focuses on youth life and lack of well-being (Sørensen et al 2011), one study on youth life on the margins of society (Katznelson et al 2015) and one study...

  6. Picture Postage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for…

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  8. Relationships between Xanthohumol and Polyphenol Content in Hop Leaves and Hop Cones with Regard to Water Supply and Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeh, Barbara; Kač, Milica; Košir, Iztok J.; Abram, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water supply – especially of drought stress – on the content of some secondary metabolites in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was studied. The experiment took place in 2006. Some relevant data from 2005 were included for comparison. Leaves and cones of nine hop cultivars grown under field conditions as well as in a pot experiment under three water regimes were analyzed. The cultivars ranged from those most grown in Slovenia to promising crossbreed being tested. Leaves were sampled from July 18, 2006 to August 18, 2006, while cones were picked in the time of technological maturity. Standard analytical methods were applied to determine the contents of xanthohumol, polyphenols and α-acids in hop leaves and hop cones. The contents of the secondary metabolites in question depended more on the cultivar under investigation than on the water supply, at least as far the growing conditions for a relatively normal development of the plant were met.

  9. Extreme Kinematics in Selected Hip Hop Dance Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Woo, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Hip hop dance has many styles including breakdance (breaking), house, popping and locking, funk, streetdance, krumping, Memphis jookin', and voguing. These movements combine the complexity of dance choreography with the challenges of gymnastics and acrobatic movements. Despite high injury rates in hip hop dance, particularly in breakdance, to date there are no published biomechanical studies in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare representative hip hop steps found in breakdance (toprock and breaking) and house and provide descriptive statistics of the angular displacements that occurred in these sequences. Six expert female hip hop dancers performed three choreographed dance sequences, top rock, breaking, and house, to standardized music-based tempos. Hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were collected during sequences that were 18 to 30 sec long. Hip, knee, and ankle three-dimensional peak joint angles were compared in repeated measures ANOVAs with post hoc tests where appropriate (pHip hop maximal joint angles exceeded reported activities of daily living and high injury sports such as gymnastics. Hip hop dancers work at weight-bearing joint end ranges where muscles are at a functional disadvantage. These results may explain why lower extremity injury rates are high in this population.

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  11. Hip-Hop and the Academic Canon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Daudi

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the hip-hop movement has risen from the margins to become the preeminent force in US popular culture. In more recent times academics have begun to harness the power of hip-hop culture and use it as a means of infusing transformative knowledge into the mainstream academic discourse. On many college campuses, hip-hop's…

  12. Hip-Hop Pop Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Clarence, Sr.

    2011-01-01

    Art has a way of helping students better understand and appreciate the world around them, particularly the things that are most important to them. Hip hop is one of those generational genres that capture the attention of young students like few other things do. Drawing on this genre to get students to create art is an excellent way to demonstrate…

  13. Comparison of Rheological Properties of Hopped Wort and Malt Wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trávníček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is determination rheological properties of hopped wort and malt wort and their comparison. In the paper following rheological properties has been described: the dependence of viscosity on a temperature of a sample and hysteresis loop test. The time dependence test was performed for a confirmation thixotropic behaviour. Based on measured values Arrhenius mathematical model has been applied. The activation energy was determined by using of this model. Tests have been carried out in the temperature range from 5 °C to 40 °C. Rheological tests proved that malt wort behaves as Newtonian fluid in all temperatures and hopped wort behaves as non-Newtonian fluid at low temperatures. Thixotropic behaviour is caused by the content of the rests of hops heads or malt scraps.

  14. A Hybrid DV-Hop Algorithm Using RSSI for Localization in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikhrouhou, Omar; M Bhatti, Ghulam; Alroobaea, Roobaea

    2018-05-08

    With the increasing realization of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) and rapid proliferation of wireless sensor networks (WSN), estimating the location of wireless sensor nodes is emerging as an important issue. Traditional ranging based localization algorithms use triangulation for estimating the physical location of only those wireless nodes that are within one-hop distance from the anchor nodes. Multi-hop localization algorithms, on the other hand, aim at localizing the wireless nodes that can physically be residing at multiple hops away from anchor nodes. These latter algorithms have attracted a growing interest from research community due to the smaller number of required anchor nodes. One such algorithm, known as DV-Hop (Distance Vector Hop), has gained popularity due to its simplicity and lower cost. However, DV-Hop suffers from reduced accuracy due to the fact that it exploits only the network topology (i.e., number of hops to anchors) rather than the distances between pairs of nodes. In this paper, we propose an enhanced DV-Hop localization algorithm that also uses the RSSI values associated with links between one-hop neighbors. Moreover, we exploit already localized nodes by promoting them to become additional anchor nodes. Our simulations have shown that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the original DV-Hop localization algorithm and two of its recently published variants, namely RSSI Auxiliary Ranging and the Selective 3-Anchor DV-hop algorithm. More precisely, in some scenarios, the proposed algorithm improves the localization accuracy by almost 95%, 90% and 70% as compared to the basic DV-Hop, Selective 3-Anchor, and RSSI DV-Hop algorithms, respectively.

  15. Two Hop Adaptive Vector Based Quality Forwarding for Void Hole Avoidance in Underwater WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ahmed, Farwa; Wadud, Zahid; Alrajeh, Nabil; Alabed, Mohamad Souheil; Ilahi, Manzoor

    2017-08-01

    Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) facilitate a wide range of aquatic applications in various domains. However, the harsh underwater environment poses challenges like low bandwidth, long propagation delay, high bit error rate, high deployment cost, irregular topological structure, etc. Node mobility and the uneven distribution of sensor nodes create void holes in UWSNs. Void hole creation has become a critical issue in UWSNs, as it severely affects the network performance. Avoiding void hole creation benefits better coverage over an area, less energy consumption in the network and high throughput. For this purpose, minimization of void hole probability particularly in local sparse regions is focused on in this paper. The two-hop adaptive hop by hop vector-based forwarding (2hop-AHH-VBF) protocol aims to avoid the void hole with the help of two-hop neighbor node information. The other protocol, quality forwarding adaptive hop by hop vector-based forwarding (QF-AHH-VBF), selects an optimal forwarder based on the composite priority function. QF-AHH-VBF improves network good-put because of optimal forwarder selection. QF-AHH-VBF aims to reduce void hole probability by optimally selecting next hop forwarders. To attain better network performance, mathematical problem formulation based on linear programming is performed. Simulation results show that by opting these mechanisms, significant reduction in end-to-end delay and better throughput are achieved in the network.

  16. Lowest excited states and optical absorption spectra of donor–acceptor copolymers for organic photovoltaics: a new picture emerging from tuned long-range corrected density functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman; Doiron, Curtis; Sears, John S.; Bré das, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Polymers with low optical gaps are of importance to the organic photovoltaics community due to their potential for harnessing a large portion of the solar energy spectrum. The combination along their backbones of electron-rich and electron-deficient fragments contributes to the presence of low-lying excited states that are expected to display significant charge-transfer character. While conventional hybrid functionals are known to provide unsatisfactory results for charge-transfer excitations at the time-dependent DFT level, long-range corrected (LRC) functionals have been reported to give improved descriptions in a number of systems. Here, we use such LRC functionals, considering both tuned and default range-separation parameters, to characterize the absorption spectra of low-optical-gap systems of interest. Our results indicate that tuned LRC functionals lead to simulated optical-absorption properties in good agreement with experimental data. Importantly, the lowest-lying excited states (excitons) are shown to present a much more localized nature than initially anticipated. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  17. Hopping models and ac universality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA) is the h......Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA......) is the harmonic (fracton) dimension of the diffusion cluster. The temperature scaling of the dimensionless frequency entering into the DCA is discussed. Finally, some open problems regarding ac universality are listed....

  18. Frequency Hopping Transceiver Multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    ATC 17 ULR IHQ OCLI CPCTR ULTRA HIGH "OQS" UP TO 4X HIGHER THAN BEST INDUS- TRY STANDARD (ATC 100). MICROWAVE POWER, CURRENT. AND 0 RATINGS5...Q"W were assigned to element (FigC-2); which will be modelled into the transformer previously ment td . The center frequencies, "Q", frequency range...of the TD 1288 system. Temperature stability, change with time or storage. Flexure Frequency, or non-linear change over bandwidth. * Humidity

  19. The apparently contradictory energetics of hopping and running: the counter-intuitive effect of constraints resolves the paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Anne K; Bertram, John E A

    2017-01-15

    Metabolic rate appears to increase with the rate of force application for running. Leg function during ground contact is similar in hopping and running, so one might expect that this relationship would hold for hopping as well. Surprisingly, metabolic rate appeared to decrease with increasing force rate for hopping. However, this paradox is the result of comparing different cross-sections of the metabolic cost landscapes for hopping and running. The apparent relationship between metabolic rate and force rate observed in treadmill running is likely not a fundamental characteristic of muscle physiology, but a result of runners responding to speed constraints, i.e. runners selecting step frequencies that minimize metabolic cost per distance for a series of treadmill-specified speeds. Evaluating hopping metabolic rate over a narrow range of hop frequencies similar to that selected by treadmill runners yields energy use trends similar to those of running. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Observation of correlation effects in the hopping transport in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, V.; Kalbitzer, S.; Boehringer, K.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous silicon films have been modified by the implantation of Au or Si ions. The d.c. conductivity, measured between 300 and 15 K, was found to exhibit hopping exponents m which increase with decreasing temperature. Depending on the varied defect densities, m ranges between the limits of 1/4 and 1. These results can be explained by variable-range-hopping theory, if a Coulomb correlation term is included. (author)

  1. Wireless Multi Hop Access Networks and Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Plymoth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    As more and more applications and services in our society now depend on the Internet, it is important that dynamically deployed wireless multi hop networks are able to gain access to the Internet and other infrastructure networks and services. This thesis proposes and evaluates solutions for providing multi hop Internet Access. It investigates how ad hoc networks can be combined with wireless and mesh networks in order to create wireless multi hop access networks. When several access points t...

  2. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  3. Fasilitas Pelatihan dan Pergelaran Seni Tari Hip Hop di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yanuar, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Fasilitas Pelatihan dan Pergelaran Seni Tari Hip Hop di Surabaya merupakan fasilitas yang disediakan bagi semua penari Hip Hop di Surabaya untuk berlatih menari dan mempertunjukan tarian Hip Hop. Fasilitas ini tersedia bagi semua penari Hip Hop termasuk penari difable, mengingat kaum difable juga dapat menari Hip Hop. Namun karena di Surabaya belum memiliki fasilitas yang memadai bagi semua penari Hip Hop termasuk penari difable untuk menari dan memiliki tempat pertunjukan yang berkarakter Hi...

  4. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  5. Pertunjukan Teater Karo Hip Hop Kontemporer KAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Anggreni Purba

    2013-11-01

    Pertunjukan Teater Karo Hip Hop Kontemporer KAI. The performance of Karo Theater collaborated with Hip Hop stems from a simple idea to collaborate Karo cultural traditions with popular culture. The performances can be enjoyed without having limitation on the language and culture. The process of combining two different cultures is a form of hybrid culture, and it may occur due to the globalization process. Through the process of deposition of the observations and strong impression, this performance is then brought into the form of Hip Hop as a preferred form which is energetic, personal and global. This performance is part of a modern tragedy with its destructive character which has explored the emotion and has presented it to the audiences. The exploration of Karo cultural tradition and Hip Hop dance as a language of symbols is able to reinforce words. The movement is not revealed by the verbal phrase but is presented through the movement of Hip Hop dance. The interpretation of the legend and texts into movement is carried out through the training process at the laboratory as a searching process and experiment, and afterward can be realized by considering the basic elements of Hip Hop, Karo cultural elements and performance. Karo Hip Hop Theatre is expected to become a preferred aesthetic form of a modern theater without losing its tradition form. Keyword: a contemporary Karo theater, Hip Hop, hybrid culture.

  6. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  7. Hip-hop and urban studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffe, R.

    2014-01-01

    How can urban studies research engage fruitfully with hip-hop? This contribution responds to the essays by David Beer and Martin Lamotte on ‘street music’, urban ethnography and ghettoized communities. It discusses how a social science engagement with hip-hop texts might differ from cultural studies

  8. Hopping Conductivity Enhanced by Microwave Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadyahu, Z

    2012-01-01

    Hopping conductivity is enhanced when exposed to microwave (MW) fields. Data taken on several Anderson-localized systems and granular-aluminium are presented to illustrate the generality of the phenomenon. It is suggested that the effect is due to a field-enhanced hopping, which is the ac version of a non-ohmic effect familiar from studies in the dc transport regime.

  9. Helicobacter pylori HopE and HopV porins present scarce expression among clinical isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienlaf, Maritza; Morales, Juan Pablo; Díaz, María Inés; Díaz, Rodrigo; Bruce, Elsa; Siegel, Freddy; León, Gloria; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate how widely Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) HopE and HopV porins are expressed among Chilean isolates and how seroprevalent they are among infected patients in Chile. METHODS: H. pylori hopE and hopV genes derived from strain CHCTX-1 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli AD494 (DE3). Gel-purified porins were used to prepare polyclonal antibodies. The presence of both genes was tested by PCR in a collection of H. pylori clinical isolates and their expression was detected in lysates by immunoblotting. Immune responses against HopE, HopV and other H. pylori antigens in sera from infected and non-infected patients were tested by Western blotting using these sera as first antibody on recombinant H. pylori antigens. RESULTS: PCR and Western blotting assays revealed that 60 and 82 out of 130 Chilean isolates carried hopE and hopV genes, respectively, but only 16 and 9, respectively, expressed these porins. IgG serum immunoreactivity evaluation of 69 H. pylori-infected patients revealed that HopE and HopV were infrequently recognized (8.7% and 10.1% respectively) compared to H. pylori VacA (68.1%) and CagA (59.5%) antigens. Similar values were detected for IgA serum immunoreactivity against HopE (11.6%) and HopV (10.5%) although lower values for VacA (42%) and CagA (17.4%) were obtained when compared to the IgG response. CONCLUSION: A scarce expression of HopE and HopV among Chilean isolates was found, in agreement with the infrequent seroconversion against these antigens when tested in infected Chilean patients. PMID:20082477

  10. The Effect of Rap/Hip-Hop Music on Young Adult Smoking: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Bogt, Tom F M Ter

    2018-02-16

    Music may influence young people's behavior through its lyrics. Substance use references occur more frequently in rap/hip-hop than in other music genres. The aim was to examine whether the exposure to rap/hip-hop lyrics referring to substance use affected cigarette smoking. An experiment with a 3-group between subject design was conducted among 74 daily-smoking young adults ranging in age from 17 to 25 years old. Three conditions were tested in a mobile lab (camper vehicle) from May to December 2011, i.e., regular chart pop music (N = 28), rap/hip-hop with non-frequent references to substance use (N = 24), and rap/hip-hop with frequent references to substance use (N = 22). One-way ANOVA showed that participants listening to substance use infused rap/hip-hop songs felt significantly less pleasant, liked the songs less, and comprehended the songs less compared to participants listening to pop songs. Poisson loglinear analyses revealed that compared to the pop music condition, none of the two rap/hip-hop music conditions had a significant effect on acute smoking. Thus, contrary to expectations, the two different rap/hip-hop conditions did not have a significantly different effect on acute smoking. Listening to rap/hip-hop, even rap hip/hop with frequent referrals to substance use (primarily alcohol and drug use, and general smoking referrals), does not seem to encourage cigarette smoking among Dutch daily-smoking young adults, at least short term.

  11. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations From Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…

  13. Picture languages formal models for picture recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1979-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Picture Languages: Formal Models for Picture Recognition treats pictorial pattern recognition from the formal standpoint of automata theory. This book emphasizes the capabilities and relative efficiencies of two types of automata-array automata and cellular array automata, with respect to various array recognition tasks. The array automata are simple processors that perform sequences of operations on arrays, while the cellular array automata are arrays of processors that operate on pictures in a highly parallel fashion, one processor per picture element. This compilation also reviews a collection of results on two-dimensional sequential and parallel array acceptors. Some of the analogous one-dimensional results and array grammars and their relation to acceptors are likewise covered in this text. This publication is suitable for researchers, professionals, and specialists interested in pattern recognition and automata theory.

  14. Highcrop picture tool

    OpenAIRE

    Fog, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Pictures give other impulses than words and numbers. With images, you can easily spot new opportunities. The Highcrop-tool allows for optimization of the organic arable farm based on picture-cards. The picture-cards are designed to make it easier and more inspiring to go close to the details of production. By using the picture-cards you can spot the areas, where there is a possibility to optimize the production system for better results in the future. Highcrop picture cards can be used to:...

  15. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the

  16. The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); M.K. Ryan (Michelle); T.W. Schubert (Thomas); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in

  17. Hip-hop, Onegin - pop! / Tatjana Aleksandrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aleksandrova, Tatjana, 1945-

    2004-01-01

    Erateatrikooli KS, mida juhib Svetlana Krassman, lavastus A. Pushkini poeemi "Jevgeni Onegin" motiividel. Noortelavastuse muusikalises seades kasutatakse klassikalise muusika aranzheeringuid ja räppi, kostüümidraamat koos hip-hop rõivastiiliga

  18. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N

    2003-12-31

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  19. The universal zulu nation in colombia, social impact of hip hop culture in the Valley of Aburrá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Arias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effervescence of organizational movements around the cultural practices of Hip Hop in the Valley of Aburrá, alternatives are thought of together and to propose structural changes to their environments, from social interventions with communities’ ways. That is why we consider it necessary to make a tour of the historical and social factors that have shaped what we now know as Hip Hop Culture, to generate with this a picture of their impact on the cultural scene at local and national level.

  20. Degradation of hop bitter acids by fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huszcza, Ewa; Bartmanska, Agnieszka; Aniol, Miroslaw; Maczka, Wanda; Zolnierczyk, Anna; Wawrzenczyk, Czeslaw

    2008-01-01

    Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4 days of incubation in the dark or after 36 h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops

  1. Metaphor in pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference.

  2. Lesson 6. Picture unsharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikirdin, Eh.G.

    1999-01-01

    Lecture concerning the picture sharpness in biomedical radiography is presented. Notion of picture sharpness and visual acuity as an analyser of picture sharpness is specified. Attention is paid to the POX-curve as a statistical method for assessment of visual acuity. Conceptions of the sensitivity of using X-ray image visualization system together with specificity and accuracy are considered. Among indices of sharp parameters of visualization system the resolution, resolving power, picture unsharpness are discussed. It is shown that gradation and sharp characteristics of the image closely correlate that need an attention in practice to factors determining them [ru

  3. Fast Hopping Frequency Generation in Digital CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Farazian, Mohammad; Gudem, Prasad S

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming the agility limitations of conventional frequency synthesizers in multi-band OFDM ultra wideband is a key research goal in digital technology. This volume outlines a frequency plan that can generate all the required frequencies from a single fixed frequency, able to implement center frequencies with no more than two levels of SSB mixing. It recognizes the need for future synthesizers to bypass on-chip inductors and operate at low voltages to enable the increased integration and efficiency of networked appliances. The author examines in depth the architecture of the dividers that generate the necessary frequencies from a single base frequency and are capable of establishing a fractional division ratio.   Presenting the first CMOS inductorless single PLL 14-band frequency synthesizer for MB-OFDMUWB makes this volume a key addition to the literature, and with the synthesizer capable of arbitrary band-hopping in less than two nanoseconds, it operates well within the desired range on a 1.2-volt power s...

  4. HIP HOP for HIV Awareness: Using Hip Hop Culture to Promote Community-Level HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mandy J.; Hallmark, Camden J.; McNeese, Marlene; Blue, Nike; Ross, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to determine the effectiveness of the HIP HOP for HIV Awareness intervention, an innovative model utilising an exchange of an HIV test for a hip hop concert ticket, in a metropolitan city among African American youth and young adults. A subset of intervention participants participated in standardised testing, sex…

  5. Pictures in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elmo E.

    1973-01-01

    Pictures definitely seem to help training, but a study for the military finds these pictures need not be in moving form, such as films or videotape. Just how the pictorial techniques should be employed and with how much success depends on individual trainee and program differences. (KP)

  6. RAZVOJ OBLAČIL V HIP HOP KULTURI

    OpenAIRE

    Marić, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo raziskovali, kako so se hip hop oblačila razvijala skozi obdobja v hip hop kulturi. V teoretičnem deli smo ugotavljali ozadje in dejavnike, ki so vplivali na razvoj hip hop kulture, v empiričnem delu diplomske naloge pa smo izvedli anketni vprašalnik z glavnimi akterji hip hop kulture na slovenski hip hop sceni. Rezultati, ki smo jih dobili, kažejo da so imela oblačila velik vpliv na prepoznavnost in razvoj hip hop kulture po celem svetu. K temu so največ pripomogli ustv...

  7. Collective probabilities algorithm for surface hopping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastida, Adolfo; Cruz, Carlos; Zuniga, Jose; Requena, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    General equations that transition probabilities of the hopping algorithms in surface hopping calculations must obey to assure the equality between the average quantum and classical populations are derived. These equations are solved for two particular cases. In the first it is assumed that probabilities are the same for all trajectories and that the number of hops is kept to a minimum. These assumptions specify the collective probabilities (CP) algorithm, for which the transition probabilities depend on the average populations for all trajectories. In the second case, the probabilities for each trajectory are supposed to be completely independent of the results from the other trajectories. There is, then, a unique solution of the general equations assuring that the transition probabilities are equal to the quantum population of the target state, which is referred to as the independent probabilities (IP) algorithm. The fewest switches (FS) algorithm developed by Tully is accordingly understood as an approximate hopping algorithm which takes elements from the accurate CP and IP solutions. A numerical test of all these hopping algorithms is carried out for a one-dimensional two-state problem with two avoiding crossings which shows the accuracy and computational efficiency of the collective probabilities algorithm proposed, the limitations of the FS algorithm and the similarity between the results offered by the IP algorithm and those obtained with the Ehrenfest method

  8. Hop Distance Symmetry Does Not Indicate Normal Landing Biomechanics in Adolescent Athletes With Recent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Mueske, Nicole M; Brophy, Christopher H; Pace, J Lee; Katzel, Mia J; Edison, Bianca R; VandenBerg, Curtis D; Zaslow, Tracy L

    2018-03-30

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Return to sport (RTS) protocols after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often include assessment of hop distance symmetry. However, it is unclear if movement deficits are present regardless of hop symmetry. Objectives To assess biomechanics and symmetry of adolescent athletes following ACLR during a single leg hop for distance. Methods Forty-six patients with ACLR (5-12 months post-surgery; 27 female; age 15.6, SD 1.7 years) were classified as asymmetric (operative limb hop distance biomechanics were compared among operative and contralateral limbs and 24 symmetric controls (12 female; age 14.7, SD 1.5 years) using ANOVA. Results Compared to controls, asymmetric patients hopped a shorter distance on their operative limb (P<0.001), while symmetric patients hopped an intermediate distance on both sides (P≥0.12). During landing, operative limbs, regardless of hop distance, exhibited lower knee flexion moments compared to controls and the contralateral side (P≤0.04) with lower knee energy absorption than the contralateral side (P≤0.006). During take-off, both symmetric and asymmetric patients had less hip extension and smaller ankle range of motion on the operative side compared with controls (P≤0.05). Asymmetric patients also had lower hip range of motion on the operative, compared with the contralateral, side (P=0.001). Conclusion Both symmetric and asymmetric patients offloaded the operative knee; symmetric patients achieved symmetry in part by hopping a shorter distance on the contralateral side. Therefore, hop distance symmetry may not be an adequate test of single limb function and RTS readiness. Level of Evidence 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 30 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7817.

  9. Research on synchronization technology of frequency hopping communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangwu; Quan, Houde; Cui, Peizhang

    2018-05-01

    Frequency Hopping (FH) communication is a technology of spread spectrum communication. It has strong anti-interference, anti-interception and security capabilities, and has been widely applied in the field of communications. Synchronization technology is one of the most crucial technologies in frequency hopping communication. The speed of synchronization establishment and the reliability of synchronous system directly affect the performance of frequency hopping communication system. Therefore, the research of synchronization technology in frequency hopping communication has important value.

  10. Design, testing, and performance of a hybrid micro vehicle---The Hopping Rotochute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Eric W.

    is shown to validate the dynamic model. Using the validated dynamic model, simulations were performed to better understand the dynamics of the device. In addition, key parameters such as system weight, rotor speed, internal mass weight and location, as well as battery capacity are varied to explore and optimize flight performance characteristics such as single hop height and range, number of hops, and total achievable range. The sensitivity of the Hopping Rotochute to atmospheric winds is also investigated as is the ability of the device to perform trajectory shaping.

  11. Anderson localization in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice models with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Longyan; Feng, Yan; Ding, Yougen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Quasiperiodic lattice models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping are studied. • Shannon information entropies are used to reflect state localization properties. • Phase diagrams are obtained for the inverse bronze and golden means, respectively. • Our studies present a more complete picture than existing works. - Abstract: We explore the reduced relative Shannon information entropies SR for a quasiperiodic lattice model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping, where an irrational number is in the mathematical expression of incommensurate on-site potentials. Based on SR, we respectively unveil the phase diagrams for two irrationalities, i.e., the inverse bronze mean and the inverse golden mean. The corresponding phase diagrams include regions of purely localized phase, purely delocalized phase, pure critical phase, and regions with mobility edges. The boundaries of different regions depend on the values of irrational number. These studies present a more complete picture than existing works.

  12. Anderson localization in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice models with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Longyan, E-mail: lygong@njupt.edu.cn [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Feng, Yan; Ding, Yougen [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China)

    2017-02-12

    Highlights: • Quasiperiodic lattice models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping are studied. • Shannon information entropies are used to reflect state localization properties. • Phase diagrams are obtained for the inverse bronze and golden means, respectively. • Our studies present a more complete picture than existing works. - Abstract: We explore the reduced relative Shannon information entropies SR for a quasiperiodic lattice model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping, where an irrational number is in the mathematical expression of incommensurate on-site potentials. Based on SR, we respectively unveil the phase diagrams for two irrationalities, i.e., the inverse bronze mean and the inverse golden mean. The corresponding phase diagrams include regions of purely localized phase, purely delocalized phase, pure critical phase, and regions with mobility edges. The boundaries of different regions depend on the values of irrational number. These studies present a more complete picture than existing works.

  13. Hip-Hopping across China: Intercultural Formulations of Local Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catrice

    2012-01-01

    The linguistic dimensions of globalized hip-hop cannot be understood simply as a byproduct of English as an American export. As hip-hop mobilizes, it is common (and arguably necessary) for global hip-hop communities to struggle through purposeful, semiotically rooted dialectics over what constitutes "authentic" and respectable forms of…

  14. HPLC Analysis of [Alpha]- and [Beta]-Acids in Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna J.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Hops have been used for centuries to impart aroma and bitterness to beer. The cones of the female hop plant contain both essential oils, which include many of the fragrant components of hops, and a collection of compounds known as [alpha]- and [beta]-acids that are the precursors to bittering agents. In order for brewers to predict the ultimate…

  15. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  16. Performance analysis of multi-hop wireless packet networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.-T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a unified analytical framework for performance analysis of multi-hop wireless packet networks is developed. The effect of coupling between the hops on the degradation of the delay-throughput characteristics and the probability of blocking is investigated. The issue of hop decoupling is addressed.

  17. Odor-Active Compounds in the Special Flavor Hops Huell Melon and Polaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiens, Silva D; Steinhaus, Martin

    2018-02-14

    The volatiles isolated from samples of the special flavor hop varieties, Huell Melon and Polaris, and from the aroma hop variety, Hallertau Tradition, by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) were subjected to a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), which resulted in 46 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16 to 2048. On the basis of high FD factors, myrcene, (3R)-linalool, and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid were confirmed as important variety-independent hop odorants. (1R,4S)-Calamenene was identified for the first time as an odor-active compound in hops. Clear differences in the FD factors and their subsequent objectification by stable isotope dilution quantitation suggested that high concentrations of the esters ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and propyl 2-methylbutanoate cause the characteristic fruity, cantaloupe-like odor note in Huell Melon hops, whereas the fruity and minty odor notes in Polaris are associated with high amounts of 3-methylbutyl acetate and 1,8-cineole.

  18. Uudised : Ooper. Hip-hop. Madonna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Rumeenia sopran Nelly Miricioiu Vincenzo Bellini ooperi "Norma" nimiosas Nederlandse Operas Amsaterdamis 7.-28. märtsini. 4. märtsil Tallinna klubis Hollywood üritusel "Hip-Hop Café" New Yorgi duo Camp Lo. Ameerika poplaulja Madonna võttis vastu filmirolli

  19. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. The Philippine "Hip Hop Stick Dance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a dance that blends the traditional cultural heritage of the Philippines with modern music and moves. "Hip Hop Stick Dance" incorporates Tinikling (the Philippine national dance) and Arnis (a Filipino style of martial arts) to create a contemporary combination of rhythm, dance, and fitness. It was designed to introduce…

  1. Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.

  2. The crossover between tunnel and hopping conductivity in granulated films of noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavokin, Alexey; Kutrovskaya, Stella; Kucherik, Alexey; Osipov, Anton; Vartanyan, Tigran; Arakelyan, Sergey

    2017-11-01

    The conductivity of thin films composed by clusters of gold and silver nanoparticles has been studies in a wide range of temperatures. The switch from a temperature independence to an exponential thermal dependence of the conductivity manifests the crossover between the tunnel and thermally activated hopping regimes of the electronic transport at the temperature of 60 °C. The characteristic thermal activation energy that governs hopping of electrons between nanoparticles is estimated as 1.3 eV. We have achieved a good control of the composition and thicknesses of nano-cluster films by use of the laser ablation method in colloidal solutions.

  3. Quantum Hall effect and hopping conductivity in n-InGaAs/InAlAs nanoheterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudina, S. V., E-mail: svpopova@imp.uran.ru; Arapov, Yu. G.; Saveliev, A. P.; Neverov, V. N.; Podgornykh, S. M.; Shelushinina, N. G.; Yakunin, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Vasil’evskii, I. S.; Vinichenko, A. N. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The longitudinal and Hall magnetoresistances are measured in the quantum Hall effect regime in the n-InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures at temperatures of T = (1.8–30) K in magnetic fields up to B = 9 T. Temperature-induced transport in the region of the longitudinal resistance minima, corresponding to the plateau regions at Hall resistance, is investigated within the framework of the concept of hopping conductivity in a strongly localized electron system. The analysis of variable-range hopping conductivity in the region of the second, third, and fourth plateau of the quantum Hall effect provides the possibility of determining the localization length exponent.

  4. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping: Superconductivity, mass enhancement in Cooper oxides with apical oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.; Penc, K.; Zimanyi, G.

    1991-07-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. The superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T c superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T c obtained is about 100K. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  5. Surface hopping, transition state theory, and decoherence. II. Thermal rate constants and detailed balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amber; Subotnik, Joseph E., E-mail: subotnik@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    We investigate a simple approach to compute a non-adiabatic thermal rate constant using the fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) dynamics. We study the effects of both decoherence (using our augmented-FSSH (A-FSSH) algorithm) and forbidden hops over a large range of parameters, including high and low friction regimes, and weak and strong electronic coupling regimes. Furthermore, when possible, we benchmark our results against exact hierarchy equations of motion results, where we usually find a maximum error of roughly a factor of two (at reasonably large temperatures). In agreement with Hammes-Schiffer and Tully, we find that a merger of transition state theory and surface hopping can be both accurate and efficient when performed correctly. We further show that detailed balance is followed approximately by A-FSSH dynamics.

  6. The Formation of "Hip-Hop Academicus"--How American Scholars Talk about the Academisation of Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Social activism and education have been associated with hip-hop since it emerged in New York City 38 years ago. Therefore, it might not be surprising that universities have become interested in hip-hop. This article aims to highlight this "hip-hop academisation" and analyse the discursive mechanisms that manifest in these academisation…

  7. Featherless Dinosaurs and the Hip-Hop Simulacrum: Reconsidering Hip-Hop's Appropriateness for the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    This article offers considerations for music teachers interested in including hip-hop music in their classrooms but who might feel concerned with or overwhelmed by issues of appropriateness. Two concerns related to hip-hop music are examined: language and negative social themes. Commercial interests in hip-hop music have created a simulacrum (or…

  8. Global Ill-Literacies: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, H. Samy

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the emergence of what the author refers to as "global ill-literacies," that is, the hybrid, transcultural linguistic and literacy practices of Hip Hop youth in local and global contexts, as well as the pedagogical possibilities that scholars open up as they engage these forms. By reviewing a broad but focused range of…

  9. Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jetcheva, Jorjeta G

    2004-01-01

    ...) nodes that wish to communicate. Each node in the ad hoc network acts as a router and forwards packets on behalf of other nodes, allowing nodes that are not within wireless range of each other to communicate over multi-hop paths...

  10. SESAME 2017 (360 pictures)

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    The Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan, created under the auspices of UNESCO on 30 May 2002. December 2017, Jordan Picture: Noemi Caraban

  11. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  12. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

    2011-12-01

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  13. Radio resource management scheme and outage analysis for network-assisted multi-hop D2D communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Melki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cellular network it's very difficult to make spectrum resource more efficiently. Device-to-Device (D2D technology enables new service opportunities, and provides high throughput and reliable communication while reducing the base station load. For better total performance, short-range D2D links and cellular links share the same radio resource and the management of interference becomes a crucial task. Here we argue that single-hop D2D technology can be used to further improve cellular networks performance if the key D2D radio resource management algorithms are suitably extended to support multi-hop D2D communications. Aiming to establish a new paradigm for the analysis and design of multi-hop D2D communications, We propose a radio resource allocation for multi-hop D2D routes based on interference avoidance approach in LTE-A networks. On top of that, we investigate the outage probability of D2D communication. We first introduce a new definition of outage probability by considering the maximum distance to be allowable for single-hop transmission. Then we study and analyze the outage performance of a multi-hop D2D route. We derive the general closed form expression of outage probability of the multi-hop D2D routes. The results demonstrate that the D2D radio, sharing the same resources as the cellular network, provide higher capacity compared to pure cellular communication where all the data is transmitted through the base station. They also demonstrate that the new method of calculation of D2D multi hop outage probability has better performance than classical method defined in the literature.

  14. Epigenetic changes detected in micropropagated hop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Elena L; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Revilla, M Angeles

    2009-07-01

    Micropropagation is a widely used technique in hops (Humulus lupulus L.). However, to the best of our knowledge, the genetic and epigenetic stability of the microplants has never been tested before. In the present study, two hop accessions were established in vitro and micropropagated for 2 years. The genetic and epigenetic stability of the in vitro plants was analyzed with several molecular techniques: random amplified DNA polymorphism (RAPD), retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP), and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). No genetic variation among control and treated plants was found, even after 12 cycles of micropropagation. Epigenetic variation was detected, first, when field and in vitro samples were compared. Nearly a 30% of the detected fragments presented the same pattern of alterations in all the vitroplants. Second, lower levels of epigenetic variation were detected among plants from the different subcultures. Part of this detected variation seemed to be accumulated along the 12 sequential subcultures tested.

  15. Performance analysis of decode-and-forward dual-hop optical spatial modulation with diversity combiner over atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kehinde O.; Owolawi, Pius A.; Srivastava, Viranjay M.

    2017-11-01

    Dual-hops transmission is a growing interest technique that can be used to mitigate against atmospheric turbulence along the Free Space Optical (FSO) communication links. This paper analyzes the performance of Decode-and-Forward (DF) dual-hops FSO systems in-conjunction with spatial modulation and diversity combiners over a Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence channel using heterodyne detection. Maximum Ratio Combiner (MRC), Equal Gain Combiner (EGC) and Selection Combiner (SC) are considered at the relay and destination as mitigation tools to improve the system error performance. Power series expansion of modified Bessel function is used to derive the closed form expression for the end-to-end Average Pairwise Error Probability (APEP) expressions for each of the combiners under study and a tight upper bound on the Average Bit Error Rate (ABER) per hop is given. Thus, the overall end-to-end ABER for the dual-hops FSO system is then evaluated. The numerical results depicted that dual-hops transmission systems outperformed the direct link systems. Moreover, the impact of having the same and different combiners at the relay and destination are also presented. The results also confirm that the combination of dual hops transmission with spatial modulation and diversity combiner significantly improves the systems error rate with the MRC combiner offering an optimal performance with respect to variation in atmospheric turbulence, change in links average received SNR and link range of the system.

  16. Exploiting Multi-user Diversity and Multi-hop Diversity in Dual-hop Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-05-21

    We propose joint user-and-hop scheduling over dual-hop block-fading broadcast channels in order to exploit multi-user diversity gains and multi-hop diversity gains all together. To achieve this objective, the first and second hops are scheduled opportunistically based on the channel state information. The joint scheduling problem is formulated as maximizing the weighted sum of the long term achievable rates of the users under a stability constraint, which means that in the long term the rate received by the relay should equal the rate transmitted by it, in addition to power constraints. We show that this problem is equivalent to a single-hop broadcast channel by treating the source as a virtual user with an optimal weight that maintains the stability constraint. We show how to obtain the source weight either off-line based on channel statistics or on real-time based on channel measurements. Furthermore, we consider special cases including the maximum sum-rate scheduler and the proportional fair scheduler. We also show how to extend the scheme into one that allows multiple user scheduling via superposition coding with successive decoding. Numerical results demonstrate that our proposed joint scheduling scheme enlarges the rate region as compared to scheduling schemes that exploit the diversity gains partially.

  17. Uudised : Pop-karneval. Hip-hop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Muusika- ja kunstikarnevalist "Beta Bubble" 1. apr. Tallinnas Von Krahlis. Pärnu taasühinenud hip-hop-bänd Noizmakaz (TommyBoy ja Alko) sõlmis lepingu plaadifirmaga Mindnote ja annab selle alt apr. keskel välja oma teise albumi "Valitud mõtted".1. apr. tuleb müügile Noizmakazi singel "Miski muu ei loe", debüüt "Social Poetry" ilmus aastal 2001

  18. Small polaron hopping in magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Liu, N.L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In a number of magnetic insulators it has been hypothesized that the charge carriers form small polarons. The transfer of an electron between magnetic sites and how the magnetic nature of the material affects the rate which characterizes small-polaron hops between magnetic sites were studied. The basic transfer processes are addressed from a many-electron point in which the itinerant electron is treated as indistinguishable from those which contribute unpaired spins at the magnetic sites

  19. The conventional quark picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    For baryons, mesons and deep inelastic phenomena the ideas and the problems of the conventional quark picture are pointed out. All observed baryons fit in three SU(3)-multiplets which cluster into larger SU(6)-multiplets. No mesons are known which have quantum numbers inconsistent with belonging to a SU(3) nonet or octet. The deep inelastic phenomena are described in terms of six structure functions of the proton. (BJ) [de

  20. Rethinking Pedagogy in Urban Spaces: Implementing Hip-Hop Pedagogy in the Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.; Emdin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of research regarding Hip-Hop Based Education (HHBE) fails to provide insight on how to incorporate elements of Hip-Hop into daily teaching practices; rather Hip-Hop based educators focus mainly on incorporating Hip-Hop culture into curricula. This study explores the benefits of using two specific Hip-Hop pedagogical practices…

  1. Emotionally negative pictures increase attention to a subsequent auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartar, Jaime L; de Almeida, Kristen; McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Nash, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally negative stimuli serve as a mechanism of biological preparedness to enhance attention. We hypothesized that emotionally negative stimuli would also serve as motivational priming to increase attention resources for subsequent stimuli. To that end, we tested 11 participants in a dual sensory modality task, wherein emotionally negative pictures were contrasted with emotionally neutral pictures and each picture was followed 600 ms later by a tone in an auditory oddball paradigm. Each trial began with a picture displayed for 200 ms; half of the trials began with an emotionally negative picture and half of the trials began with an emotionally neutral picture; 600 ms following picture presentation, the participants heard either an oddball tone or a standard tone. At the end of each trial (picture followed by tone), the participants categorized, with a button press, the picture and tone combination. As expected, and consistent with previous studies, we found an enhanced visual late positive potential (latency range=300-700 ms) to the negative picture stimuli. We further found that compared to neutral pictures, negative pictures resulted in early attention and orienting effects to subsequent tones (measured through an enhanced N1 and N2) and sustained attention effects only to the subsequent oddball tones (measured through late processing negativity, latency range=400-700 ms). Number pad responses to both the picture and tone category showed the shortest response latencies and greatest percentage of correct picture-tone categorization on the negative picture followed by oddball tone trials. Consistent with previous work on natural selective attention, our results support the idea that emotional stimuli can alter attention resource allocation. This finding has broad implications for human attention and performance as it specifically shows the conditions in which an emotionally negative stimulus can result in extended stimulus evaluation. Copyright © 2011

  2. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  3. Low temperature hopping conduction in amorphous Gesub(x)Sesub(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, R.M.; Kumar, H.; Agarwal, S.C.; Sikka, P.; Mathur, P.C.

    1985-08-01

    Bulk amorphous samples of Gesub(x)Sesub(1-x) (0.5<=x<=0.7) were prepared by quenching. Dc conductivity measurements were carried out in the temperature range 77-300 K. In the low temperature region, the conduction occurs due to variable range hopping in the localized states near the Fermi level. The results are explained by Mott, Pollak and Butcher's models. Butcher's model which is based on the equivalent of conduction network is compatible with the results. (author)

  4. Mortality in American Hip-Hop and Rap Recording Artists, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Carl J

    2015-12-01

    The deaths of American hip-hop and rap recording artists often receive considerable media attention. However, these artists' deaths have not been examined as a distinct group like the deaths of rock, classical, jazz, and pop music artists. This is a seminal epidemiological analysis on the deaths of an understudied group, American hip-hop and rap music recording artists. Media reports were analyzed of the deaths of American hip-hop and rap music recording artists that occurred from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014. The decedents' age, sex, race, cause of death, stage names, and city and state of death were recorded for analysis. The most commonly reported cause of death was homicide. The 280 deaths were categorized as homicide (55%), unintentional injury (13%), cardiovascular (7%), undetermined/undisclosed (7%), cancer (6%), other (5%), suicide (4%), and infectious disease (3%). The mean reported age at death was 30 yrs (range 15-75) and the median was 29 yrs; 97% were male and 92% were black. All but one of the homicides were committed with firearms. Homicide was the most commonly reported cause of death. Public health focus and guidance for hip-hop and rap recording artists should mirror that for African-American men and adolescent males ages 15-54 yrs, for whom the leading causes of death are homicide, unintentional injury, and heart disease. Given the preponderance of homicide deaths in this analysis, premature mortality reduction efforts should focus on violence prevention and conflict mitigation.

  5. Characterization of the Migration of Hop Volatiles into Different Crown Cork Liner Polymers and Can Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietstock, Philip C; Glattfelder, Richard; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Methner, Frank-Jürgen

    2016-04-06

    Absorption of hop volatiles by crown cork liner polymers and can coatings was investigated in beer during storage. All hop volatiles measured were prone to migrate into the closures, and the absorption kinetics was demonstrated to fit Fick's second law of diffusion well for a plane sheet. The extent and rate of diffusion were significantly dissimilar and were greatly dependent upon the nature of the volatile. Diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.32 × 10(-5) cm(2)/day (limonene) to 0.26 × 10(-5) cm(2)/day (α-humulene). The maximum amounts absorbed into the material at equilibrium were in the following order: limonene > α-humulene > trans-caryophyllene > myrcene ≫ linalool > α-terpineol > geraniol. With the application of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) liners with oxygen-scavenging functionality, oxygen-barrier liners made up from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or liner polymers from a different manufacturer had no significant effect on the composition of hop volatiles in beers after prolonged storage of 55 days; however, significantly higher amounts of myrcene and limonene were found in the oxygen-barrier-type crown cork, while all other closures behaved similarly. Can coatings were demonstrated to absorb hop volatiles in a similar pattern as crown corks but to a lesser extent. Consequently, significantly higher percentages of myrcene were found in the beers.

  6. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  7. The polycentric picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    2008-01-01

    The polycentric picture The presentation introduces a dynamic view on children's drawings inspired by J.J.Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception. Empirical research in children's drawings will be the basis for the documentation of the fact that children's drawings contain several...... viewpoints and can be characterized as polycentric. I will talk about children's perception of environmental space and about the relations and the orientation they are establishing, which are used in the organisation of the pictorial space. The presentation serves the purpose to point out ontological...

  8. Hip-Hop Is the Healer: Sense of Belonging and Diversity among Hip-Hop Collegians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé, V. Thandi

    2016-01-01

    Sense of belonging is recognized as a factor contributing to persistence to graduation. Furthermore, interactional diversity is associated with learning and civic outcomes--touted higher education goals. Hip-hop culture, one of the most influential cultural creations of the mid-20th century, has succeeded in attracting devotees from diverse…

  9. Extraction of bitter acids from hops and hop products using pressurized solvent extraction (PSE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čulík, J.; Jurková, M.; Horák, T.; Čejka, P.; Kellner, V.; Dvořák, J.; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2009), s. 220-225 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hops * bitter acids * pressurized solvent extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  10. Being Hipped to Their Hop: Tapping into Young Minds through Hip Hop Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Adults gain a wealth of knowledge from listening to the voices of children through intentional observations and interactions [Owocki, G., and Y. M. Goodman. 2002. "Kidwatching: Documenting Children's Literacy Development." Portsmouth: Heinemann]. Hip Hop play may provide optimal opportunities for teachers to tap into the young minds of…

  11. Variational study of the pair hopping model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, P.

    1990-01-01

    We study the ground state of a Hamiltonian introduced by Kolb and Penson for modelling situations in which small electron pairs are formed. The Hamiltonian consists of a tight binding band term, and a term describing the nearest neighbour hopping of electron pairs. We give a Gutzwiller-type variational treatment, first with a single-parameter Ansatz treated in the single site Gutzwiller approximation, and then with more complicated trial wave functions, and an improved Gutzwiller approximation. The calculation yields a transition from a partially paired normal state, in which the spin susceptibility has a diminished value, into a fully paired state. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  12. Security for multi-hop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Mohamed M E A

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief discusses efficient security protocols and schemes for multi-hop wireless networks. It presents an overview of security requirements for these networks, explores challenges in securing networks and presents system models. The authors introduce mechanisms to reduce the overhead and identify malicious nodes that drop packets intentionally. Also included is a new, efficient cooperation incentive scheme to stimulate the selfish nodes to relay information packets and enforce fairness. Many examples are provided, along with predictions for future directions of the field. Security

  13. Being Hip-Hop: Beyond Skills and Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I offer four principles relevant to hip-hop cultures (keep it real, flip the script, make some noise, and stay fresh) and explore how these principles might affect music classrooms. I argue that a music classroom that works to keep it real, flip the script, make some noise, and stay fresh might go beyond teaching hip-hop skills…

  14. Framing Hip Hop: New Methodologies for New Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the central impulse behind early advocacy for ethnographic approaches to hip hop--that critics should try as much as possible to limit their own certainties around what hip hop can and might mean. While ethnographic approaches can engender the kinds of personal dislocations that allow for this negotiation, they do not…

  15. Christian Hip Hop as Pedagogy: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…

  16. Hip-Hop, the "Obama Effect," and Urban Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher; Lee, Okhee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: With the ever increasing diversity of schools, and the persistent need to develop teaching strategies for the students who attend today's urban schools, hip-hop culture has been proposed to be a means through which urban youth can find success in school. As a result, studies of the role of hip-hop in urban education have grown…

  17. Romani Music - Roma and the Hip-hop Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dočkal, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is focused on Romani music and its importance for the Romani culture. It examines the popularity of hip-hop among the young Romani generation and Romani hip- hip production. It attempts to define the role of hip-hop culture in young Romanies' lives.

  18. Hip Hop as Empowerment: Voices in El Alto, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifa, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    In response to neoliberal policies that have been in place since 1985, Bolivian young people have increasingly used hip hop music as a means of protest and to reclaim social and political participation. Hip hop in Latin America tells the story of the struggles that marginalized people have suffered, and speaks to the effects of international…

  19. Hop powdery mildew control through alteration of spring pruning practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1997, Podosphaera macularis, the causal agent of hop powdery mildew, has become a recurrent threat to hops in the Pacific Northwest because of the potential to reduce cone yield and quality. Disease management practices often involve preventative fungicide applications, but alternative approac...

  20. Investigating Cultural Collision: Educators' Perceptions of Hip-Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachum, Floyd D.

    2013-01-01

    Hip-hop music has been embraced worldwide by youth, pummeled in the media for supposedly increasing social misery and hailed as a significant musical breakthrough. Hip-hop culture has transcended musical boundaries and now impacts speech, clothing, mannerisms, movies, websites, television programming, magazines, and energy drinks (Dyson, 2007;…

  1. Gap solitons in periodic Schrodinger lattice system with nonlinear hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the periodic discrete Schrodinger equation with nonlinear hopping on the infinite integer lattice. We obtain the existence of gap solitons by the linking theorem and concentration compactness method together with a periodic approximation technique. In addition, the behavior of such solutions is studied as $\\alpha\\to 0$. Notice that the nonlinear hopping can be sign changing.

  2. Toward Hip-Hop Pedagogies for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Music education scholarship in the areas of popular, vernacular, and participatory musicianship has grown in the past decades; however, music education research concerned specifically with hip-hop has been relatively scarce. Because hip-hop music can differ tremendously from the traditional western genres with which many music educators are most…

  3. Framing and Reviewing Hip-Hop Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2009-01-01

    Hip-hop has become relevant to the field of education because of its implications for understanding language, learning, identity, curriculum, and other areas. This integrative review provides historical context and cohesion for the burgeoning and discursive body of hip-hop scholarship by framing it according to three heuristic categories and…

  4. Towards a Pedagogy of Hip Hop in Urban Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Thurman

    2011-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative study often Black male K-12 teachers from the Hip Hop Generation who are closely connected to Hip Hop culture and have been effective in addressing the academic and social needs of Black boys. Through an analysis of their social, educational and cultural experiences, this article highlights three organizing…

  5. Electronic and vibrational hopping transport in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1991-01-01

    General concepts of hopping-type transport and localization are reviewed. Disorder, electronic correlations and atomic displacements, effects ignored in electronic band structure calculations, foster localization of electronic charge carriers. Examples are given that illustrate the efficacy of these effects in producing localization. This introduction is followed by a brief discussion of the relation between hopping-type transport and localization. The fundamentals of the formation, localization, and hopping transport of small polarons and/or bipolarons is then described. Electronic transport in boron carbides is presented as an example of the adiabatic hopping of small bipolarons. Finally, the notion of vibrational hopping is introduced. The high-temperature thermal diffusion in boron carbides is presented as a potential application of this idea

  6. Collages of granulation pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst

  7. Pictures of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the book describes the development of a polarised spectrum of attitudes towards science and technology over the last two decades. Positivistic attitudes that emerged from the materialistic branch of the period of Enlightenment are shown in contrast to the attitudes that stem from the philosophical line of Rousseau-romanticism-vitalism. The second part of the book presents the results of an empirical study, providing evidence for the existence of the different attitudes towards technology and the environment. The study is based on a representative opinion poll among civil servants, engineering professions, social workers, and artists. Engineers and social workers are shown to represent the two antipodes in terms of the 'dual-culture' theory. In addition, sex-specific and age-specific differences are explained, and the different pictures of technology drawn by personalities characterised by an attitude of active control in contrast to those characterised by an attitude of intuitive faith. (orig.) [de

  8. Pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Starting with this issue, we will publish special pictures illustrating the ongoing construction and commissioning efforts. If you wish to have a professionnal photographer immortalize your detector before it disappears in the heart of ATLAS or for a special event, don't hesitate to contact Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira (16-3687) from the CERN photo service. Members of the pixel team preparing to insert the outermost layer (the outer of the three barrel pixel layers) into the Global Support Frame for the Pixel Detector in SR1. Ongoing work on the first Big Wheel on the C side. Exploded view of the side-C Big Wheel and the barrel cryostat. The TRT Barrel services (HV, LV, cooling liquid, active gas, flushing gas) are now completely connected and tested. Hats off to Kirill Egorov, Mike Reilly, Ben Legeyt and Godwin Mayers who managed to fit everything within the small clearance margin!

  9. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  10. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  11. Hip-Hop Is My Passport! Using Hip-Hop and Digital Literacies to Understand Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Akesha Monique

    2013-01-01

    Hip-hop has exploded around the world among youth. It is not simply an American source of entertainment; it is a global cultural movement that provides a voice for youth worldwide who have not been able to express their "cultural world" through mainstream media. The emerging field of critical hip-hop pedagogy has produced little…

  12. Scaling behavior and variable hopping conductivity in the quantum Hall plateau transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Jie; Guo, Guo-Ping; Hao, Xiao-Jie; Guo, Guang-Can

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx of a two-dimensional electron system in the regime of the quantum Hall plateau transition. We extracted the quantitative form of scaling function for ρ xx and compared it with the results of ordinary scaling theory and variable range hopping based theory. We find that the two alternative theoretically proposed scaling functions are valid in different regions

  13. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. Bitter Acids: Modulation of Rumen Fermentation and Potential As an Alternative Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Flythe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant (Humulus lupulus L. produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e.g., monensin, lasalocid. Like ionophores, the hop beta-acids inhibit rumen bacteria possessing a classical Gram-positive cell envelope. This selective inhibition causes several effects on rumen fermentation that are beneficial to finishing cattle, such as decreased proteolysis, ammonia production, acetate: propionate ratio, and methane production. This article reviews the effects of hops and hop secondary metabolites on rumen fermentation, including the physiological mechanisms on specific rumen microorganisms, and consequences for the ruminant host and ruminant production. Further, we propose that hop beta-acids are useful model natural products for ruminants because of (1 the ionophore-like mechanism of action and spectrum of activity and (2 the literature available on the plant due to its use in brewing.

  14. Processors and systems (picture processing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmar, P

    1983-01-01

    Automatic picture processing requires high performance computers and high transmission capacities in the processor units. The author examines the possibilities of operating processors in parallel in order to accelerate the processing of pictures. He therefore discusses a number of available processors and systems for picture processing and illustrates their capacities for special types of picture processing. He stresses the fact that the amount of storage required for picture processing is exceptionally high. The author concludes that it is as yet difficult to decide whether very large groups of simple processors or highly complex multiprocessor systems will provide the best solution. Both methods will be aided by the development of VLSI. New solutions have already been offered (systolic arrays and 3-d processing structures) but they also are subject to losses caused by inherently parallel algorithms. Greater efforts must be made to produce suitable software for multiprocessor systems. Some possibilities for future picture processing systems are discussed. 33 references.

  15. Wifi, WiMax and LTE multi-hop mesh networks basic communication protocols and application areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hung-Yu; Dixit, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Wifi, WiMAX, and Cellular Multihop Networks presents an overview of WiFi-based and WiMAX-based multihop relay networks. As the first text to cover IEEE 802.16j multihop hop relay technology, this revolutionary resource explores the latest advances in multi-hop and ad-hoc networking. Not only does this reference provide the technological aspects, but also the applications for the emerging technology and architectural issues. Ranging from introductory material to advanced topics, this guidebook, plus PowerPoint slides, is essential for engineers, researchers, and students interested in

  16. The Spectator in the Picture

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers whether pictures ever implicitly represent internal spectators of the scenes they depict, and what theoretical construal to offer of their doing so. Richard Wollheim's discussion (Painting as an Art, ch.3) is taken as the most sophisticated attempt to answer these questions. I argue that Wollheim does not provide convincing argument for his claim that some pictures implicitly represent an internal spectator with whom the viewer of the picture is to imaginatively identify....

  17. Communication devices for network-hopping communications and methods of network-hopping communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttles, John W

    2013-04-23

    Wireless communication devices include a software-defined radio coupled to processing circuitry. The system controller is configured to execute computer programming code. Storage media is coupled to the system controller and includes computer programming code configured to cause the system controller to configure and reconfigure the software-defined radio to operate on each of a plurality of communication networks according to a selected sequence. Methods for communicating with a wireless device and methods of wireless network-hopping are also disclosed.

  18. Direct current hopping conductance along DNA chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Song-Shan; Xu Hui; Liu Xiao-Liang; Li Ming-Jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of direct current(DC) electron hopping transport in DNA,in which DNA is considered as a binary one-dimensional disordered system.To quantitatively study the DC conductivity in DNA,it numerically calculates the DC conductivity of DNA chains with difierent parameter values.The result shows that the DC conductivity of DNA chain increases with the increase of temperature.And the conductivity of DNA chain is depended on the probability P.which represents the degree of compositional disorder in a DNA sequence to some extent.For P<0.5,the conductivity of DNA chain decreases with the increase of P,while for P≥0.5,the conductivity increases with the increase of p.The DC conductivity in DNA chain also varies with the change of the electric field,it presents non-Ohm's law conductivity characteristics.

  19. Bit-padding information guided channel hopping

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-02-01

    In the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we propose a bit-padding information guided channel hopping (BP-IGCH) scheme which breaks the limitation that the number of transmit antennas has to be a power of two based on the IGCH concept. The proposed scheme prescribes different bit-lengths to be mapped onto the indices of the transmit antennas and then uses padding technique to avoid error propagation. Numerical results and comparisons, on both the capacity and the bit error rate performances, are provided and show the advantage of the proposed scheme. The BP-IGCH scheme not only offers lower complexity to realize the design flexibility, but also achieves better performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Device for transmitting pictures and device for receiving said pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    Device for transmitting television pictures in the form of transform coefficients and motion vectors. The motion vectors of a sub-picture are converted (20) into a series of difference vectors and a reference vector. Said series is subsequently applied to a variable-length encoder (22) which encodes

  1. Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K.

    1995-12-31

    Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.

  2. Suppression of hop looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the fungicide pyraclostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Gent, D H

    2014-04-01

    The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In 4 yr of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation compared with nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed that abundance of hop looper and associated defoliation were reduced when the fungicide pyraclostrobin was applied in late July to early August. Two other fungicides possessing active ingredients in the same chemical family (quinone outside inhibitor) did not reduce abundance of hop looper or its defoliation. Pyraclostrobin is efficacious against powdery mildew diseases, and the application timing evaluated in these studies corresponds with a period of juvenile susceptibility of hop cones to the disease. Use of fungicides containing pyraclostrobin at this time may have the ancillary benefit of reducing hop looper damage, potentially obviating the need for broad-spectrum insecticides later in the season. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine whether pyraclostrobin may inhibit other lepidopteran species.

  3. What Is Hip-Hop-Based Education Doing in "Nice" Fields Such as Early Childhood and Elementary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.

    2015-01-01

    Hip-Hop-Based Education (HHBE) has resulted in many positive educational outcomes, ranging from teaching academic skills to teaching critical reflection at secondary levels. Given what HHBE initiatives have accomplished, it is troubling that there is an absence of attention to these methods in education programs for elementary and early childhood…

  4. Biophotonics: the big picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.

  5. Scaffold hopping in drug discovery using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoyama, Kazuhisa; Amini, Ata; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H

    2008-05-01

    In chemoinformatics, searching for compounds which are structurally diverse and share a biological activity is called scaffold hopping. Scaffold hopping is important since it can be used to obtain alternative structures when the compound under development has unexpected side-effects. Pharmaceutical companies use scaffold hopping when they wish to circumvent prior patents for targets of interest. We propose a new method for scaffold hopping using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP uses the observed spatial relationships between pharmacophore types in pretested active and inactive compounds and learns human-readable rules describing the diverse structures of active compounds. The ILP-based scaffold hopping method is compared to two previous algorithms (chemically advanced template search, CATS, and CATS3D) on 10 data sets with diverse scaffolds. The comparison shows that the ILP-based method is significantly better than random selection while the other two algorithms are not. In addition, the ILP-based method retrieves new active scaffolds which were not found by CATS and CATS3D. The results show that the ILP-based method is at least as good as the other methods in this study. ILP produces human-readable rules, which makes it possible to identify the three-dimensional features that lead to scaffold hopping. A minor variant of a rule learnt by ILP for scaffold hopping was subsequently found to cover an inhibitor identified by an independent study. This provides a successful result in a blind trial of the effectiveness of ILP to generate rules for scaffold hopping. We conclude that ILP provides a valuable new approach for scaffold hopping.

  6. Charge transport in conjugated polymers: a multiscale picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, Victor; Kirkpatrick, James; Kremer, Kurt; Andrienko, Denis

    2009-03-01

    A framework to study charge transport in conjugated polymers using realistic morphologies is developed. First, the atomistic force field is refined using first-principles calculations. Systematic coarse graining is then performed to extend simulation times and system sizes accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. Material morphologies are generated using the coarse grained and atomistic models. Finally, the charge mobility is obtained using temperature activated hopping picture for charge transport [1]. The framework is tested on neutral and oxidized polypyrrole with different structural ordering [2]. [4pt] [1] J. Kirkpatrick, V. Marcon, J. Nelson, K. Kremer, D. Andrienko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 227402 (2007)[0pt] [2] V. Ruehle, J. Kirkpatrick, K. Kremer, D. Andrienko, Phys. Stat. Solidi B, 245, 844 (2008)

  7. A Low-Cost Time-Hopping Impulse Radio System for High Data Rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Zhang

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient, low-cost implementation of time-hopping impulse radio that fulfills the spectral mask mandated by the FCC and is suitable for high-data-rate, short-range communications. Key features are (i all-baseband implementation that obviates the need for passband components, (ii symbol-rate (not chip rate sampling, A/D conversion, and digital signal processing, (iii fast acquisition due to novel search algorithms, and (iv spectral shaping that can be adapted to accommodate different spectrum regulations and interference environments. Computer simulations show that this system can provide 110 Mbps at 7–10 m distance, as well as higher data rates at shorter distances under FCC emissions limits. Due to the spreading concept of time-hopping impulse radio, the system can sustain multiple simultaneous users, and can suppress narrowband interference effectively.

  8. Hopping conductivity via deep impurity states in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.P.; Messerer, M.A.; Omel'yanovskij, Eh.M.

    1984-01-01

    Hopping (epsilon 3 ) and Mott conductivities via deep impurity compounds with localization radius below 10 A have been studied using as an example Mn in InP. It is shown, that the existing theory of hopping conductivity in low-alloyed semiconductors with Na 3 << 1 can be Used for the case of deep centres as successfully as for the case of insignificant hydrogen-like impurities. Fundamental parameters of the theory: localization radius of wave function of deep impurities, state density near the Fermi level, mean hop length, are determined

  9. Crossover in tunneling hops in systems of strongly localized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien Nguyen, V.; Gamietea, A.D.

    1995-11-01

    Accurate Monte-Carlo simulation data show a consistent crossover in different characters of tunneling hops in two-dimensional systems of strongly localized electrons in the presence of scattering and quantum interference of hopping paths. The results also suggest a negative answer to the question whether there is a two-dimensional sign phase transition. The fractal behaviour observed in the direction perpendicular to the hopping direction is found to be similar to that for eigenstates in one-dimensional localized systems. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs

  10. Let Me Blow Your Mind: Hip Hop Feminist Futures in Theory and Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Treva B.

    2015-01-01

    This essay brings together key theoretical interventions in hip-hop feminism to explore the continued, but undervalued, significance of hip-hop feminism in urban education. More specifically, the essay challenges narrow conceptualizations of the "hip hop subject" as Black and male by using hip-hop feminist theory to incorporate the lived…

  11. Characterization of hop pectins shows the presence of an arabinogalactan-protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Hop pectins were extracted from spent hops using acid extraction conditions and were characterized chemically. The acid extraction of spent hops resulted in a yield of 2°containing 59 f polysaccharides. The hop pectins under investigation had a relatively high molecular weight and an intrinsic

  12. Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-hop Machine-to-Machine Networks Based on Hop Distance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haejoon Jung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.

  13. Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-hop Machine-to-Machine Networks Based on Hop Distance Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haejoon; Lee, In-Ho

    2018-01-12

    As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs) with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy) of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.

  14. GHz band frequency hopping PLL-based frequency synthesizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong; WANG Zhi-gong; GUAN Yu; XU Zhi-jun; QIAO Lu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a full-integrated circuit containing all building blocks of a completed PLL-based synthesizer except for low pass filter(LPF).The frequency synthesizer is designed for a frequency hopping (FH) transceiver operating up to 1.5 GHz as a local oscillator. The architecture of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is optimized to get better performance, and a phase noise of -111.85-dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz and a tuning range of 250 MHz are gained at a centre frequency of 1.35 GHz.A novel Dual-Modulus Prescaler(DMP) is designed to achieve a very low jitter and a lower power.The settling time of PLL is 80 μs while the reference frequency is 400 KHz.This monolithic frequency synthesizer is to integrate all main building blocks of PLL except for the low pass filter,with a maximum VCO output frequency of 1.5 GHz,and is fabricated with a 0.18 μm mixed signal CMOS process. Low power dissipation, low phase noise, large tuning range and fast settling time are gained in this design.

  15. Hip hop jako kulturní styl, jeho spicifika a vliv na teenagery

    OpenAIRE

    POSPÍŠIL, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves history of hip hop, its specifics and elements, it talks about influence of hip hip subculture on teenagers and points to positive and negative aspects connected to this culture style. In this way is work sectionalized into chapters. First part talks about history of hip hop, connection between religion and hip hop and also about Czech hip hop. Second part specifies on main elements of hip hop culture as DJing, MCing, breakdance, beatbox and graffiti. Last part focuses on...

  16. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of different switched diversity configurations on the implementation complexity and achieved performance of dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. A low-complexity model of the relay station

  17. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.

  18. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  19. Majorana edge States in atomic wires coupled by pair hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Christina V; Dalmonte, Marcello; Baranov, Mikhail A; Läuchli, Andreas M; Zoller, P

    2013-10-25

    We present evidence for Majorana edge states in a number conserving theory describing a system of spinless fermions on two wires that are coupled by pair hopping. Our analysis is based on a combination of a qualitative low energy approach and numerical techniques using the density matrix renormalization group. In addition, we discuss an experimental realization of pair-hopping interactions in cold atom gases confined in optical lattices.

  20. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  1. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP C ), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP C and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP C by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases

  2. Low Power Multi-Hop Networking Analysis in Intelligent Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxaniz, Josu; Aranguren, Gerardo

    2017-05-19

    Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in many different areas such as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues in embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license-free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.

  3. The Hip-Hop club scene: Gender, grinding and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.

  4. Cognitive components of picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C J; Paivio, A; Clark, J M

    1996-07-01

    A substantial research literature documents the effects of diverse item attributes, task conditions, and participant characteristics on the case of picture naming. The authors review what the research has revealed about 3 generally accepted stages of naming a pictured object: object identification, name activation, and response generation. They also show that dual coding theory gives a coherent and plausible account of these findings without positing amodal conceptual representations, and they identify issues and methods that may further advance the understanding of picture naming and related cognitive tasks.

  5. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  6. A very general rate expression for charge hopping in semiconducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornari, Rocco P.; Aragó, Juan; Troisi, Alessandro [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Scientific Computing, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-14

    We propose an expression of the hopping rate between localized states in semiconducting disordered polymers that contain the most used rates in the literature as special cases. We stress that these rates cannot be obtained directly from electron transfer rate theories as it is not possible to define diabatic localized states if the localization is caused by disorder, as in most polymers, rather than nuclear polarization effects. After defining the separate classes of accepting and inducing nuclear modes in the system, we obtain a general expression of the hopping rate. We show that, under the appropriate limits, this expression reduces to (i) a single-phonon rate expression or (ii) the Miller-Abrahams rate or (iii) a multi-phonon expression. The description of these limits from a more general expression is useful to interpolate between them, to validate the assumptions of each limiting case, and to define the simplest rate expression that still captures the main features of the charge transport. When the rate expression is fed with a range of realistic parameters the deviation from the Miller-Abrahams rate is large or extremely large, especially for hopping toward lower energy states, due to the energy gap law.

  7. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.

  8. A stochastic picture of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of Hop-and-Sink Locomotion of Water Fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, A. N.; Murphy, D. W.; Webster, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is a widely studied zooplankton in relation to food webs, predator-prey interactions, and other biological/ecological considerations; however, their locomotion is poorly quantified and understood. These water fleas utilize a hop-and-sink mechanism that consists of making quick, impulsive jumps by beating their antennae to propel themselves forward (roughly 1 body length). The animals then sink for a period, during which they stretch out their antennae to increase drag and thereby reduce their sinking velocity. Time-resolved three-dimensional flow fields surrounding the animals were quantified with a unique infrared tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) system. Three-dimensional kinematics data were also extracted from the image sequences. In the current work, we compared body kinematics and flow disturbance among organisms of size in the range of 1.3 to 2.8 mm. The stroke cycle averaged 150 +/- 20 ms, with each stroke cycle split nearly evenly between power and recovery strokes. The kinematics data collapsed onto a self-similar curve when properly nondimensionalized, and a general trend was shown to exist between the nondimensionalized peak body speed and body length. The fluid flow induced by each antennae consisted of a viscous vortex ring that demonstrated a slow decay in the wake. The viscous dissipation showed no clear dependence on body size, whereas the volume of fluid exceeding 5 mm/s (the speed near the sinking speed of the animal) decayed more slowly with increasing body size.

  10. Heisenberg picture and measurement operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Espagnat, B.

    1992-01-01

    The idea is discussed according to which, in the Heisenberg picture, differently from the Schroedinger picture, the operators correspond exactly to the dynamic properties and the role of the density matrix is merely to describe our passive knowledge thereof. It is shown that the idea in question cannot be consistently kept as it is, and hints are given as to how it could be refined. (from author). 2 refs

  11. From "They" Science to "Our" Science: Hip Hop Epistemology in STEAM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberry, Maurice E.

    Hip hop has moved from being considered a type of music into being understood as a culture in which a prominent type of music originates. Hip hop culture has a philosophy and epistemological constructs as well. This study analyzed those constructs to determine how conceptions of science factor in hip hop worldviews. Pedagogical models in culturally responsive teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) education were also examined to discern their philosophical connections with hip hop culture. These connections were used to create two theoretical models. The first one, Hip Hop Science, described how scientific thought functions in hip hop culture. The second model, Hip Hop STEAM Pedagogy, proposes how hip hop culture can inform STEAM teaching practices. The study began by using Critical Race Theory to create a theoretical framework proposing how the two theoretical models could be derived from the philosophical and pedagogical concepts. Content analysis and narrative inquiry were used to analyze data collected from scholarly texts, hip hop songs, and interviews with hip hop-responsive educators. The data from these sources were used initially to assess the adequacy of the proposed theoretical framework, and subsequently to improve its viability. Four overlapping themes emerged from the data analyses, including hip hop-resistance to formal education; how hip hop culture informs pedagogical practice in hip hop-responsive classrooms; conceptions of knowledge and reality that shape how hip hoppers conduct scientific inquiry; and hip hop-based philosophies of effective teaching for hip hoppers as a marginalized cultural group. The findings indicate that there are unique connections between hip hop epistemology, sciencemindedness, and pedagogical practices in STEAM education. The revised theoretical framework clarified the nature of these connections, and supported claims from prior research that hip hop culture provides viable sites of

  12. The Picture Superiority Effect in Recognition Memory: A Developmental Study Using the Response Signal Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Russo, Riccardo; McPartlin, Pamela Louise

    2009-01-01

    Items studied as pictures are better remembered than items studied as words even when test items are presented as words. The present study examined the development of this picture superiority effect in recognition memory. Four groups ranging in age from 7 to 20 years participated. They studied words and pictures, with test stimuli always presented…

  13. Cultivated grapevines represent a symptomless reservoir for the transmission of hop stunt viroid to hop crops: 15 years of evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kawaguchi-Ito

    Full Text Available Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus, which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics.

  14. Surface hopping simulation of vibrational predissociation of methanol dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruomu; Sibert, Edwin L.

    2012-06-01

    The mixed quantum-classical surface hopping method is applied to the vibrational predissociation of methanol dimer, and the results are compared to more exact quantum calculations. Utilizing the vibrational SCF basis, the predissociation problem is cast into a curve crossing problem between dissociative and quasibound surfaces with different vibrational character. The varied features of the dissociative surfaces, arising from the large amplitude OH torsion, generate rich predissociation dynamics. The fewest switches surface hopping algorithm of Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990), 10.1063/1.459170] is applied to both diabatic and adiabatic representations. The comparison affords new insight into the criterion for selecting the suitable representation. The adiabatic method's difficulty with low energy trajectories is highlighted. In the normal crossing case, the diabatic calculations yield good results, albeit showing its limitation in situations where tunneling is important. The quadratic scaling of the rates on coupling strength is confirmed. An interesting resonance behavior is identified and is dealt with using a simple decoherence scheme. For low lying dissociative surfaces that do not cross the quasibound surface, the diabatic method tends to overestimate the predissociation rate whereas the adiabatic method is qualitatively correct. Analysis reveals the major culprits involve Rabi-like oscillation, treatment of classically forbidden hops, and overcoherence. Improvements of the surface hopping results are achieved by adopting a few changes to the original surface hopping algorithms.

  15. Particle trapping and hopping in an optofluidic fishnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. Z.; Xiong, S.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, T. N.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Particle jumping between optical potentials has attracted much attention owing to its extensive involvement in many physical and biological experiments. In some circumstances, particle jumping indicates escaping from the optical trap, which is an issue people are trying to avoid. Nevertheless, particle jumping can facilitate the individual trap in each laser spot in the optical lattice and enable sorting and delivery of nanoparticles. Particle hopping has not been seen in fluid because Fluidic drag force dramatically reduce the dwell time of particle or break the potential well. Here, we observe particle hopping in the microchannel by three reasons, e.g., particle collision or aggregation, light disturbing by pretrapped particle and fake trapping position. We show that commonly ignored particle influence to the light could create a new isolated trapping position, where particle hops to the adjacent potential well. The hopping happens in an optofluidic fishnet which is comprised of discrete hotspots enabling 2D patterning of particles in the flow stream for the first time. We also achieve a 2D patterning of cryptosporidium in the microchannel. Our observed particle hopping in the flow stream completes the family of particle kinetics in potential wells and inspires new interests in the particle disturbed optical trapping. The 2D patterning of particles benefits the parallel study of biological samples in the flow stream and have potential on cell sorting and drug delivery.

  16. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Justin W; Lindberg, Jenna C; Pacampara, Marc C

    2017-01-01

    Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  17. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Bonny

    Full Text Available Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  18. Proton structure functions in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.; Wallon, S.; Royon, Ch.

    1996-06-01

    The proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, deep-inelastic proton scattering is related to deep-inelastic onium scattering. A three parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range has been obtained. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. (author)

  19. Conceptual Masking: How One Picture Captures Attention from Another Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Geoffrey R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five experiments studied operations of conceptual masking--the reduction of conceptual memory performance for an initial stimulus when it is followed by a masking picture process. The subjects were 337 undergraduates at the University of Washington (Seattle). Conceptual masking is distinguished from perceptual masking. (TJH)

  20. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  1. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  2. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2011-04-29

    This paper investigates the effect of different switched diversity configurations on the implementation complexity and achieved performance of dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. A low-complexity model of the relay station is adopted, wherein single-input single-output antenna configuration is employed. Each of the transmitter and the receiver however employs multiple antennas to improve the overall link performance. Single-phase and two-phase based receive switching strategies are investigated assuming optimum first hop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, the simple scheme in which the switched diversity is applied independently over the two hops is studied using tight upper bounds. Thorough performance comparisons and switching thresholds optimization for the aforementioned strategies are presented. Simulation results are also provided to validate the mathematical development and to verify the numerical computations.

  3. Hopping magnetotransport via nonzero orbital momentum states and organic magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Alexandre S; Dediu, Valentin A; Kabanov, Victor V

    2012-05-04

    In hopping magnetoresistance of doped insulators, an applied magnetic field shrinks the electron (hole) s-wave function of a donor or an acceptor and this reduces the overlap between hopping sites resulting in the positive magnetoresistance quadratic in a weak magnetic field, B. We extend the theory of hopping magnetoresistance to states with nonzero orbital momenta. Different from s states, a weak magnetic field expands the electron (hole) wave functions with positive magnetic quantum numbers, m>0, and shrinks the states with negative m in a wide region outside the point defect. This together with a magnetic-field dependence of injection/ionization rates results in a negative weak-field magnetoresistance, which is linear in B when the orbital degeneracy is lifted. The theory provides a possible explanation of a large low-field magnetoresistance in disordered π-conjugated organic materials.

  4. Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T.; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    During hopping an early burst can be observed in the EMG from the soleus muscle starting about 45 ms after touch-down. It may be speculated that this early EMG burst is a stretch reflex response superimposed on activity from a supra-spinal origin. We hypothesised that if a stretch reflex indeed...... contributes to the early EMG burst, then advancing or delaying the touch-down without the subject's knowledge should similarly advance or delay the burst. This was indeed the case when touch-down was advanced or delayed by shifting the height of a programmable platform up or down between two hops...... and this resulted in a correspondent shift of the early EMG burst. Our second hypothesis was that the motor cortex contributes to the first EMG burst during hopping. If so, inhibition of the motor cortex would reduce the magnitude of the burst. By applying a low-intensity magnetic stimulus it was possible...

  5. Vertices in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  6. Dual-Hop VLC/RF Transmission System with Energy Harvesting Relay under Delay Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Gebali, Fayez; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a dual-hop visible light communication (VLC) / radio frequency (RF) transmission system to extend the coverage of indoor VLC systems. The relay between the two hops is able to harvest light energy from different

  7. From Broken Glass to Ruf Diamonds: Manchester Hip Hop

    OpenAIRE

    de Paor-Evans, Adam

    2018-01-01

    When one considers music culture in Manchester during the 1980s and 1990s, Hip Hop is not an obvious cultural arena for discussion. However, amidst the spectacle of The Haçienda, the pop boom of Factory Records and the evolution of rave subculture and form of dance music which produced the pop cultural phenomenon of Madchester; in the space of music between The Fall and The Charlatans where brief stardom was found by Inspiral Carpets, Northside and Candyflip, Mancunian Hip Hop was also evolvi...

  8. Starting with Style: Toward a Second Wave of Hip-Hop Education Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental breakthrough in the field of hip-hop education in recent years is the shift from understanding hip-hop solely as content to understanding hip-hop also as aesthetic form. In this article, I chart the roots of this shift across disciplines and focus on what it might mean for the future of hip-hop education, pedagogy, and research in…

  9. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Castañeda-Ojeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.

  10. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516

  11. Every Picture Tells a Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Piet Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Het doel van het project Every Picture Tells a Story is om samen met het werkveld methoden, technieken en kennis te ontwikkelen voor het produceren van effectieve infographics. Dit is nodig omdat de vraag naar infographics in de markt snel toeneemt. Bedrijfsleven en overheden kiezen er steeds vaker

  12. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  13. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  14. Post-Menopausal Vaginal Hemorrhage Related to the Use of a Hop-Containing Phytotherapeutic Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hunsel, Florence; van de Koppel, Sonja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2015-01-01

    Two 54-year-old women developed abdominal cramps and vaginal hemorrhage as a result of endometrial hyperplasia during treatment with a hop-containing phytotherapeutic product (MenoCool®) for post-menopausal complaints. The women used the hop-containing phytotherapeutic product (418 mg of hop per

  15. Flipping the Misogynist Script: Gender, Agency, Hip Hop and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Excluding Hip Hop culture and rap music from music education misses opportunities for addressing key aspects of popular culture, society, and students' lives. This article addresses intersections of Hip Hop, gender, and music education to forward potential Hip Hop praxis. After tracing related scholarship, I discuss and problematize…

  16. Energy management that generates terrain following versus apex-preserving hopping in man and machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Haeufle, Daniel F B; Seyfarth, André; Grimmer, Sten

    2012-01-01

    While hopping, 12 subjects experienced a sudden step down of 5 or 10 cm. Results revealed that the hopping style was "terrain following". It means that the subjects pursued to keep the distance between maximum hopping height (apex) and ground profile constant. The spring-loaded inverse pendulum (SLIP) model, however, which is currently considered as template for stable legged locomotion would predict apex-preserving hopping, by which the absolute maximal hopping height is kept constant regardless of changes of the ground level. To get more insight into the physics of hopping, we outlined two concepts of energy management: "constant energy supply", by which in each bounce--regardless of perturbations--the same amount of mechanical energy is injected, and "lost energy supply", by which the mechanical energy that is going to be dissipated in the current cycle is assessed and replenished. When tested by simulations and on a robot testbed capable of hopping, constant energy supply generated stable and robust terrain following hopping, whereas lost energy supply led to something like apex-preserving hopping, which, however, lacks stability as well as robustness. Comparing simulated and machine hopping with human hopping suggests that constant energy supply has a good chance to be used by humans to generate hopping.

  17. "Deeper than Rap": Gifted Males and Their Relationship with Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J. Sean; Grantham, Tarek C.

    2012-01-01

    One would be hard-pressed to deny the impact that hip hop is having on gifted students. More specifically, because hip hop is a creative and exciting male-dominated culture, gifted males gravitate to hip hop culture. From the perspective of two Black men from two different generations, this article was inspired by discussions about the role of hip…

  18. Behind Beats and Rhymes: Working Class from a Hampton Roads Hip Hop Homeplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Aisha S.

    2009-01-01

    The film documentary titled "Hip Hop: beyond beats and rhymes" captures ongoing conversations among scholars, cultural critics, and hip hop insiders about the state of African Americans by interrogating distinct expressive forms associated with hip hop culture. Durham draws from two scenes to describe her memories as the researched…

  19. Beats, Rhymes, and Classroom Life: Hip-Hop Pedagogy and the Politics of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marc Lamont

    2009-01-01

    For over a decade, educators have looked to capitalize on the appeal of hip-hop culture, sampling its language, techniques, and styles as a way of reaching out to students. But beyond a fashionable hipness, what does hip-hop have to offer our schools? In this revelatory new book, Marc Lamont Hill shows how a serious engagement with hip-hop culture…

  20. Wish to Live: The Hip-Hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader. Educational Psychology. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Kwakye, Chamara Jewel, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Wish To Live: The Hip-hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader" moves beyond the traditional understanding of the four elements of hip-hop culture--rapping, breakdancing, graffiti art, and deejaying--to articulate how hip-hop feminist scholarship can inform educational practices and spark, transform, encourage, and sustain local and global youth…

  1. The effect of correlations on the non-ohmic behavior of the small-polaron hopping conductivity in 1D and 3D disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakogianni, M; Triberis, G P

    2010-01-01

    According to percolation theory the investigation of charge transport in disordered systems is equivalent to the study of the possibility of the passage of the carriers through a random network of impedances which interconnect the different lattice sites. When the site energies are not the same, the energy of a site affects the incoming as well as the outgoing impedances connected to the given site and this gives rise to correlations between neighboring impedances. This new condition characterizes the transport process and imposes the evaluation of the average number of sites accessible by a bond from a given site for all possible configurations of sites that satisfy the percolation condition. The generalized molecular crystal model, appropriate for the study of small-polaron hopping transport in disordered systems, and the Kubo formula permit the evaluation of these impedances. Taking correlations into account, theoretical percolation considerations applicable to one-dimensional and three-dimensional disordered systems, lead to analytical expressions for the temperature and electric field dependence of the DC conductivity at high (multi-phonon-assisted hopping) and low (few-phonon-assisted hopping) temperatures. The theoretical analysis reveals the effect of correlations on the non-ohmic behavior of the small-polaron hopping conductivity and permits the evaluation of the maximum hopping distance. Quantitative estimates of this effect are presented comparing the theoretical results, including correlations with those ignoring them, previously reported, applying them to recent experimental data for a wide temperature range and from low up to moderate electric fields.

  2. Costs and returns of producing hops in established tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ha; Shadi Atallah; Tamara Benjamin; Lori Hoagland; Lenny Farlee; Keith. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first of two publications that analyzes economic opportunities in forest farming for Indiana forest plantation owners. This study explores growing hops along the fence lines of newly established forest stands, while the second study investigates producing American ginseng in older (20- to 30-year-old) forests. The economic analysis presented in this...

  3. Wireless multi-hop networks with stealing : large buffer asymptotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillemin, F.; Knessl, C.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless networks equipped with CSMA are scheduled in a fully distributed manner. A disadvantage of such distributed control in multi-hop networks is the hidden node problem that causes the effect of stealing, in which a downstream node steals the channel from an upstream node with probability p.

  4. Examining Hip-Hop as Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Pulido, Isaura

    2015-01-01

    Culturally relevant pedagogy is a framework that conceptualizes the process of student learning as contingent upon educators' deep understanding of students' cultural backgrounds to co-construct knowledge and develop academic skills. Concurrently, there are a growing number of studies that explore hip-hop as a culturally relevant curriculum for…

  5. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  6. Powdery mildew reaction of hop cultivars and USDA germplasm, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to identify possible sources of resistance to the disease powdery mildew in publicly-available hop germplasm and cultivars. Germplasm with the highest levels of downy mildew resistance in the USDA collection and various cultivars of interest were screened for their reac...

  7. Performance Analysis of RF-FSO Multi-Hop Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz; Svensson, Tommy; Brandt-Pearce, Maite; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We study the performance of multi-hop networks composed of millimeter wave (MMW)-based radio frequency (RF) and free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are obtained in the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). Taking

  8. Correlated Hopping in the 1D Falicov--Kimball Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Lemanski, R.

    2001-10-01

    Ground state phase diagrams in the canonical ensemble of the one-dimensional Falicov-Kimball Model (FKM) with the correlated hopping are presented for several values of the model parameters. As compare to the conventional FKM, the diagrams exhibit a loss of the particle--hole symmetry.

  9. Correlated Hopping in the 1d Falicov-Kimball Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, Z.; Lemanski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Ground state phase diagrams in the canonical ensemble of the one-dimensional Falicov-Kimball Model FKM) with the correlated hopping are presented for several values of the model parameters. As compare to the conventional FKM, the diagrams exhibit a loss of the particle-hole symmetry. (author)

  10. Young Children Manifest Spiritualities in Their Hip-Hop Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Nadjwa E. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…

  11. Maroc-hop: music and youth identities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzah, M.; Herrera, L.; Bayat, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two musical forms highly popular among youths of Moroccan origin in the Netherlands—Maroc-hop and Shaabi—permit youths to express specific and multiple identities in local contexts. Shaabi, a popular form of Moroccan folk music used to be found mainly in the private setting of family celebrations,

  12. Investigación a ritmo de hip-hop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Rivière

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soñando se resiste. Hip-hop; en la calle y al parque. Varios autores. Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Secretaría de Cultura, Recreación y Deporte, Orquesta Filarmónica de Bogotá, Bogotá, 2010, 180 págs.

  13. High Order Differential Frequency Hopping: Design and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers spectrally efficient differential frequency hopping (DFH system design. Relying on time-frequency diversity over large spectrum and high speed frequency hopping, DFH systems are robust against hostile jamming interference. However, the spectral efficiency of conventional DFH systems is very low due to only using the frequency of each channel. To improve the system capacity, in this paper, we propose an innovative high order differential frequency hopping (HODFH scheme. Unlike in traditional DFH where the message is carried by the frequency relationship between the adjacent hops using one order differential coding, in HODFH, the message is carried by the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding. As a result, system efficiency is increased significantly since the additional information transmission is achieved by the higher order differential coding at no extra cost on either bandwidth or power. Quantitative performance analysis on the proposed scheme demonstrates that transmission through the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding essentially introduces another dimension to the signal space, and the corresponding coding gain can increase the system efficiency.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  15. Hop pellets as an interesting source of antioxidant active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Holubková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hop is a plant used by humankind for thousands of years. This plant is one of the main and indispensable raw materials for the beer production. It is used for various dishes preparation in the cuisine. Hop is also used to inhibit bacterial contamination. The hop extracts are used for its sedative, antiseptic and antioxidant properties in medicine, as a part of many phytopharmaceuticals. The present paper have focused on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from 4 samples of hop pellets varieties of Aurora, Saaz, Lublin and Saphir, on the analyzing of bioactive substances (polyphenolics and flavonoids in prepared extracts and on the determination of antioxidant activity.  The highest content of polyphenolic substances was determined in the sample Lublin (153.06 mg gallic acid (GAE/g and Saaz (151.87 mg GAE/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples  was descending order Saaz > Saphir > Aurora > Lublin. Hops, as plant, is known by high content of antioxidant active substances. Antioxidant activity was determined using three independent spectrofotometric methods, radical scavenging assays using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The sample Aurora showed the highest ability to scavenge of ABTS radical cation. Antioxidant activity continued to decline in a row Saphir> Lublin> Saaz. The same trend was also observed by using the FRAP assay. The most effective DPPH radical scavengering activity had the sample Saaz a Saphir (p>0.05.doi:10.5219/270 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  17. Communication: Proper treatment of classically forbidden electronic transitions significantly improves detailed balance in surface hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Wang, Linjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics.

  18. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  19. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freemann and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particularly simple from. (orig.)

  20. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)

  1. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  2. Secure Connectivity Probability of Multi‐hop Clustered Randomize‐and‐Forward Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates secure cluster‐aided multi‐hop randomize‐and‐forward networks. We present a hop‐by‐hop multi‐hop transmission scheme with relay selection, which evaluates for each cluster the relays that can securely receive the message. We propose an analytical model to derive the secure connectivity probability (SCP of the hop‐by‐hop transmission scheme. For comparison, we also analyze SCPs of traditional end‐to‐end transmission schemes with two relay‐selection policies. We perform simulations, and our analytical results verify that the proposed hop‐by‐hop scheme is superior to end‐to‐end schemes, especially with a large number of hops or high eavesdropper channel quality. Numerical results also show that the proposed hop‐by‐hop scheme achieves near‐optimal performance in terms of the SCP.

  3. The content of vitamine E in hop cones of the Saaz variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pluháčková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vitamin E, total content of tocols and the content of individual isomers: α-tocopherols, β-tocopherols, γ-tocopherols and δ-tocopherols was monitored in samples of hop cones of the world-important Saaz variety. Hop cone samples originated from hop-breeding area Tršice, Czech Republic. The method used for the determination of vitamin E in barley was modified and used for this quantitative analysis. The results indicate that monitored characteristics are influenced by the year of harvest (2010 or 2011 but also by the age of hop-gardens (hop bucks. High values of vitamin E activity (up to 67.79 mg.kg−1 and total content of tocols (up to 76.31 mg.kg−1 in hop cones are worth further attention from the viewpoint of alternative use of hops.

  4. Piezo activated mode tracking system for widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity mid-IR semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Gerard (Inventor); Tittel, Frank K. (Inventor); Curl, Robert F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A widely tunable, mode-hop-free semiconductor laser operating in the mid-IR comprises a QCL laser chip having an effective QCL cavity length, a diffraction grating defining a grating angle and an external cavity length with respect to said chip, and means for controlling the QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle. The laser of claim 1 wherein said chip may be tuned over a range of frequencies even in the absence of an anti-reflective coating. The diffraction grating is controllably pivotable and translatable relative to said chip and the effective QCL cavity length can be adjusted by varying the injection current to the chip. The laser can be used for high resolution spectroscopic applications and multi species trace-gas detection. Mode-hopping is avoided by controlling the effective QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle so as to replicate a virtual pivot point.

  5. Respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation to hop (Humulus lupulus) during harvest and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K

    2014-11-01

    There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hip-Hop Guayaquil: culturas viajeras e identidades locales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available HIP-HOP GUAYAQUIL: CULTURES ITINÉRANTES ET IDENTITES LOCALES. Le hip-hop est un style de musique contemporaine caractérisé par une orchestration d’œuvres lyriques rapées, la superposition de morceaux de musique enregistrés dans le passé par différents artistes, et une instrumentation électronique, tout cela sur des rythmes de basse réguliers et constants. Le hip-hop, musique accompagnée de ses propres danses et de sa mode, est le produit du déplacement et de la transformation d’une variété d’idéologies politiques de la communauté noire qui se constituent à partir de relations qui se modifient entre elles, et en relation avec les cultures dominantes contre lesquelles elles luttent quotidiennement. À l’origine, le hip-hop est lié à des mouvements d’identité de jeunes noirs. Dans cet article, il est intéressant d’étudier le rôle du hip-hop dans la formulation d’une identité entre jeunes métisses et noirs des secteurs populaires de Guayaquil. Cet exemple illustre la nécessité d’inclure dans l’analyse les dimensions politiques des processus de traduction du global au niveau local. El hip-hop es un género de música contemporánea caracterizado por la orquestación de líricas que son rapeadas, superposición de fragmentos de música grabada en el pasado por diferentes artistas, e instrumentación electrónica, todo ello sobre ritmos de bajo regulares y constantes. Como un tipo de música acompañado por sus propias formas de danza y moda, el hip-hop es producto del viaje y la transformación de una variedad de ideologías políticas de la comunidad negra que se constituyen a sí mismas en relaciones cambiantes entre sí y en relación a las culturas dominantes contra las cuales luchan cotidianamente. El hip-hop está ligado, en su contexto originario, a políticas de identidad defendidas por jóvenes negros. Lo que interesa explorar en este artículo es el papel del hip-hop en la formulación de una identidad

  7. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  8. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  10. Use of picture books to explain procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    A small study conducted at a Swedish hospital on the effect of giving picture books and picture sheets to prepare children for their procedures before and during day surgery is explored in this article.

  11. A Picture of Subsidized Housholds 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008...

  12. Correlation between hip function and knee kinematics evaluated by three-dimensional motion analysis during lateral and medial side-hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiromitsu; Takiguchi, Kohei; Shibata, Yohei; Okubo, Satoshi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the limb during side-hopping and hip/knee interaction during this motion have not been clarified. The purposes of this study were to examine the biomechanical parameters of the knee during side hop and analyze its relationship with clinical measurements of hip function. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven male college rugby players were included. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to assess motion characteristics of the knee during side hop. In addition, hip range of motion and muscle strength were evaluated. Subsequently, the relationship between knee motion and the clinical parameters of the hip was analyzed. [Results] In the lateral touchdown phase, the knee was positioned in an abducted and externally rotated position, and increasing abduction moment was applied to the knee. An analysis of the interaction between knee motion and hip function showed that range of motion for hip internal rotation was significantly correlated with external rotation angle and external rotation/abduction moments of the knee during the lateral touchdown phase. [Conclusion] Range of motion for hip internal rotation should be taken into consideration for identifying the biomechanical characteristics in the side hop test results.

  13. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing...: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed to improve the effectiveness of a mailpiece by...

  14. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  15. Exploring Multicultural Themes through Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Pamela J.

    1995-01-01

    Advocates inclusion of multicultural picture books in social studies instruction to offer different outlooks and visions in a short format. Describes selection of picture books with multicultural themes and those that represent various cultures, gender equity, and religious themes. Suggests that picture books may help students develop better…

  16. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  17. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  18. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  19. Purely hopping conduction in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition were studied in a metal-insulator-metal configuration over a wide temperature (200 to 450 K) and frequency (100 Hz to 1 MHz) range. The preferred oriented Al (1%) doped ZnO film with electrical conductivity 1.1×103 Ω-1 cm-1 was deposited for dual purpose: (1) to serve as nucleating center for LiNbO3 crystallites along preferred c-axis growth direction, and (2) to act as a suitable bottom electrode for electrical studies. The room temperature dc conductivity (σdc) of LiNbO3 film was about 5.34×10-10 Ω-1 cm-1 with activation energy ˜0.3 eV, indicating extrinsic conduction. The ac conductivity σac was found to be much higher in comparison to σdc in the low temperature region (300 K), σac shows a weak frequency dependence, whereas dielectric constant exhibits a strong frequency dispersion. The dielectric dispersion data has been discussed in the light of theoretical models based on Debye type mixed conduction and purely hopping conduction. The dominant conduction in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film is attributed to the purely hopping where both σdc and σac arise due to same mechanism.

  20. Mixed quantum-classical equilibrium in global flux surface hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifain, Andrew E.; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    Global flux surface hopping (GFSH) generalizes fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH)—one of the most popular approaches to nonadiabatic molecular dynamics—for processes exhibiting superexchange. We show that GFSH satisfies detailed balance and leads to thermodynamic equilibrium with accuracy similar to FSSH. This feature is particularly important when studying electron-vibrational relaxation and phonon-assisted transport. By studying the dynamics in a three-level quantum system coupled to a classical atom in contact with a classical bath, we demonstrate that both FSSH and GFSH achieve the Boltzmann state populations. Thermal equilibrium is attained significantly faster with GFSH, since it accurately represents the superexchange process. GFSH converges closer to the Boltzmann averages than FSSH and exhibits significantly smaller statistical errors

  1. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  2. O CIRCUITO HIP HOP NA REGIÃO DE CAMPINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Nunes Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the thickness of the circuit hip hop in the region of Campinas and it’s a part of an inventory made in fifteen cities of the region, between 2003 and 2005. The circuit hip hop growing in Campinas since the decade of 1980, and has been expanding in the context of urbanization and metropolis. We noticed some residual cultural component in places involves, among others, the alternative production involved by a technically and territorial division of labor spurred by circuits upside of information. The culture of the streets and these circuits, survive to the urban division and fragmentation. It is, therefore, a study of the region of Campinas as a place that houses technical, informational and communicational densities. We analyzed geographical conditions of contemporary life in this region, inquiring about the communication and the informational components in the use of the territory.

  3. Hopping mixed hybrid excitations in multiple composite quantum wire structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Tran Thai Hoa

    1995-10-01

    A structure consisting of N pairs of inorganic semiconductor and organic quantum wires is considered theoretically. In such an isolated pair of wires, while the intrawire coupling forms Wannier-Mott exciton in an inorganic semiconductor quantum wire and Frenkel exciton in an organic one, the interwire coupling gives rise to hybrid excitons residing within the pair. When N pairs of wires are packed together 2N new mixed hybrid modes appear that are the true elementary excitations and can hop throughout the whole structure. Energies and wave functions of such hopping mixed hybrid excitations are derived analytically in detail accounting for the global interwire coupling and the different polarization configurations. (author). 19 refs

  4. Rend og hop - Vi si´r stop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole

    Rapporten er en evaluering af projekt Rend og hop som foregik fra 2006 - 2008 i Varde kommune. Projektet bestod af en specifik del og en genrele del, som henholdsvist var et tilbud til overvægtige børn med henblik på at give dem et sundere liv, og et forsøg på at gøre sundhed til en mere dominere......Rapporten er en evaluering af projekt Rend og hop som foregik fra 2006 - 2008 i Varde kommune. Projektet bestod af en specifik del og en genrele del, som henholdsvist var et tilbud til overvægtige børn med henblik på at give dem et sundere liv, og et forsøg på at gøre sundhed til en mere...

  5. Hip-Hop(e): The Cultural Practice and Critical Pedagogy of International Hip-Hop. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfilio, Brad J., Ed.; Viola, Michael J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Illuminating hip-hop as an important cultural practice and a global social movement, this collaborative project highlights the emancipatory messages and cultural work generated by the organic intellectuals of global hip-hop. Contributors describe the social realities--globalization, migration, poverty, criminalization, and racism--youth are…

  6. Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (hop): beyond interactions with chaperones and prion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Edkins, Adrienne L; Blatch, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop), also known as stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1), has received considerable attention for diverse cellular functions in both healthy and diseased states. There is extensive evidence that intracellular Hop is a co-chaperone of the major chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90, playing an important role in the productive folding of Hsp90 client proteins. Consequently, Hop is implicated in a number of key signalling pathways, including aberrant pathways leading to cancer. However, Hop is also secreted and it is now well established that Hop also serves as a receptor for the prion protein, PrP(C). The intracellular and extracellular forms of Hop most likely represent two different isoforms, although the molecular determinants of these divergent functions are yet to be identified. There is also a growing body of research that reports the involvement of Hop in cellular activities that appear independent of either chaperones or PrP(C). While Hop has been shown to have various cellular functions, its biological function remains elusive. However, recent knockout studies in mammals suggest that Hop has an important role in embryonic development. This review provides a critical overview of the latest molecular, cellular and biological research on Hop, critically evaluating its function in healthy systems and how this function is adapted in diseases states.

  7. Cross-layer optimization of wireless multi-hop networks

    OpenAIRE

    Soldati, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The interest in wireless communications has grown constantly for the past decades, leading to an enormous number of applications and services embraced by billions of users. In order to meet the increasing demand for mobile Internet access, several high data-rate radio networking technologies have been proposed to offer wide area high-speed wireless communications, eventually replacing fixed (wired) networks for many applications. This thesis considers cross-layer optimization of multi-hop rad...

  8. Structure and Charge Hopping Dynamics in Green Rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wander, Matthew C.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    Green rust is a family of mixed-valent iron phases formed by a number of abiotic and biotic processes under alkaline suboxic conditions. Due to its high Fe2+ content, green rust is a potentially important phase for pollution remediation by serving as a powerful electron donor for reductive transformation. However, mechanisms of oxidation of this material are poorly understood. An essential component of the green rust structure is a mixed-valent brucite-like Fe(OH)2 sheet comprised of a two dimensional network of edge-sharing iron octahedra. Room temperature Mossbauer spectra show a characteristic signature for intermediate valence on the iron atoms in this sheet, indicative of a Fe2+-Fe3+ valence interchange reaction faster than approximately 107s-1. Using Fe(OH)2 as structural analogue for reduced green rust, we performed Hartree-Fock calculations on periodic slab models and cluster representations to determine the structure and hopping mobility of Fe3+ hole polarons in this material, providing a first principles assessment of the Fe2+-Fe3+ valence interchange reaction rate. The calculations show that among three possible symmetry unique iron-to-iron hops within a sheet, a hop to next-nearest neighbors at an intermediate distance of 5.6Angstroms is the fastest. The predicted rate is on the order of 1012 s-1 consistent the Mossbauer-based constraint. All other possibilities, including hopping across interlayer spaces, are predicted to be slower than 107s-1. Collectively, the findings suggest the possibility of hole self-diffusion along sheets as a mechanism for regeneration of lattice Fe2+ sites, consistent with previous experimental observations of edge-inward progressive oxidation of green rust.

  9. Organogenic nodule formation in hop: a tool to study morphogenesis in plants with biotechnological and medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Santos, Filipa; Pais, Maria S

    2010-01-01

    The usage of Humulus lupulus for brewing increased the demand for high-quality plant material. Simultaneously, hop has been used in traditional medicine and recently recognized with anticancer and anti-infective properties. Tissue culture techniques have been reported for a wide range of species, and open the prospect for propagation of disease-free, genetically uniform and massive amounts of plants in vitro. Moreover, the development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors enables the industrial production of secondary metabolites. Reliable and efficient tissue culture protocol for shoot regeneration through organogenic nodule formation was established for hop. The present review describes the histological, and biochemical changes occurring during this morphogenic process, together with an analysis of transcriptional and metabolic profiles. We also discuss the existence of common molecular factors among three different morphogenic processes: organogenic nodules and somatic embryogenesis, which strictly speaking depend exclusively on intrinsic developmental reprogramming, and legume nitrogen-fixing root nodules, which arises in response to symbiosis. The review of the key factors that participate in hop nodule organogenesis and the comparison with other morphogenic processes may have merit as a study presenting recent advances in complex molecular networks occurring during morphogenesis and together, these provide a rich framework for biotechnology applications.

  10. Surface hopping with a manifold of electronic states. II. Application to the many-body Anderson-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Nitzan, Abraham [School of Chemistry, The Sackler Faculty of Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-02-28

    We investigate a simple surface hopping (SH) approach for modeling a single impurity level coupled to a single phonon and an electronic (metal) bath (i.e., the Anderson-Holstein model). The phonon degree of freedom is treated classically with motion along–and hops between–diabatic potential energy surfaces. The hopping rate is determined by the dynamics of the electronic bath (which are treated implicitly). For the case of one electronic bath, in the limit of small coupling to the bath, SH recovers phonon relaxation to thermal equilibrium and yields the correct impurity electron population (as compared with numerical renormalization group). For the case of out of equilibrium dynamics, SH current-voltage (I-V) curve is compared with the quantum master equation (QME) over a range of parameters, spanning the quantum region to the classical region. In the limit of large temperature, SH and QME agree. Furthermore, we can show that, in the limit of low temperature, the QME agrees with real-time path integral calculations. As such, the simple procedure described here should be useful in many other contexts.

  11. Duplex Schemes in Multiple Antenna Two-Hop Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Klein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel scheme for two-hop relaying defined as space division duplex (SDD relaying is proposed. In SDD relaying, multiple antenna beamforming techniques are applied at the intermediate relay station (RS in order to separate downlink and uplink signals of a bi-directional two-hop communication between two nodes, namely, S1 and S2. For conventional amplify-and-forward two-hop relaying, there appears a loss in spectral efficiency due to the fact that the RS cannot receive and transmit simultaneously on the same channel resource. In SDD relaying, this loss in spectral efficiency is circumvented by giving up the strict separation of downlink and uplink signals by either time division duplex or frequency division duplex. Two novel concepts for the derivation of the linear beamforming filters at the RS are proposed; they can be designed either by a three-step or a one-step concept. In SDD relaying, receive signals at S1 are interfered by transmit signals of S1, and receive signals at S2 are interfered by transmit signals of S2. An efficient method in order to combat this kind of interference is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, it is shown how the overall spectral efficiency of SDD relaying can be improved if the channels from S1 and S2 to the RS have different qualities.

  12. Performance Analysis of RF-FSO Multi-Hop Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2017-05-12

    We study the performance of multi-hop networks composed of millimeter wave (MMW)-based radio frequency (RF) and free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are obtained in the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). Taking the MMW characteristics of the RF links into account, we derive closed-form expressions for the network outage probability. We also evaluate the effect of various parameters such as power amplifiers efficiency, number of antennas as well as different coherence times of the RF and the FSO links on the system performance. Finally, we present mappings between the performance of RF- FSO multi-hop networks and the ones using only the RF- or the FSO-based communication, in the sense that with appropriate parameter settings the same outage probability is achieved in these setups. The results show the efficiency of the RF-FSO setups in different conditions. Moreover, the HARQ can effectively improve the outage probability/energy efficiency, and compensate the effect of hardware impairments in RF-FSO networks. For common parameter settings of the RF-FSO dual- hop networks, outage probability 10^{-4} and code rate 3 nats-per-channel-use, the implementation of HARQ with a maximum of 2 and 3 retransmissions reduces the required power, compared to the cases with no HARQ, by 13 and 17 dB, respectively.

  13. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of…

  14. Multi-Hop Link Capacity of Multi-Route Multi-Hop MRC Diversity for a Virtual Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Imane; Kudoh, Eisuke; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    In virtual cellular network (VCN), proposed for high-speed mobile communications, the signal transmitted from a mobile terminal is received by some wireless ports distributed in each virtual cell and relayed to the central port that acts as a gateway to the core network. In this paper, we apply the multi-route MHMRC diversity in order to decrease the transmit power and increase the multi-hop link capacity. The transmit power, the interference power and the link capacity are evaluated for DS-CDMA multi-hop VCN by computer simulation. The multi-route MHMRC diversity can be applied to not only DS-CDMA but also other access schemes (i. e. MC-CDMA, OFDM, etc.).

  15. Population dynamics and integrated control of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank on hops in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorenzana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious pest in most areas where hops are grown. A field trial was performed on a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in León (Spain in order to analyse the population development of Phorodon humuli and its natural enemies, as well as to determine the most effective integrated program of insecticide treatments. The basic population development pattern of P. humuli was similar in the three years: the population peaked between mid to late June, and then decreased in late June/early July, rising again and reaching another peak in mid-July, after which it began to decline, rising once more in late August; this last rise is characteristic of Spain and has not been recorded in the rest of Europe. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy found on the leaves was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The multiple regression analysis showed that aphids are positively related with the presence of beetle eggs and mean daily temperatures and negatively related with maximum daily temperature integral above 27ºC in plots without insecticide treatment. The most effective program of insecticide (imidacloprid treatments consisted of an initial treatment in June and a second treatment in the second half of July or at the beginning of August. However, a single treatment in June would be sufficient when in this last period the maximum daily temperatures were higher than 27ºC for at least 15 days, avoiding in this way the harmful effects of imidacloprid on predators.

  16. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shar...

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation in chains with power-law hoppings: Exact mapping on the critical behavior in d -dimensional regular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, W. S.; Bertrand, D.; Lyra, M. L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experimental progress on the realization of quantum systems with highly controllable long-range interactions has impelled the study of quantum phase transitions in low-dimensional systems with power-law couplings. Long-range couplings mimic higher-dimensional effects in several physical contexts. Here, we provide the exact relation between the spectral dimension d at the band bottom and the exponent α that tunes the range of power-law hoppings of a one-dimensional ideal lattice Bose gas. We also develop a finite-size scaling analysis to obtain some relevant critical exponents and the critical temperature of the BEC transition. In particular, an irrelevant dangerous scaling field has to be taken into account when the hopping range is sufficiently large to make the effective dimensionality d >4 .

  18. Bose-Einstein condensation in chains with power-law hoppings: Exact mapping on the critical behavior in d-dimensional regular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, W S; Bertrand, D; Lyra, M L

    2017-06-01

    Recent experimental progress on the realization of quantum systems with highly controllable long-range interactions has impelled the study of quantum phase transitions in low-dimensional systems with power-law couplings. Long-range couplings mimic higher-dimensional effects in several physical contexts. Here, we provide the exact relation between the spectral dimension d at the band bottom and the exponent α that tunes the range of power-law hoppings of a one-dimensional ideal lattice Bose gas. We also develop a finite-size scaling analysis to obtain some relevant critical exponents and the critical temperature of the BEC transition. In particular, an irrelevant dangerous scaling field has to be taken into account when the hopping range is sufficiently large to make the effective dimensionality d>4.

  19. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  20. Droppin’ Knowledge on Race: Hip-Hop, White Adolescents, and Anti-Racism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Netcoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the author examines how Hip-Hop can be mobilized in anti-racism educational initatives.  The author claims that existing research on Hip-Hop and white adolescents suggests a negative corrleation between white youths' engagement with Hip-Hop and their understanding of how race and racism function in American society.  In response to this research, the author argues Hip-Hop's diverse racial discourses and ideologies must be made the subject of direct and critical inquiry in secondary and post-secondary classrooms to maximize its democratic potential.  The author outlines specific approaches for how teachers can employ Hip-Hop in anti-racism curricula in secondary and post-secondary classrooms.  Collectively, the essay serves as a preliminary investigation of Hip-Hop pedagogies of race and whiteness.

  1. Blind Compressed Sensing Parameter Estimation of Non-cooperative Frequency Hopping Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the disadvantages of a non-cooperative frequency hopping communication system, such as a high sampling rate and inadequate prior information, parameter estimation based on Blind Compressed Sensing (BCS is proposed. The signal is precisely reconstructed by the alternating iteration of sparse coding and basis updating, and the hopping frequencies are directly estimated based on the results. Compared with conventional compressive sensing, blind compressed sensing does not require prior information of the frequency hopping signals; hence, it offers an effective solution to the inadequate prior information problem. In the proposed method, the signal is first modeled and then reconstructed by Orthonormal Block Diagonal Blind Compressed Sensing (OBD-BCS, and the hopping frequencies and hop period are finally estimated. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can reconstruct and estimate the parameters of noncooperative frequency hopping signals with a low signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. A new method of hybrid frequency hopping signals selection and blind parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoyu; Jiao, Wencheng; Sun, Huixian

    2018-04-01

    Frequency hopping communication is widely used in military communications at home and abroad. In the case of single-channel reception, it is scarce to process multiple frequency hopping signals both effectively and simultaneously. A method of hybrid FH signals selection and blind parameter estimation is proposed. The method makes use of spectral transformation, spectral entropy calculation and PRI transformation basic theory to realize the sorting and parameter estimation of the components in the hybrid frequency hopping signal. The simulation results show that this method can correctly classify the frequency hopping component signal, and the estimated error of the frequency hopping period is about 5% and the estimated error of the frequency hopping frequency is less than 1% when the SNR is 10dB. However, the performance of this method deteriorates seriously at low SNR.

  3. Mic Power? Connections and the hip hop nation in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneidermann, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Hip hop culture has been celebrated in the media and scholarship as a universal youth language, part of a global hip hop nation, and a type of counter-public. This article examines the everyday meanings and practices of hip hop among hip hop activists in Kampala, Uganda, specifically within...... the Batuuze rap group. Rather than portraying hip hop as a counter-public of the disempowered, I argue that the Batuuze engagement is based on what I call moral economy that enables the negotiation of connections in social and cultural networks towards what is considered a good life. Here, the hip hop nation...... is less of an alternative public sphere and more a way of articulating and contextualizing the world in a specific locality, which produces connections and opportunities in the young rappers’ lives....

  4. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)

  5. Manipulating affective state using extended picture presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S K; Davidson, R J; Donzella, B; Irwin, W; Dottl, D A

    1997-03-01

    Separate, extended series of positive, negative, and neutral pictures were presented to 24 (12 men, 12 women) undergraduates. Each series was presented on a different day, with full counterbalancing of presentation orders. Affective state was measured using (a) orbicularis oculi activity in response to acoustic startle probes during picture presentation, (b) corrugator supercilii activity between and during picture presentation, and (c) changes in self-reports of positive and negative affect. Participants exhibited larger eyeblink reflex magnitudes when viewing negative than when viewing positive pictures. Corrugator activity was also greater during the negative than during the positive picture set, during both picture presentation and the period between pictures. Self-reports of negative affect increased in response to the negative picture set, and self-reports of positive affect were greatest following the positive picture set. These findings suggest that extended picture presentation is an effective method of manipulating affective state and further highlight the utility of startle probe and facial electromyographic measures in providing on-line readouts of affective state.

  6. Method Development and Validation for UHPLC-MS-MS Determination of Hop Prenylflavonoids in Human Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yang; Qiu, Xi; Nikolic, Dejan; Dahl, Jeffrey H.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer, and hop extracts containing prenylated compounds such as xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin are under investigation as dietary supplements for cancer chemoprevention and for the management of hot flashes in menopausal women. To facilitate clinical studies of hop safety and efficacy, a selective, sensitive, and fast ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for t...

  7. Savage Vernacular: Performing Race, Memory, and Hip Hop in Filipino America

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, Mark

    2015-01-01

    By observing and analyzing live performances, music, visual art, interviews, television shows, and online discourse, this dissertation traces the ways in which Filipino American hip hop performance remembers the racialized histories of the Filipino body. Through both quotidian and spectacular performances in hip hop, Filipino Americans have been contributing to crucial forms of knowledge that help unpack the terms of Filipino and American culture. Hip hop culture, I argue, operates as a produ...

  8. Dependence of conductivity on thickness within the variable-range hopping regime for Coulomb glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caravaca

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide some computational evidence concerning the dependence of conductivity on the system thickness for Coulomb glasses. We also verify the Efros–Shklovskii law and deal with the calculation of its characteristic parameter as a function of the thickness. Our results strengthen the link between theoretical and experimental fields. Keywords: Coulomb glass, Conductivity, Density of states, Efros–Shklovskii law

  9. Thermally assisted variable range hopping in Tl4S3Se crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This proposed model is also used to explain the conduction mechanism and investigate the electrical conduction ... The simulation was handled with the help of MATlab soft- ware. ..... Mott N F and Davis E A 1979 Electronic process in non.

  10. Hop limited epidemic-like information spreading in mobile social networks with selfish nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2013-07-01

    Similar to epidemics, information can be transmitted directly among users in mobile social networks. Different from epidemics, we can control the spreading process by adjusting the corresponding parameters (e.g., hop count) directly. This paper proposes a theoretical model to evaluate the performance of an epidemic-like spreading algorithm, in which the maximal hop count of the information is limited. In addition, our model can be used to evaluate the impact of users’ selfish behavior. Simulations show the accuracy of our theoretical model. Numerical results show that the information hop count can have an important impact. In addition, the impact of selfish behavior is related to the information hop count.

  11. Hop limited epidemic-like information spreading in mobile social networks with selfish nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Similar to epidemics, information can be transmitted directly among users in mobile social networks. Different from epidemics, we can control the spreading process by adjusting the corresponding parameters (e.g., hop count) directly. This paper proposes a theoretical model to evaluate the performance of an epidemic-like spreading algorithm, in which the maximal hop count of the information is limited. In addition, our model can be used to evaluate the impact of users’ selfish behavior. Simulations show the accuracy of our theoretical model. Numerical results show that the information hop count can have an important impact. In addition, the impact of selfish behavior is related to the information hop count. (paper)

  12. Antifeedant activity of xanthohumol and supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops against stored product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, J; Hurej, M; Rój, E; Popłoński, J; Kośny, L; Huszcza, E

    2015-08-01

    Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops, and a supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops were studied for their antifeedant activity against stored product insect pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. Xanthohumol exhibited medium deterrent activity against the adults of S. granarius L. and larvae of T. confusum Duv. The spent hops extract was more active than xanthohumol towards the adults of T. confusum Duv. The potential application of the crude spent hops extract as a feeding deterrent against the stored product pests is proposed.

  13. Optimization of conditions for supercritical fluid extraction of flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guo-qing; Xiong, Hao-ping; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui; Wang, Zhao-yue; Traoré, Lonseny

    2005-01-01

    Waste hops are good sources of flavonoids. Extraction of flavonoids from waste hops (SC-CO2 extracted hops) using supercritical fluids technology was investigated. Various temperatures, pressures and concentrations of ethanol (modifier) and the ratio (w/w) of solvent to material were tested in this study. The results of single factor and orthogonal experiments showed that at 50 °C, 25 MPa, the ratio of solvent to material (50%), ethanol concentration (80%) resulted in maximum extraction yield flavonoids (7.8 mg/g). HPLC-MS analysis of the extracts indicated that flavonoids obtained were xanthohumol, the principal prenylflavonoid in hops. PMID:16187413

  14. Hip-hop as a resource for understanding the urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    This review explores Edmin's "Science education for the hip-hop generation" by documenting how he frames hip-hop as a means to access urban student culture. He argues that hip-hop is more than a mere music genre, but rather a culture that provides young people with ways of connecting to the world. Two primary ideas emerged as central to his work. First, he contends that students develop communal relationships and collective identities based on the common experiences expressed in hip-hop. Second, he identifies how the conscious recognition of institutional oppression serves a central feature in urban schools. Emdin's rich, and personal call for a greater understanding of hip-hop culture provides the text with an unmatched strength. He skillfully uses personal narratives from his own experience as well as quotes and references from hip-hop songs to make the nuances of hip hop transparent to science educators. Conversely, the limitation of this text is found in its unfulfilled promise to provide pragmatic examples of how to engage in a hip-hop based science education. Emdin's work is ultimately valuable as it extends our current knowledge about urban students and hip-hop in meaningful ways.

  15. A Review of Hip Hop-Based Interventions for Health Literacy, Health Behaviors, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia

    2017-07-01

    African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.

  16. Hole hopping rates in single strand oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Capobianco, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Peluso, Andrea, E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • DNA hole transfer rates have been computed. • Delocalized adenine domains significantly affect hole transfer rates in DNA. • Franck–Condon weighted density of state from DFT normal modes. • DNA application in molecular electronics. - Abstract: The rates of hole transfer between guanine and adenine in single strand DNA have been evaluated by using Fermi’s golden rule and Kubo’s generating function approach for the Franck–Condon weighted density of states. The whole sets of the normal modes and vibrational frequencies of the two nucleobases, obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of calculation, have been considered in computations. The results show that in single strand the pyramidalization/planarization mode of the amino groups of both nucleobases plays the major role. At room temperature, the Franck–Condon density of states extends over a wide range of hole site energy difference, 0–1 eV, giving some hints about the design of oligonucleotides of potential technological interest.

  17. Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1994-01-01

    that the dynamics of the interaction picture Wigner function is solved by running a swarm of trajectories in the classical interaction picture introduced previously in the literature. Solving the Wigner method dynamics of collision processes in the interaction picture ensures that the calculated transition......The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show...... probabilities are unambiguous even when the asymptotic potentials are anharmonic. An application of the interaction picture Wigner method to a Morse oscillator interacting with a laser field is presented. The calculated transition probabilities are in good agreement with results obtained by a numerical...

  18. Deterministic hopping in a Josephson circuit described by a one-dimensional mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miracky, R.F.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.

    1985-01-01

    Analog simulations of the hopping noise of a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction shunted with an inductor in series with a resistor reveal a 1/ω spectral density over two decades of frequency ω for a narrow range of bias currents. The amplitude of the low-frequency part of the spectrum decreases when white noise, representing Nyquist noise in the resistor at a few degrees Kelvin, is added to the simulation. We explain the shape of the power spectrum and its dependence on bias current and added white noise in terms of a deterministic process, involving a one-dimensional mapping, that is analogous to that found in Pomeau-Manneville intermittency. Moreover, we are able to establish a detailed relationship between the origin of the mapping and the differential equation describing the dynamics of the system

  19. Using Motion Pictures to Teach Management: Refocusing the Camera Lens through the Infusion Approach to Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, Minnette A.

    2005-01-01

    Motion pictures and television shows can provide mediums to facilitate the learning of management and organizational behavior theories and concepts. Although the motion pictures and television shows cited in the literature cover a broad range of cinematic categories, racial inclusion is limited. The objectives of this article are to document the…

  20. Emotionally Negative Pictures Enhance Gist Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bookbinder, S. H.; Brainerd, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are due to valence and which are due to arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively-valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling reve...

  1. Hole motion in the t-J and Hubbard models: Effect of a next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliano, E.; Bacci, S.; Dagotto, E.

    1990-01-01

    Using exact diagonalization techniques, we study one dynamical hole in the two-dimensional t-J and Hubbard models on a square lattice including a next-nearest-neighbor hopping t'. We present the phase diagram in the parameter space (J/t,t'/t), discussing the ground-state properties of the hole. At J=0, a crossing of levels exists at some value of t' separating a ferromagnetic from an antiferromagnetic ground state. For nonzero J, at least four different regions appear where the system behaves like an antiferromagnet or a (not fully saturated) ferromagnet. We study the quasiparticle behavior of the hole, showing that for small values of |t'| the previously presented string picture is still valid. We also find that, for a realistic set of parameters derived from the Cu-O Hamiltonian, the hole has momentum (π/2,π/2), suggesting an enhancement of the p-wave superconducting mode due to the second-neighbor interactions in the spin-bag picture. Results for the t-t'-U model are also discussed with conclusions similar to those of the t-t'-J model. In general we found that t'=0 is not a singular point of these models

  2. Child-Mediated Stroke Communication: findings from Hip Hop Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Noble, James; Gerin, William

    2012-01-01

    Low thrombolysis rates for acute ischemic stroke are linked to delays in seeking immediate treatment due to low public stroke awareness. We aimed to assess whether "Child-Mediated Stroke Communication" could improve stroke literacy of parents of children enrolled in a school-based stroke literacy program called Hip Hop Stroke. Parents of children aged 9 to 12 years from 2 public schools in Harlem, New York City, were recruited to participate in stroke literacy questionnaires before and after their child's participation in Hip Hop Stroke, a novel Child-Mediated Stroke Communication intervention delivered in school auditoriums. Parental recall of stroke information communicated through their child was assessed 1-week after the intervention. Fifth and sixth grade students (n=182) were enrolled into Hip Hop Stroke. One hundred two parents were approached in person to participate; 75 opted to participate and 71 completed both the pretest and post-test (74% response rate and 95% retention rate). Parental stroke literacy improved after the program; before the program, 3 parents of 75 (3.9%) were able to identify the 5 cardinal stroke symptoms, distracting symptom (chest pains), and had an urgent action plan (calling 911) compared with 21 of 71 parents (29.6%) postintervention (P<0.001). The FAST mnemonic was known by 2 (2.7%) of participants before the program versus 29 (41%) after program completion (P<0.001). Knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms remains low among residents of this high-risk population. The use of Child-Mediated Stroke Communication suggests that school children aged 9 to 12 years may be effective conduits of critical stroke knowledge to their parents.

  3. Selected pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    View of a single MDT Big Wheel (on side A in UX15 cavern) taken during its last movement immediately after being assembled and just before being connected to the neighbouring TGC1 wheel. Assembly work on the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Wheel C in building 190. Connecting the services for the Cathode Strip Chambers. The installation of the optical fibers for the readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Weel C by the Irvine group. Best from our archives: View of the End Cap Calorimeter and TGC big wheel from the Cryostat side A of ATLAS cavern taken on 22 May 2007. The picture above was taken from the platform in the middle, between the Cryostat and the End-Cap. Muriel hopes you all had a great vacation. She herself had a wonderful time sailing in Galicia (North Western Spain). She can be seen here wearing the traditional dress offered to her by "Los Amigos de las Dornas" (Friends of the Dornas -traditional sailing boats used for fishing) - when she became ...

  4. Anisotropy of hopping conductivity in TIGaSe2, crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadjafov, A.I.; Sardarli, R.M.; Samedov, O. A.; Abdullayev, A.P.; Zeynalova, E.A.; Jabbarov, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text: The temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of a chained semiconductor crystal TIGaTe 2 in a direction of chains and perpendicularly have been investigated. It was established that in a constant electrical field in both crystallographic directions took place hopping conductivity with variable length of a jump on located near Fermi level. The energy activation of conductivity has been determined. It was appreciated density of a condition in a vicinity of a Fermi level, their disorder, radius of localization, average distance of jumps of carriers

  5. Semiclassical quantization of nonadiabatic systems with hopping periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We present a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum–classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems consisting of fast and slow degrees of freedom (DOFs) by extending Gutzwiller’s trace formula to a nonadiabatic form. The quantum–classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow DOF, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels. In addition to the semiclassical quantization condition, we also discuss chaotic dynamics involved in the classical limit of nonadiabatic dynamics

  6. SHOP: scaffold hopping by GRID-based similarity searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Rikke; Linusson, Anna; Zamora, Ismael

    2007-01-01

    A new GRID-based method for scaffold hopping (SHOP) is presented. In a fully automatic manner, scaffolds were identified in a database based on three types of 3D-descriptors. SHOP's ability to recover scaffolds was assessed and validated by searching a database spiked with fragments of known...... scaffolds were in the 31 top-ranked scaffolds. SHOP also identified new scaffolds with substantially different chemotypes from the queries. Docking analysis indicated that the new scaffolds would have similar binding modes to those of the respective query scaffolds observed in X-ray structures...

  7. Electron hopping and optic phonons in Eu3S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentherodt, G.

    1981-01-01

    Raman scattering on single crystals of Eu 3 S 4 does not show the allowed q=o phonon modes in the cubic phase and exhibits no new modes in the distorted low temperature phase (T 2- ions. This mode does not show any anomaly near the charge order -disorder phase transition Tsub(t)=186 K. Temperature tunable spin fluctuations associated with the temperature activated Eu 2+ → Eu 3+ electron hopping are detected in the scattering intensity, superimposed on the usual thermal spin disorder. (author)

  8. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  9. Relationships between postural orientation and self reported function, hop performance and muscle power in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trulsson, Anna; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2010-01-01

    study was to characterise correlations between this novel test set, called the Test for Substitution Patterns (TSP) and commonly used tests of knee function. METHODS: In a blinded set-up, 53 subjects (mean age 30 years, range 20-39, with 2-5 years since ACL injury) were assessed using the TSP, the Knee...... Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale sport/recreation (KOOS sport/rec), 3 hop tests and 3 muscle power tests. Correlations between the scores of the TSP and the other tests were determined. RESULTS: Moderate correlations were found between TSP scores and KOOS sport/rec (rs = -0.43; p = 0...

  10. Radio resource management scheme and outage analysis for network-assisted multi-hop D2D communications

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Melki; Sameh Najeh; Hichem Besbes

    2016-01-01

    In a cellular network it's very difficult to make spectrum resource more efficiently. Device-to-Device (D2D) technology enables new service opportunities, and provides high throughput and reliable communication while reducing the base station load. For better total performance, short-range D2D links and cellular links share the same radio resource and the management of interference becomes a crucial task. Here we argue that single-hop D2D technology can be used to further improve cellular net...

  11. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  12. Picture Books and the Art of Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhoe, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how teachers can use picture book illustrations to teach children the art of collage. Focuses on three children's picture books and offers art activities showcasing three collage techniques: (1) cut and torn paper collage; (2) photomontage; and (3) texture collages and collage constructions. Relates each activity to the National Standards…

  13. Algorithms for coding scanned halftone pictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Forchhammer, Morten

    1988-01-01

    A method for coding scanned documents containing halftone pictures, e.g. newspapers and magazines, for transmission purposes is proposed. The halftone screen is estimated and the grey value of each dot is found, thus giving a compact description. At the receiver the picture is rescreened. A novel...

  14. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  15. Positioning Picture Books within the Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…

  16. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  17. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  18. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  19. Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

  20. Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Conclusively, tropical hop substitutes stored at 5 ± 1oC to 27 ± 1oC can still be used for brewing even after three to six months storage. .... which is associated with the oxidative depreciation of the soft resins to hard resins ... Changes in the soft resin levels of hop substitutes with storage. Soft resin levels (%).

  1. Hegemony, Hope, and the Harlem Renaissance: Taking Hip Hop Culture Seriously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert J., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip hop generation, often have little knowledge and understanding of rap music (also known as gangsta rap) and hip hop culture, and consequently do not take the black popular cultural phenomenon seriously as it relates to adult education. Adult educators,…

  2. Empowerment in Context: Lessons from Hip-Hop Culture for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Raphael, Jr.; Deepak, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Hip-hop culture can be used as a conduit to enhanced cultural competence and practice skills through the individual and community empowerment framework. This framework is introduced as a tool for direct practice that allows social workers to understand the competing messages within hip-hop culture and how they may impact youths by promoting or…

  3. Teaching Controversal Topics in Contemporary German Culture through Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the rich cultural resources embedded with German hip-hop music and its potential impact on the foreign language classroom. In particular, this article suggests methods and materials for integrating German hip-hop music in the discussion of recent controversial cultural events and attitudes in German after the "Wende."

  4. Hop/STI1 modulates retinal proliferation and cell death independent of PrPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.; Linden, Rafael; Chiarini, Luciana B.

    2007-01-01

    Hop/STI1 is a co-chaperone adaptor protein for Hsp70/Hsp90 complexes. Hop/STI1 is found extracellularly and modulates cell death and differentiation through interaction with the prion protein (PrP C ). Here, we investigated the expression of hop/STI1 and its role upon cell proliferation and cell death in the developing retina. Hop/STI1 is more expressed in developing rat retina than in the mature tissue. Hop/STI1 blocks retinal cell death in the neuroblastic layer (NBL) in a PrP C dependent manner, but failed to protect ganglion cells against axotomy-induced cell death. An antibody raised against hop/STI1 (α-STI1) blocked both ganglion cell and NBL cell death independent of PrP C . cAMP/PKA, ERK, PI3K and PKC signaling pathways were not involved in these effects. Hop/STI1 treatment reduced proliferation, while α-STI1 increased proliferation in the developing retina, both independent of PrP C . We conclude that hop/STI1 can modulate both proliferation and cell death in the developing retina independent of PrP C

  5. Hip-Hop Culture in College Students' Lives: Elements, Embodiment, and Higher Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2011-01-01

    College campuses have become rich sites of hip-hop culture and knowledge production. Despite the attention that campus personnel and researchers have paid to student life, the field of higher education has often misunderstood the ways that hip-hop culture exists in college students' lives. Based upon in-depth interviews, observations of…

  6. Hip-Hop's Influence on the Identity Development of Black Female College Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.; West, Nicole M.; Jackson, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This article explores unique issues regarding the effects of hip-hop culture on the identity development of young Black female college students. Through the lenses of womanist and Black feminist perspectives, the intersecting impact of race and gender are reviewed within the context of the competing influences of hip-hop on Black female identity.…

  7. Polish Hip Hop as a Form of Multiliteracies and Situated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine Hip Hop in Poland through the lens of multiliteracies and situated learning. This analysis is concerned with the transmission of Hip Hop to and within Wroclaw, Poland, and its acculturation and assimilation in Wroclaw, Poland. Further, this study seeks to illustrate how professional Polish Hip…

  8. Simple Models for the Performance Evaluation of a Class of Two-Hop Relay Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Kherani, Arzad A.; Nain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of a class of two-hop relay protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. The interest is on the multicopy two-hop relay (MTR) protocol, where the source may generate multiple copies of a packet and use relay nodes to deliver the packet (or a copy) to its destination, and on the

  9. Simple models for the performance evaluation of a class of two-hop relay protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.; Kherani, A.A.; Nain, P.; Akyildiz, I.F.; Sivakumar, R.; Ekici, E.; Cavalcante de Oliveira, J.; McNair, J.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of a class of two-hop relay protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. The interest is on the multicopy two-hop relay (MTR) protocol, where the source may generate multiple copies of a packet and use relay nodes to deliver the packet (or a copy) to its destination, and on the

  10. Hip-Hop, Social Justice, and Environmental Education: Toward a Critical Ecological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This essay describes an educational initiative that used environmentally themed (green) hip-hop to stimulate learning in an environmental science classroom. Students were then challenged to compose their own green hip-hop and their lyrics demonstrated skills that have thematic consistency around what is called a Critical Ecological Literacy (CEL).…

  11. Muziki wa Hip Hop na Haki Za Kijamii: Dhima, Changamoto na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ni dhahiri kuwa haki za kijamii zinaweza kuwasilishwa kwa jamii pana kupitia sanaa ya hip hop. Makala haya basi, yanabainisha dhima na mchango wa muziki wa hip hop katika masuala ya haki za kijamii, yanafafanua changamoto za muziki huu katika kuwasilisha haki za kijamii na kutoa mapendekezo kwa makundi ...

  12. Hop acid-rich spent craft brewer's yeast modulates gut bacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha and beta hop acids (humulones and lupulones) from Humulus lupulus are inhibitors of Gram-positive organisms and important natural antibiotics for beer fermentation and carbohydrate feed stocks for biofuel production. Recent observations (Bryant and Cohen) of high levels of hop acids in spent ...

  13. Connectivity model for Inter-working multi-hop wireless networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salami, O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available pairs in inter-working multi-hop wireless networks can be evaluated based on the availability of radio links and communication routes. This paper presents an analytical study of the link and route availability in inter-working multi-hop wireless networks....

  14. QTL analysis of resistance to powdery mildew in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew infection of hop results in significant production losses on an annual basis by reducing yields as well as cone quality. One of the best means to increase yield and quality is the production of resistant hop lines. Breeding for resistance can be significantly improved and accelerate...

  15. Membrane-bound ATPase contributes to hop resistance of Lactobacillus brevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; van Veen, HW; Saito, H; Kobayashi, H; Konings, WN

    2002-01-01

    The activity of the membrane-bound H+-ATPase of the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45 increased upon adaptation to bacteriostatic hop compounds. The ATPase activity was optimal around pH 5.6 and increased up to fourfold when L. brevis was exposed to 666 muM hop compounds. The

  16. Trends in German Hip Hop Music and Its Usefulness for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    German hip hop music has proved productive, especially since 2000 when rap in Germany experienced something like a first crisis. As a response, German hip hop artists and record labels have ventured off in several different directions including other musical genres, different topics, and new approaches to German rap. This article discusses the…

  17. Hip-Hop and a Hybrid Text in a Postsecondary English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Deborah M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the epistemology present in hip-hop music and its reflection in the writing of one African American student in a postsecondary transitional English class. An integration of hip-hop and academic literacy practices in the student's essay challenges the supremacy of a "standard" academic English and deficit perspectives about…

  18. We Got Next: Hip-Hop Pedagogy and the Next Generation of Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Using daily experiences and existing identities as the subject matter, a hip-hop-centered class encourages students to develop a critical lens so that they can "envision a social order which supports their full humanity" (Shor, 1987, p. 48) and embraces the idea that hip-hop culture provides context for students to develop critical…

  19. Supporting Communication and Argumentation in Urban Science Education: Hip-Hop, the Battle, and the Cypher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on an exploration of communication and argumentation in urban science classrooms, and provides a description of the role that Hip-hop based education plays in supporting these major components of science education. The paper is intended to both support, and critique conventional uses of hip-hop based education, and provide…

  20. Affiliation and Alienation: Hip-Hop, Rap, and Urban Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The critiques of rap artists and other participants in hip-hop culture provide data for teachers and researchers to investigate the attitudes of US urban youth towards schooling. This study explores the complex relationships between hip-hop and science education by examining how rap lyrics project beliefs about schooling, the relevance of existing…

  1. Sampling Practices and Social Spaces: Exploring a Hip-Hop Approach to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2010-01-01

    Much more than a musical genre, hip-hop culture exists as an animating force in the lives of many young adults. This article looks beyond the moral concerns often associated with rap music to explore how hip-hop as a larger set of expressions and practices implicates the educational experiences, activities, and approaches for students. The article…

  2. Student Perceptions of the Hip Hop Culture's Influence on the Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Roger D.; Wallaert, Kerry A.

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine how identification and engagement with the hip hop culture influenced the educational experiences of undergraduate students at a Midwestern, predominately White university by interviewing 11 students who self-identified as being immersed in the hip hop culture. Through a qualitative, phenomenological investigation,…

  3. Don't Believe the Hype: Hip-Hop Literacies and English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship suggests that many youths identify with hip-hop, especially youths of color. Study of this artistic form has been suggested as a means of helping youths acquire and become fluent in literacy practices. This article explores how the use of a hip-hop literacies curriculum addressed the literacy skills of urban ninth-grade English…

  4. Deal with It We Must: Education, Social Justice, and the Curriculum of Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszile, Denise Taliaferro

    2009-01-01

    Although hip hop culture has been one of the most significant urban youth movements over the last three decades, it has only recently gained attention within the educational literature as a force to be reckoned with. And even then, much of the literature seeks to understand how hip hop can be used to engage students in the official school…

  5. Contributions to the quality control of two crops of economic importance : hops and yerba mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erica Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Quality control of plants is essential and at the same time very challenging.In this thesis, studies involving quality issues of two plants used in the production of two popular beverages, hops (in beer) and Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) were undertaken. Hops are used as bittering agents and to

  6. On the Capacity of a GSM Frequency Hopping network with Intelligent Underlayer-Overlayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Wigard, Jeroen; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    1997-01-01

    . By combining this reuse partitioning with frequency hopping, an increase in the network capacity in terms of carried traffic per cell is achieved. Simulations have indicated that for slow moving mobiles a gain of approximately 35% is achieved by this new feature when compared with a frequency hopping network...

  7. System optimization for peer-to-peer multi hop video broadcasting in wireless ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedeoglu, V.; Atici, C.; Salman, F.S.; Sunay, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    We consider peer-to-peer video broadcasting using cooperation among peers in an ad hoc wireless network. As opposed to the traditional single hop broadcasting, multiple hops cause an increase in broadcast video quality while creating interference and increasing transmission delay. We develop

  8. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  9. Generalization of fewest-switches surface hopping for coherences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Reichman, David R.

    2018-03-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is perhaps the most widely used mixed quantum-classical approach for the modeling of non-adiabatic processes, but its original formulation is restricted to (adiabatic) population terms of the quantum density matrix, leaving its implementations with an inconsistency in the treatment of populations and coherences. In this article, we propose a generalization of FSSH that treats both coherence and population terms on equal footing and which formally reduces to the conventional FSSH algorithm for the case of populations. This approach, coherent fewest-switches surface hopping (C-FSSH), employs a decoupling of population relaxation and pure dephasing and involves two replicas of the classical trajectories interacting with two active surfaces. Through extensive benchmark calculations of a spin-boson model involving a Debye spectral density, we demonstrate the potential of C-FSSH to deliver highly accurate results for a large region of parameter space. Its uniform description of populations and coherences is found to resolve incorrect behavior observed for conventional FSSH in various cases, in particular at low temperature, while the parameter space regions where it breaks down are shown to be quite limited. Its computational expenses are virtually identical to conventional FSSH.

  10. Robust hopping based on virtual pendulum posture control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharbafi, Maziar A; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad J; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, Andre

    2013-01-01

    A new control approach to achieve robust hopping against perturbations in the sagittal plane is presented in this paper. In perturbed hopping, vertical body alignment has a significant role for stability. Our approach is based on the virtual pendulum concept, recently proposed, based on experimental findings in human and animal locomotion. In this concept, the ground reaction forces are pointed to a virtual support point, named virtual pivot point (VPP), during motion. This concept is employed in designing the controller to balance the trunk during the stance phase. New strategies for leg angle and length adjustment besides the virtual pendulum posture control are proposed as a unified controller. This method is investigated by applying it on an extension of the spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model. Trunk, leg mass and damping are added to the SLIP model in order to make the model more realistic. The stability is analyzed by Poincaré map analysis. With fixed VPP position, stability, disturbance rejection and moderate robustness are achieved, but with a low convergence speed. To improve the performance and attain higher robustness, an event-based control of the VPP position is introduced, using feedback of the system states at apexes. Discrete linear quartic regulator is used to design the feedback controller. Considerable enhancements with respect to stability, convergence speed and robustness against perturbations and parameter changes are achieved. (paper)

  11. A decentralized scheduling algorithm for time synchronized channel hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tinka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH is an existing Medium Access Control scheme which enables robust communication through channel hopping and high data rates through synchronization. It is based on a time-slotted architecture, and its correct functioning depends on a schedule which is typically computed by a central node. This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first scheduling algorithm for TSCH networks which both is distributed and which copes with mobile nodes. Two variations on scheduling algorithms are presented. Aloha-based scheduling allocates one channel for broadcasting advertisements for new neighbors. Reservation- based scheduling augments Aloha-based scheduling with a dedicated timeslot for targeted advertisements based on gossip information. A mobile ad hoc motorized sensor network with frequent connectivity changes is studied, and the performance of the two proposed algorithms is assessed. This performance analysis uses both simulation results and the results of a field deployment of floating wireless sensors in an estuarial canal environment. Reservation-based scheduling performs significantly better than Aloha-based scheduling, suggesting that the improved network reactivity is worth the increased algorithmic complexity and resource consumption.

  12. Asynchronous Channel-Hopping Scheme under Jamming Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchul Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks (CRNs are considered an attractive technology to mitigate inefficiency in the usage of licensed spectrum. CRNs allow the secondary users (SUs to access the unused licensed spectrum and use a blind rendezvous process to establish communication links between SUs. In particular, quorum-based channel-hopping (CH schemes have been studied recently to provide guaranteed blind rendezvous in decentralized CRNs without using global time synchronization. However, these schemes remain vulnerable to jamming attacks. In this paper, we first analyze the limitations of quorum-based rendezvous schemes called asynchronous channel hopping (ACH. Then, we introduce a novel sequence sensing jamming attack (SSJA model in which a sophisticated jammer can dramatically reduce the rendezvous success rates of ACH schemes. In addition, we propose a fast and robust asynchronous rendezvous scheme (FRARS that can significantly enhance robustness under jamming attacks. Our numerical results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed scheme vastly outperforms the ACH scheme when there are security concerns about a sequence sensing jammer.

  13. Effects of compositional defects on small polaron hopping in micas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Kevin M; Ilton, Eugene S

    2005-06-22

    Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the effects of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as an Fe(IIIII) valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and small polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy lambda, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element V(AB), and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The lambda increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the V(AB) decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main effect of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas.

  14. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. for Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Dyer, Alan

    2006-09-01

    Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was a diet/physical activity intervention designed to reduce gains in BMI (kilograms per meter squared) in preschool minority children. Twelve predominantly Latino Head Start centers participated in a group-randomized trial conducted between Fall 2001 and Winter 2003. Six centers were randomized to a culturally proficient 14-week (three times weekly) diet/physical activity intervention. Parents participated by completing weekly homework assignments. The children in the other six centers received a general health intervention that did not address either diet or physical activity. The primary outcome was change in BMI, and secondary outcomes were changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Measures were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at Years 1 and 2 follow-up. There were no significant differences between intervention and control schools in either primary or secondary outcomes at post-intervention, Year 1, or Year 2 follow-ups. When Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was conducted in predominantly black Head Start centers, it was effective in reducing subsequent increases in BMI in preschool children. In contrast, when the program was conducted in Latino centers, it was not effective. Although the intervention did not prevent excessive weight gain in Latino children, it was very well received. Future interventions with this population may require further cultural tailoring and a more robust parent intervention.

  15. Interaction between hopping and static spins in a discrete network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccarello, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.ciccarello@sns.it [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-06-27

    We consider a process where a spin hops across a discrete network and at certain sites couples to static spins. While this setting is implementable in various scenarios (e.g. quantum dots or coupled cavities) the physics of such processes is still basically unknown. Here, we take a first step along this line by scrutinizing a two-site and a three-site lattices, each with two static spins. Despite a generally complex dynamics occurs, we show a regime such that the spin dynamics is described by an effective three-spin chain. Tasks such as entanglement generation and quantum state transfer can be achieved accordingly. -- Highlights: → We study mobile spins hopping in a discrete network and coupled to static spins. → This setting can be implemented in various scenarios. → We address a two-site and a three-site lattice, each with two static spins. → We show a regime where the setup can be described by an effective three-spin chain. → Accordingly, it is prone to be exploited for some QIP applications.

  16. HOPS 383: AN OUTBURSTING CLASS 0 PROTOSTAR IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safron, Emily J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Booker, Joseph [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Fischer, William J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Furlan, Elise; Rebull, Luisa M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); Stutz, Amelia M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Stanke, Thomas [European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München (Germany); Billot, Nicolas [Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica, Granada (Spain); Tobin, John J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden (Netherlands); Ali, Babar [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Wilson, T. L., E-mail: wjfischer@gmail.com [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We report the dramatic mid-infrared brightening between 2004 and 2006 of Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) 383, a deeply embedded protostar adjacent to NGC 1977 in Orion. By 2008, the source became a factor of 35 brighter at 24 μm with a brightness increase also apparent at 4.5 μm. The outburst is also detected in the submillimeter by comparing APEX/SABOCA to SCUBA data, and a scattered-light nebula appeared in NEWFIRM K{sub s} imaging. The post-outburst spectral energy distribution indicates a Class 0 source with a dense envelope and a luminosity between 6 and 14 L{sub ⊙}. Post-outburst time-series mid- and far-infrared photometry show no long-term fading and variability at the 18% level between 2009 and 2012. HOPS 383 is the first outbursting Class 0 object discovered, pointing to the importance of episodic accretion at early stages in the star formation process. Its dramatic rise and lack of fading over a 6 year period hint that it may be similar to FU Ori outbursts, although the luminosity appears to be significantly smaller than the canonical luminosities of such objects.

  17. Hip-Hop as a Resource for Understanding the Urban Context: A Review of Christopher Edmin's--Science Education for the Hip-Hop Generation, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This review explores Edmin's "Science education for the hip-hop generation" by documenting how he frames hip-hop as a means to access urban student culture. He argues that hip-hop is more than a mere music genre, but rather a culture that provides young people with ways of connecting to the world. Two primary ideas emerged as central to…

  18. Hopping system control with an approximated dynamics model and upper-body motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyang Jun; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A hopping system is highly non-linear due to the nature of its dynamics, which has alternating phases in a cycle, flight and stance phases and related transitions. Every control method that stabilizes the hopping system satisfies the Poincaré stability condition. At the Poincaré section, a hopping system cycle is considered as discrete sectional data set. By controlling the sectional data in a discrete control form, we can generate a stable hopping cycle. We utilize phase-mapping matrices to build a Poincaré return map by approximating the dynamics of the hopping system with SLIP model. We can generate various Poincaré stable gait patterns with the approximated discrete control form which uses upper-body motions as inputs.

  19. Backoff-stage synchronization in three-hop string-topology wireless networks with hidden nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Kosuke; Sekiya, Hiroo; Komuro, Nobuyoshi; Sakata, Shiro

    In IEEE 802.11 wireless multi-hop networks, each node works individually and their individual operations generate entire network dynamics. It is important to clarify the network dynamics in wireless multi-hop networks for designing and constructing multi-hop communication networks. This paper presents the network-dynamics investigations for three-hop string-topology wireless network in detail. From the investigations, a “backoff-stage synchronization” phenomenon, which is mutuality between hidden nodes, is found. The mechanism of the backoff-stage synchronization is expressed and the sufficient conditions for the synchronization occurrence are given. This phenomenon gives some impacts on the IEEE 802.11 multi-hop-network communications.

  20. Throw Yo' Voice Out: Disability as a Desirable Practice in Hip-Hop Vocal Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Porco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disabled bodies and disabling spaces— especially the recording studio— shape the sound iconicity of hip-hop vocal performances. The disabled voice is the audible sign by which hip-hop artists trouble cultural definitions of the self and other; exceptionalism and failure; the natural and techno-mediated; comedy and tragedy; and aesthetic play and seriousness. Hip-hop vocal performances also function as self-conscious acts of transvaluation that challenge the discursive dominance of ableism. A materialist approach to vocal performance resists reducing voice to a silent metaphor for race, oppositionality, or liberation; and it emphasizes, instead, the physiological and social processes that render hip-hop voices unique, particular, and audible. It emphasizes the agency hip-hop artists possess in seeking out disabled bodies and assuming disabled identities for aesthetic and political ends. Thus, the body is returned to the analysis of style.

  1. RNAi knockdown of Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein) decreases invasion via MMP-2 down regulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2011-07-28

    We previously identified Hop as over expressed in invasive pancreatic cancer cell lines and malignant tissues of pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting an important role for Hop in the biology of invasive pancreatic cancer. Hop is a co-chaperone protein that binds to both Hsp70\\/Hsp90. We hypothesised that by targeting Hop, signalling pathways modulating invasion and client protein stabilisation involving Hsp90-dependent complexes may be altered. In this study, we show that Hop knockdown by small interfering (si)RNA reduces the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in decreased expression of the downstream target gene, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Hop in conditioned media co-immunoprecipitates with MMP-2, implicating a possible extracellular function for Hop. Knockdown of Hop expression also reduced expression levels of Hsp90 client proteins, HER2, Bcr-Abl, c-MET and v-Src. Furthermore, Hop is strongly expressed in high grade PanINs compared to lower PanIN grades, displaying differential localisation in invasive ductal pancreatic cancer, indicating that the localisation of Hop is an important factor in pancreatic tumours. Our data suggests that the attenuation of Hop expression inactivates key signal transduction proteins which may decrease the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells possibly through the modulation of Hsp90 activity. Therefore, targeting Hop in pancreatic cancer may constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

  2. Engaging Black Males on Their Own Terms: What Schools Can Learn from Black Males Who Produce Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau J.; Petchauer, Emery; Kirkland, David

    2013-01-01

    Education scholars and practitioners have much to learn about engagement and motivation of Black males by directing their inquiries to more organic sites of hip-hop cultural production outside of schools. One such site is the hip-hop's informal labor economy where Black males engage in earning money through hip-hop cultural production. Labor…

  3. Complex Personhood of Hip Hop & the Sensibilities of the Culture That Fosters Knowledge of Self & Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.

    2016-01-01

    Hip hop music and culture have a complex identity in that hip hop is based in self-determination, resistance, and the long enduring fight for Black freedom, but was also created alongside the seductiveness of the material and psychological conditions of capitalism, sexism, and patriarchy. Hip hop pedagogy (HHP) as a pedagogical framework is…

  4. The Geneva Smoking Pictures: development and preliminary validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Billieux, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Cue reactivity is essential to the maintenance of addictive disorders. A useful way to study cue reactivity is by means of normative pictures, but few validated tobacco-related pictures are available. This study describes a database of smoking-related pictures: The Geneva Smoking Pictures (GSP). Sixty smoking-related pictures were presented to 91 participants who assessed them according to the classic emotional pictures validation provided by the International Affective Picture System (NIMH C...

  5. High-picture quality industrial CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)

  6. Picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Teiji; Mukasa, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Jun-ichi

    1989-01-01

    Fuji EFPACS (Effective Fuji PACS) is a picture archiving and communications system which efficiently executes centralized management of quantities of image data produced in a hospital. Main features of this system are high-speed retrieval and display function resulting from high-grade imaging technology. This system also strongly supports picture management for multi-modalities, picture storage, and education. EFPACS-500 and EFPACS-1000 series are available according to a system scale. An optimal system configuration can be obtained in a building-up style. This paper describes the features and performance of the EFPACS. (author)

  7. Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-11-15

    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)

  8. Energy management: the big picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesma, Vilnis.

    1997-01-01

    Since the recent dramatic fall in energy prices may have come to an end, energy managers will have to turn to a range of non-price cost reduction techniques. A framework to aid this process is provided. It rests on ten categories of activity. These are: obtaining a refund; negotiating cheaper tariffs; modifying patterns of demand; inspection and maintenance; operating practices; training awareness and motivation; waste avoidance; retrofit technology; modifying plant and equipment; energy-efficient design. (UK)

  9. Implementation of surface hopping molecular dynamics using semiempirical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiano, E.; Keal, T.W.; Thiel, W.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics driver and surface hopping algorithm for nonadiabatic dynamics has been implemented in a development version of the MNDO semiempirical electronic structure package. The required energies, gradients and nonadiabatic couplings are efficiently evaluated on the fly using semiempirical configuration interaction methods. The choice of algorithms for the time evolution of the nuclear motion and quantum amplitudes is discussed, and different schemes for the computation of nonadiabatic couplings are analysed. The importance of molecular orbital tracking and electronic state following is underlined in the context of configuration interaction calculations. The method is applied to three case studies (ethylene, methaniminium ion, and methanimine) using the orthogonalization corrected OM2 Hamiltonian. In all three cases decay times and dynamics paths similar to high-level ab initio results are obtained

  10. Nonregenerative Dual-Hop Cooperative Links with Selection Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiannidis George K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The end-to-end performance of dual-hop cooperative diversity systems equipped with nonregenerative relays and a selection combining receiver at the destination terminal over independent and nonidentical Nakagami- fading channels is studied. Closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function and the probability density function of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio ( are presented, while analytical formulae are derived for the moments and the moment generating function. Using these statistical results, closed-form expressions for the outage probability are presented for both channel state information and fixed gain relays. Furthermore, for the case of fixed gain relay, the average end-to-end , the amount of fading, and the average bit error rate can be numerically evaluated. The proposed mathematical analysis is complemented by numerical examples, including the effects on the overall performance of the s unbalancing as well as the fading severity.

  11. SDN-Based Double Hopping Communication against Sniffer Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sniffer attack has been a severe threat to network communication security. Traditional network usually uses static network configuration, which provides convenience to sniffer attack. In this paper, an SDN-based double hopping communication (DHC approach is proposed to solve this problem. In DHC, ends in communication packets as well as the routing paths are changed dynamically. Therefore, the traffic will be distributed to multiple flows and transmitted along different paths. Moreover, the data from multiple users will be mixed, bringing difficulty for attackers in obtaining and recovering the communication data, so that sniffer attack will be prevented effectively. It is concluded that DHC is able to increase the overhead of sniffer attack, as well as the difficulty of communication data recovery.

  12. Mode competition and hopping in optomechanical nano-oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Tong; Tian, Feng; Du, Han; Zou, Yongchao; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the inter-mode nonlinear interaction in the multi-mode optomechanical nano-oscillator which consists of coupled silicon nanocantilevers, where the integrated photonic crystal nanocavities provide the coupling between the optical and mechanical modes. Due to the self-saturation and cross-saturation of the mechanical gain, the inter-mode competition is observed, which leads to the bistable operation of the optomechanical nano-oscillator: only one of the mechanical modes can oscillate at any one time, and the oscillation of one mode extremely suppresses that of the other with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) up to 40 dB. In the meantime, mode hopping, i.e., the optomechanical oscillation switches from one mode to the other, is also observed and found to be able to be provoked by excitation laser fluctuations.

  13. Longitudinal hopping in intervehicle communication: Theory and simulations on modeled and empirical trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Christian; Treiber, Martin; Kesting, Arne

    2008-09-01

    Intervehicle communication enables vehicles to exchange messages within a limited broadcast range and thus self-organize into dynamical and geographically embedded wireless ad hoc networks. We study the longitudinal hopping mode in which messages are transported using equipped vehicles driving in the same direction as a relay. Given a finite communication range, we investigate the conditions where messages can percolate through the network, i.e., a linked chain of relay vehicles exists between the sender and receiver. We simulate message propagation in different traffic scenarios and for different fractions of equipped vehicles. Simulations are done with both, modeled and empirical traffic data. These results are used to test the limits of applicability of an analytical model assuming a Poissonian distance distribution between the relays. We found a good agreement for homogeneous traffic scenarios and sufficiently low percentages of equipped vehicles. For higher percentages, the observed connectivity was higher than that of the model while in stop-and-go traffic situations it was lower. We explain these results in terms of correlations of the distances between the relay vehicles. Finally, we introduce variable transmission ranges and found that this additional stochastic component generally increased connectivity compared to a deterministic transmission with the same mean.

  14. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. "Pictures Are Crowd Pullers …" Art, culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria ... Not ripe mangoes. Not witchcraft. The images and words, which speak directly to local beliefs in villages ...

  15. Interframe transform coding of picture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N.; Natarajan, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    This semi-tutorial paper describes the process of using orthogonal transforms for the purposes of encoding TV picture data. Results pertaining to a 6:1 data compression experiment using the Walsh-Hadamard transform are included.

  16. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.

  17. The common operational picture as collective sensemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, J.J.; Boersma, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The common operational picture is used to overcome coordination and information management problems during emergency response. Increasingly, this approach is incorporated in more advanced information systems. This is rooted in an 'information warehouse' perspective, which implies information can be

  18. The Heisenberg picture for single photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid, quantitative analysis of bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Daniel P; Andersen, David H; Beatson, Ron A; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2014-12-31

    Hops, Humulus lupulus, are grown worldwide for use in the brewing industry to impart characteristic flavor and aroma to finished beer. Breeders produce many varietal crosses with the aim of improving and diversifying commercial hops varieties. The large number of crosses critical to a successful breeding program imposes high demands on the supporting chemical analytical laboratories. With the aim of reducing the analysis time associated with hops breeding, quantitative partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) models have been produced, relating reference data acquired by the industrial standard HPLC and UV methods, to vibrational spectra of the same, chemically diverse hops sample set. These models, produced from rapidly acquired infrared (IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectra, were appraised using standard statistical metrics. Results demonstrated that all three spectroscopic methods could be used for screening hops for α-acid, total bitter acids, and cohumulone concentrations in powdered hops. Models generated from Raman and IR spectra also showed potential for use in screening hops varieties for xanthohumol concentrations. NIR analysis was performed using both a standard benchtop spectrometer and a portable NIR spectrometer, with comparable results obtained by both instruments. Finally, some important vibrational features of cohumulone, colupulone, and xanthohumol were assigned using DFT calculations, which allow more insightful interpretation of PLS-R latent variable plots.

  20. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast–slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to ‘hop' over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets. PMID:26559684

  1. Photometric evidence of electron precipitation induced by first hop whistlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, J.H.; Carpenter, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Electron precipitation events induced by discrete VLF whistler mode waves have previously been detected by photometers at Siple Station, Antarctica. This paper presents the first observations of ionospheric optical emissions correlated with VLF waves at the conjugate location, near Roberval, Quebec. Since most whistlers recorded at Siple or Roberval originate in the north, Roberval affords a clear perspective on the direct precipitation induced during the first pass of the wave as it propagates southward. For such a wave the direct precipitation and that induced in the ''mirrored mode'' by the returning two-hop wave should differ in arrival time by roughly twice the wave propagation time between hemispheres, while at Siple the effects of the direct and mirrored modes may overlap in time. A well defined series of observations of structured lambda4278 optical emissions was observed on August 30, 1979 in the aftermath of an intense magnetic storm. The optical emissions were found to lead the arrival time of the two-hop waves by about 0.7 s instead of lagging the local waves by about 1--2 s as had been previously observed for whistler driven events at Siple. The observed arrival time relationships are consistent with the predictions of a cyclotron resonance interaction model, and thus support previous observations of x-rays at Roberval. The importance of the first pass of the wave is further emphasized by an approximate proportionality between the amplitude of the VLF waves recorded at Siple and the intensity of the optical emission bursts at Roberval. Although structured optical emissions correlated with wave bursts can clearly be detected at Roberval, relatively large magnetospheric particle fluxes may be required to produce such events

  2. Musicality in the Language of Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…

  3. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  4. Agronomic performance and beer quality assessment of twenty hop cultivars grown in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rossini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hop market and beer industry have always been of secondary relevance in Italy as compared to grape and wine sector. Hence, hop cultivars and the information for growing hops have been generated almost entirely from the major hop production countries. Identifying cultivars that perform well in Mediterranean environments is therefore essential to successfully start hop cultivation and breeding activity in this new growing region. To evaluate the intraspecific diversity of hop in Central Italy, 20 female hop genotypes with different origin were screened during three growing seasons (2013-2015 in an experimental hop yard. Cones yield, plant height and crop phenology were evaluated to determine which cultivars were best suited to the Mediterranean climate. Moreover, given the rising interest for the development of local beers with distinguishing aroma, a sensory analysis was performed and beers flavoured with locally produced and imported cones were compared. A significant diversity among cultivars was found for all parameters investigated. The results indicated that weather condition during flowering and development of cones markedly affected yield and plant height. Cones yield was negatively correlated with thermal time (r=–0.5, P<0.05 to harvest and positively with plant height (r=0.56, P<0.05. Cascade, Hallertauer Magnum, Hersbrucker Spat and Yeoman showed the best adaptability to the Mediterranean growing conditions as they were the top-performing cultivars across the three years. Sensory analysis evidenced the importance of cultivar selection as determining factor for flavouring properties of beers. In general, results showed that the origin of cones strongly affected the mouth feel of beers. More complex and appreciated aroma profiles were identified for beers flavoured with local cones than those hopped with commercial products.

  5. Examining lateralized semantic access using pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-03-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented to the right hemisphere responses are generally more accurate than the left hemisphere for semantic relatedness judgments for picture pairs. Furthermore, consistent with earlier DVF studies employing words, we conclude that the RH is better at accessing or maintaining access to information that has a weak or more remote semantic relationship. We also found evidence of faster access for pictures presented to the LH in the strongly-related condition. Overall, these results are consistent with earlier DVF word studies that argue that the cerebral hemispheres each play an important and separable role during semantic retrieval. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  7. Optimal Design of Dual-Hop VLC/RF Communication System With Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-07-28

    In this letter, we consider a dual-hop heterogeneous visible light communication (VLC)/radio frequency (RF) communication system to extend the coverage of VLC systems. Besides detecting the information over VLC link, the relay is able to harvest energy from the first-hop VLC link, by extracting the direct current component of the received optical signal, and uses the harvested energy to retransmit the data to a mobile terminal over the second-hop RF link. We investigate the optimal design of the hybrid system in terms of data rate maximization.

  8. Semantic interference from distractor pictures in single-picture naming: evidence for competitive lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jescheniak, Jörg D; Matushanskaya, Asya; Mädebach, Andreas; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-10-01

    Picture-naming studies have demonstrated interference from semantic-categorically related distractor words, but not from corresponding distractor pictures, and the lack of generality of the interference effect has been argued to challenge theories viewing lexical selection in speech production as a competitive process. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference from context pictures does become visible, if sufficient attention is allocated to them. We combined picture naming with a spatial-cuing procedure. When participants' attention was shifted to the distractor, semantically related distractor pictures interfered with the response, as compared with unrelated distractor pictures. This finding supports models conceiving lexical retrieval as competitive (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) but is difficult to reconcile with the response exclusion hypothesis (Finkbeiner & Caramazza, 2006b) proposed as an alternative.

  9. Proton structure functions in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navelet, H.; Wallon, S.

    1996-06-01

    The F 2 , F G , R=F L /F T proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, we relate deep-inelastic proton scattering to deep-inelastic onium scattering. We get a three-parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range. The ratios F G /F 2 and R are predicted without further adjustment. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. The predictions for F 2 and F G are compatible with next-to-leading DGLAP analysis, while R is expected to be significantly lower at very small x. (orig.)

  10. Picture Memory Improves with Longer On Time and Off Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy

    1975-01-01

    Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)

  11. Pictures with narration versus pictures with on-screen text during teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Ioannou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students’ comprehension in Mathematics: pictures with concurrent narration versus pictures with on-screen text, during teaching triangles, a lesson in Mathematics. Forty primary school children (boys and girls selected to participate in this study. Students splitted into two experimental groups with the technique of simple random sampling. The first group consisted of students who viewed and listened (pictures with narration group, while the second group consisted of students who viewed (pictures with on-screen text a presentation of triangles. A recall test was used to evaluate students’ comprehension. The results showed that students’ comprehension was better when triangles' presentation (pictures was accompanied with spoken words, than with printed words. The pictures with narration group performed better than the pictures with on-screen text group, in recall test (M = 4.97, SD = 1.32 p<0.01. Results are consistent with the modality principle in which learners are more likely to build connections between corresponding words and pictures when words are presented in a spoken form (narration simultaneously with pictures.

  12. Consideration of vision and picture quality: psychological effects induced by picture sharpness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hideo

    1989-08-01

    A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Hop (PfHop Interacts with the Hsp70 Chaperone in a Nucleotide-Dependent Fashion and Exhibits Ligand Selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Zininga

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps play an important role in the development and pathogenicity of malaria parasites. One of the most prominent functions of Hsps is to facilitate the folding of other proteins. Hsps are thought to play a crucial role when malaria parasites invade their host cells and during their subsequent development in hepatocytes and red blood cells. It is thought that Hsps maintain proteostasis under the unfavourable conditions that malaria parasites encounter in the host environment. Although heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 is capable of independent folding of some proteins, its functional cooperation with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 facilitates folding of some proteins such as kinases and steroid hormone receptors into their fully functional forms. The cooperation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 occurs through an adaptor protein called Hsp70-Hsp90 organising protein (Hop. We previously characterised the Hop protein from Plasmodium falciparum (PfHop. We observed that the protein co-localised with the cytosol-localised chaperones, PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp90 at the blood stages of the malaria parasite. In the current study, we demonstrated that PfHop is a stress-inducible protein. We further explored the direct interaction between PfHop and PfHsp70-1 using far Western and surface plasmon resonance (SPR analyses. The interaction of the two proteins was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation studies. We observed that PfHop and PfHsp70-1 associate in the absence and presence of either ATP or ADP. However, ADP appears to promote the association of the two proteins better than ATP. In addition, we investigated the specific interaction between PfHop TPR subdomains and PfHsp70-1/ PfHsp90, using a split-GFP approach. This method allowed us to observe that TPR1 and TPR2B subdomains of PfHop bind preferentially to the C-terminus of PfHsp70-1 compared to PfHsp90. Conversely, the TPR2A motif preferentially interacted with the C-terminus of PfHsp90. Finally, we

  14. On a Hopping-Points SVD and Hough Transform-Based Line Detection Algorithm for Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Line detection is an important problem in computer vision, graphics and autonomous robot navigation. Lines detected using a laser range sensor (LRS mounted on a robot can be used as features to build a map of the environment, and later to localize the robot in the map, in a process known as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. We propose an efficient algorithm for line detection from LRS data using a novel hopping-points Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Hough transform-based algorithm, in which SVD is applied to intermittent LRS points to accelerate the algorithm. A reverse-hop mechanism ensures that the end points of the line segments are accurately extracted. Line segments extracted from the proposed algorithm are used to form a map and, subsequently, LRS data points are matched with the line segments to localize the robot. The proposed algorithm eliminates the drawbacks of point-based matching algorithms like the Iterative Closest Points (ICP algorithm, the performance of which degrades with an increasing number of points. We tested the proposed algorithm for mapping and localization in both simulated and real environments, and found it to detect lines accurately and build maps with good self-localization.

  15. Research on Improved DV-HOP Algorithm against Wormhole Attacks in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xue-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The secure location of node is significant in the WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks of the troop frontier defence system. The wormhole attack is a big threat in the secure location. The credibility of the beacon node was used to determine the malicious nodes produced by wormhole attack in the WSN. The estimated method of multibeacon nodes was adopted to improve DV-HOP algorithm after excluding the malicious nodes. In this paper, we compared the basic DV-HOP algorithm and the improved DV-HOP algorithm in the coverage percentage and the error of network localization by simulating. The simulation results indicate that the improved DV-HOP algorithm makes the localization coverage percentage can reach 90% on a certain scale of the network, and it makes the error percentage lower when the number of beacons is different.

  16. Multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks an overview, taxonomy, and research challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, Shalli

    2016-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of recent developments in multi-hop routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It introduces the various classifications of routing protocols and lists the pros and cons of each category, going beyond the conceptual overview of routing classifications offered in other books. Recently many researchers have proposed numerous multi-hop routing protocols and thereby created a need for a book that provides its readers with an up-to-date road map of this research paradigm.   The authors present some of the most relevant results achieved by applying an algorithmic approach to the research on multi-hop routing protocols. The book covers measurements, experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of multi-hop communication prototypes. Furthermore, it describes future research challenges and as such serves as a useful guide for students and researchers alike.

  17. The SAHR Setup-Controlling Hopping Speed and Height Using a Single Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cherouvim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and experimentally validate a control method for regulating both the forward speed and the apex height of a one-legged hopping robot, using only a single actuator. The control method is based on a dynamic model of the hopping robot and makes use of the dynamic coupling of the vertical and forward motions of the robot. The control is applied first to a simulated model of the robot and shown to track a desired forward robot speed and a desired apex height. Then the SAHR (single actuator hopping robot hardware is introduced and is used as an experimental platform with which to evaluate the performance of the control method. The control method is applied to the physical setup and is shown to lead to a stable hopping gait with a desired forward speed and apex height, despite the unmodelled disturbances met on the laboratory floor.

  18. Optimal Design of Dual-Hop VLC/RF Communication System With Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Yang, Hong Chuan; Gebali, Fayez; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we consider a dual-hop heterogeneous visible light communication (VLC)/radio frequency (RF) communication system to extend the coverage of VLC systems. Besides detecting the information over VLC link, the relay is able to harvest

  19. The iterative hopping expansion algorithm for Monte Carlo calculations with very light fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvay, I.

    1985-03-01

    The number of numerical operations necessary for a Monte Carlo simulation with very light fermions (like u- and d-quarks in quantum chromodynamics) is estimated within the iterative hopping expansion method. (orig.)

  20. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop amplify-and-forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates different receive single-branch switch-based diversity schemes for dual-hop amplify-and-forward relaying networks. Specifically, three receive processing algorithms are adopted, in which the receive branch is selected using

  1. Antiproliferative effects of prenylflavonoids from hops on human colon cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudcová, T.; Bryndová, Jana; Fialová, K.; Fiala, J.; Karabín, M.; Jelínek, L.; Dostalek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2014), s. 225-230 ISSN 0046-9750 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hop * prenylflavonoids * xanthohumol * isoxanthohumol * antiproliferative * colon cancer Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2014

  2. Multi-hop Relaying: An End-to-End Delay Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    The impact of multi-hopping schemes on the communication latency in a relay channel is studied. The main aim is to characterize conditions under which such schemes decrease the communication latency given a reliability requirement. Both decode

  3. Energy-efficient power allocation of two-hop cooperative systems with imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama; Bedeer, Ebrahim; Ahmed, Mohamed H.; Dobre, Octavia A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    an accurate EE metric for cooperative two-hop systems that use the amplify-and-forward relaying scheme. Different from the existing research that assumes the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI) at the communication cooperative nodes, we

  4. A Stochastic Geometry Model for Multi-hop Highway Vehicular Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    dissemination. This paper exploits stochastic geometry to develop a tractable and accurate modeling framework to characterize the multi-hop transmissions for vehicular networks in a multi-lane highway setup. In particular, we study the tradeoffs between per

  5. Dual-Hop FSO Transmission Systems over Gamma-Gamma Turbulence with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna; Soury, Hamza; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the end-to-end performance of dual-hop free-space optical (FSO) fixed gain relaying systems under heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection techniques in the presence of atmospheric turbulence

  6. You know what it is: learning words through listening to hip-hop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.

  7. Hip external rotation strength predicts hop performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Paul W; Burnham, Jeremy; Yonz, Michael; Johnson, Darren; Ireland, Mary Lloyd; Noehren, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Quadriceps strength and single-leg hop performance are commonly evaluated prior to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, few studies have documented potential hip strength deficits after ACLR, or ascertained the relative contribution of quadriceps and hip strength to hop performance. Patients cleared for return to sports drills after ACLR were compared to a control group. Participants' peak isometric knee extension, hip abduction, hip extension, and hip external rotation (HER) strength were measured. Participants also performed single-leg hops, timed hops, triple hops, and crossover hops. Between-limb comparisons for the ACLR to control limb and the non-operative limb were made using independent two-sample and paired sample t tests. Pearson's correlations and stepwise multiple linear regression were used to determine the relationships and predictive ability of limb strength, graft type, sex, and limb dominance to hop performance. Sixty-five subjects, 20 ACLR [11F, age 22.8 (15-45) years, 8.3 ± 2 months post-op, mass 70.47 ± 12.95 kg, height 1.71 ± 0.08 m, Tegner 5.5 (3-9)] and 45 controls [22F, age 25.8 (15-45) years, mass 74.0 ± 15.2 kg, height 1.74 ± 0.1 m, Tegner 6 (3-7)], were tested. Knee extension (4.4 ± 1.5 vs 5.4 ± 1.8 N/kg, p = 0.02), HER (1.4 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.5 N/kg, p = 0.04), single-leg hop (146 ± 37 vs 182 ± 38% limb length, p hop (417 ± 106 vs 519 ± 102% limb length, p hop (3.3 ± 2.0 vs 2.3 ± 0.6 s, p hop (364 ± 107 vs 446 ± 123% limb length, p = 0.01) were significantly impaired in the operative versus control subject limbs. Similar deficits existed between the operative and non-operative limbs. Knee extension and HER strength were significantly correlated with each of the hop tests, but only HER significantly predicted hop performance. After ACLR, patients have persistent HER strength, knee extension strength, and hop test deficits in the

  8. Interplay of radiative and nonradiative transitions in surface hopping with radiation-molecule interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, Juan José [Departamento de Química-Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Granucci, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.granucci@unipi.it; Persico, Maurizio [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-01-28

    We implemented a method for the treatment of field induced transitions in trajectory surface hopping simulations, in the framework of the local diabatization scheme, especially suited for on-the-fly dynamics. The method is applied to a simple one-dimensional model with an avoided crossing and compared with quantum wavepacket dynamics. The results show the importance of introducing a proper decoherence correction to surface hopping, in order to obtain meaningful results. Also the energy conservation policy of standard surface hopping must be revised: in fact, the quantum wavepacket energetics is well reproduced if energy absorption/emission is allowed for in the hops determined by radiation-molecule coupling. To our knowledge, this is the first time the issues of decoherence and energy conservation have been analyzed in depth to devise a mixed quantum-classical method for dynamics with molecule-field interactions.

  9. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  10. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.

  11. Distributed Detection with Collisions in a Random, Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-26

    public release; distribution is unlimited. Distributed detection with collisions in a random, single-hop wireless sensor network The views, opinions...1274 2 ABSTRACT Distributed detection with collisions in a random, single-hop wireless sensor network Report Title We consider the problem of... WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK Gene T. Whipps?† Emre Ertin† Randolph L. Moses† ?U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 †The Ohio State University

  12. Anomalous temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for the substitutionally-disordered hopping conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaelle, R.P.; Parris, P.E.; Anderson, H.U.; Sparlin, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Thermoelectric power measurements are presented for the (La,Sr)(Cr,Mn)O 3 series. The nonlinear temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is analyzed in terms of a random distribution of energetically equivalent hopping sites. The limitations of Heikes' formula, which has been traditionally used to calculate small polaron carrier densities in these systems, are discussed. Recent theoretical developments in the interpretation of Seebeck measurements in substitutionally-disordered high-temperature hopping conductors are reviewed

  13. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M

    2009-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  14. Development of aromatic hop compounds and bitterness in beer during room temperature- and cold storage based on three different hopping methods

    OpenAIRE

    Torgals, Ann Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether storage temperature or hopping method had influence on the aroma and bitterness in beer. The focus was set on the aroma that comes from hops, and not from yeast. The secondary objective to this study was to explore the development of the alcohol, CO2 and bitterness in the beer after priming and bottling. The thesis’ main perspective is that of home brewers, and to some extent that of microbreweries. Beer was brewed with 100 % pilsn...

  15. Routing protocol for wireless quantum multi-hop mesh backbone network based on partially entangled GHZ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Hua, Jing-Yu

    2017-08-01

    Quantum multi-hop teleportation is important in the field of quantum communication. In this study, we propose a quantum multi-hop communication model and a quantum routing protocol with multihop teleportation for wireless mesh backbone networks. Based on an analysis of quantum multi-hop protocols, a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is selected as the quantum channel for the proposed protocol. Both quantum and classical wireless channels exist between two neighboring nodes along the route. With the proposed routing protocol, quantum information can be transmitted hop by hop from the source node to the destination node. Based on multi-hop teleportation based on the partially entangled GHZ state, a quantum route established with the minimum number of hops. The difference between our routing protocol and the classical one is that in the former, the processes used to find a quantum route and establish quantum channel entanglement occur simultaneously. The Bell state measurement results of each hop are piggybacked to quantum route finding information. This method reduces the total number of packets and the magnitude of air interface delay. The deduction of the establishment of a quantum channel between source and destination is also presented here. The final success probability of quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks was simulated and analyzed. Our research shows that quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks through a partially entangled GHZ state is feasible.

  16. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Picture This: Young Quechua Children's Reactions to Imported Picture Books in Ayacucho, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Jennifer Rowse

    2017-01-01

    Practitioners in ECE consider picture books an effective instructional tool in early childhood programming in the developed regions of the world. However, many young children from marginalized populations in the developing world have little to no access to them and thus, the effect that picture books could have upon their emergent literacy…

  18. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed.

  19. The acute effects of heavy back squats on mechanical variables during a series of bilateral hops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Gavin L; Dale, Jonathan R; Dietrich, Wendy W

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of performing a heavy resistance exercise (HRE) protocol on the mechanical variables during a series of bilateral hops. In a block-randomized design, 10 strength trained men performed an HRE or a control treatment before performing 5 series of bilateral hops separated by 2 minutes of passive recovery. Each series of bilateral hops was performed for 15 seconds on a force platform with the subject hopping at a frequency of 2.0 Hz. From the vertical force trace, the vertical force during the countermovement phase of each hop, the negative displacement during the countermovement phase, and the vertical stiffness were calculated. The HRE treatment consisted of performing parallel back squats with 40, 50, 60, and 80% of each subject's 1-repetition maximum after a series of dynamic stretches. The control treatment consisted of the dynamic stretches only. No significant differences in any of the mechanical variables were reported after the 2 treatments (p > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between the absolute maximal strength values and the percent change in any of the mechanical variables after the 2 treatments. Despite the lack of significant changes reported for the group, there were some notable individual responses. It is possible that increases in vertical stiffness during bilateral hops can be achieved after an HRE protocol in certain individuals. However, practitioners should be aware of the specificity issues and the individual nature of the responses to such protocols.

  20. Linking the mechanics and energetics of hopping with elastic ankle exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Dominic James; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2012-12-15

    The springlike mechanics of the human leg during bouncing gaits has inspired the design of passive assistive devices that use springs to aid locomotion. The purpose of this study was to test whether a passive spring-loaded ankle exoskeleton could reduce the mechanical and energetic demands of bilateral hopping on the musculoskeletal system. Joint level kinematics and kinetics were collected with electromyographic and metabolic energy consumption data for seven participants hopping at four frequencies (2.2, 2.5, 2.8, and 3.2 Hz). Hopping was performed without an exoskeleton; with an springless exoskeleton; and with a spring-loaded exoskeleton. Spring-loaded ankle exoskeletons reduced plantar flexor muscle activity and the biological contribution to ankle joint moment (15-25%) and average positive power (20-40%). They also facilitated reductions in metabolic power (15-20%) across frequencies from 2.2 to 2.8 Hz compared with hopping with a springless exoskeleton. Reductions in metabolic power compared with hopping with no exoskeleton were restricted to hopping at 2.5 Hz only (12%). These results highlighted the importance of reducing the rate of muscular force production and work to achieve metabolic reductions. They also highlighted the importance of assisting muscles acting at the knee joint. Exoskeleton designs may need to be tuned to optimize exoskeleton mass, spring stiffness, and spring slack length to achieve greater metabolic reductions.

  1. The small GTPase Arl8b regulates assembly of the mammalian HOPS complex on lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatter, Divya; Raina, Vivek B.; Dwivedi, Devashish; Sindhwani, Aastha; Bahl, Surbhi; Sharma, Mahak

    2015-01-01

    The homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) complex is a multi-subunit complex conserved from yeast to mammals that regulates late endosome and lysosome fusion. However, little is known about how the HOPS complex is recruited to lysosomes in mammalian cells. Here, we report that the small GTPase Arl8b, but not Rab7 (also known as RAB7A), is essential for membrane localization of the human (h)Vps41 subunit of the HOPS complex. Assembly of the core HOPS subunits to Arl8b- and hVps41-positive lysosomes is guided by their subunit–subunit interactions. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hVps41 resulted in the impaired degradation of EGFR that was rescued upon expression of wild-type but not an Arl8b-binding-defective mutant of hVps41, suggesting that Arl8b-dependent lysosomal localization of hVps41 is required for its endocytic function. Furthermore, we have also identified that the Arl8b effector SKIP (also known as PLEKHM2) interacts with and recruits HOPS subunits to Arl8b and kinesin-positive peripheral lysosomes. Accordingly, RNAi-mediated depletion of SKIP impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation of EGFR. These findings reveal that Arl8b regulates the association of the human HOPS complex with lysosomal membranes, which is crucial for the function of this tethering complex in endocytic degradation. PMID:25908847

  2. The small GTPase Arl8b regulates assembly of the mammalian HOPS complex on lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatter, Divya; Raina, Vivek B; Dwivedi, Devashish; Sindhwani, Aastha; Bahl, Surbhi; Sharma, Mahak

    2015-05-01

    The homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) complex is a multi-subunit complex conserved from yeast to mammals that regulates late endosome and lysosome fusion. However, little is known about how the HOPS complex is recruited to lysosomes in mammalian cells. Here, we report that the small GTPase Arl8b, but not Rab7 (also known as RAB7A), is essential for membrane localization of the human (h)Vps41 subunit of the HOPS complex. Assembly of the core HOPS subunits to Arl8b- and hVps41-positive lysosomes is guided by their subunit-subunit interactions. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hVps41 resulted in the impaired degradation of EGFR that was rescued upon expression of wild-type but not an Arl8b-binding-defective mutant of hVps41, suggesting that Arl8b-dependent lysosomal localization of hVps41 is required for its endocytic function. Furthermore, we have also identified that the Arl8b effector SKIP (also known as PLEKHM2) interacts with and recruits HOPS subunits to Arl8b and kinesin-positive peripheral lysosomes. Accordingly, RNAi-mediated depletion of SKIP impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation of EGFR. These findings reveal that Arl8b regulates the association of the human HOPS complex with lysosomal membranes, which is crucial for the function of this tethering complex in endocytic degradation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Condom use and hip hop culture: the case of urban young men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Castellanos, Daniel H; Haliburton, Chanel S; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J; Parker, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    We explored how young men's perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture--urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music--and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Differences in young men's perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Popular discourses on young men's health risks often blame youths' cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men's lives and what aspects of youths' culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk.

  4. No evidence hip joint angle modulates intrinsically produced stretch reflex in human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, W; Campbell, A; Allison, G

    2013-09-01

    Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip joint angle/phase of the gait cycle. Previous work has focussed on reflex activity induced by an artificial perturbation or by induction of H-reflexes. As such, it is currently unknown if stretch reflex activity induced intrinsically (as part of the task) is modulated by changes in hip joint angle. This study investigated whether hip joint angle modulated reflex EMG 'burst' activity during a hopping task performed on a custom-built partially reclined sleigh. Ten subjects participated; EMG and kinematic data (VICON motor capture system) was collected for each hop cycle. Participants completed 5 sets of 30s of self-paced hopping in (1) hip neutral and (2) hip 60° flexion conditions. There was no difference in EMG 'burst' activity or in sagittal plane kinematics (knee/ankle) in the hopping task between the two conditions. The results indicate that during a functional task such as hopping, changes in hip angle do not alter the stretch reflex-like activity associated with landing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; O' Brien, John; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  6. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, Greg; O'Brien, John; Chou, Tom

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions

  7. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Minor Hops Prenylflavonoids and New Insights on Prenyl Group Cyclization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Popłoński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of minor prenylflavonoids found in hops and their non-natural derivatives were performed. The antiproliferative activity of the obtained compounds against some human cancer cell lines was investigated. Using xanthohumol isolated from spent hops as a lead compound, a series of minor hop prenylflavonoids and synthetic derivatives were obtained by isomerization, cyclisation, oxidative-cyclisation, oxidation, reduction and demethylation reactions. Three human cancer cell lines—breast (MCF-7, prostate (PC-3 and colon (HT-29—were used in antiproliferative assays, with cisplatin as a control compound. Five minor hop prenyl flavonoids and nine non-natural derivatives of xanthohumol have been synthetized. Syntheses of xanthohumol K, its dihydro- and tetrahydro-derivatives and 1″,2″,α,β-tetrahydroxanthohumol C were described for the first time. All of the minor hops prenyl flavonoids exhibited strong to moderate antiproliferative activity in vitro. The minor hops flavonoids xanthohumol C and 1″,2″-dihydroxanthohumol K and non-natural 2,3-dehydroisoxanthohumol exhibited the activity comparable to cisplatin. Results described in the article suggest that flavonoids containing chromane- and chromene-like moieties, especially chalcones, are potent antiproliferative agents. The developed new efficient, regioselective cyclisation reaction of the xanthohumol prenyl group to 1″,2″-dihydroxantohumol K may be used in the synthesis of other compounds with the chromane moiety.

  8. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog. Volume 2: Sequence design and picture coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.

  9. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  10. Trace of nuclear energy with pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This book traces the history of development over nuclear energy with pictures, which contains preface, development history of the world, development history of Korea, nuclear power plant in Kori, nuclear power plant in Wolseong, nuclear power plant in Yeonggwang, nuclear power plant in Uljin, nuclear fuel, using of radiation and radioactive isotope, development of nuclear energy in the world and a Chronological table of nuclear energy. This book is written to record the development history of Korea through pictures of the nuclear power plants in Korea.

  11. Automated Selection Of Pictures In Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.

  12. [The changing picture of practicing dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-03-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of praccising does not develop as a matter-of-course since many factors have an effect on dental practice. Effecting factors are: content concerning developments, technological advancements, legislation, government policies, organizational aspects, and typical characteristics of dental practitioners. The changing picture of practising dentistry is connected with uncertainty, proves to be hard to control, and some adjustments occur around practising.

  13. SDN-based path hopping communication against eavesdropping attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanhao; Bu, Youjun; Zhao, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Network eavesdropping is one of the most popular means used by cyber attackers, which has been a severe threat to network communication security. Adversaries could capture and analyze network communication data from network nodes or links, monitor network status and steal sensitive data such as username and password etc. Traditional network usually uses static network configuration, and existing defense methods, including firewall, IDS, IPS etc., cannot prevent eavesdropping, which has no distinguishing characteristic. Network eavesdropping become silent during most of the time of the attacking process, which is why it is difficult to discover and to defend. But A successful eavesdropping attack also has its' precondition, which is the target path should be relatively stable and has enough time of duration. So, In order to resolve this problem, it has to work on the network architecture. In this paper, a path hopping communication(PHC) mechanism based on Software Define Network (SDN) was proposed to solve this problem. In PHC, Ends in communication packets as well as the routing paths were changed dynamically. Therefore, the traffic would be distributed to multiple flows and transmitted along different paths. so that Network eavesdropping attack could be prevented effectively. It was concluded that PHC was able to increase the overhead of Network eavesdropping, as well as the difficulty of communication data recovery.

  14. Characteristics of alternating current hopping conductivity in DNA sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Shan, Ma; Hui, Xu; Huan-You, Wang; Rui, Guo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model to describe alternating current (AC) conductivity of DNA sequences, in which DNA is considered as a one-dimensional (1D) disordered system, and electrons transport via hopping between localized states. It finds that AC conductivity in DNA sequences increases as the frequency of the external electric field rises, and it takes the form of ø ac (ω) ∼ ω 2 ln 2 (1/ω). Also AC conductivity of DNA sequences increases with the increase of temperature, this phenomenon presents characteristics of weak temperature-dependence. Meanwhile, the AC conductivity in an off-diagonally correlated case is much larger than that in the uncorrelated case of the Anderson limit in low temperatures, which indicates that the off-diagonal correlations in DNA sequences have a great effect on the AC conductivity, while at high temperature the off-diagonal correlations no longer play a vital role in electric transport. In addition, the proportion of nucleotide pairs p also plays an important role in AC electron transport of DNA sequences. For p < 0.5, the conductivity of DNA sequence decreases with the increase of p, while for p ≥ 0.5, the conductivity increases with the increase of p. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Power and delay optimisation in multi-hop wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2014-02-05

    In this paper, we study the optimisation problem of transmission power and delay in a multi-hop wireless network consisting of multiple nodes. The goal is to determine the optimal policy of transmission rates at various buffer and channel states in order to minimise the power consumption and the queueing delay of the whole network. With the assumptions of interference-free links and independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel states, we formulate this problem using a semi-open Jackson network model for data transmission and a Markov model for channel states transition. We derive a difference equation of the system performance under any two different policies. The necessary and sufficient condition of optimal policy is obtained. We also prove that the system performance is monotonic with respect to (w.r.t.) the transmission rate and the optimal transmission rate can be either maximal or minimal. That is, the ‘bang-bang’ control is an optimal control. This optimality structure greatly reduces the problem complexity. Furthermore, we develop an iterative algorithm to find the optimal solution. Finally, we conduct the simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. We hope our work can shed some insights on solving this complicated optimisation problem.

  16. Two-Hop Secure Communication Using an Untrusted Relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a source-destination pair that can only communicate through an untrusted intermediate relay node. The intermediate node is willing to employ a designated relaying scheme to facilitate reliable communication between the source and the destination. Yet, the information it relays needs to be kept secret from it. In this two-hop communication scenario, where the use of the untrusted relay node is essential, we find that a positive secrecy rate is achievable. The center piece of the achievability scheme is the help provided by either the destination node with transmission capability, or an external “good samaritan” node. In either case, the helper performs cooperative jamming that confuses the eavesdropping relay and disables it from being able to decipher what it is relaying. We next derive an upper bound on the secrecy rate for this system. We observe that the gap between the upper bound and the achievable rate vanishes as the power of the relay node goes to infinity. Overall, the paper presents a case for intentional interference, that is, cooperative jamming, as an enabler for secure communication.

  17. Characteristics of alternating current hopping conductivity in DNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Song-Shan; Xu Hui; Wang Huan-You; Guo Rui

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model to describe alternating current (AC) conductivity of DNA sequences,in which DNA is considered as a one-dimensional (1D) disordered system,and electrons transport via hopping between localized states.It finds that AC conductivity in DNA sequences increases as the frequency of the external electric field rises,and it takes the form of σac(ω)~ω2 ln2(1/ω).Also AC conductivity of DNA sequences increases with the increase of temperature,this phenomenon presents characteristics of weak temperature-dependence.Meanwhile,the AC conductivity in an off diagonally correlated case is much larger than that in the uncorrelated case of the Anderson limit in low temperatures,which indicates that the off-diagonal correlations in DNA sequences have a great effect on the AC conductivity,while at high temperature the off-diagonal correlations no longer play a vital role in electric transport. In addition,the proportion of nucleotide pairs p also plays an important role in AC electron transport of DNA sequences.For p<0.5,the conductivity of DNA sequence decreases with the increase of p,while for p > 0.5,the conductivity increases with the increase of p.

  18. Therapeutic Perspectives of 8-Prenylnaringenin, a Potent Phytoestrogen from Hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štulíková

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hop (Humulus lupulus L., as a key ingredient for beer brewing, is also a source of many biologically active molecules. A notable compound, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN, structurally belonging to the group of prenylated flavonoids, was shown to be a potent phytoestrogen, and thus, became the topic of active research. Here, we overview the pharmacological properties of 8-PN and its therapeutic opportunities. Due to its estrogenic effects, administration of 8-PN represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms that occur as a consequence of a progressive decline in hormone levels in women. Application of 8-PN in the treatment of menopause has been clinically examined with promising results. Other activities that have already been assessed include the potential to prevent bone-resorption or inhibition of tumor growth. On the other hand, the use of phytoestrogens is frequently questioned regarding possible adverse effects associated with long-term consumption. In conclusion, we emphasize the implications of using 8-PN in future treatments of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms, including the need for precise evidence and further investigations to define the safety risks related to its therapeutic use.

  19. El griot no ha muerto, viva el hip-hop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fco. Javier González García-Mamely

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La oratura en África ha jugado un papel vital a lo largo de los milenios como un (único medio de preservar y transmitir la historia, la cultura y el imaginario de cada comunidad. El griot es un claro modelo de las artes orales, pero ha sufrido cambios drásticos en su modo de vida y en los recursos narrativos de los que dispone. Tras el mecenazgo de los grandes reyes y las sucesivas llegadas del islam, el colonialismo y los procesos de modernización y occidentalización, los griots se han tenido que adaptar a nuevos patrones, audiencias y medios de comunicación, convirtiéndose en políticos o en figuras del espectáculo. La aparición del rap y el hip-hop reclamando ser los “modernos griots” ha ocasionado una respuesta crítica y una atracción viral hacia el nuevo fenómeno, sea éste un nuevo género o una reinvención de la oratura del antiguo griot.

  20. Family-based hip-hop to health: outcome results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Kong, Angela; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Odoms-Young, Angela; Van Horn, Linda; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Dyer, Alan R

    2013-02-01

    This pilot study tested the feasibility of Family-Based Hip-Hop to Health, a school-based obesity prevention intervention for 3-5-year-old Latino children and their parents, and estimated its effectiveness in producing smaller average changes in BMI at 1-year follow-up. Four Head Start preschools administered through the Chicago Public Schools were randomly assigned to receive a Family-Based Intervention (FBI) or a General Health Intervention (GHI). Parents signed consent forms for 147 of the 157 children enrolled. Both the school-based and family-based components of the intervention were feasible, but attendance for the parent intervention sessions was low. Contrary to expectations, a downtrend in BMI Z-score was observed in both the intervention and control groups. While the data reflect a downward trend in obesity among these young Hispanic children, obesity rates remained higher at 1-year follow-up (15%) than those reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010) for 2-5-year-old children (12.1%). Developing evidence-based strategies for obesity prevention among Hispanic families remains a challenge. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. Hopping conduction in gamma-irradiated InSe and InSe:Sn single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUSTAFAEVA, S.N.; ISMAILOV, A.A.; ASADOV, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The semiconductive InSe layer compound is characterized by a strong covalent bond inside the layers and a weak Van der Waals bonding between them. It was shown that across the layers of InSe single crystals at low temperatures (T ≤ 200 K) at direct current (dc) hopping conduction through localized states near the Fermi level takes place. The results of dc-conductivity of gamma-irradiated p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn layer single crystals have been presented in this work. ρ-InSe single crystal specimens grown by the Bridgman method were used in the experiments. Plates of the crystals under study were obtained by cleaving along the layers of single crystal ingots. The single-crystal InSe samples for electric measurements had the form of planar capacitors normal to the C axis of the crystals, with silver-paste electrodes. The thickness of the InSe samples was 300 mkm. Co 60 serves as the source of irradiation with energy of gamma-quantum equal to 1.3 MeV. The electric properties of non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated InSe crystals were measured under the same conditions. It is revealed that InSe and InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals exhibit a variable range hopping conduction along a normal to their natural layers at temperatures T≤200 K in a dc electric field. From experimental data the parameters of localized states of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn were calculated before and after gamma-irradiation. It is revealed that gamma-irradiation of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals leads to significant change of localized states parameters. After gamma-irradiation the density of states near the Fermi level increased, but their energy spread and the average jump distance decreased. The concentrations of radiated defects were estimated in p-InSe (5.18*10 1 7 sm - 3) and n-InSe : Sn (2.5*10 1 7 - 2.7*10 1 8 sm - 3) single crystals. The present results demonstrate that gamma-irradiation offers the possibility of tuning

  2. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  3. Gaze differences in processing pictures with emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of pictures were controlled while emotional valence was manipulated as 3 categories, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Two experiments were conducted with an eye-tracker in order to determine to what the participants turn their gaze. Participants were 25 psychology students with normal vision. Every participant saw all pictures in color and same pictures in black/white version. This makes 200 analyzed units for color pictures and 200 for black and white pictures. Every picture was divided into figure and ground. Considering that perception can be influenced by color, edges, luminosity and contrast and since all those factors are collapsed on the pictures in IAPS, we compared color pictures with same black and white pictures. In first eye-tracking IAPS research we analyzed 12 emotional pictures and showed that participants have higher number of fixations for ground on neutral and unpleasant pictures and for figure on pleasant pictures. Second experiment was conducted with 4 sets of emotional complementary pictures (pleasant/unpleasant) which differ only on the content in the figure area and it was shown that participants were more focused on the figure area than on the ground area. Future ERP (event related potential) research with IAPS pictures should take into consideration these findings and to either choose pictures with blank ground or adjust pictures in the way that ground is blank. For the following experiments suggestion is to put emotional content in the figure

  4. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  5. Electrocortical processing of food and emotional pictures in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Feige, Bernd; Joos, Andreas; Zeeck, Almut; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2011-06-01

    Objective To compare the electrocortical processing of food pictures in participants with anorexia nervosa (n = 21), bulimia nervosa (n = 22), and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 32) by measuring the early posterior negativity, an event-related potential that reflects stimulus salience and selective attention. Methods We exposed these three groups to a rapid stream of high- and low-calorie food pictures, as well as standard emotional and neutral pictures. Results Event-related potentials in the time range of 220 milliseconds to 310 milliseconds on posterior electrodes differed between groups: patients with eating disorders showed facilitated processing of both high- and low-calorie food pictures relative to neutral pictures, whereas HC participants did so only for the high-calorie pictures. Subjective palatability of the pictures was rated highest by patients with anorexia nervosa, followed by the HC and bulimia nervosa groups. Conclusions Patients with eating disorders show a generalized attentional bias for food images, regardless of caloric value. This might explain the persistent preoccupation with food in these individuals.

  6. Thermal equilibrium properties of surface hopping with an implicit Langevin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) approach, where the classical degrees of freedom are coupled to an implicit Langevin bath, to establish and maintain an appropriate thermal equilibrium was evaluated in the context of a three site model for electron transfer. The electron transfer model consisted of three coupled diabatic states that each depends harmonically on the collective bath coordinate. This results in three states with increasing energy in the adiabatic representation. The adiabatic populations and distributions of the collective solvent coordinate were monitored during the course of 250 ns FSSH-Langevin (FSSH-L) simulations performed at a broad range of temperatures and for three different nonadiabatic coupling strengths. The agreement between the FSSH-L simulations and numerically exact results for the adiabatic population ratios and solvent coordinate distributions was generally favorable. The FSSH-L method produces a correct Boltzmann distribution of the solvent coordinate on each of the adiabats, but the integrated populations are slightly incorrect because FSSH does not rigorously obey detailed balance. The overall agreement is better at high temperatures and for high nonadiabatic coupling, which agrees with a previously reported analytical and simulation analysis [J. R. Schmidt, P. V. Parandekar, and J. C. Tully, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 044104 (2008)] on a two-level system coupled to a classical bath

  7. Antimicrobial activity of hop extracts against foodborne pathogens for meat applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, B; Thielmann, J; Hickisch, A; Muranyi, P; Wunderlich, J; Hauser, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was the fundamental investigation of the antimicrobial efficiency of various hop extracts against selected foodborne pathogens in vitro, as well as their activity against Listeria monocytogenes in a model meat marinade and on marinated pork tenderloins. In a first step, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of three hop extracts containing either α- or β-acids or xanthohumol were determined against test bacteria including L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli by a colorimetric method based on the measurement of bacterial metabolic activity. Moreover, the influence of either lactic or citric acid on the antimicrobial activity of the hop extracts was evaluated. The efficiency of hop extracts as a natural food preservative was then tested in a model meat marinade at 2 and 8°C, respectively, and finally on marinated pork. The experiments showed that Gram-positive bacteria were strongly inhibited by hop extracts containing β-acids and xanthohumol (MIC values of 6.3 and 12.5 ppm, respectively), whereas the antimicrobial activity of the investigated α-acid extract was significantly lower (MIC values of 200 ppm). Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant against all tested hop extracts. Acidification of the test media led to a decrease of the MIC values. The inhibitory activity of the hop extracts against L. monocytogenes was strongly reduced in a fat-containing model meat marinade, but the efficiency of β-acids in this matrix could be increased by lowering pH and storage temperatures. By applying 0.5 % β-acids at pH = 5 in a model marinade, the total aerobic count of pork tenderloins was reduced up to 0.9 log10 compared with marinated pork without hop extract after 2 weeks of storage at 5°C. β-acid containing hop extracts have proven to possess a high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria in vitro and in a practice-related application for food preservation

  8. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural Correlates of Processing Negative and Sexually Arousing Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  10. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  11. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  12. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...

  13. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-15

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  14. Occlusion classifiers for picture rate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.L.L.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion detection is an essential ingredient in high quality picture rate up-conversion and view interpolation applications. Many integrated approaches to occlusion detection and classification have been proposed, particularly in the stereo literature. However, due to their high complexity and

  15. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  16. Thermodynamic picture of the glassy state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A picture for the thermodynamics of the glassy state is introduced. It assumes that one extra parameter, the effective temperature, is needed to describe the glassy state. This explains the classical paradoxes concerning the Ehrenfest relations and the Prigogine-Defay ratio. As a second feature, the

  17. A Bridge between Pictures and Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffree, Dorothy

    1981-01-01

    The experiment investigated the feasibility of bridging the gap between the recognition of pictures and the recognition of words in four mentally handicapped adolescents by adapting a modified version of symbol accentuation (in which a printed word looks like the object it represents). (SB)

  18. Aesthetics and Children's Picture-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…

  19. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  20. Constructing Meaning in Interaction through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugossy, Réka

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners' spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers' responses to learners' comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children's talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners…

  1. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  2. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  3. The changing picture of practicing dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-01-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of

  4. My America in Poetry and Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unit that provides opportunities for students to examine the relationship between poetry and pictures as they select published poems, write their own poetry, and take photographs to accompany the poems in an anthology. Describes lesson one on intellectual property and copyright, and lesson two on appreciation. Includes a unit guide and…

  5. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  6. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  7. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  8. Abelian Higgs mechanism in the Schroedinger picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Namgung, W.; Soh, K.S.; Yee, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied symmetry-breaking phenomena in scalar electrodynamics by evaluating the effective potential at one-loop order in the Schroedinger picture. Contributions to the effective potential by the Higgs particle and the transverse and longitudinal components of a photon are compared with other previous works, and they are found to be consistent

  9. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Defense (Public Affairs) for clearance for public release. They will be accompained by five copies of the... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). [41 FR 29101, July 15, 1976, as amended at 44 FR 6390, Feb...

  10. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.

    2017-07-01

    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  11. Hip-Hop High School: A Study of the Attitudes, Beliefs and Perceptions of Suburban High School Faculty towards Representation of the Hip-Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Research historically has demonstrated that a generational disconnect between the popular cultures from which students and teachers define normative behavior can impact classroom management and student learning. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of high school faculty toward the hip-hop culture and its…

  12. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  13. Sensor-Motor Maps for Describing Linear Reflex Composition in Hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Christian; Seyfarth, André

    2017-01-01

    In human and animal motor control several sensory organs contribute to a network of sensory pathways modulating the motion depending on the task and the phase of execution to generate daily motor tasks such as locomotion. To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. In this model, we consider the influence of proprioceptive length (LFB), velocity (VFB) and force feedback (FFB) pathways of a leg extensor muscle on hopping stability, performance and efficiency (metabolic effort). Therefore, we explore the space describing the blending of the monosynaptic reflex pathway gains. We call this reflex parameter space a sensor-motor map . The sensor-motor maps are used to visualize the functional contribution of sensory pathways in multisensory integration. We further evaluate the robustness of these sensor-motor maps to changes in tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length and ground compliance. The model predicted that different reflex pathway compositions selectively optimize specific hopping characteristics (e.g., performance and efficiency). Both FFB and LFB were pathways that enable hopping. FFB resulted in the largest hopping heights, LFB enhanced hopping efficiency and VFB had the ability to disable hopping. For the tested case, the topology of the sensor-motor maps as well as the location of functionally optimal compositions were invariant to changes in system designs (tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length) or environmental parameters (ground compliance). Our results indicate that different feedback pathway compositions may serve different functional roles. The topology of the sensor-motor map was predicted to be robust against changes in the mechanical system design indicating that the reflex system can use different morphological designs, which does not apply for most robotic systems (for which the control often follows a specific

  14. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette

    2011-12-30

    In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is a Multi-Hop Relay Scheme Gainful in an IEEE 802.22-Based Cognitive Radio System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jungchae; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Ho-Shin

    In this paper, we formulate a plan to operate multi-hop relays in IEEE 802.22-based cognitive radio (CR) systems and evaluate system performance to consider the propriety of a multi-hop relay scheme in CR systems. A centralized radio resource management and a simple deployment of relay stations (RSs) are assessed to make relay operations feasible under CR conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed multi-hop relay scheme significantly increases system throughput compared to a no-relay CR system as the incumbent user (IU) traffic gets heavier. Furthermore, the optimal number of hops can be determined given the traffic conditions.

  16. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  17. Identification of critical chemical features for Aurora kinase-B inhibitors using Hip-Hop, virtual screening and molecular docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; John, Shalini; Lee, Keun Woo

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to find the selective chemical features for Aurora kinase-B inhibitors using the potent methods like Hip-Hop, virtual screening, homology modeling, molecular dynamics and docking. The best hypothesis, Hypo1 was validated toward a wide range of test set containing the selective inhibitors of Aurora kinase-B. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics studies were carried out to perform the molecular docking studies. The best hypothesis Hypo1 was used as a 3D query to screen the chemical databases. The screened molecules from the databases were sorted based on ADME and drug like properties. The selective hit compounds were docked and the hydrogen bond interactions with the critical amino acids present in Aurora kinase-B were compared with the chemical features present in the Hypo1. Finally, we suggest that the chemical features present in the Hypo1 are vital for a molecule to inhibit the Aurora kinase-B activity.

  18. Electronic phase separation in insulating (Ga, Mn) As with low compensation: super-paramagnetism and hopping conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Mao; Xu, Chi; Hübner, René; Böttger, Roman; Jakiela, Rafal; Helm, Manfred; Sawicki, Maciej; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, low compensated insulating (Ga,Mn)As with 0.7% Mn is obtained by ion implantation combined with pulsed laser melting. The sample shows variable-range hopping transport behavior with a Coulomb gap in the vicinity of the Fermi energy, and the activation energy is reduced by an external magnetic field. A blocking super-paramagnetism is observed rather than ferromagnetism. Below the blocking temperature, the sample exhibits a colossal negative magnetoresistance. Our studies confirm that the disorder-induced electronic phase separation occurs in (Ga,Mn)As samples with a Mn concentration in the insulator-metal transition regime, and it can account for the observed superparamagnetism and the colossal magnetoresistance.

  19. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.

  20. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy

    2006-11-01

    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.

  1. Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    , that It and media are only used seldom by 21 % of teachers in Visual Arts and 7 % of teachers in this subject never use It and Media in these lessons. Art teachers – among others - also express the need for continuing education. (Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning 2011). Since lessons in digital picture...... production have been a demand in Visual Arts in Danish schools for more than two decades, these conditions call for development of new didactic knowledge. Besides new genres and ways of using digital pictures and media continuously develop. (Sørensen 2002). This ought to be an incessant challenge...... subject Visual Arts – and crosswise of subjects in school. The overall research question has been: How can IT-didactic designs support lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increase the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences? By using the expression ‘complex...

  2. Evidence for the 'grasshopper' effect and fractionation during long-range atmospheric transport of organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouin, T.; Mackay, D.; Jones, K.C.; Harner, T.; Meijer, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is indisputable evidence that long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of organic contaminants occurs on a global scale, uncertainties remain about the detailed mechanism and extent of this phenomenon as well as the physical-chemical properties which facilitate LRAT. In this study, we discuss how mass balance models and monitoring data can contribute to a fuller understanding of the mechanism and extent of LRAT. Specifically we address the issues of 'grasshopping' or 'hopping' (the extent to which molecules are subject to multiple hops as distinct from a single emission-deposition event) and 'global fractionation' (the differing behavior of chemicals as they are transported). It is shown that simple mass balance models can be used to assist the interpretation of monitoring data while also providing an instrument that can be used to assess the LRAT potential and the extent of hopping that organic substances may experience. The available evidence supports the notion that many persistent organic pollutants experience varying degrees of 'hopping' during their environmental journey and as a consequence become fractionated with distance from source. - Evidence for global scale fractionation and hopping of POPs is reviewed

  3. Electrolytic conductivity-the hopping mechanism of the proton and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gileadi, E.; Kirowa-Eisner, E.

    2006-01-01

    The hopping mechanism of electrolytic conductivity is analyzed, employing mixtures of two solvents: one that sustains the hopping mechanism and the other that does not inhibit it directly, but interferes with it by diluting the solvent that sustains hopping. Measurement of the equivalent conductivity shows that the excess proton conductivities of H 3 O + and OH - increases with increasing temperature, although the number of hydrogen bonds is known to decrease. In mixtures of acetonitrile with water, proton hopping does not start until a threshold concentration of about 20 vol.% water has been reached, while no such threshold concentration is observed upon addition of methanol to acetonitrile. It is concluded that in the former the proton is transferred to a cluster of water molecules, which can be formed only if there is enough water in the solvent mixture. This observation leads to the concept of mono-water, which is the state of water molecules when they constitute a small minority in the solvent mixtures, as opposed to bulk water, which consists of clusters of variable sizes. Systems in which a hopping mechanism of heavy ions has been observed include Br - /Br 2 and I - /I 2 . In these cases the triple ions Br 3 - and I 3 - , respectively are formed, and serve as the mediators for the transfer of the simple halogen ion. A very large increase of conductivity was observed upon solidification of the Br - /Br 3 - system, probably caused by favorable linear alignment of ions in the solid. The conductivity of acidified methanol decreases upon addition of water, because the affinity of the proton to water is higher than to methanol, thus water can act as a scavenger for protons. This behavior exemplifies a general observation, namely that conductivity by hopping can only occur when the Gibbs energy of the system does not change significantly following ion transfer; otherwise the ions would be trapped in the more stable state, hindering further propagation by hopping

  4. Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Picture and Picture Untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Siswa Menulis Karangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto Heriyanto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Menulis merupakan keterampilan berbahasa yang kompleks, produktif dan ekspresif, karena penulis harus terampil menggunakan grofologi, struktur bahasa dan memiliki pengetahuan bahasa yang memadai, untuk itu perlu dilatih secara teratur dan cermat sejak kelas awal SD. Karangan sebagai salah satu hasil karya menulis, merupakan hasil pekerjaan dari mengarang. Menulis karangan dalam penelitian ini adalah menulis karangan narasi. Salah satu masalah dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia adalah kesulitan siswa dalam menulis karangan yang baik dan benar, yang juga terjadi pada siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Pembelajaran menulis karangan dengan menggunakan model kooperatif tipe picture and picture  diharapkan mampu meningkatkan pemahaman siswa dalam hal menulis karangan. Untuk itu, dilakukan penelitian terhadap siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas I Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep yang berjumlah 33 siswa. Penelitian dengan judul “Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Picture and Picture untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Siswa Menulis Karangan” ini menggunakan penelitian tindakan kelas sebanyak dua putaran. Setiap putaran terdiri dari tahap rancangan, kegiatan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Data yang diperoleh berupa nilai hasil LKS dan kuis individu berupa menulis karangan, lembar observasi aktivitas guru dan siswa serta penilaian penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif picture and picture, juga hasil respon siswa. Dari hasil analis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe picture and picture dapat meningkatkan kemampuan menulis karangan siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Peningkatan ini terjadi pada nilai rata-rata LKS, yaitu dari 55 menjadi 71,6. Adapun hasil karangan individu siswa dari rata-rata 56,7 dengan ketuntasan 55% menjadi 74,5 dengan ketuntasan mencapai 88% atau terjadi peningkatan sebesar 33% dari siklus I.

  5. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cascading Multi-Hop Reservation and Transmission in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The long propagation delay in an underwater acoustic channel makes designing an underwater media access control (MAC protocol more challenging. In particular, handshaking-based MAC protocols widely used in terrestrial radio channels have been known to be inappropriate in underwater acoustic channels, because of the inordinately large latency involved in exchanging control packets. Furthermore, in the case of multi-hop relaying in a hop-by-hop handshaking manner, the end-to-end delay significantly increases. In this paper, we propose a new MAC protocol named cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission (CMRT. In CMRT, intermediate nodes between a source and a destination may start handshaking in advance for the next-hop relaying before handshaking for the previous node is completed. By this concurrent relaying, control packet exchange and data delivery cascade down to the destination. In addition, to improve channel utilization, CMRT adopts a packet-train method where multiple data packets are sent together by handshaking once. Thus, CMRT reduces the time taken for control packet exchange and accordingly increases the throughput. The performance of CMRT is evaluated and compared with that of two conventional MAC protocols (multiple-access collision avoidance for underwater (MACA-U and MACA-U with packet trains (MACA-UPT. The results show that CMRT outperforms other MAC protocols in terms of both throughput and end-to-end delay.

  7. Joint Scheduling for Dual-Hop Block-Fading Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this paper, we propose joint user-and-hop scheduling over dual-hop block-fading broadcast channels in order to exploit multi-user diversity gains and multi-hop diversity gains all together. To achieve this objective, the first and second hops are scheduled opportunistically based on the channel state information and as a prerequisite we assume that the relay, which is half-duplex and operates using decode-and-forward, is capable of storing the received packets from the source until the channel condition of the destined user becomes good to be scheduled. We formulate the joint scheduling problem as maximizing the weighted sum of the long term achievable rates by the users under a stability constraint, which means that on the long term the rate received by the relay should equal the rate transmitted by it, in addition to constant or variable power constraints. We show that this problem is equivalent to a single-hop broadcast channel by treating the source as a virtual user with an optimal priority weight that maintains the stability constraint. We show how to obtain the source weight either off-line based on channel statistics or on real-time based on channel measurements. Furthermore, we consider special cases including the maximum sum rate scheduler and the proportional fair scheduler. We demonstrate via numerical results that our proposed joint scheduling scheme enlarges the rate region as compared with a scheme that employs multi-user scheduling alone.

  8. Back-Hopping in Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices: Possible Origin and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abert, Claas; Sepehri-Amin, Hossein; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Suess, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    The effect of undesirable high-frequency free-layer switching in magnetic multilayer systems, referred to as back-hopping, is investigated by means of the spin-diffusion model. A possible origin of the back-hopping effect is found to be the destabilization of the pinned layer, which leads to the perpetual switching of both layers. While the presented mechanism is not claimed to be the only possible reason for back-hopping, we show that it is a fundamental effect that will occur in any spin-transfer-torque device when exceeding a critical current. The influence of different material parameters on the critical switching currents for the free and pinned layer is obtained by micromagnetic simulations. The spin-diffusion model enables an accurate description of the torque on both layers, depending on various material parameters. It is found that the choice of a free-layer material with low polarization β and saturation magnetization Ms and a pinned-layer material with high β and Ms leads to a low free-layer critical current and a high pinned-layer critical current and hence reduces the likelihood of back-hopping. While back-hopping has been observed in various types of devices, there are only a few experiments that exhibit this effect in perpendicularly magnetized systems. However, our simulations suggest that the described effect will also gain importance in perpendicular systems due to the loss of pinned-layer anisotropy for decreasing device sizes.

  9. Multi-hop localization algorithm based on grid-scanning for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Guo, Xiaolei; Yu, Ning; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian

    2011-01-01

    For large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with a minority of anchor nodes, multi-hop localization is a popular scheme for determining the geographical positions of the normal nodes. However, in practice existing multi-hop localization methods suffer from various kinds of problems, such as poor adaptability to irregular topology, high computational complexity, low positioning accuracy, etc. To address these issues in this paper, we propose a novel Multi-hop Localization algorithm based on Grid-Scanning (MLGS). First, the factors that influence the multi-hop distance estimation are studied and a more realistic multi-hop localization model is constructed. Then, the feasible regions of the normal nodes are determined according to the intersection of bounding square rings. Finally, a verifiably good approximation scheme based on grid-scanning is developed to estimate the coordinates of the normal nodes. Additionally, the positioning accuracy of the normal nodes can be improved through neighbors' collaboration. Extensive simulations are performed in isotropic and anisotropic networks. The comparisons with some typical algorithms of node localization confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm.

  10. Jumping and Hopping in Elite and Amateur Orienteering Athletes and Correlations to Sprinting and Running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Jensen, Kurt; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlatio...... and rapid generation of high relative maximal forces, especially vertically. These functional measures were more closely related to sprinting and/or running abilities, indicating benefits of lower-body training in orienteering.......PURPOSE: Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations...... with sprinting and/or running have been examined in orienteering athletes. METHODS: We investigated squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), and hopping performed by 8 elite and 8 amateur male foot-orienteering athletes (29 ± 7 y, 183 ± 5 cm, 73 ± 7 kg) and possible correlations...

  11. Exact Open Quantum System Dynamics Using the Hierarchy of Pure States (HOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Richard; Strunz, Walter T

    2017-12-12

    We show that the general and numerically exact Hierarchy of Pure States method (HOPS) is very well applicable to calculate the reduced dynamics of an open quantum system. In particular, we focus on environments with a sub-Ohmic spectral density (SD) resulting in an algebraic decay of the bath correlation function (BCF). The universal applicability of HOPS, reaching from weak to strong coupling for zero and nonzero temperature, is demonstrated by solving the spin-boson model for which we find perfect agreement with other methods, each one suitable for a special regime of parameters. The challenges arising in the strong coupling regime are not only reflected in the computational effort needed for the HOPS method to converge but also in the necessity for an importance sampling mechanism, accounted for by the nonlinear variant of HOPS. In order to include nonzero-temperature effects in the strong coupling regime we found that it is highly favorable for the HOPS method to use the zero-temperature BCF and include temperature via a stochastic Hermitian contribution to the system Hamiltonian.

  12. A study on a wheel-based stair-climbing robot with a hopping mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Koki; Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Sudo, Takayuki; Bushida, Naoki; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Asai, Yuji

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we propose a simple hopping mechanism using the vibration of a two-degree-of-freedom system for a wheel-based stair-climbing robot. The robot, consisting of two bodies connected by springs and a wire, hops by releasing energy stored in the springs and quickly travels using wheels mounted in its lower body. The trajectories of the bodies during hopping change in accordance with the design parameters, such as the reduced mass of the two bodies, the mass ratio between the upper and lower bodies, the spring constant, the control parameters such as the initial contraction of the spring and the wire tension. This property allows the robot to quickly and economically climb up and down stairs, leap over obstacles, and landing softly without complex control. In this paper, the characteristics of hopping motion for the design and control parameters are clarified by both numerical simulations and experiments. Furthermore, using the robot design based on the results the abilities to hop up and down a step, leap over a cable, and land softly are demonstrated.

  13. Culturas juveniles en tono de mujer. Hip hop en Medellín (Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Garcés Montoya.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the research project, “Youth musical mediations,” that explores the appropriation of alternative means of communication which allow the young to develop identities sharply differentiated from those the adult world. In particular, the article examines the world of hip hop in Medellín and the ways that youth participate in it. To follow key trajectories of women in hip hop, their voices, feelings, and memories must be uncovered. This will allow us to see how the few women who are currently part of hip hop scene in Medellín and Colombia enter, move through, and persevere in it. Since women constitute only a small percentage of the youth who live and remake hip hop in Medellín, it is important to understand how they manage to live in a male-colored world. If hip hop is about strength, denunciation, confrontation, and resistance, it seems that these qualities are more appropriate for men than for women

  14. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    OpenAIRE

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and...

  15. Enhancement of blurred pictures by spatial filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolton, W.P.; Redman, J.D.

    Substantial improvement in the intelligibility of defocussed pictures has been demonstrated using coherent optical processing. Correction for penumbra effects, such as arise in radiography, has been demonstrated at optical wavelengths. Compensation for a Gaussian spread function, such as might occur in radiography via a salt screen, has also been demonstrated. A simulation has shown that much greater enhancement could be expected if improved phase filters could be made

  16. Superconformal ghost correlators and picture changing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, M.; Iengo, R.; Nunez, C.

    1988-12-01

    We compute the correlation functions for the system of superconformal ghosts β, γ(λ=3/2), including the corresponding spin fields, on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. Using fermionization, defined as a change of variables in the functional integration, we derive and generalize previous results obtained by bosonization. As an application we study the picture changing mechanism in the Ramond sector of the superstring. (author). 11 refs

  17. Long-range cargo transport on crowded microtubules: The motor jamming mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lucas W.; Radtke, Paul K.; Goldman, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The hopping model for cargo transport by molecular motors introduced in Goldman and Sena (2009), Goldman (2010) is extended here in order to incorporate the movement of cargo-motor complexes (C-MC). Hopping processes in this context express the possibility for cargo to be exchanged between neighboring motors at a microtubule where the transport takes place. Jamming of motors is essential for cargos to execute long-range movement in this way. Results from computer simulations accompanied by a mean-field analysis of the extended model confirm our previous analytical results and suggests that an interplay between cargo hopping and the movement of the C-MC’s would control the efficiency of cargo transfer and cargo delivery in these model systems.

  18. Cut and paste pictures in surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.

  19. Analysis of book colections Great picture book for preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cunk, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Thesis entitled ˝Analysis of book collections Great picture book for preschoolers˝ is based on theoretical approach and empirical study. In the theoretical part I focused on the development of youth literature and the definition of the latter, furthermore I described Great picture book and definition of picture book, I presented four versions of picture books in the Slovenian area, described types of picture books and wrote translation of Maria Nikolaeva´s picture book and her point of view...

  20. Where and how morphologically complex words interplay with naming pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Two picture-word experiments are reported in which a delay of 7 to 10 was introduced between distractor and picture. Distractor words were either derived words (Experiment 1) or compounds (Experiment 2), morphologically related to the picture name. In both experiments, the position of morphological overlap between distractor (e.g., rosebud vs tea-rose) and picture name (rose) was manipulated. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological distractors, and effects were independent of distractor type and position of overlap. The results are evaluated against "full listing" and "decomposition" approaches of morphological representation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).