WorldWideScience

Sample records for range forest health

  1. Front Range Forest Health Partnership Phase 1 feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkin, P

    1998-09-01

    The Front Range Forest Health Partnership is an alliance of individuals, citizen groups, federal, state, private, and nonprofit organizations that formed to promote forest health restoration and reduce fire risks on Colorado's Front Range. The partnership promotes selective thinning to restore forest health and supports economically feasible end uses for wood waste materials. The Phase I study was initiated to determine the environmental and economic feasibility of using wood wastes from forested and urban areas for the production of fuel-grade ethanol.

  2. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  3. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  4. Desirable forest structures for a restored Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette L. Dickinson; Rob Addington; Greg Aplet; Mike Babler; Mike Battaglia; Peter Brown; Tony Cheng; Casey Cooley; Dick Edwards; Jonas Feinstein; Paula Fornwalt; Hal Gibbs; Megan Matonis; Kristen Pelz; Claudia Regan

    2014-01-01

    As part of the federal Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program administered by the US Forest Service, the Colorado Front Range Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Project (FR-CFLRP, a collaborative effort of the Front Range Roundtable1 and the US Forest Service) is required to define desired conditions for lower montane ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  5. Indicators of Range Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science-based grassland management requires an understanding of the current status of the land relative to its potential. Rangeland health assessments help increase the cost-effectiveness of management by identifying where a change in management may be required, and the types of ecological processes...

  6. Range management on the National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Jardine; Mark Anderson

    1919-01-01

    In the administration of the National Forests the aim is to convey to the greatest possible number the full benefit of all the resources which the Forests contain and at the same time to perpetuate these resources by regulating their use. Accordingly, grazing on the National Forests is regulated with the object of using the grazing resources to the fullest extent...

  7. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research timeperiods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  8. Globalization and its implications for forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Michael. Wingfield

    2014-01-01

    Consideration of forest health is central to the sustainable management of forests. While many definitions of forest health have been proposed, the most widely adopted concept refers to the sustained functioning of desired forest ecosystem processes (Kolb et al., 1994). Legitimate complaints have been raised about the human-centric usage of the term "Forest Health...

  9. Experimental forests and ranges : 100 years of research success stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Wells; Deborah Hayes; Katrina Krause; Ann Bartuska; Susan LeVan-Green; Jim Anderson; Tivoli Gough; Mary Adams; Thomas Schuler; Randy Kolka; Steve Sebestyen; Laura Kenefic; John Brissette; Susan Stout; Keith Kanoti; Fred Swanson; Sarah Greene; Margaret Herring; Martin Ritchie; Carl Skinner; Tom Lisle; Elizabeth Keppeler; Leslie Reid; Peter Wohlegemuth; Stanley Kitchen; Ward McCaughey; Jim Guldin; Don Bragg; Michael Shelton; David Loftis; Cathryn Greenberg; Julia Murphy

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, Forest Service Research and Development celebrated the Centennial Anniversary of these Experimental Forests and Ranges. This publication celebrates the many scientists who over the course of decades conducted the long-term studies that began and are continuing to shed light on important natural resource issues. Story suggestions were solicited from the...

  10. Forest health monitoring: 2009 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2012-01-01

    The annual national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  11. US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges: an untapped resource for social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Lee K. Cerveny

    2011-01-01

    For a century, US Forest Service experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) have been a resource for scientists conducting long-term research relating to forestry and range management social science research has been limited, despite the history of occupation and current use of these sites for activities ranging from resource extraction and recreation to public education....

  12. Remote Sensing of Forest Health Indicators for Assessing Change in Forest Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Oak decline poses a substantial threat to forest health in the Ozark Highlands of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, where coupled with diseases and insect infestations, it has damaged large tracts of forest lands. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) crown health indicators (e.g. crown dieback, etc.), collected by the U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and...

  13. Forest health monitoring: 2006 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national technical reportpresents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective usingdata from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the

  14. Forest health monitoring: 2007 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Conkling

    2011-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program produces an annual technical report that has two main objectives. The first objective is to present information about forest health from a national perspective. The second objective is to present examples of useful techniques for analyzing forest health data new to the annual national reports and new applications of techniques...

  15. Forest Wealth and Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROB Wijesekara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems are the arsenal that supplies food and medicines for those who are the poorest members of the global community. These are referred to as “forest dwellers”. However the extent of those who depend on the products of the forest go well beyond these humble forest dwellers. In the modern context the forest ecosystems contribute to the diets and the medicines of even urban populations. This being so the widespread destruction of tropical rainforest ecosystems and the consequent extinction of plant and animal species that is ongoing, brings forth consequences that are of mind-boggling proportions. Though tropical moist rainforets are estimated to cover just only 6% of the surface of the earth, they contain an estimated 50% of all species of plants and animal life. The abundant botanical resources of the rainforests have provided mankind, and even neanderthal man, with food and medicines over several millennia. Yet it is just only 1% of this vast resource that has been scientifically evaluated for medicinal potential. At the same time an estimated 2% of the global rain forest resources are irreparably damaged each year, a rate which seems likely to witness the destruction of a possible 20- 25% of the present species of flora and fauna, in a decade from now..The rain forest resources are the basis on which the traditional medical systems have thrived. Medical systems such as the old Arabian-Greek systems from which modern western medicine is derived, the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, the Ayurvedic, Siddi, and Unani systems, all depend substantially on plants for their therapeutic armoury. Therefore the safeguarding of the resource which is so vital to global health becomes a major reponsibility of mankind.Download Paper (pdf

  16. Forest health monitoring 1992 activities plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, S.A.; Barnard, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Forests, which cover approximately one-third of the United States, are an important part of the U.S. economy, culture, and ecology. In response to legislative mandate and concerns for our environment, several government agencies have been working together to develop a program to monitor the condition of the Nation's forests. The multiagency program is called the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program. The report is designed to serve two purposes for FHM. The first is to provide a description of major FHM activities planned for the fiscal year 1992. These activities range from the initial planning stages of field work to the assessment and reporting activities. The second is to provide background information about the FHM program organization, the indicator development process, and other activities within FHM.

  17. Boreal forest health and global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Range image segmentation for tree detection in forest scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bienert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To make a tree-wise analysis inside a forest stand, the trees have to be identified. An interactive segmentation is often labourintensive and time-consuming. Therefore, an automatic detection process will aspired using a range image. This paper presents a method for the segmentation of range images extracted from terrestrial laser scanner point clouds of forest stands. After range image generation the segmentation is carried out with a connectivity analysis using the differences of the range values as homogeneity criterion. Subsequently, the tree detection is performed interactively by analysing one horizontal image line. When passing objects with a specific width, the object indicates a potential tree. By using the edge points of a segmented pixel group the tree position and diameter is calculated. Results from one test site are presented to show the performance of the method.

  19. Forest health conditions in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Tkacz; B. Moody; J.V. Castillo; M.E. Fenn

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several...

  20. Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan D. DeSantis; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    Forest health will likely be threatened by a number of factors - including fragmentation, fire regime alteration, and a variety of diseases, insects, and invasive plants - along with global climate change (Krist et al. 2007, Tkacz et al. 2008). By itself, global climate change could dramatically and rapidly alter forest composition and structure (Allen and Breshears...

  1. 78 FR 36163 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to...

  2. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in the Federal Register of June 17...

  3. 78 FR 14072 - Trestle Forest Health Project, Eldorado National Forest, El Dorado County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Forest Service Trestle Forest Health Project, Eldorado National Forest, El Dorado County, CA AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Eldorado National Forest will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a...

  4. The soil indicator of forest health in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MPCI) were established to monitor forest conditions and trends to promote sustainable forest management. The Soil Indicator of forest health was developed and implemented within the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to assess condition and trends in forest soil quality in U.S. forests regardless of ownership. The...

  5. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Pabst; Matthew N. Goslin; Steven L. Garman; Thomas A. Spies

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a...

  6. Publications of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1980-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Winokur

    1982-01-01

    Lists alphabetically, by author, publications of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station for 1980 through 1989, including both subject matter and author Indexes. This publication continues the information shown in USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-6, “Publications of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1953-1973...

  7. A network of experimental forests and ranges: Providing soil solutions for a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2010-01-01

    The network of experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service represents significant opportunities to provide soil solutions to critical issues of a changing world. This network of 81 experimental forests and ranges encompasses broad geographic, biological, climatic and physical scales, and includes long-term data sets, and long-term experimental...

  8. Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus patula trees infected by Sirex noctilio using digital multispectral imagery. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Broad-scale visual assessments of infestation provided by forest managers are currently used to measure forest health and vitality.

  9. Mexican spotted owl home range and habitat use in pine-oak forest: Implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Jeffrey S. Jenness; Randolph A. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    To better understand the habitat relationships of the Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida), and how such relationships might influence forest management, we studied home-range and habitat use of radio-marked owls in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) forest. Annual home-range size (95% adaptive-kernel estimate) averaged 895 ha...

  10. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  11. Recovery of small pile burn scars in conifer forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Rhoades; Paula J. Fornwalt; Mark W. Paschke; Amber Shanklin; Jayne L. Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The ecological consequences of slash pile burning are a concern for land managers charged with maintaining forest soil productivity and native plant diversity. Fuel reduction and forest health management projects have created nearly 150,000 slash piles scheduled for burning on US Forest Service land in northern Colorado. The vast majority of these are small piles (

  12. Application of rangeland health indicators on forested plots on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggie G. Toone; Sara Goeking

    2017-01-01

    Typical indicators of rangeland health are used to describe health and functionality of a variety of rangeland ecosystems. Similar indicators may be applied to forested locations to examine ecological health at a local forest level. Four rangeland health indicators were adapted and applied to data compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky...

  13. Forest Fire Finder - DOAS application to long-range forest fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente de Almeida, Rui; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Fires are an important factor in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Plant and animal life, in almost every land habitat, are at least partially dependent on the effects of fire. However, their destructive force, which has often proven uncontrollable, is one of our greatest concerns, effectively resulting in several policies in the most important industrialised regions of the globe. This paper aims to comprehensively characterise the Forest Fire Finder (FFF), a forest fire detection system based mainly upon a spectroscopic technique called differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The system is designed and configured with the goal of detecting higher-than-the-horizon smoke columns by measuring and comparing scattered sunlight spectra. The article covers hardware and software, as well as their interactions and specific algorithms for day mode operation. An analysis of data retrieved from several installations deployed in the course of the last 5 years is also presented. Finally, this paper features a discussion on the most prominent future improvements planned for the system, as well as its ramifications and adaptations, such as a thermal imaging system for short-range fire seeking or environmental quality control.

  14. Mean latitudinal range sizes of bird assemblages in six Neotropical forest chronosequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert R.; Romdal, Tom Skovlund

    2005-01-01

    of early successional species was as a result in part of the tendency of early successional species to have ranges that extend beyond the Neotropical forest biome. Conclusions Our analysis of chronosequences suggests that as early successional habitats mature, a consistent shift from large-ranged species...... understood. We examined how the mean latitudinal range sizes of species in Neotropical bird species assemblages shift during forest clearance and subsequent regeneration. We tested the hypothesis that bird species assemblages in early successional habitats tend to have larger latitudinal ranges than those...... in more mature forests. Location We considered breeding bird chronosequence data from six Neotropical forests. Results Breeding bird assemblages were found to have the species with the largest average latitudinal range sizes in cleared areas, intermediate in young secondary forests and smallest in old...

  15. Forest health monitoring in the Ngangao Forest, Taita Tills, Kenya: A five year assessment of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Rogers; Barbara O' Connell; James Mwang' ombe; Seif Madoffe; Gerard Hertel

    2008-01-01

    Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) provides a standardized detection-level survey of forest and tree characteristics for large forested areas. We have adopted FHM methods from this temperate-based program to tropical forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) of Kenya and Tanzania. This paper reports the first assessment of trend data in the EAM over a period from 2001 to...

  16. Historical (1860) forest structure in ponderosa pine forests of the northern Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Brown; Michael A. Battaglia; Paula J. Fornwalt; Benjamin Gannon; Laurie S. Huckaby; Chad Julian; Antony S. Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Management of many dry conifer forests in western North America is focused on promoting resilience to future wildfires, climate change, and land use impacts through restoration of historical patterns of forest structure and disturbance processes. Historical structural data provide models for past resilient conditions that inform the design of silvicultural treatments...

  17. Lichen communities for forest health monitoring in Colorado, USA: A report to the USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce McCune; Paul Rogers; Andrea Ruchty; Bruce Ryan

    1998-01-01

    Lichen communities were included in the Forest Health Monitoring program because they help to answer several key assessment questions. These questions concern the contamination of natural resources, biodiversity, forest health, and sustainability of timber production. Field crews collected data on epiphytic macrolichens from throughout forested areas of Colorado from...

  18. Model-assisted forest yield estimation with light detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob L. Strunk; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Hans-Erik Andersen; Peter J. Gould; Robert J. McGaughey

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived variables can be used to model forest yield variables, such as biomass, volume, and number of stems. However, the next step is underrepresented in the literature: estimation of forest yield with appropriate confidence intervals. It is of great importance that the procedures required for...

  19. Experimental forests and ranges as a network for for long-term data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Vavra; John Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    In the new millennium, national leaders and policymakers are facing profound issues regarding people and the environment. Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs), managed by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), form a network of locations amenable to the development of long-term data collection across many major ecosystems of the continental United...

  20. Expanding the vision of the Experimental Forest and Range network to urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan. Grove

    2014-01-01

    After 100 years, the USDA Forest Service has emerging opportunities to expand the Experimental Forest and Range (EFR) network to urban areas. The purpose of this expansion would be to broaden the types of ecosystems studied, interdisciplinary approaches used, and relevance to society of the EFR network through long-term and large-scale social-ecological projects in...

  1. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  2. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  3. Promoting human health through forests: overview and major challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Eeva; Sarjala, Tytti; Raitio, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion about human health, global change, and biodiversity by concentrating on the relationships between forests and human health. This review gives a short overview of the most important health benefits that forests provide to humans, and the risks that forests may pose to human health. Furthermore, it discusses the future challenges for the research on the links between forests and human health, and for delivering health through forests in practice. Forests provide enormous possibilities to improve human health conditions. The results of a vast amount of research show that forest visits promote both physical and mental health by reducing stress. Forests represent rich natural pharmacies by virtue of being enormous sources of plant and microbial material with known or potential medicinal or nutritional value. Forest food offers a safety net for the most vulnerable population groups in developing countries, and healthy forest ecosystems may also help in regulation of infectious diseases. Utilizing forests effectively in health promotion could reduce public health care budgets and create new sources of income. Main challenges to delivering health through forests are due to ecosystem and biodiversity degradation, deforestation, and climate change. In addition, major implementation of research results into practice is still lacking. Inadequate implementation is partly caused by insufficient evidence base and partly due to the lack of policy-makers' and practitioners' awareness of the potential of forests for improving human health. This calls for strong cooperation among researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners as well as between different sectors, especially between health and environmental professionals.

  4. The impact of forest conversion on bird communities in the northern flank of the Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalya Subasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Initiating proper conservation and management strategies requires assessing the consequences of forest conversion into human land use systems on tropical biodiversity. This study characterized bird species diversity and composition and vegetation structural components in four land use types in the northern flank of the Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, which is a part of a world heritage site in Sri Lanka: an undisturbed forest and three human-modified land uses for cardamom, pinus, and abandoned tea plantations. Using the fixed radius point count method, 1,023 individuals belonging to 51 bird species were recorded. The cardamom plantation with native shade trees had a bird species richness and composition comparable to an undisturbed forest (one-way analysis of variance; p > 0.05, Jaccard index = 0.56. Based on the Shannon–Wiener index, the overall species diversity was highest in the undisturbed forest. Pearson's correlation coefficient suggested a strong positive linear relationship between bird species richness with canopy cover (r = 0.738 and vertical stratification (r = 0.813. Land use systems formed by considerable alterations to vegetation structure significantly reduce bird diversity and supports a bird community that is less comparable to an undisturbed forest.

  5. Avian research on U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges: Emergent themes, opportunities, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleson, Scott H.; King, D.I.; Tomosy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1908, U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges have been dedicated to long-term interdisciplinary research on a variety of ecological and management questions. They encompass a wide diversity of life zones and ecoregions, and provide access to research infrastructure, opportunities for controlled manipulations, and integration with other types of long-term data. These features have facilitated important advances in a number of areas of avian research, including furthering our understanding of population dynamics, the effects of forest management on birds, avian responses to disturbances such as fire and hurricanes, and other aspects of avian ecology and conservation. However, despite these contributions, this invaluable resource has been underutilized by ornithologists. Most of the Experimental Forests and Ranges have had no ornithological work done on them. We encourage the ornithological community, especially graduate students and new faculty, to take advantage of this largely untapped potential for long-term work, linkage with long-term data sets, multiple disciplines, and active forest management. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  7. Socio-Ecological Characterization of Forest Ecosystem Health in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provisional capacity of the reserve for goods and services was also evaluated. In order to assess individual local actions at the household level and their effects on the overall health dynamics in the forest reserve, information about the direct and indirect drivers of forest degradation at the forest reserve level was sought ...

  8. Urban Forest Health Monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert Hoehn; Jeffrey T. Walton; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Daniel Twardus; Anne Cumming; Manfred Mielke; Bill Smith

    2006-01-01

    Trees in cities can contribute significantly to human health and environmental quality. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what it contributes to the local, regional, and national societal and economic interests. To help better understand the urban forest resource and its numerous values, the USDA Forest Service has initiated a pilot...

  9. History and results of the Northern Forest Health Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was established because of a concern that the forests in the United States were declining. The program was established to monitor the state of and changes in forest conditions across the nation. This report looks at the distributions of trees into various rating categories for three variables collected on the FHM plots from 1991...

  10. Forest vegetation simulation tools and forest health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Teck; Melody Steele

    1995-01-01

    A Stand Hazard Rating System for Central ldaho forests has been incorporated into the Central ldaho Prognosis variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator to evaluate how insects, disease and fire hazards within the Deadwood River Drainage change over time. A custom interface, BOISE.COMPUTE.PR, has been developed so hazard ratings can be electronically downloaded...

  11. Mapping Forest Health Using Spectral and Textural Information Extracted from SPOT-5 Satellite Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jinghui Meng; Shiming Li; Wei Wang; Qingwang Liu; Shiqin Xie; Wu Ma

    2016-01-01

    Forest health is an important variable that we need to monitor for forest management decision making. However, forest health is difficult to assess and monitor based merely on forest field surveys. In the present study, we first derived a comprehensive forest health indicator using 15 forest stand attributes extracted from forest inventory plots. Second, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the forest health indicator and the spectral and textur...

  12. Principles and practices for the restoration of ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Addington; Gregory H. Aplet; Mike A. Battaglia; Jennifer S. Briggs; Peter M. Brown; Antony S. Cheng; Yvette Dickinson; Jonas A. Feinstein; Kristen A. Pelz; Claudia M. Regan; Jim Thinnes; Rick Truex; Paula J. Fornwalt; Benjamin Gannon; Chad W. Julian; Jeffrey L. Underhill; Brett Wolk

    2018-01-01

    Wildfires have become larger and more severe over the past several decades on Colorado’s Front Range, catalyzing greater investments in forest management intended to mitigate wildfire risks. The complex ecological, social, and political context of the Front Range, however, makes forest management challenging, especially where multiple management goals including forest...

  13. Phytosociology and pedological characteristics of selected beats of Durgapur Forest Range, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Bauri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to analyze phytosociological characteristics and diversity pattern of five selected beats of tropical dry deciduous forest of Durgapur Forest Range, Burdwan, West Bengal, India. The present investigation was carried out through quadrat method for analysis of phytosociological aspect of vegetation. The soil of the different study sites were analyzed by following standard methodology. The results reflect dominancy of dicotyledons over monocotyledons in the five studied sites. Basudha (61 and Shibpur (58 beats represents higher number of species among the five studied sites. Maximum IVI value was recorded by Shorea robusta followed by Madhuka longifolia among all the beats except Shibpur. The study represents overall dominance of Sal forest over the entire region. Therefore Basudha and Shibpur beat needs prior conservative measure for protection of bioresources in those two forest region. The soil characteristics of the four study sites revealed acidic nature of soil in all the studied sites of Durgapur Forest Division. The range of organic carbon % was found to be higher in amount in comparison to conventional soil samples reflecting higher soil fertility of the studied sites. Therefore, proper management and conservative measures needs to be implemented for conservation of bioresources in different sites of Durgapur Forest Division, West Bengal, India.

  14. Temporal Forest Change Detection and Forest Health Assessment using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'acob, Norsuzila; Mohd Azize, Aziean Binti; Anis Mahmon, Nur; Laily Yusof, Azita; Farhana Azmi, Nor; Mustafa, Norfazira

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the detection of Angsi and Berembun Reserve Forest change for years 1996 and 2013. Forest is an important part of our ecosystem. The main function is to absorb carbon oxide and produce oxygen in their cycle of photosynthesis to maintain a balance and healthy atmosphere. However, forest changes as time changes. Some changes are necessary as to give way for economic growth. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor forest change so that deforestation and development can be planned and the balance of ecosystem is still preserved. It is important because there are number of unfavorable effects of deforestation that include environmental and economic such as erosion of soil, loss of biodiversity and climate change. The forest change detection can be studied with reference of several satellite images using remote sensing application. Forest change detection is best done with remote sensing due to large and remote study area. The objective of this project is to detect forest change over time and to compare forest health indicated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using remote sensing and image processing. The forest under study shows depletion of forest area by 12% and 100% increment of deforestation activities. The NDVI value which is associated with the forest health also shows 13% of reduction.

  15. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2017-06-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  16. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M.; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S.; Mitton, Jeffry B.

    2017-01-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  17. Design and analysis for detection monitoring of forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. A. Roesch

    1995-01-01

    An analysis procedure is proposed for the sample design of the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM) in the United States. The procedure is intended to provide increased sensitivity to localized but potentially important changes in forest health by explicitly accounting for the spatial relationships between plots in the FHM design. After a series of median sweeps...

  18. Protocols for care and handling of deer and elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Mary M. Rowland; James H. Noyes

    1993-01-01

    Several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) inhabit a fenced, 25,000-acre enclosure at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Research there requires handling...

  19. Ecological types of the eastern slope of the Wind River Range, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron F. Wells; Janis L. Boettinger; Kent E. Houston; David W. Roberts

    2015-01-01

    This guide presents a classification of the Ecological Types of the eastern slope of the Wind River Range (WRR) on the Shoshone National Forest in west-central Wyoming. Ecological Types integrate vegetation and environmental characteristics, including climate, geology, landform, and soils, into a comprehensive ecosystem classification. The three objectives are: (1)...

  20. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on flrefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds...

  1. Forest biomass and tree planting for fossil fuel offsets in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Kellen Nelson; Dan Kashian; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the amount of carbon available for removal in fuel reduction and reforestation treatments in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range based on site productivity, pre-treatment basal area, and planting density. Thinning dense stands will yield the greatest offsets for biomass fuel. However, this will also yield the greatest carbon losses, if the...

  2. Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1988 supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Blinn; F.J. Swanson; A. McKee

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography updates the list of publications, abstracts, theses, and unpublished reports included in "Research Publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon, 1948 to 1986," General Technical Report PNW-GTR-201. Citations are referenced under appropriate keywords.

  3. Quantifying Forest Ground Flora Biomass Using Close-range Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Doruska; Robert C. Weih; Matthew D. Lane; Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Close-range remote sensing was used to estimate biomass of forest ground flora in Arkansas. Digital images of a series of 1-m² plots were taken using Kodak DCS760 and Kodak DCS420CIR digital cameras. ESRI ArcGIS™ and ERDAS Imagine® software was used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Average Visible...

  4. Historic Frequency and Severity of Fire in Whitebark Pine Forests of the Cascade Mountain Range, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Murray; Joel Siderius

    2018-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is a foundation species of high elevation forest ecosystems in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We examined fire evidence on 55 fire history sites located in the Cascade Range. To estimate dates of historic fires we analyzed 57 partial cross-sections from fire-scarred trees plus 700 increment cores. The resulting 101 fire events indicate fire has been a widespread component of Cascadian whitebark pine stands. Res...

  5. Patterns of forest phylogenetic community structure across the United States and their possible forest health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of phylogenetic relationships among co-occurring tree species offers insights into the ecological organization of forest communities from an evolutionary perspective and, when employed regionally across thousands of plots, can assist in forest health assessment. Phylogenetic clustering of species, when species are more closely related than expected by...

  6. Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring: Piecing the Quilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. McCollum; Jamie K. Cochran

    2005-01-01

    Against the backdrop of a discussion about patchwork quilt assembly, the authors present background information on global grids. They show how to compose hexagons, an important task in systematically developing a subset of Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program plots from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots. Finally, they outline the FHM and FIA grids, along with...

  7. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Urban Forests Of Wisconsin: Pilot Monitoring Project 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Buckelew Cumming; David Nowak; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke; Richard Rideout

    2007-01-01

    Trees in cities can contribute significantly to human health and environmental quality. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what it contributes locally, regionally, and nationally in terms of ecology, economy, and social well-being. To better understand this resource and its values, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  8. Managing organic debris for forest health: Reconciling fire hazard, bark beetles, wildlife, and forest nutrition needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Schnepf; Russell T. Graham; Sandy Kegley; Theresa B. Jain

    2009-01-01

    Forest organic debris includes tree limbs, boles (trunks), needles, leaves, snags, and other dead organic materials. It ranges in amount and composition depending on a forest's history, tree species, condition, and age. In the Inland Northwest (Idaho, western Montana, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington) there is a lot of discussion and concern about removing...

  9. Water and Forest Health: Drought Stress as a Core Driver of Forest Disturbances and Tree Mortality in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. D.; Williams, P.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing warmth and dry climate conditions have affected large portions of western North America in recent years, causing elevated levels of both chronic and acute forest drought stress. In turn, increases in drought stress amplify the incidence and severity of the most significant forest disturbances in this region, including wildfire, drought-induced tree mortality, and outbreaks of damaging insects and diseases. Regional patterns of drought stress and various forest disturbances are reviewed, including interactions among climate and the various disturbance processes; similar global-scale patterns and trends of drought-amplified forest die-off and high-severity wildfire also are addressed. New research is presented that derives a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the three most widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the southwestern US (Arizona, New Mexico), demonstrating nonlinear escalation of FDSI to levels unprecedented in the past 1000 years, in response to both drought and especially recent warming. This new work further highlights strong correlations between drought stress and amplified forest disturbances (fire, bark beetle outbreaks), and projects that by ca. 2050 anticipated regional warming will cause mean FDSI levels to reach extreme levels that may exceed thresholds for the survival of current tree species in large portions of their current range. Given recent trends of forest disturbance and projections for substantially warmer temperatures and greater drought stress for much of western North America in coming years, the growing risks to western forest health are becoming clear. This emerging understanding suggests an urgent need to determine potentials and methods for managing water on-site to maintain the vigor and resilience of western forests in the face of increasing levels of climate-induced water stress.

  10. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF THE PURE BETULA PENDULA FORESTS IN GREECE: RHODOPE MOUNTAIN RANGE (NE GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. THEODOROPOULOS

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the birch (BeTula pendula Roth. in Greece is Limited to the northern mountains (Varnous, Voras, Vennio, Paiko, Beles, Orvilos, Lailias, Pangeo, Phalakro and Rhooope. The unique extensive pure Betula penduta - forest, which covers an area of about 1755 ha, occurs in the western part of the Rhodope mountain range. The other appearances of birch in the Greek area are limited either to small stands or to individuals in mixture with other forest trees. The Betula pendula forest in western Rhodope have been studied using the Braun - B1anquet mtethod with 36 phytosociological relevés. Two associations. Querco dalechampii - Betuletum pendulae (Quercetalia pubescentis and Fago sylvalicae - Betuletum pendulae (Fagetali sylvAticae , as well as rurther subdivisions, are distinguished. Their syntaxonomy as well as informatìon about the site characteristics, structure and syndynamical position of the distinguished communities are given.

  11. The forest as a classroom: Preparing for mental health practice

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Marthe Lyngås; Ruud, Ireen; Grov, Ellen Karine

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive effects of physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention, in treatment of mental illnesses are well documented. Mental health practice for nursing students highlights the important connection between physical activities and mental health. This study aims to examine the outcome from nursing students’ participation using The forest as a classroom. Students’ collaboration by problem solving, theoretical discussions and performance of activities in the forest serv...

  12. Scientometrics of Forest Health and Tree Diseases: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining forest health is a worldwide challenge due to emerging tree diseases, shifts in climate conditions and other global change stressors. Research on forest health is thus accumulating rapidly, but there has been little use of scientometric approaches in forest pathology and dendrology. Scientometrics is the quantitative study of trends in the scientific literature. As with all tools, scientometrics needs to be used carefully (e.g., by checking findings in multiple databases and its results must be interpreted with caution. In this overview, we provide some examples of studies of patterns in the scientific literature related to forest health and tree pathogens. Whilst research on ash dieback has increased rapidly over the last years, papers mentioning the Waldsterben have become rare in the literature. As with human health and diseases, but in contrast to plant health and diseases, there are consistently more publications mentioning “tree health” than “tree disease,” possibly a consequence of the often holistic nature of forest pathology. Scientometric tools can help balance research attention towards understudied emerging risks to forest trees, as well as identify temporal trends in public interest in forests and their health.

  13. Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broad-scale visual assessments of infestation provided by forest managers are currently used to measure forest health and vitality. The effectiveness of visual assessments is questionable because they are qualitative, subjective and dependent on the skill of the surveyor. Remote sensing technology provides a synoptic ...

  14. The political ecology of forest health in the redwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Lee; Yana Valachovic; Dan Stark

    2017-01-01

    Imported forest pests have changed North American forests and caused staggering monetary losses in the centuries since the country was founded. Since most problem-causing non-native pests are innocuous in their home ranges, where they have coevolved with their host trees, experts cannot predict which pathogens or insects will have lethal effect on other continents....

  15. Monitoring and managing responses to climate change at the retreating range edge of forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Alistair S; Cavin, Liam; Hunter, Peter D

    2010-10-06

    Rising temperatures and increasing drought severity linked to global climate change are negatively impacting forest growth and function at the equatorial range edge of species distributions. Rapid dieback and range retractions are predicted to occur in many areas as temperatures continue to rise. Despite widespread negative impacts at the ecosystem level, equatorial range edges are not well studied, and their responses to climate change are poorly understood. Effective monitoring of tree responses to climate in these regions is of critical importance in order to predict and manage threats to populations. Remote sensing of impacts on forests can be combined with ground-based assessment of environmental and ecological changes to identify populations most at risk. Modelling may be useful as a 'first-filter' to identify populations of concern but, together with many remote sensing methods, often lacks adequate resolution for application at the range edge. A multidisciplinary approach, combining remote observation with targeted ground-based monitoring of local susceptible and resistant populations, is therefore required. Once at-risk regions have been identified, management can be adapted to reduce immediate risks in priority populations, and promote long-term adaptation to change. However, management to protect forest ecosystem function may be preferable where the maintenance of historical species assemblages is no longer viable.

  16. Exotic pests: major threats to forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Robert Bridges

    1995-01-01

    Over 360 exotic forest insects and about 20 exotic diseases have become established in the U.S. Many of these organisms have become serious pests, causing great economic impacts and irreversible ecological harm. Despite efforts to exclude exotic species, forest insects and disease organisms continue to be introduced at a rather rapid rate. In the last few years, one...

  17. Effects of post-harvest treatments on high-elevation forests in the North Cascade Range, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella Elman; David L. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of post-harvest treatments on regeneration and forest composition 13-27 years following harvest in high-elevation forests of the North Cascade Range, Washington. Eighteen sites encompassing three common post-harvest treatments were examined at elevations ranging from 830 m to 1460 m. Treatments included: (1) sites broadcast burned and planted...

  18. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Erik L.; James W. Holsinger; Martha eRiddell; Heather eBush

    2015-01-01

    Background Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to unders...

  19. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Modelling Vulnerability and Range Shifts in Ant Communities Responding to Future Global Warming in Temperate Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung; Li, Fengqing; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Park, Young-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is likely leading to species' distributional shifts, resulting in changes in local community compositions and diversity patterns. In this study, we applied species distribution models to evaluate the potential impacts of temperature increase on ant communities in Korean temperate forests, by testing hypotheses that 1) the risk of extinction of forest ant species would increase over time, and 2) the changes in species distribution ranges could drive upward movements of ant communities and further alter patterns of species richness. We sampled ant communities at 335 evenly distributed sites across South Korea and modelled the future distribution range for each species using generalized additive models. To account for spatial autocorrelation, autocovariate regressions were conducted prior to generalized additive models. Among 29 common ant species, 12 species were estimated to shrink their suitable geographic areas, whereas five species would benefit from future global warming. Species richness was highest at low altitudes in the current period, and it was projected to be highest at the mid-altitudes in the 2080s, resulting in an upward movement of 4.9 m yr-1. This altered the altitudinal pattern of species richness from a monotonic-decrease curve (common in temperate regions) to a bell-shaped curve (common in tropical regions). Overall, ant communities in temperate forests are vulnerable to the on-going global warming and their altitudinal movements are similar to other faunal communities.

  1. Dynamics of Phosphorus export from small forested catchments in low mountain ranges in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julich, Stefan; Julich, Dorit; Benning, Raphael; Feger, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the nutrition of forest ecosystem. The transport of P in forest soils predominantly occurs along preferential water flow pathways bypassing large parts of the soil matrix. Therefore, rapid flow processes by preferential flow and/or during storm events may lead to significant P losses from forest soils. However only little knowledge about the dynamics, magnitude and driving processes of P exports into surface water exist. In this contribution, we present the results of two studies where two small forested catchments have been monitored for a period around 3 years. Both catchments are situated in low mountain ranges in Saxony (catchment size 21 ha) and Thuringia (catchment size 5 ha) representing medium P contents in the topsoil of 1142 mg kg-1 and 834 mg kg-1 respectively. During the regular sampling (monthly to weekly sampling frequency), the mean Total-P concentrations of 23 μg L-1(Thuringian Site) and 8 μg L-1(Saxonian Site) have been measured. However, during single storm events Total-P concentrations increased considerably with maximum concentrations of 134 μg L-1(Thuringian Site) and 203 μg L-1(Saxonian Site). Our findings indicate that during storm events, especially after longer dry periods, significant amounts of phosphorus can be exported from forest ecosystems. Comparison of discharge-concentration patterns of Total-P, Nitrogen and DOC, as well as dye tracer experiments, suggest that preferential flow along biopores and stone surfaces, and the interface between mineral soil and litter layer are main pathways of export from forests. For the site in Saxony we calculated mean annual export rates of 32.8 to 33.5 g ha-1 a-1 based on the weekly sampling with different load calculation methods (flow weighted methods up to linear regression models). If the events are included into the annual load calculation the mean annual export fluxes increase from 47.8 to 58.6 g ha-1 a-1 based on the different load calculation

  2. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles Rhoades

    2014-01-01

    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  3. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles. Rhoades

    2014-01-01

    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  4. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  5. Experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds in the Northern Rocky Mountains: A compendium of outdoor laboratories in Utah, Idaho, and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman C. Schmidt; Judy L. Friede

    1996-01-01

    This is a compendium of experimental forests, ranges, watersheds, and other outdoor laboratories, formally established by the Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the universities in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. The purposes, histories, natural resource bases, data bases, past and current studies, locations, and who...

  6. Assessing the potential of translocating vulnerable forest birds by searching for novel and enduring climatic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Kaiser, Lauren R.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds are imperiled, with fewer than half the original >40 species remaining extant. Recent studies document ongoing rapid population decline and pro- ject complete climate-based range losses for the critically endangered Kaua’i endemics ‘akeke’e (Loxops caeruleirostris) and ‘akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) by end-of-century due to projected warming. Climate change facilitates the upward expansion of avian malaria into native high elevation forests where disease was historically absent. While intensi- fied conservation efforts attempt to safeguard these species and their habitats, the magnitude of potential loss and the urgency of this situation require all conservation options to be seriously considered. One option for Kaua’i endemics is translocation to islands with higher elevation habitats. We explored the feasibility of interisland translocation by projecting baseline and future climate-based ranges of ‘akeke’e and ‘akikiki across the Hawaiian archipelago. For islands where compatible climates for these spe- cies were projected to endure through end-of-century, an additional climatic niche overlap analysis compares the spatial overlap between Kaua’i endemics and current native species on prospective destination islands. Suitable climate-based ranges exist on Maui and Hawai’i for these Kaua’i endemics that offer climatically distinct areas compared to niche distributions of destination island endemics. While we recognize that any decision to translocate birds will include assessing numerous additional social, political, and biological factors, our focus on locations of enduring and ecologically compatible climate-based ranges represents the first step to evaluate this potential conservation option. Our approach considering baseline and future distributions of species with climatic niche overlap metrics to identify undesirable range overlap provides a method that can be utilized for other climate-vulnerable species with

  7. Mental health problems in a range of European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will start with the aggregated data on the prevalence if mental health problems from a range of European countries. The discussion will cover: a. The coding systems used throughout Europe. b. Cultural issues in diagnostics labels. c. Disease label definitions (using mental health

  8. The forest as a classroom: preparing for mental health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Marthe Lyngås; Ruud, Ireen; Grov, Ellen Karine

    2016-01-01

    Positive effects of physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention, in treatment of mental illnesses are well documented. Mental health practice for nursing students highlights the important connection between physical activities and mental health. This study aims to examine the outcome from nursing students' participation using The forest as a classroom. Students' collaboration by problem solving, theoretical discussions and performance of activities in the forest serves as a repertoire of non-medical treatment strategies in mental health. The forest as a classroom was evaluated by means of an ad-hoc questionnaire including both standardized and open-ended questions. Data was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results indicated enhanced knowledge about physical activity and its impact on mental health. However, the nursing students' experience challenge preserving theoretical exercises outdoor because sensory stimulation took attention away from learning. For nursing students it is essential to build a repertoire of treatment activities to care for patients having mental health problems. This kind of approach is supported by the students' learning in the forest. The pilot study highlights the importance of multiple methods of learning in nursing education.

  9. Full-range public health leadership, part 1: quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Holsinger, James W; Riddell, Martha; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership in local health departments. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n = 13) were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Holistic leadership assessment instruments such as the multifactor leadership questionnaire can be useful in assessing public health leaders' approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  10. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership local health departments.Methods. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n=13 were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Findings. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Implications. Holistic leadership assessment instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ can be useful in assessing public health leaders approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  11. Forest health monitoring indicators and their interpretability: a Lithuanian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdas Kuknys; Algirdas Augustaitis

    1998-01-01

    Growth and productivity of forests are important indicators for understanding the general condition and health of forests. It is very important that indicators detected during monitoring procedures afford an opportunity for direct or indirect evaluation of forest productivity and its natural and anthropogenic changes. Analysis of the U.S. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM...

  12. Urban forest health monitoring: large-scale assessments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel B. Twardus; David J. Nowak

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), together with state partners, developed methods to monitor urban forest structure, function, and health at a large statewide scale. Pilot studies have been established in five states using protocols based on USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring program data collection standards....

  13. Soil vital signs: A new Soil Quality Index (SQI) for assessing forest soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Amacher; Katherine P. O' Neil; Charles H. Perry

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program measures a number of chemical and physical properties of soils to address specific questions about forest soil quality or health. We developed a new index of forest soil health, the soil quality index (SQI), that integrates 19 measured physical and chemical properties of forest soils into a single number that serves as...

  14. The search for forest facts: a history of the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1926–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony. Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    In 1926, the California Forest Experiment Station, which later became the Pacific Southwest (PSW) Research Station, was established at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, the PSW Research Station represents the research and development branch of the USDA Forest Service in California and Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. The PSW Research Station...

  15. Carbon balance of rewetted peatland forests in low mountain range areas, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Paul; Dotterweich, Markus; Kopf, Christoph; Schüler, Gebhard; Scherzer, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Peatland soils store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Drainage of peatlands, for agricultural or forestry usage, leads to a loss of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere and the former carbon sink becomes a carbon source. Peatland rewetting has become a well applicable management tool to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from peatland soils. However, the impact of rewetting on the carbon balance of drained peatland forest in low mountain range is rare. The aim of this project is to quantify the carbon balance of rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. Worth protecting peatland's with forest called "Brücher" are characteristic of nature in the Hunsrück. Since the 19th century these peatlands have been drained by ditches for spruce forests. The survey of surface area of the peatlands is the first important part of the project. Furthermore, a peatland land register for the national park and adjacent areas will be developed. Based on peatland area and carbon stocks the carbon pools of different degradation stages of these peatland can be investigated. Furthermore, terrestrial laser scan data and geoelectrical measurements will be applied for estimating the carbon pool of the vegetation and the soil. This approach enables us to quantify the whole ecosystem carbon pool. A space-for-time substitution allows for a first estimation of the carbon balance of the rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. The main aim of a comprehensive carbon balancing will be achieved based upon the peatland characteristics and upscaling of carbon stocks from peatlands with different restoration/degradation scenarios. Moreover, the obtained data will be used for a long-term carbon balance monitoring of the rewetted peatlands in this region.

  16. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, Richard J.; DeLucia, Evan H.; Gielen, Birgit; Calfapietra, Carlo; Giardina, Christian P.; King, John S.; Ledford, Joanne; McCarthy, Heather R.; Moore, David J. P.; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Angelis, Paolo; Finzi, Adrien C.; Karnosky, David F.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Lukac, Martin; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe E.; Schlesinger, William H.; Oren, Ram

    2005-01-01

    Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO2] (“CO2 fertilization”), thereby slowing the rate of increase in atmospheric [CO2]. Carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are often first represented in models as net primary productivity (NPP). However, the contribution of CO2 fertilization to the future global C cycle has been uncertain, especially in forest ecosystems that dominate global NPP, and models that include a feedback between terrestrial biosphere metabolism and atmospheric [CO2] are poorly constrained by experimental evidence. We analyzed the response of NPP to elevated CO2 (≈550 ppm) in four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest stands. We show that the response of forest NPP to elevated [CO2] is highly conserved across a broad range of productivity, with a stimulation at the median of 23 ± 2%. At low leaf area indices, a large portion of the response was attributable to increased light absorption, but as leaf area indices increased, the response to elevated [CO2] was wholly caused by increased light-use efficiency. The surprising consistency of response across diverse sites provides a benchmark to evaluate predictions of ecosystem and global models and allows us now to focus on unresolved questions about carbon partitioning and retention, and spatial variation in NPP response caused by availability of other growth limiting resources. PMID:16330779

  17. A Multicriteria Risk Analysis to Evaluate Impacts of Forest Management Alternatives on Forest Health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Jactel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate change, forests are likely to face new hazards, which may require adaptation of our existing silvicultural practices. However, it is difficult to imagine a forest management approach that can simultaneously minimize all risks of damage. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA has been developed to help decision makers choose between actions that require reaching a compromise among criteria of different weights. We adapted this method and produced a multicriteria risk analysis (MCRA to compare the risk of damage associated with various forest management systems with a range of management intensity. The objective was to evaluate the effect of four forest management alternatives (FMAs (i.e., close to nature, extensive management with combined objectives, intensive even-aged plantations, and short-rotation forestry for biomass production on biotic and abiotic risks of damage in eight regional case studies combining three forest biomes (Boreal, Continental, Atlantic and five tree species (Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris, Picea sitchensis, and Picea abies relevant to wood production in Europe. Specific forest susceptibility to a series of abiotic (wind, fire, and snow and biotic (insect pests, pathogenic fungi, and mammal herbivores hazards were defined by expert panels and subsequently weighted by corresponding likelihood. The PROMETHEE ranking method was applied to rank the FMAs from the most to the least at risk. Overall, risk was lower in short-rotation forests designed to produce wood biomass, because of the reduced stand susceptibility to the most damaging hazards. At the opposite end of the management intensity gradient, close-to-nature systems also had low overall risk, due to lower stand value exposed to damage. Intensive even-aged forestry appeared to be subject to the greatest risk, irrespective of tree species and bioclimatic zone. These results seem to be robust as no significant differences in relative

  18. Home range use and survival of southern flying squirrels in fragmented forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Zweep, James S.; Jenkins, Sean E.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    We studied home range use, spatial activity patterns, and annual survival of southern flying squirrels (SFS; Glaucomys volans) across fragmented landscapes of west-central Illinois. We calculated seasonal home range sizes and annual survival from 67 animals (36 males, 31 females) captured during 2014–2016. Home range and core area sizes were similar (P ≥ 0.46) among males and females across summer (April–September) and winter (October–March) seasons. Average distance between consecutive animal locations did not vary by sex, season, or year. Similarly, cumulative distance between consecutive locations did not vary by sex, season, or year and ranged from 1,189 to 1,661 m between summer and winter seasons. Mean annual composite home range and core area sizes were 10.39 and 1.25 ha, respectively; estimated home ranges (10.3 ha) of females are the largest documented for this species. We documented 8 deaths, all attributed to predation, the majority (63%) of which occurred during winter; annual survival was 71%. Our results underscore effects of habitat productivity on seasonal home range dynamics and space use patterns of SFS in fragmented landscapes. SFS may compensate for reduced availability of overstory mast-producing trees that characterize unproductive habitats and low-density populations by exhibiting similar movement patterns and use of available habitat by both sexes throughout the year. Winter communal nesting appears to be influenced by availability of cavity trees, thereby confirming the importance of standing snags in contributing essential habitat to flying squirrel populations in fragmented forests.

  19. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  20. Ranging, Activity and Habitat Use by Tigers in the Mangrove Forests of the Sundarban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naha, Dipanjan; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Roy, Manjari; Sankar, Kalyansundaram; Gopal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarban of India and Bangladesh (about 6000 km²) are the only mangrove forests inhabited by a sizeable population of tigers. The adjoining area also supports one of the highest human densities and experiences severe human-tiger conflicts. We used GPS-Satellite and VHF radio-collars on 6 (3 males and 3 female) tigers to study their ranging patterns and habitat preference. The average home range (95% Fixed Kernel) for resident females was 56.4 (SE 5.69) and for males it was 110 (SE 49) km². Tigers crossed an average of 5 water channels > 30 meters per day with a mean width of 54 meters, whereas channels larger than 400 meters were rarely crossed. Tigers spent over 58% of their time within Phoenix habitat but compositional analysis showed a habitat preference of the order Avicennia-Sonneratia > Phoenix > Ceriops > Barren > Water. Average daily distance moved was 4.6 km (range 0.1-23). Activity of tigers peaked between 05:00 hours and 10:00 hours showing some overlap with human activity. Territory boundaries were demarcated by large channels which tigers intensively patrolled. Extra caution should be taken while fishing or honey collection during early morning in Avicennia-Sonneratia and Phoenix habitat types along wide channels to reduce human-tiger conflict. Considering home-range core areas as exclusive, tiger density was estimated at 4.6 (SE range 3.6 to 6.7) tigers/100 km2 giving a total population of 76 (SE range 59-110) tigers in the Indian Sundarban. Reluctance of tigers to cross wide water channels combined with increasing commercial boat traffic and sea level rise due to climate change pose a real threat of fragmenting the Sundarban tiger population.

  1. Ranging, Activity and Habitat Use by Tigers in the Mangrove Forests of the Sundarban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Naha

    Full Text Available The Sundarban of India and Bangladesh (about 6000 km² are the only mangrove forests inhabited by a sizeable population of tigers. The adjoining area also supports one of the highest human densities and experiences severe human-tiger conflicts. We used GPS-Satellite and VHF radio-collars on 6 (3 males and 3 female tigers to study their ranging patterns and habitat preference. The average home range (95% Fixed Kernel for resident females was 56.4 (SE 5.69 and for males it was 110 (SE 49 km². Tigers crossed an average of 5 water channels > 30 meters per day with a mean width of 54 meters, whereas channels larger than 400 meters were rarely crossed. Tigers spent over 58% of their time within Phoenix habitat but compositional analysis showed a habitat preference of the order Avicennia-Sonneratia > Phoenix > Ceriops > Barren > Water. Average daily distance moved was 4.6 km (range 0.1-23. Activity of tigers peaked between 05:00 hours and 10:00 hours showing some overlap with human activity. Territory boundaries were demarcated by large channels which tigers intensively patrolled. Extra caution should be taken while fishing or honey collection during early morning in Avicennia-Sonneratia and Phoenix habitat types along wide channels to reduce human-tiger conflict. Considering home-range core areas as exclusive, tiger density was estimated at 4.6 (SE range 3.6 to 6.7 tigers/100 km2 giving a total population of 76 (SE range 59-110 tigers in the Indian Sundarban. Reluctance of tigers to cross wide water channels combined with increasing commercial boat traffic and sea level rise due to climate change pose a real threat of fragmenting the Sundarban tiger population.

  2. Butterfly diversity in tropical moist deciduous sal forests of Ankua Reserve Forest, Koina Range, Saranda Division, West Singhbhum District, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies were sampled during February and September 2008 using pollard walk method to assess the species diversity in the tropical moist deciduous sal forest habitats of Ankua Reserve Forest, Koina Range, Saranda Division, West Singhbhum District, Jharkhand. This area, a total of 999.9ha, is being proposed for lease under an iron ore mining project. This short-term study revealed high beta diversity of butterflies in these forest tracts, with 71 species recorded. Of these, two species, Leopard Lacewing Cethosia cyane (Drury, 1773 and Restricted Demon Notocrypta curvifascia (C. & R. Felder, 1862, are new records for Jharkhand state while three other species recorded are listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act 1972. This study provides support for long-term conservation of these fragmented sal forest tracts to ensure biodiversity protection.

  3. Object-oriented classification of forest structure from light detection and ranging data for stand mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia A. Sullivan; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Peter. Schiess

    2009-01-01

    Stand delineation is an important step in the process of establishing a forest inventory and provides the spatial framework for many forest management decisions. Many methods for extracting forest structure characteristics for stand delineation and other purposes have been researched in the past, primarily focusing on high-resolution imagery and satellite data. High-...

  4. Home Range and Habitat Use of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae within a Plantation Forest: A Satellite Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tracked two adult and three juvenile New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae in Kaingaroa Forest pine plantation from 2002 to 2008 using Argos satellite technology. The home ranges for both adults and juveniles varied, ranging between 44 and 587 km2. The falcons occasionally utilised areas outside the forest and used stands of all ages within the forest, generally in proportion to their availability. For the most part, the juveniles remained within ca. 8 km of their nests and dispersed at 58, 69, and 68 days after fledging. Falcon movement information was obtained from an average of four location points per tracking day per falcon at a putative accuracy of 350 m. The transmitters, including their solar charge capability, performed well in the forest environment. The use of all stand ages highlights the importance of forestry practises that maintain a mosaic of different aged pine stands.

  5. Historic Frequency and Severity of Fire in Whitebark Pine Forests of the Cascade Mountain Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Murray

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. is a foundation species of high elevation forest ecosystems in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We examined fire evidence on 55 fire history sites located in the Cascade Range. To estimate dates of historic fires we analyzed 57 partial cross-sections from fire-scarred trees plus 700 increment cores. The resulting 101 fire events indicate fire has been a widespread component of Cascadian whitebark pine stands. Results are site specific and vary considerably. Whitebark pine stands appear to burn in a variety of severities and frequencies. Sites where fire intervals were detected ranged from 9 to 314 years, with a median of 49 years, and averaging 67 years. Fire intervals shortened significantly with higher latitudes. In assessing the most recent fire event at each site, overall, 56 percent burned as stand replacing events. In the 20th century, the number of fires diminished significantly. Due to conservation imperatives, re-introducing fire should be undertaken with extreme care to avoid substantial mortality of this endangered species.

  6. Structural characteristics of forest stands within home ranges of Mexican spotted owls in Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Steven H. Ackers

    2003-01-01

    As part of a set of studies evaluating home-range size and habitat use of radio-marked Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida), we sampled structural characteristics of forest stands within owl home ranges on two study areas in Arizona and New Mexico. Study areas were dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-Gambel...

  7. Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia T. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Forestry management practices can shape patterns of health, illness, and disease. A primary goal for owners federal, state, andprivate forests is to crap ecosystem management plans that simultaneously optimize forest health and human health. Fire-a major forest management issue in the United States-complicates these goals. Wildfires are natural phenomena with...

  8. Forest health monitoring in the United States: focus on national reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; Kevin Potter

    2013-01-01

    The health and sustainability of United States forests have been monitored for many years from several different perspectives. The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was established in 1990 by Federal and State agencies to develop a national system for monitoring and reporting on the status and trends of forest ecosystem health. We describe and illustrate...

  9. Ozone bioindicators and forest health: a guide to the evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of the ozone injury data in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C. Smith; John W. Coulston; Barbara M. O' Connell

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitoring programs of the U.S. Forest Service implemented a national ozone (O3) biomonitoring program designed to address specific questions about the area and percent of forest land subject to levels of O3 pollution that may negatively affect the forest...

  10. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  11. Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. McComb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher (Martes pennanti, Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus, and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus. The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial scales and forest types. Area of habitat for fishers and Pileated Woodpeckers is predicted to increase over time under current forest land management policies. Habitat for Warbling Vireos is predicted to decline. These patterns are consistent with past analyses that predicted declines in diverse early successional forests and hardwood forests and increases in late-successional forests under current and two alternative policies. Land ownership influenced the spatial arrangement of habitat for all three focal species. Public lands subsidized habitat for wide-ranging species on adjacent private lands. A land use policy that required greater green tree retention on private lands seemed to result in modest increases in habitat quality over 100 yr for Pileated Woodpeckers. Thinning of plantations on federal lands had little effect on these focal species. Policy analyses such as these highlight incongruities between historic habitat patterns and contemporary spatial and temporal scales of habitat in managed landscapes. This information can be used to assess risks and inform the policy debates surrounding biodiversity conservation.

  12. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation in Boreal Mixedwood Forest of Ontario, Canada Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and WorldView-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Treitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important input variable for forest ecosystem modeling as it is a factor in predicting productivity and biomass, two key aspects of forest health. Current in situ methods of determining LAI are sometimes destructive and generally very time consuming. Other LAI derivation methods, mainly satellite-based in nature, do not provide sufficient spatial resolution or the precision required by forest managers for tactical planning. This paper focuses on estimating LAI from: (i height and density metrics derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR; (ii spectral vegetation indices (SVIs, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; and (iii a combination of these methods. For the Hearst Forest of Northern Ontario, in situ measurements of LAI were derived from digital hemispherical photographs (DHPs while remote sensing variables were derived from low density LiDAR (i.e., 1 m−2 and high spatial resolution WorldView-2 data (2 m. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR models were generated using these variables. Results from these analyses demonstrate: (i moderate explanatory power (i.e., R2 = 0.53 for LiDAR height and density metrics that have proven to be related to canopy structure; (ii no relationship when using SVIs; and (iii no significant improvement of LiDAR models when combining them with SVI variables. The results suggest that LiDAR models in boreal forest environments provide satisfactory estimations of LAI, even with narrow ranges of LAI for model calibration. Models derived from low point density LiDAR in a mixedwood boreal environment seem to offer a reliable method of estimating LAI at high spatial resolution for decision makers in the forestry community. This method can be easily incorporated into simultaneous modeling efforts for forest inventory variables using LiDAR.

  13. Lead exposure in indoor firing ranges: environmental impact and health risk to the range users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudhaise, B A; Alzoubi, M A; Rabi, A Z; Alwash, R M

    1996-01-01

    Health risk from airborne lead exposure were evaluated in 54 trainees and 31 firearm instructors at two indoor firing ranges in Amman, Jordan. Airborne lead concentration was measured during shooting sessions of conventional lead ammunition. Venous blood was collected from the trainees, instructors and controls. The levels of blood lead (PbB) and the activity of amino levulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) were measured. High concentrations of air lead that markedly exceeded the internationally adopted safe exposure levels were found on both ranges. Despite the absence of symptoms of lead poisoning, there was a significantly higher PbB in the instructors (19 +/- 7 micrograms/dl) and trainees (22.9 +/- 4.6 micrograms/dl) than in the controls (2.1 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl). Furthermore, the activity of ALAD was significantly lower in both groups (29.2 +/- 1.3, 18.9 +/- 1.2 U/L, respectively) than in the controls (47.5 +/- 1.1 U/L) indicating a subcritical lead effect. In the trainees, levels of PbB rose from a pre-training mean of 2.2 to 22.9 micrograms/dl and the activity of ALAD decreased from 46.9 to 18.9 U/L. It is concluded that indoor firing range users are at risk of lead absorption and intoxication and, therefore, periodic biological monitoring of the frequent users of firing ranges is highly recommended. Environmental hygienic actions to control excessive emissions of lead on the ranges are also imperative.

  14. Climate Drives Episodic Conifer Establishment after Fire in Dry Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Rother

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested vegetation in some areas.

  15. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae, in upper montane forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porolak

    Full Text Available Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15 or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15, and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs at the complete range (90% harmonic mean. Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo

  16. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae), in upper montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porolak, Gabriel; Dabek, Lisa; Krockenberger, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus) are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15) or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15), and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha) and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha) harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs) between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs) at the complete range (90% harmonic mean). Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo density in New

  17. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 2: Statewide Estimates Using the UFORE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke

    2007-01-01

    Trees in cities can improve environmental quality and human health. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what and how it contributes to local, regional, and national societies and economies. To better understand the urban forest resource and its value, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Health Monitoring Program...

  18. Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1948 to 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. McKee; G.M. Stonedahl; J.F. Franklin; F.J. Swanson

    1987-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at th H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Willamette National Forest, Oregon, from 1948 to 1986 is presented. Nearly 600 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and abstracts. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  19. An imputed forest composition map for New England screened by species range boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Duveneck; Jonathan R. Thompson; B. Tyler. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Initializing forest landscape models (FLMs) to simulate changes in tree species composition requires accurate fine-scale forest attribute information mapped continuously over large areas. Nearest-neighbor imputation maps, maps developed from multivariate imputation of field plots, have high potential for use as the initial condition within FLMs, but the tendency for...

  20. Forest engineering implication of storm-induced mass wasting in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Charles L.

    1999-12-01

    A severe winter storm, under conditions of high antecedent moisture and a substantial snow pack at higher elevations, in February of 1996 resulted in rapid flooding and a large number of precipitation-induced landslides. The number of mass wasting events greatly exceeded the expectations of many land managers, given the magnitude (50-year return interval ) of the storm event. Both ground and aerial surveys were used to characterize the nature of these events and relate the occurrence of mass wasting activity to the topography, geology, and land management activities of the region. This paper is based upon an aerial videography transect of the north Oregon Coast Range and explores the potential of this technique, with special reference to storm damage assessment in commercial forestry areas. Given the efforts to enhance and protect anadromous fish-rearing habitat in the region's perennial streams, this survey explores the implications of current and past forest engineering practices, and suggests that engineering efforts to 'de-construct' the legacy of old roads and culvert systems may be appropriate in the drainage basins with the highest potential habitat values.

  1. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  2. Health and well-being benefits of spending time in forests: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byeongsang; Lee, Kyung Ju; Zaslawski, Chris; Yeung, Albert; Rosenthal, David; Larkey, Linda; Back, Michael

    2017-10-18

    Numerous studies have reported that spending time in nature is associated with the improvement of various health outcomes and well-being. This review evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of a specific type of exposure to nature, forest therapy. A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and ProQuest databases and manual searches from inception up to December 2016. Key words: "Forest" or "Shinrin -Yoku" or "Forest bath" AND "Health" or "Wellbeing". The methodological quality of each randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool. Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Participants' ages ranged from 20 to 79 years. Sample size ranged from 18 to 99. Populations studied varied from young healthy university students to elderly people with chronic disease. Studies reported the positive impact of forest therapy on hypertension (n = 2), cardiac and pulmonary function (n = 1), immune function (n = 2), inflammation (n = 3), oxidative stress (n = 1), stress (n = 1), stress hormone (n = 1), anxiety (n = 1), depression (n = 2), and emotional response (n = 3). The quality of all studies included in this review had a high ROB. Forest therapy may play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention. However, the lack of high-quality studies limits the strength of results, rendering the evidence insufficient to establish clinical practice guidelines for its use. More robust RCTs are warranted.

  3. Preliminary results of spatial modeling of selected forest health variables in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock Stewart; Chris J. Cieszewski; Eric L. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Variables relating to forest health monitoring, such as mortality, are difficult to predict and model. We present here the results of fitting various spatial regression models to these variables. We interpolate plot-level values compiled from the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Information Management System (FIA-NIMS) data that are related to forest health....

  4. Biomass and health based forest cover delineation using spectral un-mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Tiruveedhula; Joseph Fan; Ravi R. Sadasivuni; Surya S. Durbha; David L. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing is a well-suited source of information on various forest characteristics such as forest cover type, leaf area, biomass, and health. The use of appropriate layers helps to quantify the variables of interest. For example, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and greenness help explain variability in biomass as well as health of forests....

  5. Forests, trees and human health and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Sangster, Marcus; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking...... at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European......, providing a vital reference for researchers in forestry, health, natural resource management and environmental policy. Currently the only unified body of work on this topic, the book will also be an important tool for those working in both health and environment policy and practice....

  6. Applying inventory methods to estimate aboveground biomass from satellite light detection and ranging (LiDAR) forest height data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Sassan Saatchi; Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew J. Lister; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2012-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) returns from the spaceborne Geoscience Laser Altimeter (GLAS) sensor may offer an alternative to solely field-based forest biomass sampling. Such an approach would rely upon model-based inference, which can account for the uncertainty associated with using modeled, instead of field-collected, measurements. Model-based methods have...

  7. Introducing close-range photogrammetry for characterizing forest understory plant diversity and surface fuel structure at fine scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; E. Louise Loudermilk; Scott M. Pokswinski; Andrew T. Hudak; Joseph J. O' Brien

    2016-01-01

    Methods characterizing fine-scale fuels and plant diversity can advance understanding of plant-fire interactions across scales and help in efforts to monitor important ecosystems such as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the southeastern United States. Here, we evaluate the utility of close-range photogrammetry for measuring fuels and plant...

  8. Susceptibility of forests in the northeastern USA to nitrogen and sulfur deposition: critical load exceedance and forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Duarte; L.H. Pardo; M.J. Robin-Abbott

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess susceptibility to acidification and nitrogen (N) saturation caused by atmospheric deposition to northeastern US forests, evaluate the benefits and shortcomings of making critical load assessments using regional data, and assess the relationship between expected risk (exceedance) and forest health. We calculated the critical...

  9. Effect of habitat fragmentation on ranging behavior of white-headed langurs in limestone forests in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhonghao; Yuan, Peisong; Huang, Henglian; Tang, Xiaoping; Xu, Weijian; Huang, Chengming; Zhou, Qihai

    2017-07-01

    The critically endangered white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is confined to fragmented karst forests of southwest Guangxi Province, China. A lack of information on the influence of habitat fragmentation on langur behavior has prevented a comprehensive understanding of their ranging behavior and the development of effective langur conservation strategies. We collected comparative data on time budgets, daily path lengths, home range and diets of four langur groups inhabiting the lightly fragmented Fusui forest (G1, G2) and the more heavily fragmented Chongzuo forest (G3, G4). The aim was to explore the effect of this fragmentation on langur ranging behavior. Our results showed that the Fusui groups spent more time on moving and less time on feeding and playing than the Chongzuo groups. Daily path lengths were 472.4-536.1 m for the Fusui groups and 449.6-480.7 m for the Chongzuo groups, indicating no marked inter-site variation. The Fusui groups occupied much larger home ranges (23.8-33.8 ha) than the Chongzuo groups (14.5-15.8 ha). However, all groups had similar monthly home ranges. Diets significantly differed among langur groups. The Fusui groups consumed more young leaves and had much lower diet diversity compared with the Chongzuo groups. Our findings indicate that habitat fragmentation is one of the crucial determinants of white-headed langur ranging behavior because fragmentation reduces and restricts the home range. Langurs in fragmented habitat adopt an energy conservation strategy characterized by devoting more time to feeding and less time to moving, with a smaller home range and consumption of more plant species. We argue that linking fragmented forests with corridors should be considered a priority in a wider and comprehensive longer term langur population conservation and habitat management strategy.

  10. Mapping Forest Health Using Spectral and Textural Information Extracted from SPOT-5 Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Meng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest health is an important variable that we need to monitor for forest management decision making. However, forest health is difficult to assess and monitor based merely on forest field surveys. In the present study, we first derived a comprehensive forest health indicator using 15 forest stand attributes extracted from forest inventory plots. Second, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the forest health indicator and the spectral and textural measures extracted from SPOT-5 images. Third, all-subsets regression was performed to build the predictive model by including the statistically significant image-derived measures as independent variables. Finally, the developed model was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. Additionally, the produced model was further validated for its performance using the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The results indicated that our produced model could provide reliable, fast and economic means to assess and monitor forest health. A thematic map of forest health was finally produced to support forest health management.

  11. Soil Quality as an Indicator of Forest Health: an Overview and Initial Results from the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis Soil Indicator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine O' Neill; Michael Amacher; Craig Palmer; Barbara Conkling; Greg C. Liknes

    2003-01-01

    The Montreal Process was formed in 1994 to develop an internationally agreed upon set of criteria and indicators for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests. In response to this effort, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitonhg (FHM) programs implemented a national soil monitoring program...

  12. Assessment of Acacia Koa Forest Health across Environmental Gradients in Hawai‘i Using Fine Resolution Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martinez Morales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Koa (Acacia koa forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai‘ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600–1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua‘i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17–20 °C mean annual temperature and 750–1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai‘i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species.

  13. A synthesis of evaluation monitoring projects by the forest health monitoring program (1998-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Bechtold; Michael J. Bohne; Barbara L. Conkling; Dana L. Friedman; Borys M. Tkacz

    2012-01-01

    The national Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, has funded over 200 Evaluation Monitoring projects. Evaluation Monitoring is designed to verify and define the extent of deterioration in forest ecosystems where potential problems have been identified. This report is a synthesis of results from over 150 Evaluation...

  14. Multi-scale modeling of relationships between forest health and climatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Xingang Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Forest health and mortality trends are impacted by changes in climate. These trends can vary by species, plot location, forest type, and/or ecoregion. To assess the variation among these groups, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data were obtained for 10 states in the southeastern United States and combined with downscaled climate data from the Weather Research and...

  15. Managing ecosystems for forest health: An approach and the effects on uses and values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Oliver; Dennis E. Ferguson; Alan E. Harvey; Herbert S. Malany; John M. Mandzak; Robert W. Mutch

    1994-01-01

    Forest health is most appropriately based on the scientific paradigm of dynamic, constantly changing forest ecosystems. Many forests in the Inland West now support high levels of insect infestations, disease epidemics, fire susceptibilities, and imbalances in stand structures and habitats because of natural processes and past management practices. Impending,...

  16. A Common-Pool Resource Approach to Forest Health: The Case of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Joseph Molnar

    2012-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is a major threat to pine forest health in the South, and is expected to play an increasingly important role in the future of the South’s pine forests (Ward and Mistretta 2002). Once a forest stand is infected with southern pine beetle (SPB), elimination and isolation of the infested and immediately...

  17. Quantifying spatial patterns in the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest to assess forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, T. F.

    2013-05-01

    Over the past century western United States have experienced drastic anthropogenic land use change from practices such as agriculture, fire exclusion, and timber harvesting. These changes have complex social, cultural, economic, and ecological interactions and consequences. This research studied landscapes patterns of watersheds with similar LANDFIRE potential vegetation in the Southern Washington Cascades physiographic province, within the Yakama Nation Tribal Forest (YTF) and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Naches Ranger District (NRD). In the selected watersheds, vegetation-mapping units were delineated and populated based on physiognomy of homogeneous areas of vegetative composition and structure using high-resolution aerial photos. Cover types and structural classes were derived from the raw, photo-interpreted vegetation attributes for individual vegetation mapping units and served as individual and composite response variables to quantify and assess spatial patterns and forest health conditions between the two ownerships. Structural classes in both the NRD and YTF were spatially clustered (Z-score 3.1, p-value 0.01; Z-score 2.3, p-value 0.02, respectively), however, ownership and logging type both explained a significant amount of variance in structural class composition. Based on FRAGSTATS landscape metrics, structural classes in the NRD displayed greater clustering and fragmentation with lower interspersion relative to the YTF. The NRD landscape was comprised of 47.4% understory reinitiation structural class type and associated high FRAGASTAT class metrics demonstrated high aggregation with moderate interspersion. Stem exclusion open canopy displayed the greatest dispersal of structural class types throughout the NRD, but adjacencies were correlated to other class types. In the YTF, stem exclusion open canopy comprised 37.7% of the landscape and displayed a high degree of aggregation and interspersion about clusters throughout the YTF. Composite cover

  18. Evolution of Ly Forest in Redshift Range 0.5< < 3.4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We collect 23 spectral data from literature, which is regarded as a relatively sufficient sample. The evolution index was calculated to study the evolution of Ly line density of Ly forest. This paper discusses the relationship between the evolution with the redshift in different interval threshold of column density. The results ...

  19. Blending forest fire smoke forecasts with observed data can improve their utility for public health applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchi, Weiran; Yao, Jiayun; McLean, Kathleen E.; Stull, Roland; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Michael D.; Henderson, Sarah B.

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by forest fires has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including exacerbation of respiratory diseases and increased risk of mortality. Due to the unpredictable nature of forest fires, it is challenging for public health authorities to reliably evaluate the magnitude and duration of potential exposures before they occur. Smoke forecasting tools are a promising development from the public health perspective, but their widespread adoption is limited by their inherent uncertainties. Observed measurements from air quality monitoring networks and remote sensing platforms are more reliable, but they are inherently retrospective. It would be ideal to reduce the uncertainty in smoke forecasts by integrating any available observations. This study takes spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates from an empirical model that integrates air quality measurements with satellite data, and averages them with PM2.5 predictions from two smoke forecasting systems. Two different indicators of population respiratory health are then used to evaluate whether the blending improved the utility of the smoke forecasts. Among a total of six models, including two single forecasts and four blended forecasts, the blended estimates always performed better than the forecast values alone. Integrating measured observations into smoke forecasts could improve public health preparedness for smoke events, which are becoming more frequent and intense as the climate changes.

  20. Development of forest cover mask to monitor the health condition of forests in Poland using long-term satellite observations

    OpenAIRE

    Bartold Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The work presented here aims at developing cover mask for monitoring forest health in Poland using remote sensing data. The main objective was to assess the impact of using the mask on forest condition monitoring combined with vegetation indices obtained from long-term satellite data. In this study, a new mask developed from the CORINE Land Cover 2012 (CLC2012) database is presented and its one-kilometer pixel size matched to low-resolution data derived from SPOT VEGETATION satellite regis...

  1. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  3. A literal use of "forest health" safeguards against misuse and misapplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Raffa; Brian Aukema; Barbara J. Bentz; Allan Carroll; Nadir Erbilgin; Daniel A. Herms; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Richard W. Hofstetter; Steven Katovich; B. Staffan Lindgren; Jesse Logan; William Mattson; A. Steven Munson; Daniel J. Robison; Diana L. Six; Patrick C. Tobin; Philip A. Townsend; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2009-01-01

    "Forest Health" has become one of the most widely used terms in ecosystem management. Its popularity derives from powerful personal imagery, connecting the fragility of health with ecosystems. It addresses a need for an efficient term to describe the vitality of the world's forests, a usage we support. However, broad adoption has brought multiple usages...

  4. Engaging western landowners in climate change mitigation: a guide to carbon-oriented forest and range management and carbon market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Diaz; Susan Charnley; Hannah. Gosnell

    2009-01-01

    There are opportunities for forest owners and ranchers to participate in emerging carbon markets and contribute to climate change mitigation through carbon oriented forest and range management activities. These activities often promote sutainable forestry and ranching and broader conservation goals while having the potential to provide a new income stream for...

  5. Arthropod prey for riparian associated birds in headwater forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Li, Judith; Sobota, Janel; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Headwater riparian areas occupy a large proportion of the land base in Pacific Northwest forests, and thus are ecologically and economically important. Although a primary goal of management along small headwater streams is the protection of aquatic resources, streamside habitat also is important for many terrestrial wildlife species. However, mechanisms underlying the riparian associations of some terrestrial species have not been well studied, particularly for headwater drainages. We investigated the diets of and food availability for four bird species associated with riparian habitats in montane coastal forests of western Oregon, USA. We examined variation in the availability of arthropod prey as a function of distance from stream. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) emergent aquatic insects were a food source for insectivorous birds in headwater riparian areas, and (2) the abundances of aquatic and terrestrial arthropod prey did not differ between streamside and upland areas during the bird breeding season. We found that although adult aquatic insects were available for consumption throughout the study period, they represented a relatively small proportion of available prey abundance and biomass and were present in only 1% of the diet samples from only one of the four riparian-associated bird species. Nonetheless, arthropod prey, comprised primarily of insects of terrestrial origin, was more abundant in streamside than upland samples. We conclude that food resources for birds in headwater riparian areas are primarily associated with terrestrial vegetation, and that bird distributions along the gradient from streamside to upland may be related to variation in arthropod prey availability. Because distinct vegetation may distinguish riparian from upland habitats for riparian-associated birds and their terrestrial arthropod prey, we suggest that understory communities be considered when defining management zones for riparian habitat.

  6. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  7. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  8. Can the soil fauna of boreal forests recover from lead-derived stress in a shooting range area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Setälä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    The responses of soil faunal communities to lead (Pb) contamination in a shooting range area and the recovery of these fauna after range abandonment were studied by comparing the communities at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a control site, locating in the same forest. Despite the similar overall Pb pellet load at the shooting ranges, reaching up to 4 kg m(-2), Pb concentrations in the top soil of the abandoned range has decreased due to the accumulation of detritus on the soil surface. As a consequence, soil animal communities were shown to recover from Pb-related disturbances by utilizing the less contaminated soil layer. Microarthropods showed the clearest signs of recovery, their numbers and community composition being close to those detected at the control site. However, in the deepest organic soil layer, the negative effects of Pb were more pronounced at the abandoned than at the active shooting range, which was detected as altered microarthropod and nematode community structures, reduced abundances of several microarthropod taxa, and the total absence of enchytraeid worms. Thus, although the accumulation of fresh litter on soil surface can promote the recovery of decomposer communities in the top soil, the gradual release of Pb from corroding pellets may pose a long-lasting risk for decomposer taxa deeper in the soil.

  9. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant

    2000-01-01

    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  10. Remote Sensing of Bioindicators for Forest Health Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn Carlisle

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on forest health in Mediterranean type climates in California, USA and Catalonia, Spain were investigated using a combination of remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and field studies focused on sensitive bioindicator conifer species and ambient ozone monitoring. For the field validation of impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health, the Ozone Injury Index (OII) was applied to the bioindicator species Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, and Pinus uncinata. Combining these three tools, it was possible to build meaningful ecological models covering large areas to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic interactions which affect forest health. Regression models predicting ozone injury improved considerably when incorporating ozone exposure with GIS related to plant water status, including water availability and water usage, as a proxies for estimating the stomatal conductance and ozone uptake R2=0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2=0.36, p < 0.001 in Yosemite and R2=0.33, p = 0.007 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in California). Individual OII components in Catalonia were modeled with improved success compared to the original full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2=0.60, p < 0.001). The visual chlorotic mottling component of the OII was the most strongly correlated to remote sensing indices, in particular the photochemical reflectance index (PRI; R2=0.28, p=0.0044 for OIIVI-amount and R 2=0.33 and p=0.0016 for OIIVI -severity). Regression models assessing ozone injury to conifers using imaging spectroscopy techniques also improved when incorporating the GIS proxies of stomatal conductance (R 2=0.59, p<0.0001 for OII in California and R2=0.68, p<0.0001 for OIIVI in Catalonia). Finally, taking advantage of a time series of ambient ozone monitoring in Catalonia, it was found that all models improved when incorporating the cumulative exposure to ozone over a period of three years (R2=0.56, p

  11. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    KALYA SUBASINGHE; AMILA P. SUMANAPALA

    2014-01-01

    Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR) has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five ...

  12. Range of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for Pistacia atlantica forest development and rehabilitation (case study: Fars province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejabat Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of ranges of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for the tolerant species: Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica according to field study was the main objective of this research. This study was carried out based on random sampling across 20×20 km wild pistachio forests of Fars province (Iran. Results showed that mountainous and hilly lands are the main land types that pistachio species have evolved on. Statistical analysis of physical and chemical soil characteristics based on principal component analysis (PCA method showed that wide ranges in soil characteristics, even up to about 40% differentiation in some measured properties, did not restricts this subspecies natural growth. The main growth limiting factors were shallow soil depth and light soil texture that decreased storage capacity of soil moisture, necessary for wild pistachios survival during drought and long dry periods. Climatic elements were analysed through the same approach and showed that temperature, precipitation and wind with overall variability of 85.9% were the most effectual factors. Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica is one of the species refractory to various soil conditions and adapted to weak soils for the establishment and rehabilitation of forests in semi-arid regions.

  13. Forest health monitoring in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania: A baseline report on selected forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Madoffe; James Mwang' ombe; Barbara O' Connell; Paul Rogers; Gerard Hertel; Joe Mwangi

    2005-01-01

    This status report presents the results of 43 permanent forest health study plots (3871 trees, saplings, and seedlings) established in 2000 and 2001 in parts of three areas of the Eastern Arc Mountains - the Taita Hills in Kenya (Ngangao and Chawia), the East Usambara Mountains (Amani Nature Reserve) and the Uluguru Mountains (Morogoro Teachers College and Kimboza) in...

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of throughfall and soil moisture in a deciduous forest in the low mountain ranges (Hesse, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Weishaupt, Philipp; Reiss, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of throughfall can affect the heterogeneity of ecological, biogeochemical and hydrological processes at a forest floor and further the underlying soil. Previous research suggests different factors controlling the spatial and temporal patterns of throughfall, but most studies focus on coniferous forest, where the vegetation coverage is more or less constant over time. In deciduous forests the leaf area index varies due to the leaf fall in autumn which implicates a specific spatial and temporal variability of throughfall and furthermore of the soil moisture. Therefore, in the present study, the measurements of throughfall and soil moisture in a deciduous forest in the low mountain ranges focused especially on the period of leaf fall. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect the spatial and temporal variability of both the throughfall and the soil moisture, 2) to examine the temporal stability of the spatial patterns of the throughfall and soil moisture and 3) relate the soil moisture patterns to the throughfall patterns and further to the canopy characteristics. The study was carried out in a small catchment on middle Hesse (Germany) which is covered by beech forest. Annual mean air temperature is 9.4°C (48.9˚F) and annual mean precipitation is 650 mm. Base materials for soil genesis is greywacke and clay shale from Devonian deposits. The soil type at the study plot is a shallow cambisol. The study plot covers an area of about 150 m2 where 77 throughfall samplers where installed. The throughfall and the soil moisture (FDR-method, 20 cm depth) was measured immediately after every rainfall event at the 77 measurement points. During the period of October to December 2015 altogether 7 events were investigated. The geostatistical method kriging was used to interpolate between the measurements points to visualize the spatial patterns of each investigated parameter. Time-stability-plots were applied to examine temporal scatters of each

  15. A boreal invasion in response to climate change? Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Kindberg, Jonas; Hellström, Peter; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decline or periodically disrupted dynamics in cyclic populations of small and medium-sized mammals and birds. The first warm spell, 1930-1960, stands out as a period of substantial faunal change. However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors. We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists. Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems.

  16. Use of Atlantic Forest protected areas by free-ranging dogs: estimating abundance and persistence of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Ana Maria; Massara, Rodrigo; Bailey, Larissa L.; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Hirsch, Andre; Chiarello, Adriano; Paglia, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are one of the most common carnivoran species in natural areas and their populations are still increasing. Dogs have been shown to impact wildlife populations negatively, and their occurrence can alter the abundance, behavior, and activity patterns of native species. However, little is known about abundance and density of the free-ranging dogs that use protected areas. Here, we used camera trap data with an open-robust design mark–recapture model to estimate the number of dogs that used protected areas in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We estimated the time period these dogs used the protected areas, and explored factors that influenced the probability of continued use (e.g., season, mammal richness, proportion of forest), while accounting for variation in detection probability. Dogs in the studied system were categorized as rural free-ranging, and their abundance varied widely across protected areas (0–73 individuals). Dogs used protected areas near human houses for longer periods (e.g., >50% of sampling occasions) compared to more distant areas. We found no evidence that their probability of continued use varied with season or mammal richness. Dog detection probability decreased linearly among occasions, possibly due to the owners confining their dogs after becoming aware of our presence. Comparing our estimates to those for native carnivoran, we found that dogs were three to 85 times more abundant than ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), two to 25 times more abundant than puma (Puma concolor), and approximately five times more abundant than the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). Combining camera trapping data with modern mark–recapture methods provides important demographic information on free-ranging dogs that can guide management strategies to directly control dogs' abundance and ranging behavior.

  17. Visual analysis of forest health using story maps: a tale of two forest insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Brian F. Walters; Randall S. Morin

    2015-01-01

    Historically, results of surveys conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service were conveyed in printed reports, featuring text, tables and static figures. Since the advent of the Internet and with the ubiquity of mobile smart devices, technology has changed how people consume information, as well as how they experience and...

  18. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  19. A forest health inventory assessment of red fir (Abies magnifica) in upper montane California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif Mortenson; Andrew N. Gray; David C. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the forest health of red fir (Abies magnifica) and how it compared with commonly-associated species Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and white fir (Abies concolor) in the upper montane forests of California. We evaluated tree mortality rates...

  20. The forest health monitoring national technical reports: examples of analyses and results from 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling; Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2008-01-01

    This brochure presents examples of analyses included in the first four Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) national technical reports. Its purpose is to introduce the reader to the kinds of information available in these and subsequent FHM national technical reports. Indicators presented here include drought, air pollution, forest fragmentation, and tree mortality. These...

  1. Using forest health monitoring data to integrate above and below ground carbon information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Conkling; Coeli M. Hoover; William D. Smith; Craig J. Palmer

    2002-01-01

    The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program conducted a remeasurement study in 1999 to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of collecting data needed for investigating carbon budgets in forests. This study indicated that FHM data are adequate for detecting a 20% change over 10 years (2% change per year) in percent total carbon and carbon content (MgC/ha)...

  2. Debris flows through different forest age classes in the central Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. May

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Debris flows in the Pacific Northwest can play a major role in routing sediment and wood stored on hillslopes and in first- through third-order channels and delivering it to higher-order channels. Field surveys following a large regional storm event investigated 53 debris flows in the central Oregon Coast Range to determine relationships among debris flow...

  3. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Kasper

    Full Text Available Abstract Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus, margay (Lepardus wiedii and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  4. Monitoring the health of selected eastern arc forests in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Madoffe; Gerard D. Hertel; Paul Rodgers [Rogers; Barbra [Barbara] O' Connel; Raymond Killenga

    2006-01-01

    The eastern arc mountains (EAMs) are a chain of isolated mountains (534,000 ha) in Kenya and Tanzania surrounded by arid woodlands and influenced by the Indian Ocean. In 1900 there was three times the amount of forest cover there is today. Much of the original forests have been converted into agricultural crops. These mountains are recognized as a globally important...

  5. Forest canopy water fluxes can be estimated using canopy structure metrics derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes; Christiansen, Jesper Riis

    2015-01-01

    Forests contribute to improve water quality, affect drinking water resources, and therefore influence water supply on a regional level. The forest canopy structure affects the retention of precipitation (Pr) in the canopy and hence the amount of water transferred to the forest floor termed canopy...... throughfall (TF). We investigated the possibilities of estimating TF based on bulk Pr and canopy structure estimated from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Bulk Pr and TF fluxes combined with airborne LiDAR data from 11 locations representing the most common forest types (mono......-species broadleaf/coniferous and mixed forests) in Denmark were used to develop empirical models to estimate TF on a monthly, seasonal, and annual basis. This new approach offers the opportunity to greatly improve predictions of TF on catchment wide scales. Overall, results show that TF can be estimated by Pr...

  6. Assessment of the 1998–2001 drought impact on forest health in southeastern forests: an analysis of drought severity using FHM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Klos; G. G. Wang; W. L. Bauerle

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of forest health indicators monitored through the Forest Health and Monitoring (FHM) program suggested that weather was the most important cause of tree mortality. Drought is of particular importance among weather variables because several global climate change scenarios predicted more frequent and/or intense drought in the Southeastern United States. During...

  7. Air pollution, climate, soil acidity, and indicators of forest health in Ontario's sugar maple forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E.; Watmough, S.A. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies

    2009-11-15

    Despite a 50 per cent reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions and various policies that have been implemented over the past 2 decades to reduce air pollution, southern Ontario still receives the highest levels of air pollution in Canada. Although several monitoring programs have been established to evaluate the impacts of air pollution on the terrestrial environment, the impacts may be difficult to detect if they are mediated by soil chemistry or climate because gradients in soil chemistry and climate contrast with air pollution exposure. In this study, 35 hardwood plots were sampled in order to determine how contrasting stressors can be impacting the health of Ontario's sugar maple forests. The objectives of the study were to evaluate whether sugar maple canopy condition is related to indices of air pollution (S, N or O{sub 3}), climate or soil acidity; investigate whether other ecosystem components such as foliar chemistry or forest floor chemistry have a relationship with air pollution; and investigate whether potential thresholds of air pollution, climate or soil chemistry can be related to abrupt changes in forest ecosystem health or nutrients. Foliar sulfur and nitrogen contents were positively correlated with modeled deposition, and foliose lichen species richness was negatively correlated with modeled air pollution levels, whereas foliar calcium, magnesium, and manganese contents were correlated with A-horizon soil acidity. Forest floor S and N contents and C/N ratios were related to soil pH, with high S and N contents and low C/N ratios occurring on the more acidic soil in the northern part of the region. It was concluded that forest health as determined by canopy condition is not related to indices of air pollution, climate, or soil acidity. There was no relationship among air pollution, soil acidity, and ground vegetation species richness or diversity. 66 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Health assessment of free-ranging and captive Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Erika K; Watson, Patricia; Dabek, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Medical evaluations were performed on free-ranging and captive Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) in Papua New Guinea. The health assessment included physical examination, morphometrics, cloacal swab; and blood, hair, and feces collection. Radio-collars were placed on free-ranging tree kangaroos to determine home range and forest habitat use. The free-ranging tree kangaroos were lightly anesthetized with tiletamine/zolazepam for the data collection. A total of nine free-ranging and seven captive tree kangaroos were evaluated; medical samples were collected from six and five animals, respectively. Results of physical examination, anesthetic monitoring, serum vitamin, mineral, trace nutrient, and electrolytes, whole blood heavy metal analysis, mycobacterial screening, and fecal examinations are presented. Free-ranging tree kangaroos had significantly lower values for beta carotene, copper, selenium, molybdenum, lead, and arsenic and significantly higher values for vitamin E than captive individuals. Cloacal swabs were all negative for Mycobacterium avium via polymerase chain reaction. Some free-ranging and captive individuals had positive coprologic exams revealing Eimeria spp. oocysts and strongyle spp. type ova. These are the first medical and anesthetic data published on Matschie's tree kangaroos from Papua New Guinea.

  9. Acid rain impacts on calcium nutrition and forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald H. DeHayes; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; G. Richard Strimbeck

    1999-01-01

    Forest ecosystems throughout the world are exposed to acid rain, a complex solution consisting largely of H+, SO42-, NH4+, and NO3- pollutant ions derived from sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Although the public in...

  10. Distinct N2O yields of AOB and AOA driven ammonia oxidation across a range of Oregon forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Dörsch, Peter; Taylor, Anne E.; Giguere, Andrew T.; Bakken, Lars R.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Myrold, David D.

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia oxidation, as the first and limiting step of nitrification, is a critical process in global N cycling and an important source of nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous studies reported strong contrasts in potential nitrification rates and niche separation of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in three acid Oregon forest soils depending on tree stands. In the present study we were interested in the potential contribution of AOB and AOA to nitrification-derived N2O in these soils. We performed soil slurry incubations amended with NH4+ and determined the specific N2O yields of AOB and AOA using inhibitor techniques. Despite large differences in edaphic factors, potential nitrification rates, and niche partitioning, AOB- and AOA-mediated nitrification displayed fairly stable and distinct N2O yields. The N2O yields ranged from 0.11 to 0.17% for AOB and from 0.03 to 0.08% for AOA, which is in agreement with findings of previous pure culture and soil studies. Nitrite accumulation was observed in only one soil, upon NH4+ stimulation of AOB growth, without showing any effect on the apparent N2O yield. The partitioning between AOB and AOA activity was strongly affected by soil pH and nitrogen status, but there was no effect of these variables on the group-specific N2O yield. Together, this suggests that N2O yields of different ammonia oxidizing microorganisms are under tight biochemical control and that the potential contribution of nitrification to N2O emission in acid forest soils can be predicted from AOB - AOA partitioning.

  11. THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE SERRA DO URUBU MOUNTAIN RANGE: A KEY BIODIVERSITY AREA FOR CONSERVATION IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGOR JOVENTINO ROBERTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Serra do Urubu mountain range is considered a key biodiversity area. It is situated in the Pernambuco Endemism Center, one of the most threatened regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. However, despite the high importance of this area little research on its herpetofauna has been performed. The present study presents an inventory of the herpetofauna of the region, through bibliographic review, searches in museum collections and field expeditions to the RPPNs Frei Caneca and Pedra D’Antas, in the municipalities of Jaqueira and Lagoa dos Gatos. The conservation status of the amphibians of the region is discussed. Five expeditions, between 2012 and 2013 were made. The methods employed were visual transect surveys, acoustic census and pitfall traps. We recorded a total of 46 amphibian species, belonging to nine families: Craugastoridae (3 spp., Bufonidae (3 spp., Ranidae (1 sp., Hylidae (25 spp., Leptodactylidae (8 spp., Odontophrynidae (1 sp., Hemiphractidae (2 spp., Phyllomedusidae (2 spp. and Microhylidae (1 sp.. We recorded 42 species of squamates: 16 species of lizards families Phyllodactylidae (1 sp., Gekkonidae (1 sp., Gymnophthalmidae (1 sp., Polychrotidae (1 sp., Leiosauridae (1 sp., Tropiduridae (3 spp., Dactyloidae (2 spp., Diploglossidae (2 spp., Teiidae (2 spp., Scincidae (1 sp., and Iguanidae (1 sp.; and 24 species of snakes: Boidae (3 spp., Colubridae (2 spp., Dipsadidae (13 spp., Elapidae (2 spp., Typhlopidae (1 sp., and Viperidae (3 spp.. The occurrence of rare and/or threatened species such as the snakes Dipsas sazimai, Lachesis muta and Sibynomorphus sp. and the amphibians Hylomantis granulosa, Chiasmocleis alagoana, Boana freicanecae and Phyllodytes gyrinaethes reinforces the need for conservation measures at this highly threatened region of the Atlantic Forest.

  12. Stocks of carbon and nitrogen and partitioning between above- and belowground pools in the Brazilian coastal Atlantic Forest elevation range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone A; Alves, Luciana F; Duarte-Neto, Paulo J; Martins, Susian C; Veiga, Larissa G; Scaranello, Marcos A; Picollo, Marisa C; Camargo, Plinio B; do Carmo, Janaina B; Neto, Eráclito Sousa; Santos, Flavio A M; Joly, Carlos A; Martinelli, Luiz A

    2011-11-01

    We estimated carbon and nitrogen stocks in aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) along an elevation range in forest sites located on the steep slopes of the Serra do Mar on the north coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast Brazil. In elevations of 100 m (lowland), 400 m (submontane), and 1000 m (montane) four 1-ha plots were established, and above- (live and dead) and belowground (live and dead) biomass were determined. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in each compartment were determined and used to convert biomass into carbon and nitrogen stocks. The carbon aboveground stock (C(AGB)) varied along the elevation range from approximately 110 to 150 Mg·ha(-1), and nitrogen aboveground stock (N(AGB)), varied from approximately 1.0 to 1.9 Mg·ha(-1). The carbon belowground stock (C(BGB)) and the nitrogen belowground stock (N(BGB)) were significantly higher than the AGB and varied along the elevation range from approximately 200-300 Mg·ha(-1), and from 14 to 20 Mg·ha(-1), respectively. Finally, the total carbon stock (C(TOTAL)) varied from approximately 320 to 460 Mg·ha(-1), and the nitrogen total stock (N(TOTAL)) from approximately 15 to 22 Mg·ha(-1). Most of the carbon and nitrogen stocks were found belowground and not aboveground as normally found in lowland tropical forests. The above- and belowground stocks, and consequently, the total stocks of carbon and nitrogen increased significantly with elevation. As the soil and air temperature also decreased significantly with elevation, we found a significantly inverse relationship between carbon and nitrogen stocks and temperature. Using this inverse relationship, we made a first approach estimate that an increase of 1°C in soil temperature would decrease the carbon and nitrogen stocks in approximately 17 Mg·ha(-1) and 1 Mg·ha(-1) of carbon and nitrogen, respectively.

  13. Canadian Forest Fires and the Effects of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Hospitalizations among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2002, lightning strikes ignited over 250 fires in Quebec, Canada, destroying over one million hectares of forest. The smoke plume generated from the fires had a major impact on air quality across the east coast of the U.S. Using data from the Medicare National Claims History File and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA National air pollution monitoring network, we evaluated the health impact of smoke exposure on 5.9 million elderly people (ages 65+ in the Medicare population in 81 counties in 11 northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States of the US. We estimated differences in the exposure to ambient PM2.5—airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm—concentrations and hospitalizations for cardiovascular, pulmonary and injury outcomes, before and during the smoke episode. We found that there was an associated 49.6% (95% confidence interval (CI, 29.8, 72.3 and 64.9% (95% CI, 44.3–88.5 increase rate of hospitalization for respiratory and cardiovascular diagnoses, respectively, when the smoke plume was present compared to before the smoke plume had arrived. Our study suggests that rapid increases in PM2.5 concentrations resulting from wildfire smoke can impact the health of elderly populations thousands of kilometers removed from the fires.

  14. Wild harvests from Scottish woodlands: an exploration of the health and well-being of non-timber forest products collection and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Martin; Marla Emery; Alison Dyke

    2005-01-01

    Small-scale gathering of nontimber forest products (NTFPs) - wild edibles, medicinals, craft materials, etc. - has a range of benefits which have a specific bearing on the health and well-being of gatherers in contemporary Scottish society. The information discussed in this paper is drawn from qualitative research which focused on identifying and understanding the...

  15. Working forests, forest health and management challenges in the redwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Pimlott

    2017-01-01

    As California continues into a fifth year of drought, tree mortality enhanced by the unprecedented bark beetle epidemic contributes to wildfires that continue to increase in frequency and severity. Recent fires have posed increasing fire suppression challenges, life safety concerns, post fire watershed impacts and lasting damage to forested landscapes. The ability of...

  16. A sequential approach in mathematical programming to include spatial aspects of biodiversity in long range forest management planning

    OpenAIRE

    von Kerkvoorde, Michiel

    1996-01-01

    In the discussion about forest management the maintenance of biodiversity is coming more and more to the fore. Like 120 other countries, Sweden committed itself to a sustainable use of for­ ests at the convention of Rio de Janeiro. Sweden has a long tradition of forest management fo­ cusing on woodproduction. This implies that almost all the forest land is managed and that the area of natural forests is very small. The maintenance of biodiversity should therefor not be lim...

  17. The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health: tools and information available to support invasive species and forest health education

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.K. Douce; D.J. Moorhead; C.T. Bargeron; J.H. LaForest; K.A. Rawlins; J.E. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia (www.bugwood.org) is to serve a lead role in developing, consolidating, and disseminating formation and programs focused on invasive species, forest health, natural resource and agricultural management through technology development, program implementation, training,...

  18. Understanding Forest Health with Remote Sensing-Part II—A Review of Approaches and Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lausch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress in forest ecosystems (FES occurs as a result of land-use intensification, disturbances, resource limitations or unsustainable management, causing changes in forest health (FH at various scales from the local to the global scale. Reactions to such stress depend on the phylogeny of forest species or communities and the characteristics of their impacting drivers and processes. There are many approaches to monitor indicators of FH using in-situ forest inventory and experimental studies, but they are generally limited to sample points or small areas, as well as being time- and labour-intensive. Long-term monitoring based on forest inventories provides valuable information about changes and trends of FH. However, abrupt short-term changes cannot sufficiently be assessed through in-situ forest inventories as they usually have repetition periods of multiple years. Furthermore, numerous FH indicators monitored in in-situ surveys are based on expert judgement. Remote sensing (RS technologies offer means to monitor FH indicators in an effective, repetitive and comparative way. This paper reviews techniques that are currently used for monitoring, including close-range RS, airborne and satellite approaches. The implementation of optical, RADAR and LiDAR RS-techniques to assess spectral traits/spectral trait variations (ST/STV is described in detail. We found that ST/STV can be used to record indicators of FH based on RS. Therefore, the ST/STV approach provides a framework to develop a standardized monitoring concept for FH indicators using RS techniques that is applicable to future monitoring programs. It is only through linking in-situ and RS approaches that we will be able to improve our understanding of the relationship between stressors, and the associated spectral responses in order to develop robust FH indicators.

  19. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 1: Analysis of Field Methods and Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2006-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the first statewide urban forest health monitoring pilot study conducted in the State of Indiana in 2002. The report is in two parts. Part One summarizes analysis of the field methods and data collected on the urban nonforest plots of one panel in Indiana, and Part Two expands these data to statewide urban forest estimates with the...

  20. A Geospatial Assessment of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations and Their Effect on Forest Health in Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, M.; Nguyen, A.; Johnson, E.; Williams, E.; Tsai, S.; Prichard, S.; Freed, T.; Skiles, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fire-suppression over the past century has resulted in an accumulation of forest litter and increased tree density. As nutrients are sequestered in forest litter and not recycled by forest fires, soil nutrient concentrations have decreased. The forests of Northern Washington are in poor health as a result of these factors coupled with sequential droughts. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) thrives in such conditions, giving rise to an outbreak in Washington’s Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. These outbreaks occur in three successive stages— the green, red, and gray stages. Beetles first infest the tree in the green phase, leading to discoloration of needles in the red phase and eventually death in the gray phase. With the use of geospatial technology, these outbreaks can be better mapped and assessed to evaluate forest health. Field work on seventeen randomly selected sites was conducted using the point-centered quarter method. The stratified random sampling technique ensured that the sampled trees were representative of all classifications present. Additional measurements taken were soil nutrient concentrations (sodium [Na+], nitrate [NO3-], and potassium [K+]), soil pH, and tree temperatures. Satellite imagery was used to define infestation levels and geophysical parameters, such as land cover, vegetation classification, and vegetation stress. ASTER images were used with the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) to explore the differences in vegetation, while MODIS images were used to analyze the Disturbance Index (DI). Four other vegetation indices from Landsat TM5 were used to distinguish the green, red and gray phases. Selected imagery from the Hyperion sensor was used to run a minimum distance supervised classification in ENVI, thus testing the ability of Hyperion imagery to detect the green phase. The National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) archive was used to generate accurate maps of beetle-infested regions. This algorithm was used to detect bark beetle

  1. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: social and economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Quigley

    1992-01-01

    The Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington are among the most insect- and disease-infested forests of North America. The communities, industries, rural residents, and economies that are highly dependent on the flow of natural resources are being stressed as uncertainty increases over future resource availability. This paper examines, from social...

  2. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  3. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on dwarf mistletoe severity in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Nicholas A. Povak; R. Brion Salter

    2008-01-01

    Forest thinning and prescribed fire practices are widely used, either separately or in combination, to address tree stocking, species composition, and wildland fire concerns in western US mixed conifer forests. We examined the effects of these fuel treatments alone and combined on dwarf mistletoe infection severity immediately after treatment and for the following 100...

  4. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny. Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  5. Channel bed particle size distribution procedure used to evaluate watershed cumulative effects for range permit re-issuance on the Santa Fe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Sims; Jim Piatt; Lee Johnson; Carol Purchase; John Phillips

    1996-01-01

    Personnel on the Santa Fe National Forest used methodologies adapted from Bevenger and King (1995) to collect base line particle size data on streams within grazing allotments currently scheduled for permit reissuance. This information was used to determine the relative current health of the watersheds as well as being used in the development of potential alternatives...

  6. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter

    1991-01-01

    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  7. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity - Indicator 8: The number of forest dependent species that occupy a small portion of their former range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Michael S. Knowles; Jason McNees

    2003-01-01

    This indicator measures the portion of a species' historical distribution that is currently occupied as a surrogate measure of genetic diversity. Based on data for 1,642 terrestrial animals associated with forests, most species (88 percent) were found to fully occupy their historic range - at least as measured by coarse state-level occurrence patterns. Of the 193...

  8. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An Annotated List of Insects and Other Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter

    1991-01-01

    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  9. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  10. Application of the Ecosystem Disturbance and Recovery Tracker in Detection of Forest Health Departure from Desired Conditions in Sierra Nevada National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaton, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.

    2016-12-01

    to disturbance, including topographic position, and position within species' ranges. Further development of eDaRT, including refining the baseline period identification and clustering parameters, may provide a highly informative and efficient method for detecting and monitoring forest health within the NRV framework.

  11. Soil processes and tree growth at shooting ranges in a boreal forest reflect contamination history and lead-induced changes in soil food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-06-15

    The effects of shooting-derived lead (Pb) on the structure and functioning of a forest ecosystem, and the recovery of the ecosystem after range abandonment were studied at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range where shooting ceased 20 years earlier and an uncontaminated control site. Despite numerous lead-induced changes in the soil food web, soil processes were only weakly related to soil food web composition. However, decomposition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needle litter was retarded at the active shooting range, and microbial activity, microbial biomass and the rate of decomposition of Pb-contaminated grass litter decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tree (P. sylvestris) radial growth was suppressed at the active shooting range right after shooting activities started. In contrast, the growth of pines improved at the abandoned shooting range after the cessation of shooting, despite reduced nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the needles. Higher litter degradation rates and lower Pb concentrations in the topmost soil layer at the abandoned shooting range suggest gradual recovery after range abandonment. Our findings suggest that functions in lead-contaminated coniferous forest ecosystems depend on the successional stage of the forest as well as the time since the contamination source has been eliminated, which affects, e.g., the vertical distribution of the contaminant in the soil. However, despite multiple lead-induced changes throughout the ecosystem, the effects were rather weak, indicating high resistance of coniferous forest ecosystems to this type of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Forests and climate change: views of long-term employees on ecological change and the role of Experimental Forests and Ranges in understanding and adapting to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie Yung; Mason Bradbury; Daniel R. Williams

    2012-01-01

    In this project, we examined the views of 21 long-term employees on climate change in 14 Rocky Mountain Research Station Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs). EFRs were described by employees as uniquely positioned to advance knowledge of climate change impacts and adaptation strategies due to the research integrity they provide for long-term studies, the ability to...

  13. Effects of dust on forest tree health in Zagros oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A; Taheri Abkenar, K; Afshar Mohammadian, M; Shabanian, N

    2017-10-10

    Dust is one of the most devastating factors for the environment threatening all animal and plant species. In many regions, the ecological and economic impact of microdust on scarce species is critical. In the western region of Iran, the Zagros forests have been exposed to dust storms for many years. In this study, the effect of dust on oak trees, the most important trees of Zagros forests, is investigated. For this purpose, 3-year-old seedlings of three species of oak trees under natural conditions were exposed to dust during spring and summer months. Seedlings were divided into two groups; one group was assigned as dust treatment and the other as control that the control group washed regularly to remove dust. Anatomical characteristics of leaves and dust deposits on leaves during the study period were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The rate of photosynthesis and gas exchange in control and treated plants was examined by IRGA, LCI. SEM images showed that stomata structure, trichome density, and epicuticular waxes of leaves are different in all three species. This difference in micromorphology of species influences the effects of dust deposited on the leaves. A comparison of leaf species images in control and dust treatment showed that in dust treatment the percentage of stomata blocked by dust in three species (per unit area) of Quercus infectoria, Q. libni, and Q. brantii were 61/6, 48/4, and 38/1%, respectively. The results of leaf gas exchange investigation indicated that stomatal occlusion by dust had a negative impact on the examined parameters of three oak species (P ≤ 0.01). Thus, gas exchange and photosynthetic rates of the treated species were significantly reduced. The results of both parts of the study showed the vulnerability of the three species to dust as Q. infectoria > Q. libni > Q. brantii. Therefore, based on these findings, dust can disrupt the physiological activities of the studied species and the continuation of the

  14. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  15. Molecular phylogeography and ecological niche modelling of a widespread herbaceous climber, Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Vitaceae): insights into Plio-Pleistocene range dynamics of evergreen forest in subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Jiang, Wei-Mei; Comes, Hans Peter; Hu, Feng Sheng; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2015-04-01

    Warm-temperate evergreen (WTE) forest represents the typical vegetation type of subtropical China, but how its component species responded to past environmental change remains largely unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, an herbaceous climber restricted to the WTE forest. Twenty populations were genotyped using chloroplast DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci to assess population structure and diversity, supplemented by phylogenetic dating, ancestral area reconstructions and ecological niche modeling (ENM) of the species distributions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and at present. Lineages in Southwest vs Central-South-East China diverged through climate/tectonic-induced vicariance of an ancestral southern range during the early Pliocene. Long-term stability in the Southwest contrasts with latitudinal range shifts in the Central-South-East region during the early-to-mid-Pleistocene. Genetic and ENM data strongly suggest refugial persistence in situ at the LGM. Pre-Quaternary environmental changes appear to have had a persistent influence on the population genetic structure of this subtropical WTE forest species. Our findings suggest relative demographic stability of this biome in China over the last glacial-interglacial cycle, in contrast with palaeobiome reconstructions showing that this forest biome retreated to areas of today's tropical South China during the LGM. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Home-range use patterns and movements of the Siberian flying squirrel in urban forests: Effects of habitat composition and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkeläinen, Sanna; de Knegt, Henrik J; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilpo K

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes modification, fragmentation and loss of native habitats. Such landscape changes threaten many arboreal and gliding mammals by limiting their movements through treeless parts of a landscape and by making the landscape surrounding suitable habitat patches more inhospitable. Here, we investigate the effects of landscape structure and habitat availability on the home-range use and movement patterns of the Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) at different spatial and temporal scales. We followed radio-tagged individuals in a partly urbanized study area in Eastern Finland, and analysed how landscape composition and connectivity affected the length and speed of movement bursts, distances moved during one night, and habitat and nest-site use. The presence of urban habitat on movement paths increased both movement lengths and speed whereas nightly distances travelled by males decreased with increasing amount of urban habitat within the home range. The probability of switching from the present nest site to another nest site decreased with increasing distance among the nest sites, but whether the nest sites were connected or unconnected by forests did not have a clear effect on nest switching. Flying squirrels preferred to use mature forests for their movements at night. Our results suggest that the proximity to urban habitats modifies animal movements, possibly because animals try to avoid such habitats by moving faster through them. Urbanization at the scale of an entire home range can restrict their movements. Thus, maintaining a large enough amount of mature forests around inhabited landscape fragments will help protect forest specialists in urban landscapes. The effect of forested connections remains unclear, highlighting the difficulty of measuring and preserving connectivity in a species-specific way.

  17. Toward an integrated classification of ecosystems: Defining opportunities for managing fish and forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; Danny C. Lee; Russell F. Thurow; Paul F. Hessburg; James R. Sedell

    2000-01-01

    Many of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest United States have been simplified and degraded in part through past land-management activities. Recent listings of fishes under the Endangered Species Act and major new initiatives for the restoration of forest health have precipitated contentious debate among managers and conservation interests...

  18. Forest health monitoring in California, Oregon, and Washington: results and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Busing

    2000-01-01

    From 1992 to 1997, standardized plots were established at about 500 sites in California, Oregon, and Washington as part of the national Forest Health Monitoring program. In California, 197 plots were established from 1992 to 1995; in Oregon and Washington, a total of 304 plots were established in 1997. Summarization of baseline data by state reveals similarities and...

  19. Use of USDA forest inventory and analysis data to assess oak tree health in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn W. Kromroy; Jennifer Juzwik; Paul D. Castillo

    2003-01-01

    As a precursor to a regional assessment for the Upper Midwest, three variables were examined as measures of oak health in Minnesota between 1974 and 1990 using USDA Forest Service Inventory and Analysis data. Mortality was 6 percent in the 1986-1990 inventory based on numbers of dead oaks per total oaks on plots with...

  20. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Allison Bodine; Eric. Greenfield

    2014-01-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and...

  1. Long-term strategy for the statistical design of a forest health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual framework is given for a broad-scale survey of forest health that accomplishes three objectives: generate descriptive statistics; detect changes in such statistics; and simplify analytical inferences that identify, and possibly establish cause-effect relationships. Our paper discusses the development of sampling schemes to satisfy these three objectives,...

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included.

  3. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U. S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n=4 and staff (n=33 from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, should be utilized and instruction in basic interpersonal skills may prove useful. The development of a detailed leadership assessment and development process for public health practitioners is indicated.

  4. Poaceae Pollen From Southern Brazil: Distinguishing Grasslands (Campos From Forests by Analyzing a Diverse Range of Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Nunes Radaeski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this study was to distinguish grasslands from forests in southern Brazil by analyzing Poaceae pollen grains. Through light microscopy analysis, we measured the size of the pollen grain, pore, and annulus from 68 species of Rio Grande do Sul. Measurements were recorded of 10 forest species and 58 grassland species, representing all tribes of the Poaceae in Rio Grande do Sul. We measured the polar, equatorial, pore, and annulus diameter. Results of statistical tests showed that arboreous forest species have larger pollen grain sizes than grassland and herbaceous forest species, and in particular there are strongly significant differences between arboreous and grassland species. Discriminant analysis identified three distinct groups representing each vegetation type. Through the pollen measurements we established three pollen types: larger grains (>46 µm, from the Bambuseae pollen type, medium-sized grains (46–22µm, from herbaceous pollen type, and small grains (<22 µm, from grassland pollen type. The results of our compiled Poaceae pollen dataset may be applied to the fossil pollen of Quaternary sediments.

  5. Disturbance history of the Medicine Bow Range, Wyoming, using historical documents, contemporary forest inventory, and lake sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Carter; A. Brunelle; J. Shaw

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1860s, Euro-American settlement and related activities, including logging, began affecting the composition and structure of forests of the western United States. These impacts were likely to be most substantial along the corridor of the trans-continental railroad. Construction and maintenance of the railroad created a high dependence for wood, especially...

  6. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on snag abundance and spatial pattern in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Nicholas A. Povak; R. Brion. Salter

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical thinning and prescribed burning practices are commonly used to address tree stocking, spacing, composition, and canopy and surface fuel conditions in western US mixed conifer forests. We examined the effects of these fuel treatments alone and combined on snag abundance and spatial pattern across 12 10-ha treatment units in central Washington State. A snag...

  7. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Holsinger, James W; Riddell, Martha C; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers.

  8. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha C.; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  9. Assessing very high resolution UAV imagery for monitoring forest health during a simulated disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jonathan P.; Watt, Michael S.; Pearse, Grant D.; Heaphy, Marie; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2017-09-01

    Research into remote sensing tools for monitoring physiological stress caused by biotic and abiotic factors is critical for maintaining healthy and highly-productive plantation forests. Significant research has focussed on assessing forest health using remotely sensed data from satellites and manned aircraft. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may provide new tools for improved forest health monitoring by providing data with very high temporal and spatial resolutions. These platforms also pose unique challenges and methods for health assessments must be validated before use. In this research, we simulated a disease outbreak in mature Pinus radiata D. Don trees using targeted application of herbicide. The objective was to acquire a time-series simulated disease expression dataset to develop methods for monitoring physiological stress from a UAV platform. Time-series multi-spectral imagery was acquired using a UAV flown over a trial at regular intervals. Traditional field-based health assessments of crown health (density) and needle health (discolouration) were carried out simultaneously by experienced forest health experts. Our results showed that multi-spectral imagery collected from a UAV is useful for identifying physiological stress in mature plantation trees even during the early stages of tree stress. We found that physiological stress could be detected earliest in data from the red edge and near infra-red bands. In contrast to previous findings, red edge data did not offer earlier detection of physiological stress than the near infra-red data. A non-parametric approach was used to model physiological stress based on spectral indices and was found to provide good classification accuracy (weighted kappa = 0.694). This model can be used to map physiological stress based on high-resolution multi-spectral data.

  10. Beyond health gain: the range of health system benefits expressed by social groups in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, M A; Sandiford, P; Ruiz, J A; Rovira, J

    2001-05-01

    Current health reform proposals in most developing countries stress health gain as the chief evaluation criterion. Essential service packages are formulated using cost-effectiveness methods for the selection of interventions without sufficient regard for other factors that are significant for successful implementation and acceptance by the needy. This paper presents the results of research undertaken in Mexico and Central America to test the hypothesis that population groups view health gain as only one among several benefits derived from health systems. The goal at this stage was two-fold: (a) to identify through qualitative methods the range of benefits that are significant for a wide cross-section of social groups and (b) to classify such benefits in types amenable to be used in the development of instruments to measure the benefits intended and actually produced by health systems. Fourteen focus groups were undertaken in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Nicaragua representing diverse age, gender, occupation and social conditions. Six major types of health system benefits were identified besides health gain: reassurance/uncertainty reduction, economic security, confidence in health system quality, financial benefits derived from the system, health care process utility and health system fairness. Benefits most often mentioned can be classed under health care process utility and confidence in system quality. They also have the most consensus across social groups. Other benefits mentioned have an affinity with social conditions. Human resource-derived utility stands out by its frequency in the range of benefits mentioned. Health systems and health sector reform proposals must emphasise those aspects of quality related to human resources to be in accord with population expectations.

  11. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea, P. M.; Tolosana-Esteban, E.; Roman-Jordan, E.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents. Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community. Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized. Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks. Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied. The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks. (Author)

  12. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents.Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community.Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized.Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks.Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied.   The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks.Key words: labour risk; forestry; accident rates; preventive measures; entrepreneurial risk management.

  13. Forest health and vitality: The detection and monitoring of Pinus patula trees infected by Sirex noctilio using digital multispectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, R.; Mutanga, O.; Bob, U.

    2007-01-01

    The Eurasian woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, causes considerable tree mortality in commercial pine plantations in southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Broad-scale visual assessments of infestation provided by forest managers are currently used to measure forest health and vitality. The effectiveness of

  14. Fungal-bacterial ratio as an indicator of forest soil health in single-tree selection and clearcut harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study are to examine the effect of clearcut and single-selection tree harvest on soil microbial communities and to determine the value of bacterial:fungal ratio as an indicator of forest soil health. Soil samples (0 – 5 cm) were collected at the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Proje...

  15. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  16. Educating veterinarians for careers in free-ranging wildlife medicine and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, J.A.K.; Hamilton, G.E.; Dierauf, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the field of zoological medicine has seen an expansive broadening into the arenas of free-ranging wildlife, conservation medicine, and ecosystem health. During the spring/summer of 2005, we prepared and disseminated a survey designed to identify training and educational needs for individuals entering the wildlife medicine and ecosystem health fields. Our data revealed that few wildlife veterinarians believe that the training they received in veterinary school adequately prepared them to acquire and succeed in their field. Wildlife veterinarians and their employers ranked mentorship with an experienced wildlife veterinarian, training in leadership and communication, courses and externships in wildlife health, and additional formal training beyond the veterinary degree as important in preparation for success. Employers, wildlife veterinarians, and job seekers alike reported that understanding and maintaining ecosystem health is a key component of the wildlife veterinarian's job description, as it is critical to protecting animal health, including human health. Today's wildlife veterinarians are a new type of transdisciplinary professional; they practice medicine in their communities and hold titles in every level of government and academia. It is time that we integrate ecosystem health into our curricula to nurture and enhance an expansive way of looking at veterinary medicine and to ensure that veterinary graduates are prepared to excel in this new and complex world, in which the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and people are interdependent.

  17. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Siphonaptera parasites of wild rodents and marsupials trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Leandro Bianco; Bossi, David Eduardo Paolinetti; Linhares, Arício Xavier

    2003-12-01

    A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species) and 50 marsupials (7 species) were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5%) captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 different species. New host records were determined for several flea species, and 5 significant associations between fleas and hosts were also found.

  19. Worker’s Competency and Perception toward Safety and Health on Forest Harvesting Operation in Indonesian Long Rotation Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of prevention measures such as government regulations and recommendations through technical and managerial researches, unsafe working practices are still a common practice in Indonesia's forestry work, especially in tree harvesting operation.  In order to determine competency level of both field supervisor and workers as a baseline in developing participatory occupational safety and health (OSH protection program, a previously developed competency assessing instrument has been modified.  Further, the redesigned instrument was used to verify competency level of field supervisor and forestry workers (chainsawman, hauling workers, and truck drivers from 6 different forest sites with similar working method.  Results showed that both group of respondents had overestimated their competency level in practical aspect, indicated by the gap existence between OSH self-perception value and the standard-based assessment value.  The gap significantly occurred in knowledge, skill, and attitude elements; however working attitudes rest in the worst level.  This finding then indicated that improving working attitude should be taken as the goal priority in the OSH protection programs in Indonesia.  In short, when the discussion is pointed to practical activities, OSH protection program should adapt such strategies which put serious consideration on control mechanism.Keywords: tree harvesting, workers, safety and health, competency, attitude

  20. Using multi-spectral landsat imagery to examine forest health trends at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawna L. Reid; Joan L. Walker; Abigail Schaaf

    2016-01-01

    Assessing vegetation health attributes like canopy density or live crown ratio and ecological processes such as growth or succession ultimately requires direct measures of plant communities. However, on-theground sampling is labor and time intensive, effectively limiting the amount of forest that can be evaluated. Radiometric data collected with a variety of sensors ...

  1. Evaluation of a Regional Monitoring Program's Statistical Power to Detect Temporal Trends in Forest Health Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year-1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year-1 in most indicators.

  2. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  3. Small geographic range but not panmictic: how forests structure the endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Sean A. Parks; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The landscape genetics framework is typically applied to broad regions that occupy only small portions of a species' range. Rarely is the entire range of a taxon the subject of study. We examined the landscape genetic structure of the endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra), whose isolated geographic range is found in a...

  4. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  5. A baseline assessment of forest composition, structure, and health in the Hawai‘i experimental tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Pattison; Andrew N. Gray; Lori. Tango

    2015-01-01

    The US Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station has been working in the Hawaiian islands since 2010. During this time they have installed a base grid of field plots across all of the Hawaiian Islands and an intensified sample of two experimental forests, the Laupāhoehoe and Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a units of the...

  6. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  7. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka,1 Kiichiro Tsutani,2 Yoshiteru Mutoh,3 Takuya Honda,4 Nobuyoshi Shiozawa,5 Shinpei Okada,6 Sang-Jun Park,6 Jun Kitayuguchi,7 Masamitsu Kamada,8 Hiroyasu Okuizumi,9 Shuichi Handa91Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Todai Policy Alternatives Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 5Food Labeling Division, Consumer Affairs Agency, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, Tokyo, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Shimane, 8Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, Shimane, 9Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Nagano, JapanObjective: To summarize the evidence for curative and health enhancement effects through forest therapy and to assess the quality of studies based on a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs.Study design: A systematic review based on RCTs.Methods: Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which forest therapy was applied. The following databases – from 1990 to November 9, 2010 – were searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ichushi-Web. All Cochrane databases and Campbell Systematic Reviews were also searched up to November 9, 2010.Results: Two trials met all inclusion criteria. No specific diseases were evaluated, and both studies reported significant effectiveness in one or more outcomes for health enhancement. However, the results of evaluations with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 and CLEAR NPT (A Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial checklists generally showed a remarkable lack of description in the studies. Furthermore, there was a

  8. Critical zone properties control the fate of nitrogen during experimental rainfall in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn S.; Ebel, Brian A.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Anderson, Suzanne P.

    2017-01-01

    Several decades of research in alpine ecosystems have demonstrated links among the critical zone, hydrologic response, and the fate of elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Less research has occurred in mid-elevation forests, which may be important for retaining atmospheric N deposition. To explore the fate of N in the montane zone, we conducted plot-scale experimental rainfall events across a north–south transect within a catchment of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Rainfall events mimicked relatively common storms (20–50% annual exceedance probability) and were labeled with 15N-nitrate (NO3−">NO−3NO3−) and lithium bromide tracers. For 4 weeks, we measured soil–water and leachate concentrations of Br−, 15NO3−,">15NO−3,15NO3−, and NO3−">NO−3NO3− daily, followed by recoveries of 15N species in bulk soils and microbial biomass. Tracers moved immediately into the subsurface of north-facing slope plots, exhibiting breakthrough at 10 and 30 cm over 22 days. Conversely, little transport of Br− or 15NO3−">15NO−315NO3− occurred in south-facing slope plots; tracers remained in soil or were lost via pathways not measured. Hillslope position was a significant determinant of soil 15N-NO3−">NO−3NO3− recoveries, while soil depth and time were significant determinants of 15N recovery in microbial biomass. Overall, 15N recovery in microbial biomass and leachate was greater in upper north-facing slope plots than lower north-facing (toeslope) and both south-facing slope plots in August; by October, 15N recovery in microbial N biomass within south-facing slope plots had increased substantially. Our results point to the importance of soil properties in controlling the fate of N in mid-elevation forests during the summer season.

  9. Impact of diurnal temperature range on human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xu; Jin, Liu; Song, Jian; Su, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Increasing epidemiological studies have shown that a rapid temperature change within 1 day is an independent risk factor for human health. This paper aimed to systematically review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and human health and to propose future research directions. A literature search was conducted in October 2013 using the databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCO. Empirical studies regarding the relationship between DTR and mortality and morbidity were included. Twenty-five relevant studies were identified, among which, 11 investigated the relationship between DTR and mortality and 14 examined the impact of DTR on morbidity. The majority of existing studies reported that DTR was significantly associated with mortality and morbidity, particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Notably, compared with adults, the elderly and children were more vulnerable to DTR effects. However, there were some inconsistencies regarding the susceptible groups, lag time, and threshold of DTR. The impact of DTR on human health may be confounded or modified by season, socioeconomic, and educational status. Further research is needed to further confirm the adverse effects of DTR in different geographical locations; examine the effects of DTR on the health of children aged one or under; explore extreme DTR effects on human health; analyze the difference of DTR effects on human health in different locations and the modified effects of potential confounding factors; and develop detailed preventive measures against large DTR, particularly for susceptible groups.

  10. Forest health in a changing world: Effects of globalization and climate change on forest insect and pathogen impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. D. Ramsfield; Barbara Bentz; M. Faccoli; H. Jactel; E. G. Brockerhoff

    2016-01-01

    Forests and trees throughout the world are increasingly affected by factors related to global change. Expanding international trade has facilitated invasions of numerous insects and pathogens into new regions. Many of these invasions have caused substantial forest damage, economic impacts and losses of ecosystem goods and services provided by trees. Climate...

  11. Factors affecting river health and its assessment over broad geographic ranges: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, S A; Scanlon, M D; Cocking, J S; Smith, M J; Kay, W R

    2007-11-01

    AusRivAS is an Australia-wide program that measures river condition using predictive models to compare the macroinvertebrate families occurring at a river site with those expected if the site were in natural condition. Results of assessment of 685 sites across all major rivers in Western Australia are presented. Most rivers were in relatively natural condition in the northern half of the state where the human population is low and pastoralism is the major land use. In the south, where the human population is higher and agriculture is more intensive, rivers were mostly more disturbed. AusRivAS assessment produced some erroneous results in rivers of the south-west cropping zone because of the lack of appropriate reference site groups and biased distribution of sampling sites. Collecting low numbers of animals from many forested streams, because of low stream productivity and samples that were difficult to sort, also affected assessments. Overall, however, AusRivAs assessment identified catchment processes that were inimical to river health. These processes included salinisation, high nutrient and organic loads, erosion and loss of riparian vegetation. River regulation, channel modification and fire were also associated with river degradation. As is the case with other assessment methods, one-off sampling at individual sites using AusRivAS may be misleading. Seasonal drought, in particular, may make it difficult to relate conditions at the time of sampling to longer-term river health. AusRivAS has shown river condition in Western Australia is not markedly different from other parts of Australia which, as a whole, lacks the substantial segments of severely degraded river systems reported in England.

  12. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.

  13. Climate sensitivity of reproduction in a mast-seeding boreal conifer across its distributional range from lowland to treeline forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Carl A; Schmidt, Joshua H; Johnstone, Jill F

    2014-03-01

    Mast-seeding conifers such as Picea glauca exhibit synchronous production of large seed crops over wide areas, suggesting climate factors as possible triggers for episodic high seed production. Rapidly changing climatic conditions may thus alter the tempo and spatial pattern of masting of dominant species with potentially far-reaching ecological consequences. Understanding the future reproductive dynamics of ecosystems including boreal forests, which may be dominated by mast-seeding species, requires identifying the specific cues that drive variation in reproductive output across landscape gradients and among years. Here we used annual data collected at three sites spanning an elevation gradient in interior Alaska, USA between 1986 and 2011 to produce the first quantitative models for climate controls over both seedfall and seed viability in P. glauca, a dominant boreal conifer. We identified positive associations between seedfall and increased summer precipitation and decreased summer warmth in all years except for the year prior to seedfall. Seed viability showed a contrasting response, with positive correlations to summer warmth in all years analyzed except for one, and an especially positive response to warm and wet conditions in the seedfall year. Finally, we found substantial reductions in reproductive potential of P. glauca at high elevation due to significantly reduced seed viability there. Our results indicate that major variation in the reproductive potential of this species may occur in different landscape positions in response to warming, with decreasing reproductive success in areas prone to drought stress contrasted with increasing success in higher elevation areas currently limited by cool summer temperatures.

  14. Response of forest soil Acari to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range.Can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Camann; Nancy E. Gillette; Karen L. Lamoncha; Sylvia R. Mori

    2008-01-01

    We studied responses of Acari, especially oribatid mites, to prescribed low-intensity fire in an east side pine site in the southern Cascade Range in California. We compared oribatid population and assemblage responses to prescribed fire in stands that had been selectively logged to enhance old growth characteristics, in logged stands to minimize old growth...

  15. Spectral Unmixing of Forest Crown Components at Close Range, Airborne and Simulated Sentinel-2 and EnMAP Spectral Imaging Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Clasen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest biochemical and biophysical variables and their spatial and temporal distribution are essential inputs to process-orientated ecosystem models. To provide this information, imaging spectroscopy appears to be a promising tool. In this context, the present study investigates the potential of spectral unmixing to derive sub-pixel crown component fractions in a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem. However, the high proportion of foliage in this complex vegetation structure leads to the problem of saturation effects, when applying broadband vegetation indices. This study illustrates that multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA can contribute to overcoming this challenge. Reference fractional abundances, as well as spectral measurements of the canopy components, could be precisely determined from a crane measurement platform situated in a deciduous forest in North-East Germany. In contrast to most other studies, which only use leaf and soil endmembers, this experimental setup allowed for the inclusion of a bark endmember for the unmixing of components within the canopy. This study demonstrates that the inclusion of additional endmembers markedly improves the accuracy. A mean absolute error of 7.9% could be achieved for the fractional occurrence of the leaf endmember and 5.9% for the bark endmember. In order to evaluate the results of this field-based study for airborne and satellite-based remote sensing applications, a transfer to Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA and simulated Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP and Sentinel-2 imagery was carried out. All sensors were capable of unmixing crown components with a mean absolute error ranging between 3% and 21%.

  16. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-02-01

    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  17. Assessment of present and future risk to Italian forests and human health: modelling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Alessandra

    2009-05-01

    A review of ozone pollution in Italy shows levels largely above the thresholds established by EU regulation for vegetation and human health protection. The Italian air quality monitoring network appears quantitatively inadequate to cover all the territorial surface, because of scarcity and unequal distribution of monitoring sites. By applying the integrated assessment model RAINS-Italy to the year 2000, the whole of Italy exceeds the AOT40 critical level for forest, while Northern and central areas show strong potential of O(3) impact on human health with approximately 11% of territory >10 O(3)-induced premature deaths. Two scenarios for the year 2020, the Current Legislation and the Maximum Technical Feasible Reduction, show a reduction of AOT40Forest by 29% and 44%, SOMO35 by 31% and 47%, and O(3)-induced premature deaths by 32% and 48%, compared to 2000. RAINS-Italy can be used to improve the map quality and cover areas not reached by the national monitoring network.

  18. Hydrologic monitoring of a landslide-prone hillslope in the Elliott State Forest, Southern Coast Range, Oregon, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joel B.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Burns, William J.; Morse, Michael M.; Sener-Kaya, Basak; Kaya, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The Oregon Coast Range is dissected by numerous unchanneled headwater basins, which can generate shallow landslides and debris flows during heavy or prolonged rainfall. An automated monitoring system was installed in an unchanneled headwater basin to measure rainfall, volumetric water content, groundwater temperature, and pore pressures at 15-minute intervals. The purpose of this report is to describe and present the methods used for the monitoring as well as the preliminary data collected during the period from 2009 to 2012. Observations show a pronounced seasonal variation in volumetric water content and pore pressures. Increases in pore pressures and volumetric water content from dry-season values begin with the onset of the rainy season in the fall (typically early to mid October). High water contents and pore pressures tend to persist throughout the rainy season, which typically ends in May. Heavy or prolonged rainfall during the wet season that falls on already moist soils often generates positive pore pressures that are observed in the deeper instruments. These data provide a record of the basin’s hydrologic response to rainfall and provide a foundation for understanding the conditions that lead to landslide and debris-flow occurrence.

  19. Impact of decentralised forest management on forest cover changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest inventory techniques were used to estimate tree harvests as major drivers of forest cover changes. The area under closed forest cover decreased substantially ranging from 0.4%.y-1 to 1.3%.y-1 in the montane forests with higher forest loss recorded under exclusive state management. In the semi-arid, the forest under ...

  20. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  1. Qualitative evaluation of general practices developing training for a range of health disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lesley A

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted an interpretative approach, using focus groups and face-to-face interviews to evaluate the development of a five-year pilot project within general practice. The aim of the project is for these practices to offer training to a range of health disciplines from varying academic levels, develop capacity and provide interprofessional education as part of the learning ethos. Eight consortia are involved in the project, which is funded by the workforce and education directorate and the Deanery of the Yorkshire and Humber Strategic Health Authority. The evaluation was undertaken 18 months into the project, to understand the views and experiences of primary care practitioners and university educationalists, in order to identify achievements and barriers to the project's development. The study revealed positive attitudes towards the project, and that steps are being taken to engage in dialogue with universities to increase student numbers, but progress is slow. Early experiences of student nurses taking up placements in the practices reveal incompatible learning outcomes between what is expected for curriculum and learning opportunities within primary care. A common concern is the impact increased students may pose on existing support structures, and that this may compromise student learning. Concern is evident over self-belief and competencies to teach across professions, and the ambiguity over the learning outcomes for IPE and the training required to support this. It is recommended that a systems theory be adopted to provide strategic planning across clinical and education organisations to ensure that structures of communication, leadership and training adequately meet the aims of the project. The paper will be of interest to practitioners in primary care who may be considering expanding services and training, and to educationalists seeking to allocate students to placements in primary care.

  2. Potential utility of SumbandilaSat imagery for monitoring indigenous forest health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous forest degradation is regarded as one of the most important environmental issues facing sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa in particular. Indigenous forest degradation is characterised by habitat fragmentation stemming from logging...

  3. Variability and Disturbances as Key Factors in Forest Pathology and Plant Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Garbelotto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant disease triangle (PDT is as old as the field of modern plant pathology, and it postulates that any plant disease is the outcome of the interaction between a pathogen, a host, and the environment. Recently, the need has emerged to study not only how the three elements of the PDT directly influence disease, but to focus on how they indirectly affect one another, consequently modifying the final outcome. It is also essential to structure such analyses within three major external frameworks provided by landscape level disturbances, climate change, and anthropogenic effects. The studies included in this issue cover a wide range of topics using an equally varied list of approaches, and they showcase the important role these indirect and often non-linear processes have on the development of forest diseases.

  4. Air pollution and climate change effects on health of the Ukrainian forests: monitoring and evalution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igor F. Buksha; Valentina L. Meshkova; Oleg M. Radchenko; Alexander S. Sidorov

    1998-01-01

    Forests in the Ukraine are affected by environmental pollution, intensive forestry practice, and recreational uses. These factors make them sensitive to impacts of climate change. Since 1989 Ukraine has participated in the International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests). A network of monitoring plots has...

  5. Reality check: Shedding new light on the restoration needs of mixed-conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Thomas Spies; Andrew. Merschel

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, scientific understanding of the history and ecology of the Pacific Northwest's mixed-conifer forests east of the Cascade Range was minimal. As a result, forest managers have had limited ability to restore the health of publicly owned forests that show signs of acute stress caused by insects, disease, grazing, logging, and wildfire. A...

  6. Remote sensing assessment of forest damage in the West Bohemian mountains of Central Europe: Use of airborne advanced solid-state array spectrometer (ASAS) and field GER2600 spectrometer data for forest health evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entcheva, P.; Rock, B.; Martin, M. [New Hampshire Univ., CSRC, EOS, Durham, NH (United States); Albrectova, J.; Solcova, B. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Tirney, M.; Irons, J. [GSFC, Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The relationship between spectral signatures acquired during the summer of 1998 using Advanced Solid-state Array Spectrometer (ASAS) and ground spectral data, forest stand parameters and health characteristics of the spruce forests of the West Bohemian Mountains were investigated. Recent assessment of selected forest stands in this region identified an ecosystem recovery, following dramatic growth decline between the mid-1960s through to the late-1980s. The project was undertaken to provide the capabilities needed for forest recovery assessment and accurate forest health monitoring. Preliminary results for Norway spruce confirm a significant correlation between chlorophyll levels and red edge (REIP) values as reported for red spruce and sugar maple in earlier studies. ASAS imagery is now being evaluated with regard to forest damage discrimination and mapping capabilities. Algorithms for extrapolation of forest health from selected sites are being developed and a number of reflectance ratios as indicators of forest stress have been suggested. ASAS imagery is also being evaluated for validation of the optimal bands for early damage detection. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  8. Determinants of spatial behavior of a tropical forest seed predator: The roles of optimal foraging, dietary diversification, and home range defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Suzanne; Powell, George V N; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Specialized seed predators in tropical forests may avoid seasonal food scarcity and interspecific feeding competition but may need to diversify their daily diet to limit ingestion of any given toxin. Seed predators may, therefore, adopt foraging strategies that favor dietary diversity and resource monitoring, rather than efficient energy intake, as suggested by optimal foraging theory. We tested whether fine-scale space use by a small-group-living seed predator-the bald-faced saki monkey (Pithecia irrorata)-reflected optimization of short-term foraging efficiency, maximization of daily dietary diversity, and/or responses to the threat of territorial encroachment by neighboring groups. Food patches across home ranges of five adjacent saki groups were widely spread, but areas with higher densities of stems or food species were not allocated greater feeding time. Foraging patterns-specifically, relatively long daily travel paths that bypassed available fruiting trees and relatively short feeding bouts in undepleted food patches-suggest a strategy that maximizes dietary diversification, rather than "optimal" foraging. Travel distance was unrelated to the proportion of seeds in the diet. Moreover, while taxonomically diverse, the daily diets of our study groups were no more species-rich than randomly derived diets based on co-occurring available food species. Sakis preferentially used overlapping areas of their HRs, within which adjacent groups shared many food trees, yet the density of food plants or food species in these areas was no greater than in other HR areas. The high likelihood of depletion by neighboring groups of otherwise enduring food sources may encourage monitoring of peripheral food patches in overlap areas, even if at the expense of immediate energy intake, suggesting that between-group competition is a key driver of fine-scale home range use in sakis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  10. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  11. Oklahoma's forests, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley; KaDonna. Randolph

    2017-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the 2014 forest inventory of Oklahoma (conducted 2009–2014) and examines changes since the previous survey of Oklahoma in 2008. Topics presented include forest area, volume, biomass, number of trees, growth, mortality, removals, forest health, silvicultural treatments, and forest ownership.

  12. 372 Profound Lack of Nonclinical Health Care Aptitude Across a Range of Health Care Providers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Gary R

    2016-08-01

    American health care continues to undergo profound changes at a breakneck speed. Future challenges show no signs of abating. We feel the next generation of health care providers and administrators should be well informed on the many facets of nonclinical health care (regulation, delivery, socioeconomics) to guide health care systems and public servants toward better, more efficient care. We suspect that few possess even rudimentary knowledge in these fields. We constructed a 40-question Nonclinical Health Care Delivery aptitude test covering diverse subjects such as economics, finance, public health, governmental oversight, insurance, coding/billing, study design and interpretation, and more. The test was administered to over 150 medical students, residents, young physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, administrators, and results tallied. There was, across the board, low aptitude in fundamental principles of nonclinical health care subjects. No single group performed particularly better than others. Almost all subjects showed profound gaps in knowledge. We found that aptitude for fundamental nonclinical health care subjects was profoundly lacking across all major groups of health care providers and administrators. We feel this indicates a need for a far more robust curriculum in health care delivery and socioeconomics. Failure to elevate the educational standards in this realm will jeopardize health care providers' seat at the table in changes in health care public policy.

  13. Using wood-based structural products as forest management tools to improve forest health, sustainability and reduce forest fuels : a research program of the USDA Forest Service under the National Fire Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Currently, after logging or thinning operations much of the low value timber is either left standing or is felled and left on the ground, chipped, or burned because most North American mills are not equipped to handle this material. In many areas of Western U.S., this forest residue does not decompose if felled and it soon becomes susceptible to forest insect or...

  14. Trade-offs between reproduction and health in free-ranging African striped mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, I; Pillay, N; Schradin, C

    2017-05-01

    Energy is limited and must be allocated among competing life-history traits. Reproduction is considered one of the most energetically demanding life-history stages. Therefore, the amount of energy an individual invests in reproduction might carry fitness costs through reduced energy allocation to other activities such as health maintenance. We investigated whether reproduction impacts health in the seasonally breeding African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio). We measured health in individuals that reproduced (breeders) and individuals that did not reproduce (their adult offspring) and tested whether: (1) breeders' health before reproduction was similar to that of their offspring (representing a baseline); (2) breeders' health deteriorated after reproduction; (3) breeders' health after reproduction was worse than that of their offspring. We collected blood samples from 12 breeding females and 11 breeding males both at the onset and at the end of the breeding season and from 12 adult daughters and 11 adult sons that did not reproduce at the end of the breeding season. Health was assessed using serum biochemistry analysis with VetScan Abaxis. Breeders differed considerably in their health before and after reproduction, particularly in parameters associated with digestion (lower amylase in males), metabolism (lower albumin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and glucose), osmoregulation (lower potassium and phosphorous in females) and immunity (higher globulin and altered alanine aminotransferase). Our results suggest that with the onset of breeding striped mice shifted their energy allocation from maintaining health to reproduction, indicating that investment into reproduction carries significant health costs.

  15. Historical and current forest and range landscapes in the interior Columbia River basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. Part 1: Linking vegetation patterns and landscape vulnerability to potential insect and pathogen disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Bradley G. Smith; Scott D. Kreiter; Craig A. Miller; R. Brion Salter; Cecilia H. McNicoll; Wendel J. Hann

    1999-01-01

    Management activities of the 20th century, especially fire exclusion, timber harvest, and domestic livestock grazing, have significantly modified vegetation spatial patterns of forests and ranges in the interior Columbia basin. Compositional patterns as well as patterns of living and dead structure have changed. Dramatic change in vital ecosystem processes such as fire...

  16. Mapping Robinia Pseudoacacia Forest Health Conditions by Using Combined Spectral, Spatial, and Textural Information Extracted from IKONOS Imagery and Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The textural and spatial information extracted from very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery provides complementary information for applications in which the spectral information is not sufficient for identification of spectrally similar landscape features. In this study grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM textures and a local statistical analysis Getis statistic (Gi, computed from IKONOS multispectral (MS imagery acquired from the Yellow River Delta in China, along with a random forest (RF classifier, were used to discriminate Robina pseudoacacia tree health levels. Specifically, eight GLCM texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, dissimilarity, contrast, entropy, angular second moment, and correlation were first calculated from IKONOS NIR band (Band 4 to determine an optimal window size (13 × 13 and an optimal direction (45°. Then, the optimal window size and direction were applied to the three other IKONOS MS bands (blue, green, and red for calculating the eight GLCM textures. Next, an optimal distance value (5 and an optimal neighborhood rule (Queen’s case were determined for calculating the four Gi features from the four IKONOS MS bands. Finally, different RF classification results of the three forest health conditions were created: (1 an overall accuracy (OA of 79.5% produced using the four MS band reflectances only; (2 an OA of 97.1% created with the eight GLCM features calculated from IKONOS Band 4 with the optimal window size of 13 × 13 and direction 45°; (3 an OA of 93.3% created with the all 32 GLCM features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with a window size of 13 × 13 and direction of 45°; (4 an OA of 94.0% created using the four Gi features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with the optimal distance value of 5 and Queen’s neighborhood rule; and (5 an OA of 96.9% created with the combined 16 spectral (four, spatial (four, and textural (eight features. The most important feature ranked by RF

  17. Home on the Range--Health Literacy, Rural Elderly, Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Weinert, Clarann; Spring, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The demographic and socioeconomic impacts of the baby boomer generation turning 65 in 2011 will be magnified in rural areas where elderly are already disproportionately represented. The overall goal of a collaborative, community-based project was to improve the health literacy, health outcomes, and overall well-being of rural elderly in four…

  18. Response of brown-headed cowbirds and three host species to thinning treatments in low-elevation ponderosa pine forests along the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, W.H.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Wanner, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests to achieve desired ecological conditions remains a priority in the North American west. In addition to reducing the risk of high-severity wildfires in unwanted areas, stand thinning may increase wildlife and plant diversity and provide increased opportunity for seedling recruitment. We initiated conservative (i.e. minimal removal of trees) ponderosa stand thinning treatments with the goals of reducing fire risk and improving habitat conditions for native wildlife and flora. We then compared site occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus), and western wood-pewees (Contopus sordidulus) in thinned and unthinned (i.e., control) forest stands from 2007 to 2009. Survey stations located in thinned stands had 64% fewer trees/ha, 25% less canopy cover, and 23% less basal area than stations in control stands. Occupancy by all three host species was negatively associated with tree density, suggesting that these species respond favorably to forest thinning treatments in ponderosa pine forests. We also encountered plumbeous vireos more frequently in plots closer to an ecotonal (forest/grassland) edge, an association that may increase their susceptibility to edge-specialist, brood parasites like brown-headed cowbirds. Occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds was not related to forest metrics but was related to occupancy by plumbeous vireos and the other host species in aggregate, supporting previous reports on the affiliation between these species. Forest management practices that promote heterogeneity in forest stand structure may benefit songbird populations in our area, but these treatments may also confer costs associated with increased cowbird occupancy. Further research is required to understand more on the complex relationships between occupancy of cowbirds and host species, and between cowbird occupancy and realized rates of nest parasitism.

  19. Nebraska's forest resources in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Gary J. Brand; Mark H. Hansen; William R. Lovett

    2005-01-01

    Reports results of the first three yearly panels (2001-2003) of the fourth inventory of Nebraska's forest resources. Includes information on forest area; volume; biomass; growth, removals, and mortality; and forest health.

  20. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  1. Assessment of spruce (Picea obovata) abundance by spectral unmixing algorithm for sustainable forest management in highland Natural Reserve (case study of Zigalga Range, South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheeva, Anna; Moiseev, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    In mountain territories climate change affects forest productivity and growth, which results in the tree line advancing and increasing of the forest density. These changes pose new challenges for forest managers whose responsibilities include forest resources inventory, monitoring and protection of ecosystems, and assessment of forest vulnerability. These activities require a range of sources of information, including exact squares of forested areas, forest densities and species abundances. Picea obovata, dominant tree species in South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia has regenerated, propagated and increased its relative cover during the recent 70 years. A remarkable shift of the upper limit of Picea obovata up to 60-80 m upslope was registered by repeating photography, especially on gentle slopes. The stands of Picea obovata are monitored by Reserve inspectors on the test plots to ensure that forests maintain or improve their productivity, these studies also include projective cover measurements. However, it is impossible to cover the entire territory of the Reserve by detailed field observations. Remote sensing data from Terra ASTER imagery provides valuable information for large territories (scene covers an area of 60 x 60 km) and can be used for quantitative mapping of forest and non-forest vegetation at regional scale (spatial resolution is 15-30 m for visible and infrared bands). A case study of estimating Picea obovata abundance was conducted for forest and forest-tundra sites of Zigalga Range, using 9-band ASTER multispectral imagery of 23.08.2007, field data and spectral unmixing algorithm. This type of algorithms intends to derive object and its abundance from a mixed pixel of multispectral imagery which can be further converted to object's projective cover. Atmospheric correction was applied to the imagery prior to spectral unmixing, and then pure spectra of Picea obovata were extracted from the image in 10 points and averaged. These points located in

  2. Forest fires and smoke - impacts on air quality and human health in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. Scientific and regulatory interest in the air quality impacts of forest fire smoke (both prescribed and wildfires) followed the implementation of the 1970 Clean Air Act amendments. Attention on forest fires became more focused as a series of new amendments were enacted to protect the air quality and visibility of "natural" areas...

  3. Health evaluation of free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourn, Annelisa M; Karesh, William B; Wolfe, Nathan D; Bosi, Edwin J; Cook, Robert A; Andau, Mahedi

    2003-01-01

    Baseline data on health of free-ranging wildlife is essential to evaluate impacts of habitat transformation and wildlife translocation, rehabilitation, and reintroduction programs. Health information on many species, especially great apes, is extremely limited. Between 1996 and 1998, 84 free-ranging orangutans captured for translocation, underwent a complete health evaluation. Analogous data were gathered from 60 semi-captive orangutans in Malaysia. Baseline hematology and serology; vitamin, mineral and pesticide levels; and results of health evaluations, including physical examination, provide a baseline for future monitoring. Free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans shared exposure to 11 of 47 viruses. The semi-captive orangutans had significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to adenovirus (P zika virus in both groups. Ebstein-Barr virus was ubiquitous in both groups. Prevalence of antibodies against mumps virus changed from 0% in 1996 to 45% in 1998. No antibodies were detected to many important zoonotic viral pathogens, including herpesvirus and hepatitis virus. Prevalence of Balantidium coli and Plasmodium pitheci infections and exposure to mycobacterium was higher in the semi-captive animals. Differences in exposure to pathogens between the groups may be due to environmental factors including differences in exposures to other species, habitat quality, nutritional status, and other potential stressors. Differences in health parameters between captive and free-ranging orangutans need to be considered when planning conservation areas, translocation procedures, and rehabilitation protocols. Because survival of the orangutan is linked to animal and ecosystem health, results of this study will assist wildlife conservation programs by providing baseline health information.

  4. Estructura de los encinares de la sierra de Santa Rosa, Guanajuato, México Oak forest structure in the Sierra de Santa Rosa range, Guanajuato, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martínez-Cruz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura de 4 asociaciones de encinares en el oriente de la sierra de Santa Rosa, Guanajuato, con el método de cuadrantes al punto central (21 transectos, donde se contabilizaron 2 320 individuos arbóreos y arbustivos, que incluyen 36 especies, 22 géneros y 15 familias. La asociación Quercus potosina-Q. castanea (QPC registró la mayor riqueza (29 especies y el menor número de individuos por ha-1 (650. Por el contrario, la asociación de Q. laurina-Q. rugosa (QLR presentó sólo 12 especies, pero la mayor densidad de arbustos por ha-1 (5 593. El índice α de Fisher y el análisis de rarefacción ratificaron que la asociación de QPC es la más diversa. La asociación Q. potosina-Q. eduardii (QPE fue la de mayor equidad. Los índices de Simpson (cualitativo y de Sørensen (cuantitativo coincidieron en que las asociaciones Q. coccolobifolia-QLR y QLR-QPE presentan la mayor diversidad beta. Debido al marcado deterioro que se observa en estos bosques, la heterogeneidad de las asociaciones de encinares respecto a su composición, atributos de estructura y diversidad, deben considerarse en acciones futuras encaminadas a lograr un manejo más sustentable de los recursos naturales que albergan estos bosques, así como acciones particulares de conservación y restauración.The structure of 4 oak associations in the western part of the Sierra de Santa Rosa range in Guanajuato state is described. Oak associations were sampled using the point centered quarter method (21 sites. We censused 2 320 individuals of trees and shrubs belonging to 36 species, in 22 genera and 15 families. Observed species richness (29 was highest in the Quercus potosina-Q. castanea association (QPC but tree density was the lowest (650 individuals/ha. Meanwhile, the Q. laurina-Q. rugosa association (QLR had the least number of observed species (12, but the maximum shrub density (5 593 individual/ ha. The Fisher index for alpha diversity and the rarefaction

  5. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...... disease, as was epidermal p16INK4a positivity. All associations with cardiovascular or metabolic disease attenuated when adjusting for age. In conclusion, in middle-aged to old persons, the molecular measures tested here were more weakly associated with age and health status than functional capacity...... and dermis and putative immunosenescence (presence of CD57+ T cells)). All functional capacity measures were associated with age. CRP and epidermal p16INK4a positivity were also associated with age, but with smaller estimates. Grip strength and the Stroop test were associated with cardiovascular or metabolic...

  6. Exploring the role of forest resources in reducing community vulnerability to the heat effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z.L. Walton; N.C. Poudyal; J. Hepinstall; C. Johnson Gaither; B.B. Boley

    2015-01-01

    While the growing literature on forest ecosystem services has examined the value and significance of a range ofservices, our understanding of the health-related benefits of ecosystem services from forests is still limited. Tocharacterize the role of forest resources in reducing community vulnerability to the heat effects of climate...

  7. Health burdens of surface ozone in the UK for a range of future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Mathew R; Heaviside, Clare; Doherty, Ruth M; Vieno, Massimo; Stevenson, David S; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to surface ozone (O3), which is influenced by emissions of precursor chemical species, meteorology and population distribution, is associated with excess mortality and respiratory morbidity. In this study, the EMEP-WRF atmospheric chemistry transport model was used to simulate surface O3 concentrations at 5km horizontal resolution over the British Isles for a baseline year of 2003, for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios for 2030, and for a +5°C increase in air temperature on the 2003 baseline. Deaths brought forward and hospitalisation burdens for 12 UK regions were calculated from population-weighted daily maximum 8-hour O3. The magnitude of changes in annual mean surface O3 over the UK for +5°C temperature (+1.0 to +1.5ppbv, depending on region) was comparable to those due to inter-annual meteorological variability (-1.5 to +1.5ppbv) but considerably less than changes due to precursor emissions changes by 2030 (-3.0 to +3.5ppbv, depending on scenario and region). Including population changes in 2030, both the 'current legislation' and 'maximum feasible reduction' scenarios yield greater O3-attributable health burdens than the 'high' emission scenario: +28%, +22%, and +16%, respectively, above 2003 baseline deaths brought forward (11,500) and respiratory hospital admissions (30,700), using O3 exposure over the full year and no threshold for health effects. The health burdens are greatest under the 'current legislation' scenario because O3 concentrations increase as a result of both increases in background O3 concentration and decreases in UK NOx emissions. For the +5°C scenario, and no threshold (and not including population increases), total UK health burden increases by 500 premature deaths (4%) relative to the 2003 baseline. If a 35ppbv threshold for O3 effects is assumed, health burdens are more sensitive to the current legislation and +5°C scenarios, although total health burdens are roughly an order of magnitude lower. In all scenarios, the

  8. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  9. Using a Forest Health Index as an Outreach Tool for Improving Public Understanding of Ecosystem Dynamics and Research-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osenga, E. C.; Cundiff, J.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Taylor, J. R.; Jack-Scott, E.

    2015-12-01

    An interactive tool called the Forest Health Index (FHI) has been developed for the Roaring Fork watershed of Colorado, with the purpose of improving public understanding of local forest management and ecosystem dynamics. The watershed contains large areas of White River National Forest, which plays a significant role in the local economy, particularly for recreation and tourism. Local interest in healthy forests is therefore strong, but public understanding of forest ecosystems is often simplified. This can pose challenges for land managers and researchers seeking a scientifically informed approach to forest restoration, management, and planning. Now in its second iteration, the FHI is a tool designed to help bridge that gap. The FHI uses a suite of indicators to create a numeric rating of forest functionality and change, based on the desired forest state in relation to four categories: Ecological Integrity, Public Health and Safety, Ecosystem Services, and Sustainable Use and Management. The rating is based on data derived from several sources including local weather stations, stream gauge data, SNOTEL sites, and National Forest Service archives. In addition to offering local outreach and education, this project offers broader insight into effective communication methods, as well as into the challenges of using quantitative analysis to rate ecosystem health. Goals of the FHI include its use in schools as a means of using local data and place-based learning to teach basic math and science concepts, improved public understanding of ecological complexity and need for ongoing forest management, and, in the future, its use as a model for outreach tools in other forested communities in the Intermountain West.

  10. Assessment of microbial health hazards associated with wastewater application to willow coppice, coniferous forest and wetland systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlander, Anneli

    2006-04-15

    Treatment and reuse of wastewater by irrigation of willow coppice, forest or wetlands may create new exposure routes for pathogens. This thesis summarises results from a series of field and laboratory studies aimed at identifying and quantifying the microbial health hazards associated with such alternative wastewater treatment systems. Leaching and retention of viruses in the soil-plant system were studied in a lysimeter experiment using a bacteriophage as model organism. The presence and die-off of pathogens was studied in three full-scale systems with wastewater irrigation of willow in southern Sweden. The reduction in pathogens was also studied in microcosms under controlled conditions. In addition, the presence and die-off of pathogens in two wetlands was studied. Finally, a risk assessment was made in order to identify and quantify the most important exposure routes of pathogens. In the Swedish full-scale systems, the average reduction in microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants was in the range 1.3-2.5 log10. Analyses of faeces collected in the irrigated area did not indicate an increase in pathogens in mammals and birds, whereas indicator organisms were detected in foliage and in some groundwater samples in the fields. The results of the lysimeter study showed very high retention of viruses in sandy soils, whereas leaching to groundwater was substantial and extremely rapid in the clay soil. In the microcosm study Campylobacter were rapidly reduced (<3 h) while Salmonella bacteria were highly resistant. No single factor (light, temperature or radiation) was found to govern the reduction. In the wetlands studied, the reduction in suspended particles seemed to be the main factor controlling bacterial elimination from the water phase. In the sediment, survival of microorganisms was prolonged. The theoretical microbial risk assessment indicated a substantial risk of viral infections caused by direct contact with the wastewater, with aerosols from

  11. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Shaunna K

    2010-01-01

    US transportation systems have been identified as a problem for public health, as they often encourage automobile transportation and discourage physical activity. This paper provides a case study examination of the Public Health Component of the Wasatch Front Regional Council's Regional Transportation Plan. This plan provides an example of what transportation planners at Utah's largest metropolitan planning organization (MPO) are doing to encourage physical activity through transportation. Existing active living research was used to guide recommendations using a process that included a comprehensive literature review and a review of existing state programs, advisory group and stakeholder meetings, and policy recommendations based on existing local conditions. Stakeholders from a diversity of background and interests came together with one common goal: to improve public health. Based on this collaborative process, nine policy approaches were specifically recommended for approval and integration in the Wasatch Front Regional Transportation Plan. By using current research as a guide and integrating a variety of interests, the Wasatch Front Regional Council is setting a new standard for a collaborative multi-modal focus in transportation planning, which can be replicated nationwide.

  12. HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT OF FREE-RANGING EASTERN INDIGO SNAKES (DRYMARCHON COUPERI) IN GEORGIA, UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Norton, Terry M; Mitchell, Mark; Stevenson, Dirk J; Hyslop, Natalie; Poppenga, Robert; Oliva, Marcie; Chen, Tai; Cray, Carolyn; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Durden, Lance; Stedman, Nancy; Divers, Stephen; Dierenfeld, Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Clinical pathology and nutritional parameters are useful in evaluating and monitoring threatened and endangered wildlife populations, but reference ranges for most snake species are lacking. From 2001 to 2005, health assessments were performed on 58 eastern indigo snakes (EIS) (Drymarchon couperi) captured in the wild in southeastern Georgia, United States. Health and nutritional assessments performed included hematology, serum biochemistry, fat-soluble vitamins, heavy metals, pesticide contaminants, parasitology, and surveys of other pathogens. Significant differences in total solids, packed cell volume, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, albumin : globulin ratio, amylase, triglycerides, and bile acids between males and females were observed. Additionally, there was a significant difference between liver and kidney concentrations for vitamins A and E. As previously noted in captive EIS, total Ca was elevated in comparison to concentrations reported in other snake species. Parasitism was a common finding in sampled EIS, but the overall health status of this free-ranging population appeared good. A winter-time dermatitis was found in most snakes, which resolved in the summer months. This study represents the first health and nutritional assessment of free-ranging EIS, and provides needed data to guide monitoring and conservation efforts.

  13. Evolution of Lyα Forest in Redshift Range 0.5

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We collect 23 spectral data from literature, which is regarded as a relatively sufficient sample. The evolution index γ was calculated to study the evolution of Lyα line density of Lyα forest. This paper discusses the relationship between the evolution with the redshift in different inter- val threshold of column density.

  14. Resolving model parameter values from carbon and nitrogen stock measurements in a wide range of tropical mature forests using nonlinear inversion and regression trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuguang Liua; Pamela Anderson; Guoyi Zhoud; Boone Kauffman; Flint Hughes; David Schimel; Vicente Watson; Joseph. Tosi

    2008-01-01

    Objectively assessing the performance of a model and deriving model parameter values from observations are critical and challenging in landscape to regional modeling. In this paper, we applied a nonlinear inversion technique to calibrate the ecosystem model CENTURY against carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stock measurements collected from 39 mature tropical forest sites in...

  15. Autogenous capsular interpositional arthroplasty surgery for painful hallux rigidus: assessing changes in range of motion and postoperative foot health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, Clayton N L; Kingsford, Andrew C; Samaras, Dean J

    2015-01-01

    The autogenous capsular interpositional arthroplasty procedure can be a motion-sparing alternative to arthrodesis for the treatment of recalcitrant hallux rigidus deformity. Previous studies have reported positive results; however, many had small samples or lacked comparable preoperative measures. The present study used a prospective cohort study to assess the benefit of this technique for increasing range of motion, and comparative data to assess the reduction of pain and improvements in perceived foot health status for a consecutively drawn sample of patients. Thirty-four patients (44 feet) reviewed using a long-arm goniometer at a mean of 3.75 years after surgery experienced a significant increase in dorsiflexion (preoperative mean 11.09° ± 10.13°; postoperative mean 26.64° ± 10.07°; p range was within the normal range postoperatively. The postoperative patient perceptions of foot pain were significantly better than those from a comparable sample of patients presenting for a surgical opinion (t[69] = 6.80), just as were the perceptions of foot function, foot health, and footwear comfort (p range of previously published studies. These results have shown, with improvements in range of motion and reduction in pain, that autogenous capsular interpositional arthroplasty is a useful, motion-sparing technique in the treatment of painful hallux rigidus and should be considered for classification as a clinical practice guideline. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. National semen analysis reference range reporting: adherence to the 1999 World Health Organization guidelines 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Heidi A; Windsperger, Andrew; Smith, Zachary; Parekattil, Sijo J; Kuang, Wayne W; Kolettis, Peter N; Nangia, Ajay K

    2011-06-01

    To determine the adherence by laboratories across the United States to the standard semen analysis guidelines and parameter reference ranges 10 years after being set by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999 and to compare compliance between regional laboratories vs. specialty assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratories. Observational study. Regional clinical and reproductive endocrinology andrology laboratories. Blank or deidentified semen analysis reports were collected from laboratories through direct contact or from reports received as part of clinical care for male infertility. Adherence to semen analysis reference range reporting as recommended by the 1999 WHO guidelines. Semen analyses reports were collected from 111 laboratories from 31 different states. Of 111 laboratories, 26 (23%) reported all reference range parameters in accordance with the guidelines. Of 65 ART laboratories, 21 (32%) complied with all reference range parameters as outlined by the guidelines, vs. 5 of 46 non-ART laboratories (11%). Seventy percent of laboratories that did not report 1999 WHO parameters did so because of differences in reference values for normal morphology. Adherence to WHO 1999 semen analysis reference range guidelines has not been achieved by ART and non-ART laboratories 10 years after being introduced. Non-ART laboratories report reference ranges less accurately than ART laboratories. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Forest resources and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  18. [The Effects of Urban Forest-walking Program on Health Promotion Behavior, Physical Health, Depression, and Quality of Life: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Office-workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Kyung Sook; Lee, In Sook; Kim, Sung Jae; Song, Min Kyung; Park, Se Eun

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed to determine the physical and psychological effects of an urban forest-walking program for office workers. For many workers, sedentary lifestyles can lead to low levels of physical activity causing various health problems despite an increased interest in health promotion. Fifty four office workers participated in this study. They were assigned to two groups (experimental group and control group) in random order and the experimental group performed 5 weeks of walking exercise based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills Model. The data were collected from October to November 2014. SPSS 21.0 was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed that the urban forest walking program had positive effects on the physical activity level (U=65.00, pforest-walking program may have positive effects on improving physical activity, health promotion behavior, and quality of life. The program can be used as an effective and efficient strategy for physical and psychological health promotion for office workers.

  19. Understanding Forest Health with Remote Sensing -Part I—A Review of Spectral Traits, Processes and Remote-Sensing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lausch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic stress and disturbance of forest ecosystems (FES has been increasing at all scales from local to global. In rapidly changing environments, in-situ terrestrial FES monitoring approaches have made tremendous progress but they are intensive and often integrate subjective indicators for forest health (FH. Remote sensing (RS bridges the gaps of these limitations, by monitoring indicators of FH on different spatio-temporal scales, and in a cost-effective, rapid, repetitive and objective manner. In this paper, we provide an overview of the definitions of FH, discussing the drivers, processes, stress and adaptation mechanisms of forest plants, and how we can observe FH with RS. We introduce the concept of spectral traits (ST and spectral trait variations (STV in the context of FH monitoring and discuss the prospects, limitations and constraints. Stress, disturbances and resource limitations can cause changes in FES taxonomic, structural and functional diversity; we provide examples how the ST/STV approach can be used for monitoring these FES characteristics. We show that RS based assessments of FH indicators using the ST/STV approach is a competent, affordable, repetitive and objective technique for monitoring. Even though the possibilities for observing the taxonomic diversity of animal species is limited with RS, the taxonomy of forest tree species can be recorded with RS, even though its accuracy is subject to certain constraints. RS has proved successful for monitoring the impacts from stress on structural and functional diversity. In particular, it has proven to be very suitable for recording the short-term dynamics of stress on FH, which cannot be cost-effectively recorded using in-situ methods. This paper gives an overview of the ST/STV approach, whereas the second paper of this series concentrates on discussing in-situ terrestrial monitoring, in-situ RS approaches and RS sensors and techniques for measuring ST/STV for FH.

  20. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  1. Assessing the threat that anthropogenic calcium depletion poses to forest health and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Eric K. Miller; Christopher. Eagar

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence from around the globe indicates that anthropogenic factors including pollution-induced acidification, associated aluminum mobility, and nitrogen saturation are disrupting natural nutrient cycles and depleting base cations from forest ecosystems. Although cation depletion can have varied and interacting influences on ecosystem function, it is the loss...

  2. Air pollution, precipitation chemistry and forest health in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA (United States)]. E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.us; Badea, Ovidiu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, Flaviu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Simeria (Romania); Musselman, Robert [USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Tanase, Mihai [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Barbu, Ioan [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Fraczek, Witold [Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA (United States); Gembasu, Nicolae [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Surdu, Aurelia [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Danescu, Florin [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Postelnicu, Daniela [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania); Cenusa, Radu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Vasile, Cristian [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    In the Retezat Mountains concentrations of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in summer season 2000-2002 were low and below toxicity levels for forest trees. While NH{sub 3} concentrations were low in 2000, the 2001 and 2002 concentrations were elevated indicating possibility for increased N deposition to forest stands. More than 90% of the rain events were acidic with pH values <5.5, contributing to increased acidity of soils. Crown condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was good, however, defoliation described as >25% of foliage injured increased from 9.1% in 2000 to 16.1% in 2002. Drought that occurred in the southern Carpathians between fall 2000 and summer 2002 and frequent acidic rainfalls could cause the observed decline of forest condition. Both Norway spruce and European beech with higher defoliation had lower annual radial increments compared to the trees with low defoliation. Ambient O{sub 3} levels found in the Retezat did not affect crown condition of Norway spruce or European beech. - Retezat Mountains are characterized by relatively clean air, acidic precipitation, and healthy, well growing forests.

  3. Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest health: implications for weeds and vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Peter Landres

    2012-01-01

    Current fire policy to restore ecosystem function and resiliency and reduce buildup of hazardous fuels implies a larger future role for fire (both natural and human ignitions) (USDA Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior 2000). Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, or helispots) potentially causes both short- and longterm...

  4. Long-range ozone transport and its impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the north of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Jezabel M.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; de Fátima Andrade, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Ozone dynamics depend on meteorological characteristics such as wind, radiation, sunshine, air temperature and precipitation. The aim of this study was to determine ozone trajectories along the northern coast of Portugal during the summer months of 2005, when there was a spate of forest fires in the region, evaluating their impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the greater metropolitan area of Porto. We investigated the following diseases, as coded in the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases: hypertensive disease (codes 401-405); ischemic heart disease (codes 410-414); other cardiac diseases, including heart failure (codes 426-428); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions, including bronchitis and asthma (codes 490-496); and pneumoconiosis and other lung diseases due to external agents (codes 500-507). We evaluated ozone data from air quality monitoring stations in the study area, together with data collected through HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model analysis of air mass circulation and synoptic-scale zonal wind from National Centers for Environmental Prediction data. High ozone levels in rural areas were attributed to the dispersion of pollutants induced by local circulation, as well as by mesoscale and synoptic scale processes. The fires of 2005 increased the levels of pollutants resulting from the direct emission of gases and particles into the atmosphere, especially when there were incoming frontal systems. For the meteorological case studies analyzed, peaks in ozone concentration were positively associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, although there were no significant associations between ozone peaks and admissions for respiratory diseases.

  5. The Western Bark Beetle Research Group: a unique collaboration with Forest Health Protection-proceedings of a symposium at the 2007 Society of American Foresters conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Hayes; J.E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    The compilation of papers in this proceedings is based on a symposium sponsored by the Insect and Diseases Working Group (D5) at the 2007 Society of American Foresters (SAF) convention in Portland, Oregon. The selection of topics parallels the research priorities of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group (WBBRG) (USDA Forest Service, Research and Development), which...

  6. Mapping Robinia pseudoacacia forest health in the Yellow River delta by using high-resolution IKONOS imagery and object-based image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Lu, Kaiyu; Pu, Ruiliang

    2016-10-01

    The Robinia pseudoacacia forest in the Yellow River delta of China has been planted since the 1970s, and a large area of dieback of the forest has occurred since the 1990s. To assess the condition of the R. pseudoacacia forest in three forest areas (i.e., Gudao, Machang, and Abandoned Yellow River) in the delta, we combined an estimation of scale parameters tool and geometry/topology assessment criteria to determine the optimal scale parameters, selected optimal predictive variables determined by stepwise discriminant analysis, and compared object-based image analysis (OBIA) and pixel-based approaches using IKONOS data. The experimental results showed that the optimal segmentation scale is 5 for both the Gudao and Machang forest areas, and 12 for the Abandoned Yellow River forest area. The results produced by the OBIA method were much better than those created by the pixel-based method. The overall accuracy of the OBIA method was 93.7% (versus 85.4% by the pixel-based) for Gudao, 89.0% (versus 72.7%) for Abandoned Yellow River, and 91.7% (versus 84.4%) for Machang. Our analysis results demonstrated that the OBIA method was an effective tool for rapidly mapping and assessing the health levels of forest.

  7. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  8. Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran chaco, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Cuéllar, Rosa Leny; Karesh, William B

    2005-12-01

    Bolivia has a total of 47 species of Psittacidae, seven of which have been identified in our study site, the semiarid Gran Chaco of the Isoso. One species, the blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva), is frequently captured by local Isoseño Guaraní Indians for exploitation on the national and international market. These birds are often temporarily housed in small villages under unhygienic conditions with poultry and other domestic species. On occasion, these parrots escape back to the wild. Additionally, many of these birds are kept as pets or are used to lure wild. parrots within slingshot range for subsequent capture. In this study, we evaluated the health status, including the level of exposure to selected infectious agents, in the wild-caught captive birds and free-ranging birds. Physical examinations were performed, and blood was collected, from 54 live birds (20 captive and 34 free-ranging). Feces were collected from 15 birds (seven captive and eight free-ranging). Necropsies were also performed on four recently dead wild-caught birds. On serologic testing, no birds were found to have antibodies to avian influenza virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Marek's disease virus, paramyxovirus-1, paramyxovirus-2, paramyxovirus-3, polyomavirus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Positive antibody titers were found for psittacine herpesvirus (8/44, 18.2%), Aspergillus spp. (3/51, 5.9%), and Salmonella pullorum (33/49, 67.3%). All three of the birds that tested antibody positive for Aspergillus spp. were captive, whereas six of the eight and 15 of the 33 birds that tested positive for psittacine herpesvirus and S. pullorum, respectively, were wild.

  9. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  10. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  11. Climate Change and Range Expansion of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in Northeastern USA: Implications for Public Health Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Hutchinson, Michael L.; Farajollahi, Ary

    2013-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is an invasive species with substantial biting activity, high disease vector potential, and a global distribution that continues to expand. New Jersey, southern New York, and Pennsylvania are currently the northernmost boundary of established Ae. albopictus populations in the eastern United States. Using positive geographic locations from these areas, we modeled the potential future range expansion of Ae. albopictus in northeastern USA under two climate change scenarios. The land area with environmental conditions suitable for Ae. albopictus populations is expected to increase from the current 5% to 16% in the next two decades and to 43%–49% by the end of the century. Presently, about one-third of the total human population of 55 million in northeastern USA reside in urban areas where Ae. albopictus is present. This number is predicted to double to about 60% by the end of the century, encompassing all major urban centers and placing over 30 million people under the threat of dense Ae. albopictus infestations. This mosquito species presents unique challenges to public health agencies and has already strained the resources available to mosquito control programs within its current range. As it continues to expand into areas with fewer resources and limited organized mosquito control, these challenges will be further exacerbated. Anticipating areas of potential establishment, while planning ahead and gathering sufficient resources will be the key for successful public health campaigns. A broad effort in community sanitation and education at all levels of government and the private sector will be required until new control techniques are developed that can be applied efficiently and effectively at reasonable cost to very large areas. PMID:23565282

  12. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  13. 36 CFR 222.10 - Range betterment fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allocated for range rehabilitation, protection and improvements on National Forest lands within the Forest... also be accomplished through use of the range betterment fund as follows: (a) On National Forest land... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range betterment fund. 222.10...

  14. The influence of chemical characteristics of precipitation on tree health in Banjica Forest (Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most represented tree species in the Banjica Forest are Acer negundo, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanus, Populus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia. According to the ICP Forests combined assessment (degree of defoliation and decolorization, endangered species are Populus nigra (64.3% of heavily damaged trees, Quercus robur (45.5%, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (37.0% and Acer negundo (26.6%, while the situation is much better for Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus ornus. For Robinia pseudoacacia, 83% of trees are without decolorization, however, defoliation is established. In the period from April to October 2009, the average pH of rainwater was 5.46, and 5.18 in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- in the period from April to October 2009 amounted to an average of 24.21 mg/l, and 28.87 mg/l in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- and pH values is a possible explanation for the condition of the trees. [Acknowledgments. The results are a part of the project III47007 funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  15. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Wildlife. A Reference for Forest Service, USDA Forest Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gail P.

    This guide was prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands. It consists of basic forest and range wildlife information. Sections in the publication include: (1) What is Wildlife; (2)…

  16. Using estimates of natural variation to detect ecologically important change in forest spatial patterns: a case study, Cascade Range, eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Bradley G. Smith; R. Brion. Salter

    1999-01-01

    Using hierarchical clustering techniques, we grouped subwatersheds on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range in Washington State into ecological subregions by similarity of area in potential vegetation and climate attributes. We then built spatially continuous historical and current vegetation maps for 48 randomly selected subwatersheds from interpretations of 1938-49...

  17. Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest health: Implications for weeds and vegetation structure (Project INT-F-04-01) [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Peter Landres

    2011-01-01

    Current fire policy to restore ecosystem function and resiliency and reduce buildup of hazardous fuels implies a larger future role for fire (both natural and human ignitions) (USDA and USDOI 2000). Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, or heli-spots) potentially causes both short- and long-term impacts to forest health. In the short run,...

  18. Using structural sustainability for forest health monitoring and triage: Case study of a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonusponderosae)-impacted landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. Cale; Jennifer G. Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin; Jose F. Negron; John D. Castello

    2016-01-01

    Heavy disturbance-induced mortality can negatively impact forest biota, functions, and services by drastically altering the forest structures that create stable environmental conditions. Disturbance impacts on forest structure can be assessed using structural sustainability - the degree of balance between living and dead portions of a tree population’s size-...

  19. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frozen Soil Impacts on Agricultural, Range, and Forest Lands Held at Spokane, Washington on March 21-22, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Thoms-Hjirpe (1986) Simulated and measured soil water dynamics of unfertilized and fertilized barley. Acta Agricultura Scendinavica, Vol. 36, pp. 162...27, No. 2-3, pp. 89-109. Steen, E., P.-E. Jansson and J. Persson (1984) Experimental site of the ’Ecology of Arable Land’ project. Acta Agricultura ...the 38 degree North Latitude line but the high mountain ranges of New Mexico , Arizona, and California. Therefore, knowledge of the complex phenomena

  20. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under Forest...

  1. Beginnings of range management: Albert F. Potter, first Chief of Grazing, U.S. Forest Service, and a photographic comparison of his 1902 Forest Reserve Survey in Utah with conditions 100 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Prevedel; Curtis M. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The period from 1880 to 1900 is regarded as the period of "spoilation" of western rangelands. In Albert Potters own words, "Quick profits and fortunes lead to speculation and incredible numbers of stock were placed upon the range. Cowman was arrayed against sheep man, big owners against small, and might ruled more often than right." The Government...

  2. Urban forest influences on exposure to UV radiation and potential consequences for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the literature on ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in the planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures, especially for high use pedestrian areas and school play...

  3. The Forest for the Trees: A Systems Approach to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Julia M.; Portier, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the relationship between current research directions in human health and environmental and public health policy. Specifically, we suggest there is a link between the continuing emphasis in biomedical research on individualized, therapeutic solutions to human disease and the increased reliance on individual choice in response to environmental and/or public health threats. We suggest that continued research emphasis on these traditional approaches to the exclusion of other approaches will impede the discovery of important breakthroughs in human health research necessary to understand the emerging diseases of today. We recommend redirecting research programs to interdisciplinary and population-focused research that would support a systems approach to fully identifying the environmental factors that contribute to disease burden. Such an approach would be able to address the interactions between the social, ecological, and physical aspects of our environment and explicitly include these in the evaluation and management of health risks from environmental exposures. PMID:17805413

  4. A radio tracking study of home range and movements of the marsupial Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Mammalia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available From August 2001 to July 2002 the home range and movements of seven Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (three males and four females were investigated using radio tracking in the União Biological Reserve, state of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. A total of 436 locations was obtained and home range estimated with fixed Kernel (95% of data points, and minimum convex polygon (MCP methods, with 100 and 95% of data points. Male home ranges estimated by MCP (100% ranged from 5.4-24.2 ha and females from 0.3-10.7 ha. Corresponding figures calculated with Kernel (95% were 4-10.9 ha for males and 1.3-5.9 ha for females. Animals travelled on average 423 m/night, with males travelling significantly further (582.8 m/night than females (335.1 m/night (t test, t = 3.609, p = 0.001. We concluded that radio tracking produced much larger home ranges than those estimated with traditional live-trapping techniques, suggesting that the latter might underestimate ranging when the area covered with traps is relatively small (ca. 1 ha or less. Radio tracking also indicated that M. demerarae, although predominantly arboreal and weighting only ca. 130 g., has movements similar in magnitude to larger-sized terrestrial didelphimorph marsupials, such as Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758, Philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Metachirus (Desmarest, 1817.No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 a área de uso e o movimento de sete Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (três machos e quatro fêmeas foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foi obtido um total de 436 localizações e estimou-se a área de uso através dos métodos Kernel fixo (95% das localizações e polígono mínimo convexo (PMC, com 100 e 95% das localizações. A área de uso dos machos estimada pelo PMC (100% variou de 5,4-24,2 ha e fêmeas de 0,3-10,7 ha. Áreas calculadas com Kernel (95% foram 4-10,9 ha para machos e 1,3-5,9 ha para f

  5. Reference ranges of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, total and free testosterone determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS and associations to health markers in 304 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.S.; Johannsen, T H; Holmboe, Stine Agergaard

    2016-01-01

    We report reference ranges based on LC-MS/MS for testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and its precursors, i.e. 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (Adione), in relation to different health markers and lifestyle factors...... of health markers in healthy men provides age-related reference ranges, and furthermore evaluates the impact of lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome on androgen metabolite levels....

  6. Examining the ecosystem health and sustainability of the world's largest mangrove forest using multi-temporal MODIS products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque, Asif; Myint, Soe W; Wang, Chuyuan

    2016-11-01

    Sweeping across Bangladesh and India, the Sundarbans forest is the world's largest contiguous mangrove forest. Although the human population density is high at the edge, Sundarbans has not encountered significant areal transformation in the last four decades. However, we argue that forest degradation can occur discontinuously within the forest without alteration of the entire forest area. In this paper, we used MODIS land products to compare the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics of the Bangladesh and Indian part of this mangrove forest between 2000 and 2010. We used the following 5 ecological parameters for our analysis: the Percent Tree Cover (PTC), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Evapotranspiration (ET). Our pixel-based time-series trend analysis for each MODIS image stack, using an ordinary least square (OLS) regression method, showed that forest degradation is happening in fragmented parcels within the forest. The degradation rate is comparatively higher in the Bangladesh part than in the Indian part of Sundarbans. Compartments 8, 10, 12, and 15 in the Bangladesh part, in particular, show high degradation, while compartment 48 and the southern edge of 45 show slight increases in PTC or EVI. Forest degradation in the Indian part of the forest is evident in the National Park and Reserve Forest blocks; however, no substantial degradation is evident in the western section. We have identified certain anthropogenic stressors (i.e., oil pollution, shrimp farming) and natural stressors (i.e., increased salinity, cyclones, forest fire) which might be responsible for the observed degradation. We have provided sustainable planning options and policy transformation alternatives for those areas under pressure from these stressors. We anticipate that our analysis of forest degradation will help management agencies, conservators, and policy makers achieve better management of this world's largest mangrove forest for

  7. Evaluation of winter food quality and its variability for red deer in forest environment: overwintering enclosures vs. free-ranging areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holá Michaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Populations of European ungulates have grown substantially over recent decades, resulting in considerable environmental and socio-economic impacts. Availability and quality of natural and supplemental food sources are among the main factors driving their population dynamics. Detailed knowledge of food quality of management-targeted species is therefore of primary importance for their successful management. The main aim of this study was to evaluate winter food quality and its variability for an important ungulate species in the Czech Republic - i.e. red deer, using faecal indices (faecal nitrogen, faecal acid detergent fibre, faecal neutral detergent fibre and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. We compared food quality for red deer and its possible differences between overwintering enclosures (i.e. fenced areas where red deer spend harsh winter conditions and neighbouring unfenced free-ranging areas within two study areas. The results obtained showed that winter food quality and its variability for red deer are of different quality and variability in the overwintering enclosure and neighbouring free-ranging area. The observed differences in concentrations and amounts of variation of faecal indices are most probably related to animal densities at individual study areas. Wildlife managers should therefore keep animals in overwintering enclosures at moderate densities and to provide high quality forage to all individuals in order to balance nutrition of both the individuals inside and outside the enclosures. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in order to provide deeper knowledge on red deer food quality and its variability in space and time.

  8. Soils as an indicator of forest health: a guide to the collection, analysis, and interpretation of soil indicator data in the Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine P O' Neill; Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry

    2005-01-01

    Documents the types of data collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis soil indicator, the field and laboratory methods used, and the rationale behind these data collection procedures. Guides analysts and researchers on incorporating soil indicator data into reports and research studies.

  9. The national forest inventory of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, is to conduct the national forest inventory of the United States of America for purposes of estimating the area of forest land; the volume, growth, and removal of forest resources; and the health of the forest. Users of FIA data, estimates, and related...

  10. Biochemical Foundations of Health and Energy Conservation in Hibernating Free-ranging Subadult Brown Bear Ursus arctos*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Sønderkær, Mads; Arinell, Karin; Swenson, Jon E.; Revsbech, Inge G.

    2016-01-01

    Brown bears (Ursus arctos) hibernate for 5–7 months without eating, drinking, urinating, and defecating at a metabolic rate of only 25% of the summer activity rate. Nonetheless, they emerge healthy and alert in spring. We quantified the biochemical adaptations for hibernation by comparing the proteome, metabolome, and hematological features of blood from hibernating and active free-ranging subadult brown bears with a focus on conservation of health and energy. We found that total plasma protein concentration increased during hibernation, even though the concentrations of most individual plasma proteins decreased, as did the white blood cell types. Strikingly, antimicrobial defense proteins increased in concentration. Central functions in hibernation involving the coagulation response and protease inhibition, as well as lipid transport and metabolism, were upheld by increased levels of very few key or broad specificity proteins. The changes in coagulation factor levels matched the changes in activity measurements. A dramatic 45-fold increase in sex hormone-binding globulin levels during hibernation draws, for the first time, attention to its significant but unknown role in maintaining hibernation physiology. We propose that energy for the costly protein synthesis is reduced by three mechanisms as follows: (i) dehydration, which increases protein concentration without de novo synthesis; (ii) reduced protein degradation rates due to a 6 °C reduction in body temperature and decreased protease activity; and (iii) a marked redistribution of energy resources only increasing de novo synthesis of a few key proteins. The comprehensive global data identified novel biochemical strategies for bear adaptations to the extreme condition of hibernation and have implications for our understanding of physiology in general. PMID:27609515

  11. Biochemical Foundations of Health and Energy Conservation in Hibernating Free-ranging Subadult Brown Bear Ursus arctos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Hansen, Rasmus; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Brohus, Malene; Sønderkær, Mads; von Bergen, Martin; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Otto, Wolfgang; Lindahl, Tomas L; Arinell, Karin; Evans, Alina L; Swenson, Jon E; Revsbech, Inge G; Frøbert, Ole

    2016-10-21

    Brown bears (Ursus arctos) hibernate for 5-7 months without eating, drinking, urinating, and defecating at a metabolic rate of only 25% of the summer activity rate. Nonetheless, they emerge healthy and alert in spring. We quantified the biochemical adaptations for hibernation by comparing the proteome, metabolome, and hematological features of blood from hibernating and active free-ranging subadult brown bears with a focus on conservation of health and energy. We found that total plasma protein concentration increased during hibernation, even though the concentrations of most individual plasma proteins decreased, as did the white blood cell types. Strikingly, antimicrobial defense proteins increased in concentration. Central functions in hibernation involving the coagulation response and protease inhibition, as well as lipid transport and metabolism, were upheld by increased levels of very few key or broad specificity proteins. The changes in coagulation factor levels matched the changes in activity measurements. A dramatic 45-fold increase in sex hormone-binding globulin levels during hibernation draws, for the first time, attention to its significant but unknown role in maintaining hibernation physiology. We propose that energy for the costly protein synthesis is reduced by three mechanisms as follows: (i) dehydration, which increases protein concentration without de novo synthesis; (ii) reduced protein degradation rates due to a 6 °C reduction in body temperature and decreased protease activity; and (iii) a marked redistribution of energy resources only increasing de novo synthesis of a few key proteins. The comprehensive global data identified novel biochemical strategies for bear adaptations to the extreme condition of hibernation and have implications for our understanding of physiology in general. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Air quality at a snowmobile staging area and snow chemistry on and off trail in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest, Snowy Range, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C; Korfmacher, John L

    2007-10-01

    A study was begun in the winter of 2000-2001 and continued through the winter of 2001-2002 to examine air quality at the Green Rock snowmobile staging area at 2,985 m elevation in the Snowy Range of Wyoming. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of winter recreation snowmobile activity on air quality at this high elevation site by measuring levels of nitrogen oxides (NO( x ), NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O(3)) and particulate matter (PM(10) mass). Snowmobile numbers were higher weekends than weekdays, but numbers were difficult to quantify with an infrared sensor. Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were significantly higher weekends than weekdays. Ozone and particulate matter were not significantly different during the weekend compared to weekdays. Air quality data during the summer was also compared to the winter data. Carbon monoxide levels at the site were significantly higher during the winter than during the summer. Nitrogen oxides and particulates were significantly higher during the summer compared to winter. Nevertheless, air pollutants were well dispersed and diluted by strong winds common at the site, and it appears that snowmobile emissions did not have a significant impact on air quality at this high elevation ecosystem. Pollutant concentrations were generally low both winter and summer. In a separate study, water chemistry and snow density were measured from snow samples collected on and adjacent to a snowmobile trail. Snow on the trail was significantly denser and significantly more acidic with significantly higher concentrations of sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, and sulfate than in snow off the trail. Snowmobile activity had no effect on nitrate levels in snow.

  13. Forest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  14. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  15. Forest operations for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  16. Disruption of calcium nutrition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire) alters the health and productivity of red spruce and sugar maple trees and provides lessons pertinent to other sites and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley

    2010-01-01

    Pollution-induced acidification and other anthropogenic factors are leaching calcium (Ca) and mobilizing aluminum (Al) in many forest soils. Because Ca is an essential nutrient and Al is a potential toxin, resulting depletions of Ca and increases in available Al may significantly alter the health and productivity of forest trees. Controlled experiments on red spruce (...

  17. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borecki Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.

  18. HEALTH SURVEY OF FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  19. Characteristic miRNA expression signature and random forest survival analysis identify potential cancer-driving miRNAs in a broad range of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Lopez, Yury O; Victoria, Berta; Golusinski, Pawel; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the miRNA expression profile in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSSC) accounting for a broad range of cancer subtypes and consequently identify an optimal miRNA signature with prognostic value. HNSCC is consistently among the most common cancers worldwide. Its mortality rate is about 50% because of the characteristic aggressive behavior of these cancers and the prevalent late diagnosis. The heterogeneity of the disease has hampered the development of robust prognostic tools with broad clinical utility. The Cancer Genome Atlas HNSC dataset was used to analyze level 3 miRNA-Seq data from 497 HNSCC patients. Differential expression (DE) analysis was implemented using the limma package and multivariate linear model that adjusted for the confounding effects of age at diagnosis, gender, race, alcohol history, anatomic neoplasm subdivision, pathologic stage, T and N stages, and vital status. Random forest (RF) for survival analysis was implemented using the randomForestSRC package. A characteristic DE miRNA signature of HNSCC, comprised of 11 upregulated (i.e., miR-196b-5p, miR-1269a, miR-196a-5p, miR-4652-3p, miR-210-3p, miR-1293, miR-615-3p, miR-503-5p, miR-455-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-21-5p) and 9 downregulated (miR-376c-3p, miR-378c, miR-29c-3p, miR-101-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-299-5p, miR-139-5p, miR-6510-3p, miR-375) miRNAs was identified. An optimal RF survival model was built from seven variables including age at diagnosis, miR-378c, miR-6510-3p, stage N, pathologic stage, gender, and race (listed in order of variable importance). The joint differential miRNA expression and survival analysis controlling for multiple confounding covariates implemented in this study allowed for the identification of a previously undetected prognostic miRNA signature characteristic of a broad range of HNSCC.

  20. Minnesota's forests 1999-2003 (Part A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Keith Jacobson; Gary J. Brand; Ed Jepsen; Dacia Meneguzzo; Manfred E. Mielke; Cassandra Olson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry Tyler Wilson; Christopher Woodall

    2007-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports more than 16.2 million acres of forest land. Additional forest attribute and forest health information is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and diseases.

  1. Socio-demographic inequalities across a range of health status indicators and health behaviours among pregnant women in prenatal primary care: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R.; Mannien, J.; te Velde, S.J.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview

  2. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  3. Forest statistics of the United States, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Danlel D. Oswald; Douglas S. Powell

    1989-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 (88 Stat. 476 as amended) directs the U.S. Department of Agriculture to conduct a comprehensive assessment of all forest and range land resources on both public and private lands. Forest resource data collected from periodic surveys in each State and Forest Service Region were entered into a...

  4. Seedling density according to structure, dominance and understory cover in old-growth forest stands of the evergreen forest type in the coastal range of Chile Densidad de plántulas de acuerdo a la estructura, dominancia y cobertura del sotobosque en bosques siempreverdes adultos en la cordillera de la Costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Donoso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Securing timely regeneration is essential in maintaining the long-term ecological or silvicultural functions and values of forests. Its establishment, in turn, depends on many factors, including the structure and composition of the forest itself. Available information shows that seedling density varies greatly across the evergreen forest type in Chile. Yet stand variables that may affect the establishment of advance regeneration have not been studied. To that end, we evaluated seven stands of the coastal range, within the northern part of the evergreen forest type (39°14'-40°16' S. We documented understory cover, tree density and dominance, and stand structure, and used the information to assess their effects over seedling density. Findings indicate that Laurelia philippiana was the dominant canopy and regenerating species in these stands. Also, seedling density was significantly greater in stands at lower elevations where shade-tolerant Aextoxicon punctatum was important. Chusquea spp. and Lophosoria quadripinnata, both understory species, had a significant negative effect on seedling density. Basal area and canopy cover, per se, showed little relationship with seedling density. Vertical structure, evaluated through a crown index, had a significant relationship with seedling density, but the direction depended on the species (e.g., L. philippiana and A. punctatum and the diameter structure within our plots. Fitted models that included these variables were highly significant, and in most cases their significance increased considerably (14 to 26 % when we accounted for the diameter structures of the plotsLa regeneración es esencial para mantener en el largo plazo las funciones y valores ecológicos o silviculturales de los bosques. Su establecimiento depende de varios factores, incluyendo la estructura y composición del bosque. La información disponible indica que existe una gran variabilidad en la densidad de plántulas a través de la

  5. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  6. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  7. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  8. Installation restoration program (irp) remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Human health and ecological risk assessment. Final baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of the Baseline Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Report is to provide an assessment of the risk to human and ecological receptors from exposure to contaminants measured during the 1994 Remedial Investigation at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  9. Assessment of visible vegetation injury and forest health at Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, after Hurricane Hugo

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The forests and upland communities of the CRNWR have changed dramatically between 1988 and 1992. Although both the extent and magnitude of pollution-like...

  10. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-24

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  11. Breast cancer patients on adjuvant chemotherapy report a wide range of problems not identified by health-care staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenvold, Mogens; Fayers, Peter M.; Petersen, Morten Aagard; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Mouridsen, Henning T.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer is associated with significant side effects. The aims of this study were (1) to compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy to patients not on chemotherapy and (2) to compare these results

  12. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  13. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  14. Detecting Drought-Induced Tree Mortality in Sierra Nevada Forests with Time Series of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Byer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-year drought in California led to a significant increase in tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada forests from 2012 to 2016. Landscape level monitoring of forest health and tree dieback is critical for vegetation and disaster management strategies. We examined the capability of multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in detecting and explaining the impacts of the recent severe drought in Sierra Nevada forests. Remote sensing metrics were developed to represent baseline forest health conditions and drought stress using time series of MODIS vegetation indices (VIs and a water index. We used Random Forest algorithms, trained with forest aerial detection surveys data, to detect tree mortality based on the remote sensing metrics and topographical variables. Map estimates of tree mortality demonstrated that our two-stage Random Forest models were capable of detecting the spatial patterns and severity of tree mortality, with an overall producer’s accuracy of 96.3% for the classification Random Forest (CRF and a RMSE of 7.19 dead trees per acre for the regression Random Forest (RRF. The overall omission errors of the CRF ranged from 19% for the severe mortality class to 27% for the low mortality class. Interpretations of the models revealed that forests with higher productivity preceding the onset of drought were more vulnerable to drought stress and, consequently, more likely to experience tree mortality. This method highlights the importance of incorporating baseline forest health data and measurements of drought stress in understanding forest response to severe drought.

  15. Socio-demographic inequalities across a range of health status indicators and health behaviours among pregnant women in prenatal primary care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; te Velde, Saskia J; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2015-10-13

    Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview of the self-reported health status and health behaviours of pregnant women under midwife-led primary care in the Netherlands. Our second aim was to identify potential differences in these health status indicators and behaviours according to educational level (as a proxy for socio-economic status) and ethnicity (as a proxy for immigration status). Our cross-sectional study (data obtained from the DELIVER multicentre prospective cohort study conducted from September 2009 to March 2011) was based on questionnaires about maternal health and prenatal care, which were completed by 6711 pregnant women. The relationships of education and ethnicity with 13 health status indicators and 10 health behaviours during pregnancy were examined using multilevel multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, parity, number of weeks pregnant and either education or ethnicity. Lower educated women were especially more likely to smoke (Odds Ratio (OR) 11.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6- 16.8); have passive smoking exposure (OR 6.9; 95% CI 4.4-11.0); have low health control beliefs (OR 10.4; 95% CI 8.5-12.8); not attend antenatal classes (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.8) and not take folic acid supplementation (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.7-4.4). They were also somewhat more likely to skip breakfast daily, be obese, underweight and depressed or anxious. Non-western women were especially more likely not to take folic acid supplementation (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.7); have low health control beliefs (OR 4.1; 95% CI 3.1-5.2) and not to attend antenatal classes (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0-5.4). They were also somewhat more likely to have nausea, back pains and passive smoking exposure. Substantial socio-demographic inequalities

  16. Criterion 2: Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    People rely on forests, directly and indirectly, for a wide range of goods and services. Measures of forest productive capacity are indicators of the ability of forests to sustainably supply goods and services over time. An ongoing emphasis on maintaining productive capacity of forests can help ensure that utilization of forest resources does not impair long term...

  17. On-Board State-of-Health Estimation at a Wide Ambient Temperature Range in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansi Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-health (SOH estimation method for electric vehicles (EVs is presented with three main advantages: (1 it provides joint estimation of cell’s aging states in terms of power and energy (i.e., SOHP and SOHE—because the determination of SOHP and SOHE can be reduced to the estimation of the ohmic resistance increase and capacity loss, respectively, the ohmic resistance at nominal temperature will be taken as a health indicator, and the capacity loss is estimated based on a mechanistic model that is developed to describe the correlation between resistance increase and capacity loss; (2 it has wide applicability to various ambient temperatures—to eliminate the effects of temperature on the resistance, another mechanistic model about the resistance against temperature is presented, which can normalize the resistance at various temperatures to its standard value at the nominal temperature; and (3 it needs low computational efforts for on-board application—based on a linear equation of cell’s dynamic behaviors, the recursive least-squares (RLS algorithm is used for the resistance estimation. Based on the designed performance and validation experiments, respectively, the coefficients of the models are determined and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified. The results at different aging states and temperatures show good accuracy and reliability.

  18. Tunneling Nanotubes and Gap Junctions–Their Role in Long-Range Intercellular Communication during Development, Health, and Disease Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ariazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines, gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs. It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. TNTs are long cytoplasmic bridges that enable long-range, directed communication between connected cells. The proposed functions of TNTs are diverse and not well understood but have been shown to include the cell-to-cell transfer of vesicles, organelles, electrical stimuli and small molecules. However, the exact role of TNTs and gap junctions for intercellular communication and their impact on disease is still uncertain and thus, the subject of much debate. The combined data from numerous laboratories indicate that some TNT mediate a long-range gap junctional communication to coordinate metabolism and signaling, in relation to infectious, genetic, metabolic, cancer, and age-related diseases. This review aims to describe the current knowledge, challenges and future perspectives to characterize and explore this new intercellular communication system and to design TNT-based therapeutic strategies.

  19. A Proposal for an Out-of-Range Glycemic Population Health Safety Measure for Older Adults With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogach, Leonard; Tseng, Chin-Lin; Soroka, Orysya; Maney, Miriam; Aron, David

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate patient-level glycemic control and facility variation of a proposed out-of-range (OOR) measure (overtreatment [OT] [HbA1c 9% (75 mmol/mol)]) compared with the standard measure (SM) (HbA1c 75 years. The 47.4% of patients 65-75 years met the OOR measure (33.4% OT, 14% UT), and 65.7% met the SM. For patients aged >75 years, rates were 48.1% for OOR (39.2% OT; 8.9% UT) and 73.2% for SM. Facility-level rates for OOR for patients aged 65-75 years ranged from 33.7 to 60.4% (median 47.4%), with a strong inverse correlation (ρ = -0.41) between SM and OOR performance rankings. Among the best-performing 20% facilities on the SM, 14 of 28 ranked in the worst-performing 20% on the OOR measure; 12 of 27 of the worst-performing 20% facilities on the SM ranked in the best-performing 20% on the OOR measure. Facility rankings that are based on an SM (potential benefits) and OOR measure (potential risks) differ substantially. An OOR for high-risk populations can focus quality improvement on individual patient evaluation to reduce the risk for short-term harms. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. U.S. forest products module : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Henry N. Spelter; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) is a partial market equilibrium model of the U.S. forest sector that operates within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) to provide long-range timber market projections in relation to global economic scenarios. USFPM was designed specifically for the 2010 RPA forest assessment, but it is being used also in other applications...

  1. Conversion of natural forest to managed forest plantations decreases tree resistance to prolonged droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King; Eric Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Andrew Radecki; Dave M. Bell; Guofang Miao; Michael Gavazzi; Daniel M. Johnson; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Asko. Noormets

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the southern US, past forest management practices have replaced large areas of native forests with loblolly pine plantations and have resulted in changes in forest response to extreme weather conditions. However, uncertainty remains about the response of planted versus natural species to drought across the geographical range of these forests. Taking...

  2. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  3. Sustaining health in faith community nursing practice: emerging processes that support the development of a middle-range theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod; Chase, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    This article reveals processes that support theoretical development for holistic nursing in the context of a faith community. The emerging processes enhance the articulation of the holistically focused practice, add clarity to faith community nursing activities and outcomes, and contribute to theoretical clarification and development. Theoretical clarity is essential to guide faith community nursing practice, research, and education because there is tremendous potential for the specialty practice to contribute to the health of a community across the continuum of caring and because to date there has been no unifying model for this practice proposed. A lack of a theoretical basis can result in disparate and disconnected approaches to studying, testing, and promoting the practice.

  4. Evaluation of the urban forest through geospatial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kathleen Theresa

    2007-12-01

    Many forest management questions could be effectively addressed with geospatial methods. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing are two geospatial tools that work extremely well together and can be used to perform a variety of tasks, from the creation of basic maps of forest extent to complex forest change models. The complementary geospatial tools were used in the rapidly urbanizing Minneapolis/St. Paul Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S. in four related research topics, (1) a discussion of the geospatial tools that can assist urban forest managers, (2) the classification of the historical oak resource and the change from 1991 to 1998, (3) the investigation of the transformation in oak stand spatial structure over time, and (4) a summary of the results and significance of the research. It was determined from this research that the total area of oak forests in the TCMA decreased by 5.6 percent between 1991 and 1998, and that oak forest loss ranged from 12 ha to 1,229 ha in six of seven ecological subsections. In addition, oak forest patches in the TCMA as a whole became more fragmented and decreased in number and complexity between 1991 and 1998. Forest loss and alteration can have great impacts on forest health, water flow and quality, wildlife habitat, potential for the spread of invasive species, and the quality of life of urban residents. The results of these studies provide visual and quantitative information to decision makers on the loss and structural transformation of the oak forest resource in the TCMA during the 1990s. Information on the changes in the landscape over time and the relationship of those changes to the ecological integrity of the communities is essential to future decision-making and planning processes.

  5. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-28

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  6. Water chemistry of Rocky Mountain Front Range aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Laura Hudnell; Mark W. Williams; Richard A. Sommerfeld

    1996-01-01

    A study of the water chemistry of Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range alpine/subalpine lakes and streams in wilderness ecosystems was conducted during the summer of 1995 by the USDA Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, and the University of Colorado Institute of Alpine and Arctic Research. Data...

  7. Health screening of free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the German North-Sea island Pellworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posautz, Annika; Loncaric, Igor; Lundin, Marie; Hoffmann, Daniel; Lavazza, Antonio; Kelemen, Zsofia; Beiglböck, Christoph; Walzer, Christian; Kübber-Heiss, Anna

    2015-08-04

    A sudden decline of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) population in one of the best hunting districts for small game species in northern Germany, the German North-Sea island Pellworm, in the years 2007/08 following marked habitat changes led to the implementation of a thorough health assessment program of the population. 110 animals were collected during the normal hunting season in the years 2010 and 2011. A post-mortem examination and histopathological investigation was performed on all animals. Additionally, routine bacteriology of the small intestine and parasitology were carried out. Sera of hares were tested for European Brown Hare Syndrome (EBHS) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and for Treponema sp. by indirect immunofluorescent test. Additional testing was performed when deemed necessary. The most striking result was a shift in the intestinal bacterial flora towards Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with a predominance of either Escherichia coli, or Aeromonas sp., or a high-grade double-infection with these two pathogens with subsequent catarrhal enteritis. Additionally, a marked coccidiosis, and varying infestations with the nematode Trichostrongylus retortaeformis were found. The sero-prevalence for EBHS was 78.1%, and for Treponema 43.9%. The shift and decrease in diversity of the intestinal flora was the main and most consistent result found. In the authors' opinion the change of the habitat combined with other stressors increased the animals' sensitivity to ubiquitous bacterial species and parasites which usually would not have such fatal effects.

  8. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  9. Protecting your forest asset: managing risks in changing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Jennings; Leslie Boby; Bill Hubbard; Mark Megalos

    2013-01-01

    Private forest owners control most of the southern forest resource and are critical to maintaining forest health in the South. Record droughts, rising temperatures, increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, insect and plant invasions, and more intense storm events all pose threats to the health of Southern forests. Scientists project that increases in temperature...

  10. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  11. An analysis of forest land use, forest land cover, and change at policy-relevant scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Greg Reams; Dave N. Wear; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the amount of forest and change in the amount of forest are key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to maintain the array of ecosystem services provided by forests. There are a range of analytical techniques and data available to estimate these forest parameters, however, not all ‘forest’ is the same and various...

  12. Structure, development and health status of spruce forests affected by air pollution in the western Krkonoše Mts. in 1979–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Král Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and health status of waterlogged or peaty spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst. forests in the summit parts of the Krkonoše Mts. in the Czech Republic were studied in 1979–2014. The objective was to evaluate the stand structure, dead wood, trend of the health status and productivity on four permanent research plots (PRP in relation to air pollution (SO2 and NOx concentrations and climatic conditions (temperatures and precipitation amounts. Stand structure was evaluated on the base of the measured parameters of individual trees on PRP. The health status of trees was evaluated according to foliage, and their vitality was assessed according to their radial growth documented by dendrochronological analyses. The radial growth was negatively correlated with SO2 and NOx concentrations. Stand dynamics during the observation period was characterised by increased tree mortality, the presence of dead wood and reduction of stand density from 1983 to 1992, while the most severe impairment of health status and stand stability occurred in 1982–1987. The foliage mass of living trees has been gradually increasing since 1988, but no pronounced improvement of tree vitality was documented after the decrease in SO2 concentration. However, particularly physiologically weakened spruce trees were attacked by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus. The process of forest damage is manifested not only by foliage reduction but also by symptoms of various necroses on the assimilatory organs. In terms of climatic data, the weather in April had the most important effect on radial growth. Diameter increment showed positive statistically significant correlation with temperature in growing season, but the precipitation effect was low.

  13. Forest resource trends in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson

    1994-01-01

    Even though forests occupy only 12% of the land area of Illinois, they play a valuable role in the health of the state's environment and that of its citizens. Many of these benefits have been reviewed in Forest Resources of Illinois: An Atlas and Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Trends (Iverson et al. 1989), and summarized in...

  14. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L A; Ikenaka, Y; Yohannes, Y B; van Vuren, J J; Wepener, V; Smit, N J; Darwish, W S; Nakayama, S M M; Mizukawa, H; Ishizuka, M

    2017-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,p'-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,p'-DDT and then p,p'-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risk.

  15. Fighting over forest: interactive governance of conflicts over forest and tree resources in Ghana’s high forest zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories,

  16. Meeting current and future conservation challenges through the synthesis of long-term silviculture and range management research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Joe NcNeel; Carlos. Rodriguez-Franco

    2010-01-01

    The Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture were established to represent major forest vegetation types of the United States, to provide guidelines for management of those forests and ranges, and to serve as "outdoor classrooms" for land managers to learn how to better manage their forests. Research data...

  17. Effects of long-range transported pollutants on vegetation in boreal coniferous forests: Results from an five year investigation in the Solholmfjell area, Gjerstad, Aust-Agder; Effekter av langtransporterte luftforurensninger i boreal barskog: resultater av fem aars undersoekelser i Solhomfjell-omraadet, Gjerstad, Aust-Agder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to a project on investigating the effects of long-range transported pollutants in Norway. The paper gives a brief description of the more important results obtained in the project. The aim of the project was to investigate the pollution load in vegetation, soils and trees in Norwegian forest areas of the coniferous type. The project included the collection of samples from 200 test areas in a period of five years. 11 refs.

  18. Birds of isolated small forests in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degraded or even clear-cut. We examine data from three naturally isolated forests, and compare them with data from Ziika, to evaluate what value such forests—they range from 12 to c.700 ha—may have for forest birds. We also look at the stability of the bird communities within these forests. Previous studies of birds in ...

  19. Reference ranges of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, total and free testosterone determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS and associations to health markers in 304 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard-Olesen, A; Johannsen, T H; Holmboe, S A; Søeborg, T; Petersen, J H; Andersson, Am; Aadahl, M; Linneberg, A; Juul, A

    2016-02-15

    We report reference ranges based on LC-MS/MS for testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and its precursors, i.e. 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (Adione), in relation to different health markers and lifestyle factors. The study was based on 304 healthy men aged 30-61 years participating in a population-based cross-sectional study (Health2008). Examination program consisted of a clinical examination, completion of a self-administered questionnaire and blood sampling. Steroid metabolites were measured by a validated and sensitive LC-MS/MS method. Older age-groups were significantly associated with decreased concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, Adione, and FT, while no significant associations with age were shown for 17-OHP or T. Participants with BMI≥30 kg/m(2) had lower age-related steroid metabolite z-scores compared to participants with BMI<30 kg/m(2), i.e. 17-OHP: -0.51 vs. 0.08 (p<0.001); DHEA: -0.27 vs. 0.09 (p=0.014); Adione: -0.29 vs. 0.09 (p=0.012); T: -0.99 vs. 0.14 (p<0.001); and FT -0.55 vs. 0.05 (p<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, this large study on serum steroid metabolites and concomitant assessment of health markers in healthy men provides age-related reference ranges, and furthermore evaluates the impact of lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome on androgen metabolite levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Ghost Forest Rising: A Hyperspectral Approach to Assessing Vegetation Health and Tree Die-Off in Response to Saltwater Intrusion in a Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning, L.; Jass, T. L.; McGirt, A.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    In coastal areas, saltwater intrusion is a natural occurrence that can affect the quality of groundwater and surface water. Saltwater intrusion can also affect the health of vegetation that depends on fresh water. We studied the effects of saltwater on vegetation with particular focus on loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda). Our study took place on the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula (APP), a 6,000 km2 region of North Carolina's Outer Coastal Plain surrounded on three sides by estuarine coastline. Years of local, anecdotal observations suggest that stands of dead pine trees known as "Ghost Forest," are spreading along coastal waterways. We investigated the health of pine trees in this region to explore potential links between saltwater intrusion and die-off, particularly where artificial ditches and canals allow saltwater to flow deep into the interior of the peninsula. Using a handheld spectroradiometer, we collected hyperspectral reflectance data in visible and near infrared wavebands (350-1000 nm) from more than 100 individual canopy and leaf samples across the APP. We accompanied these measurements with GPS coordinates, measurements of tree height and circumference, distances from nearby waterways, and specific conductance measurements (as a salinity proxy) of these waters. We used reflectance spectra to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Red-Green Index (RGI), and site-specific indices to determine the health of particular trees and canopies. Using this information in conjunction with ancillary data, we explored the correlations between the health of vegetation and the salinity of nearby water sources.

  2. Legal protection of forests in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Томіленко, Петро Іванович

    2014-01-01

    Forests are the national wealth of the country and also subject of the state protection. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current forest legislation of Ukraine, as well as analyze its efficiency. Also the author suggested steps for solution problems of forests’ protection. English abstract P. Tomilenko Legal protection of forests in Ukraine Forests are a national wealth of the country and its purpose and location perform environmental (water protection, safety, hygiene, health, a...

  3. People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1,837 reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from 185 villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses. Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm or acacia plantations, on the other hand, appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have overall negative impacts on them, but with people in some areas considering the benefits to outweigh the costs. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale. Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

  4. Wildlife and forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Trani Griep; Beverly Collins

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of plant and animal communities in the South ranges from high elevation forests to coastal wetlands, barrier islands, and arid regions of west Texas. Factors contributing to the diversity of these communities include regional gradients in climate, geologic and edaphic site conditions, topographic variation, and natural disturbance processes (Boyce and...

  5. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  6. Forest drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  7. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  8. Forest land area estimates from vegetation continuous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Ronald E. McRoberts; Matthew C. Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program provides data, information, and knowledge about our Nation's forest resources. FIA regional units collect data from field plots and remotely sensed imagery to produce statistical estimates of forest extent (area); volume, growth, and removals; and health and condition. There is increasing...

  9. Examining spring phenology of forest understory using digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Liang; Mark D. Schwartz; Songlin. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Phenology is an important indicator of forest health in relation to energy/nutrient cycles and species interactions. Accurate characterization of forest understory phenology is a crucial part of forest phenology observation. In this study, ground plots set up in a temperate mixed forest in Wisconsin were observed with a visible-light digital camera during spring 2007....

  10. The impact and control of major southern forest diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; Theodor D. Leininger; William J. Otrosina; L. David Dwinell; Nathan M. Schiff

    2004-01-01

    A variety of forest health issues, concerns, and events have rapidly changed southern forests and plantations in the past two decades. These factors have strongly impacted the ways we manage forest pests in the Southern United States. This trend will no doubt continue to shape forest pest management in the future. The major issues and events of concern include changing...

  11. The impact of single-tree selection and clearcut harvest on selected biochemical soil health indicators at the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Program and Long Term Soil Productivity sites in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus (CNSP) cycling and to determine potential biochemical soil health indicators applicable to timber harvesting in the Missouri Ozarks. Soil samples were collected from the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) and ...

  12. Hydrological processes of reference watersheds in Experimental Forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Pete Wohlgemuth; Kelly Elder; Stephen Sebestyen; Sherri Johnson; Elizabeth Keppeler; Mary Beth Adams; Peter Caldwell; D. Misra

    2016-01-01

    Long-term research at small, gauged, forested watersheds within the USDA Forest Service, Experimental Forest and Range network (USDA-EFR) has contributed substantially to our current understanding of relationships between forests and streamflow (Vose et al., 2014). Many of these watershed studies were established in the early to mid-20th century and have been used to...

  13. Unearthing Secrets of the Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldin, Sarah I.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Forests are a defining feature for large areas of the Pacific northwestern United States from northern California to Alaska. Coniferous temperate rainforests in the western Cascade and coastal mountain ranges are appreciated for their aesthetic value and abundant natural resources. Few people recognize the riches beneath the forest floor; yet, soil is a key ecosystem component that makes each type of forest unique. Soils harbor immense biological diversity and control the release of water and nutrients that support life above ground. Understanding how carbon and nutrients cycle in forests, known as forest biogeochemistry, is crucial for evaluating forest productivity, composition, diversity, and change. At the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, research in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Laboratory focuses on nutrient cycling in five themes: climate change, nutrition and sustainability, fire effects, restoration, and forest-stream linkages. This research is essential to understand the entire forest ecosystem and to use the best science available to make informed policy and management decisions.

  14. Biodiversity: role of non-timber forest products in food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPS) are biological materials from the ecosystem which range from plants, parts of plants, fungi, animals and animal products that are consumed either as food, condiments, spices or medicine. NTFPS have been identified to play an important role in providing primary health and nutritional ...

  15. Coastal Forests and Groundwater: Using Case Studies to Understand the Effects of Drivers and Stressors for Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Callahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are receiving more attention for the ecosystem goods and services they provide and the potential change agents that may affect forest health and productivity. Highlighting case examples from coastal forests in South Carolina, USA, we describe groundwater processes with respect to stressors and potential responses of a wetland-rich forested landscape, the roles that this area has served, and the need for water resource data to inform forest management decisions. Forested lands in the southeastern U.S. coastal plain provide a rich set of goods and services for the region, and in one case, the Francis Marion National Forest acts as a buffer to urbanization from the surrounding Charleston metropolitan area. Information from two decades of studies in the forested watersheds there may inform scientists and managers in other coastal forested systems. The common hydrological theme in this region, which has a higher average annual rainfall (1370 mm than the annual potential evapotranspiration (PET = 1135 mm, is a shallow (<3 m water table condition that supports a large range of natural wetlands and also creates management challenges across the region. Modest changes in the position of the water table can lead to either groundwater flooding and concomitant management challenges for forest services, or ecosystem stresses related to dry conditions in wetlands during times of below-normal precipitation or due to groundwater withdrawal. Development pressures have also stressed forest resources through the extraction of materials such as timber and sand mining, and the conversion to housing construction materials. These areas are also targeted for land development, to meet housing demands. In this paper, we discuss the role of groundwater in coastal forests and highlight opportunities for collaborative studies to better inform forest resource management.

  16. Increased prevalence of albuminuria in individuals with higher range of impaired fasting glucose: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Tae Nyun; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of albuminuria across a range of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), including normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes. A total of 5202 subjects who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Spot urine samples were taken and the albumin-creatinine ratio was calculated for each patient. Subjects were divided into five groups according to FPG levels: albuminuria were 4.1%, 6.0%, 7.6%, 12.3%, and 23.4% in the NFG1, NFG2, IFG1, IFG2 and diabetes groups, respectively (Palbuminuria in the IFG2 group was significantly higher than in the IFG1 group, even after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, and obesity. The odds ratio for the presence of albuminuria in the IFG2 group was 1.87 (95% CI, 1.19-2.94), using the NFG1 group as a control in logistic regression analyses. Albuminuria is more prevalent in subjects in the higher range of IFG. Therefore, strategies to reduce albuminuria should be emphasized especially in these subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L. in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rasmussen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp. in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5. We quantify the extent of the increase in ‘high allergy risk’ (HAR areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25% of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27–100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

  18. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Muscarella, Robert; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' (HAR) areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25%) of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27-100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

  19. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  20. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN, FEV1 < LLN, and FVC < LLN. The LLN values were determined by equations from the GLI and NHANES datasets. Spirometry interpreted using the NHANES III equations showed: 102 individuals (33.9%) with normal spirometry, 136 (45.2%) with an OVD pattern, 52 (17.3%) with a TRVD pattern, and 11 (3.7%) with a mixed pattern. When the spirometry data were interpreted using the GLI 2012 equations 2 (0.7%) individuals changed from OVD to NVP, 2 (0.7%) changed from NVP to OVD and 14 (4.7%) changed from TRVD to NVP. Using the GLI 2012 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  1. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  2. Spatial distribution of Culicidae (Diptera larvae, and its implications for Public Health, in five areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In view of the adaptive ability of mosquitoes and their role in the transport of infective agents, entomological surveys undertaken in transitional environments are very important for the determination of the risk they represent for Public Health. Among the principal vectors of the infectious agents involved in the occurrence of important arboviruses, such as dengue, for example, are the Culicidae-insects capable of installing themselves in the urban nuclei, which exist within areas containing vestigial forests. This present study conducted a survey of mosquito species by means of traps to catch their larvae installed in five rural areas within the Atlantic Forest domain and containing its vestigial vegetation in the municipality of Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 13,241 larvae belonging to six mosquito species were collected on 920 occasions (32.52% of positive collections. Aedes albopictus (64.23% and Aedes aegypti (32.75% were the most frequent, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (1.32%, Aedes fluviatilis (1.04%, Culex Complex Coronator (0.40% and Toxorhynchites theobaldi (0.22%. Three areas were analyzed by means of Simpson's diversity index and the spatial analysis showed that the sites with the greatest abundance of Ae. aegypti presented lower diversity values and were associated with more highly consolidated urban nuclei. The vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika has great infesting ability in urban areas, which means that the early implementation of entomological surveillance and control activities in specific areas - such as transitional ones - is highly important.

  3. The ecological consequences of forest elephant declines for Afrotropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, John R; Rosin, Cooper; Meier, Amelia; Mills, Emily; Nunez, Chase; Koerner, Sally E; Blanchard, Emily; Callejas, Jennifer; Moore, Sarah; Sowers, Mark

    2017-10-27

    Poaching is rapidly extirpating African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) from most of their historical range, leaving vast areas of elephant-free tropical forest. Elephants are ecological engineers that create and maintain forest habitat, thus their loss will have strong consequences for the composition and structure of Afrotropical forests. We evaluated the roles of forest elephants in seed dispersal, nutrient recycling, and herbivory and physical damage to predict the cascading ecological effects of their population declines. Loss of seed dispersal by elephants will favor tree species dispersed abiotically and by smaller dispersal agents, with tree species composition depending on the downstream effects of changes in elephant nutrient cycling and browsing. Loss of trampling and herbivory of seedlings and saplings will result in high tree density as they are released from the pressures of browsing. Diminished seed dispersal by elephants and high stem density are likely to reduce the recruitment of large trees, resulting in a more homogeneous forest structure and decreased carbon stocks. In sum, the loss of ecological services by forest elephants will likely transform Central African forests to be more like Neotropical forests, from which megafauna were extirpated thousands of years ago. Without intervention, as much as 96% of Central African forests will have modified species composition and structure as elephants are compressed into remaining protected areas. Stopping elephant poaching is an urgent first step to mitigating these effects, but long-term conservation will require land use planning that incorporates elephant habitat into forested landscapes that are being rapidly transformed by industrial agriculture and logging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.

  5. Approaches to predicting potential impacts of climate change on forest disease: An example with Armillaria root disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; John W. Hanna; Bryce A. Richardson; John E. Lundquist

    2011-01-01

    Climate change will likely have dramatic impacts on forest health because many forest trees could become maladapted to climate. Furthermore, climate change will have additional impacts on forest health through changes in the distribution and severity of forest disease. Methods are needed to predict the influence of climate change on forest disease so that appropriate...

  6. Optimal range of triglyceride values to estimate serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the validity of Friedewald's formula and to propose a range of triglyceride values over which the formula can be used without significant error. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,929 subjects (946 males and 983 females) aged 20 yr and older using data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Estimated total number was considered to be 10,633,655 (5,846,384 males and 4,787,271 females). Calculated and directly-measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were highly correlated (r = 0.96); however, significant differences were observed between the directly-measured and calculated LDL-C concentrations. Subjects in the underestimated group (10.5%) had higher dysmetabolic profiles than those in the overestimated group (11.4%). Although serum triglyceride level showed the greatest independent association with differences between the calculated and directly-measured LDL-C concentrations, no statistically significant differences were noted when triglyceride concentration was between 36 and 298 mg/dL (93.2%). In conclusion, Friedewald's formula accurately estimates directly-measured serum LDL-C concentration in Korean adults. However, the formula can be applied to subjects with serum triglyceride concentrations from 36 to 298 mg/dL without significant error.

  7. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  8. Listening and learning from traditional knowledge and western science: A dialogue on contemporary challenges of forest health and wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Mason; Germaine White; Gary Morishima; Ernesto Alvarado; Louise Andrew; Fred Clark; Mike Durglo; Jim Durglo; John Eneas; Jim Erickson; Margaret Friedlander; Kathy Hamel; Colin Hardy; Tony Harwood; Faline Haven; Everett Isaac; Laurel James; Robert Kenning; Adrian Leighton; Pat Pierre; Carol Raish; Bodie Shaw; Steven Smallsalmon; Vernon Stearns; Howard Teasley; Matt Weingart; Spus Wilder

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans relied on fire to maintain a cultural landscape that sustained their lifeways for thousands of years. Within the past 100 years, however, policies of fire exclusion have disrupted ecological processes, elevating risk of wildfire, insects, and disease, affecting the health and availability of resources on which the tribes depend. On Indian Reservations...

  9. A Global Perspective on Warmer Droughts as a Key Driver of Forest Disturbances and Tree Mortality (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    for many areas globally, the growing water-stress risks to forest health in such regions are becoming clearer. However, the effects of drought stress on forest dynamics are ameliorated through diverse compensatory and resilience-enhancing mechanisms and processes which operate at scales ranging from intracellular tree physiologies and individual tree developmental and morphological adjustments to species population-level demographic and genetic responses to forest stand-level structural and compositional responses up to landscape-scale tree host-insect pest outbreak dynamics and forest-climate ecohydrological feedbacks. In addition, significant uncertainties exist regarding how various other global atmospheric changes (e.g., CO2 enrichment, increased N deposition, and elevated surface-level ozone) will interact with the world's diverse spectrum of tree species to also affect global forest dynamics. Research efforts to address such core scientific uncertainties associated with modeling drought-induced tree mortality and resultant forest dynamics will be discussed.

  10. Forests and water: Managing interrelations

    OpenAIRE

    Brüschweiler, Sabine; Höggel, Udo; Kläy, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Due to their biodiversity, forests generate a range of products and services that are of economic, social or cultural value to human beings. Natural resource management provisions should ensure the creation and maintenance of these goods and services in the long term. However, unsustainable management practices of forests do not only generate short-term benefits but also considerable costs for society. Payment by the beneficiaries of the services would enable us to internalise external costs ...

  11. Forests growing under dry conditions have higher hydrological resilience to drought than do more humid forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, David; Lensky, Itamar M; Yakir, Dan; Osem, Yagil

    2017-07-01

    More frequent and intense droughts are projected during the next century, potentially changing the hydrological balances in many forested catchments. Although the impacts of droughts on forest functionality have been vastly studied, little attention has been given to studying the effect of droughts on forest hydrology. Here, we use the Budyko framework and two recently introduced Budyko metrics (deviation and elasticity) to study the changes in the water yields (rainfall minus evapotranspiration) of forested catchments following a climatic drought (2006-2010) in pine forests distributed along a rainfall gradient (P = 280-820 mm yr-1 ) in the Eastern Mediterranean (aridity factor = 0.17-0.56). We use a satellite-based model and meteorological information to calculate the Budyko metrics. The relative water yield ranged from 48% to 8% (from the rainfall) in humid to dry forests and was mainly associated with rainfall amount (increasing with increased rainfall amount) and bedrock type (higher on hard bedrocks). Forest elasticity was larger in forests growing under drier conditions, implying that drier forests have more predictable responses to drought, according to the Budyko framework, compared to forests growing under more humid conditions. In this context, younger forests were shown more elastic than older forests. Dynamic deviation, which is defined as the water yield departure from the Budyko curve, was positive in all forests (i.e., less-than-expected water yields according to Budyko's curve), increasing with drought severity, suggesting lower hydrological resistance to drought in forests suffering from larger rainfall reductions. However, the dynamic deviation significantly decreased in forests that experienced relatively cooler conditions during the drought period. Our results suggest that forests growing under permanent dry conditions might develop a range of hydrological and eco-physiological adjustments to drought leading to higher hydrological

  12. Selected Bibliography On Southern Range Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Campbell; L. K. Halls; H. P. Morgan

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to list important publications relating directly to southern ranges, the domestic livestock and wildlife produced thereon, and the management of these lands, livestock, and wildlife. Range is defined as natural grassland, savannah, or forest that supports native grasses, forbs, or shrubs suitable as forage for livestock and game....

  13. Challenges for tree officers to enhance the provision of regulating ecosystem services from urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen J; Doick, Kieron J; Hudson, Malcolm D; Schreckenberg, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation and a changing climate are leading to more frequent and severe flood, heat and air pollution episodes in Britain's cities. Interest in nature-based solutions to these urban problems is growing, with urban forests potentially able to provide a range of regulating ecosystem services such as stormwater attenuation, heat amelioration and air purification. The extent to which these benefits are realized is largely dependent on urban forest management objectives, the availability of funding, and the understanding of ecosystem service concepts within local governments, the primary delivery agents of urban forests. This study aims to establish the extent to which British local authorities actively manage their urban forests for regulating ecosystem services, and identify which resources local authorities most need in order to enhance provision of ecosystem services by Britain's urban forests. Interviews were carried out with staff responsible for tree management decisions in fifteen major local authorities from across Britain, selected on the basis of their urban nature and high population density. Local authorities have a reactive approach to urban forest management, driven by human health and safety concerns and complaints about tree disservices. There is relatively little focus on ensuring provision of regulating ecosystem services, despite awareness by tree officers of the key role that urban forests can play in alleviating chronic air pollution, flood risk and urban heat anomalies. However, this is expected to become a greater focus in future provided that existing constraints - lack of understanding of ecosystem services amongst key stakeholders, limited political support, funding constraints - can be overcome. Our findings suggest that the adoption of a proactive urban forest strategy, underpinned by quantified and valued urban forest-based ecosystem services provision data, and innovative private sector funding mechanisms, can facilitate a change to a

  14. Georgia's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Harper; Nathan D. McClure; Tony G. Johnson; J. Frank Green; James K. Johnson; David B. Dickinson; James L. Chamerlain; KaDonna C. Randolph; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2009-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2004, the Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted the eighth inventory of Georgia forests. Forest land area remained stable at 24.8 million acres, and covered about two-thirds of the land area in Georgia. About 24.2 million acres of forest land was considered timberland and 92 percent of that was privately owned. Family forest...

  15. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  16. Long-term calcium addition increases growth release, wound closure, and health of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett A. Huggett; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher Eager

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed and wounded forest-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees in a long-term, replicated Ca manipulation study at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Plots received applications of Ca (to boost Ca availability above depleted ambient levels) or A1 (to compete with Ca uptake and further reduce Ca availability...

  17. Seeing the forest for the trees: utilizing modified random forests imputation of forest plot data for landscape-level analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin L. Riley; Isaac C. Grenfell; Mark A. Finney

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the number, size, and species of trees in forests across the western United States has utility for a number of research endeavors, ranging from estimation of terrestrial carbon resources to tree mortality following wildfires. For landscape fire and forest simulations that use the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS), a tree-level dataset, or “tree list”, is a...

  18. Extensive Sampling of Forest Carbon using High Density Power Line Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, H. M.; Chen, Q.; Dye, D. G.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from forest management, natural processes, and disturbance is of growing interest for mitigating global warming. Ponderosa pine is common at mid-elevations throughout the western United States and is a dominant tree species in southwestern forests. Existing unmanaged "relict" sites and stand reconstructions of southwestern ponderosa pine forests from before European settlement (late 1800s) provide evidence of forests of larger trees of lower density and less vulnerability to severe fires than today's typical conditions of high densities of small trees that have resulted from a century of fire suppression. Forest treatments to improve forest health in the region include tree cutting focused on small-diameter trees (thinning), low-intensity prescribed burning, and monitoring rather than suppressing wildfires. Stimulated by several uncharacteristically-intense fires in the last decade, a collaborative process found strong stakeholder agreement to accelerate forest treatments to reduce fire risk and restore ecological conditions. Land use planning to ramp up management is underway and could benefit from quick and inexpensive techniques to inventory tree-level carbon because existing inventory data are not adequate to capture the range of forest structural conditions. Our approach overcomes these shortcomings by employing recent breakthroughs in estimating aboveground biomass from high resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing. Lidar is an active remote sensing technique, analogous to radar, which measures the time required for a transmitted pulse of laser light to return to the sensor after reflection from a target. Lidar data can capture 3-dimensional forest structure with greater detail and broader spatial coverage than is feasible with conventional field measurements. We developed a novel methodology for extensive sampling and field validation of forest carbon, applicable to managed and

  19. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mascaro

    Full Text Available Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag", which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1 when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  20. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  1. Dryland forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability

  2. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  3. Southern pine beetles in central hardwood forests: frequency, spatial extent, and changes to forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Nowak; Kier Klepzig; D R Coyle; William Carothers; Kamal J K Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a major disturbance in pine forests throughout the range of southern yellow pines, and is a significant influence on forests throughout several Central Hardwood Region (CHR) ecoregions...

  4. The trees and the forest: mixed methods in the assessment of recovery based interventions' processes and outcomes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Yanos, Philip T; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-12-01

    Recent developments in mental health have emphasized recovery as an outcome for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Accordingly, several studies have attempted to evaluate the process and outcome of recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions. To review and discuss quantitative and qualitative findings from previous efforts to study the impact of five recovery-oriented interventions: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR), Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy (NECT), Supported Employment (SE), Supported Socialization (SS), and Family Psychoeducation. Reviewing the literature on studies that examine the effectiveness of these interventions by using both quantitative and qualitative approach. Qualitative findings in these studies augment quantitative findings and at times draw attention to unexpected findings and uniquely illuminate the effects of these interventions on self-reflective processes. There is a need for further exploration of how mixed-methods can be implemented to explore recovery-oriented outcomes. Critical questions regarding the implications of qualitative findings are posed.

  5. Using LiDAR to evaluate forest landscapes and health factors and their relationship to habitat of the endangered Mount Graham red squirrel on the Coronado National Forest, Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona [Chap. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Anhold; Brent Mitchell; Craig Wilcox; Tom Mellin; Melissa Merrick; Ann Lynch; Mike Walterman; Donald Falk; John Koprowski; Denise Laes; Don Evans; Haans. Fisk

    2015-01-01

    The Pinaleno Mountains in southeastern Arizona represent a Madrean sky island ecosystem that contains the southernmost expanse of spruce-fir forest type in North America. This ecosystem is also the last remaining habitat for the Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamenis), a federally listed endangered species. Due to a general shift in...

  6. Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig (Homoptera: Aphidae associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S, boron (B and arsenic (As representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47±32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4+ 0.002245 (B:B + 1.248 (C:As. The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites.

  7. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davies, Stuart J; Bennett, Amy C; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Alonso, Alfonso; Baltzer, Jennifer L; Basset, Yves; Bourg, Norman A; Broadbent, Eben N; Brockelman, Warren Y; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Burslem, David F R P; Butt, Nathalie; Cao, Min; Cardenas, Dairon; Chuyong, George B; Clay, Keith; Cordell, Susan; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Deng, Xiaobao; Detto, Matteo; Du, Xiaojun; Duque, Alvaro; Erikson, David L; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fischer, Gunter A; Fletcher, Christine; Foster, Robin B; Giardina, Christian P; Gilbert, Gregory S; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Gunatilleke, Savitri; Hao, Zhanqing; Hargrove, William W; Hart, Terese B; Hau, Billy C H; He, Fangliang; Hoffman, Forrest M; Howe, Robert W; Hubbell, Stephen P; Inman-Narahari, Faith M; Jansen, Patrick A; Jiang, Mingxi; Johnson, Daniel J; Kanzaki, Mamoru; Kassim, Abdul Rahman; Kenfack, David; Kibet, Staline; Kinnaird, Margaret F; Korte, Lisa; Kral, Kamil; Kumar, Jitendra; Larson, Andrew J; Li, Yide; Li, Xiankun; Liu, Shirong; Lum, Shawn K Y; Lutz, James A; Ma, Keping; Maddalena, Damian M; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marthews, Toby; Mat Serudin, Rafizah; McMahon, Sean M; McShea, William J; Memiaghe, Hervé R; Mi, Xiangcheng; Mizuno, Takashi; Morecroft, Michael; Myers, Jonathan A; Novotny, Vojtech; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ong, Perry S; Orwig, David A; Ostertag, Rebecca; den Ouden, Jan; Parker, Geoffrey G; Phillips, Richard P; Sack, Lawren; Sainge, Moses N; Sang, Weiguo; Sri-Ngernyuang, Kriangsak; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sungpalee, Witchaphart; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Sean C; Thomas, Duncan W; Thompson, Jill; Turner, Benjamin L; Uriarte, Maria; Valencia, Renato; Vallejo, Marta I; Vicentini, Alberto; Vrška, Tomáš; Wang, Xihua; Wang, Xugao; Weiblen, George; Wolf, Amy; Xu, Han; Yap, Sandra; Zimmerman, Jess

    2015-02-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems ≥ 1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols. CTFS-ForestGEO spans 25 °S-61 °N latitude, is generally representative of the range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and topographic conditions experienced by forests worldwide, and is the only forest monitoring network that applies a standardized protocol to each of the world's major forest biomes. Supplementary standardized measurements at subsets of the sites provide additional information on plants, animals, and ecosystem and environmental variables. CTFS-ForestGEO sites are experiencing multifaceted anthropogenic global change pressures including warming (average 0.61 °C), changes in precipitation (up to ± 30% change), atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (up to 3.8 g N m(-2) yr(-1) and 3.1 g S m(-2) yr(-1)), and forest fragmentation in the surrounding landscape (up to 88% reduced tree cover within 5 km). The broad suite of measurements made at CTFS-ForestGEO sites makes it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. Ongoing research across the CTFS-ForestGEO network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in an era of global change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fish Assemblage Responses to Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcher, Chris L.; McTammany, Matthew E.; Benfield, E. Fred; Helfman, Gene S.

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether fish assemblage structure in southern Appalachian streams differed with historical and contemporary forest cover. We compared fish assemblages in 2nd-4th order streams draining watersheds that had increased forest cover between 1950 and 1993 (i.e ., reforesting watersheds). We sampled fish in 50 m reaches during August 2001 and calculated catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) by taxonomic, distributional, trophic, reproductive, and thermal metrics. We assigned streams to reforestation categories based on cluster analysis of years 1950 and 1993 near-stream forest cover. The relationship between forest cover and assemblage structure was assessed using analysis of variance to identify differences in fish CPUE in five forest cover categories. Streams contained 23 fish species representing six families, and taxa richness ranged from 1 to 13 at 30 stream sites. Streams with relatively low near-stream forest cover were different from streams having moderate to high near-stream forest cover in 1950 and 1993. Fish assemblages in streams having the lowest amount of forest cover (53-75%) were characterized by higher cosmopolitan, brood hider, detritivore/herbivore, intermediate habitat breadths, run-pool dweller, and warm water tolerant fish CPUE compared to streams with higher riparian forest cover. Our results suggest that fish assemblage’s structural and functional diversity and/or richness may be lower in streams having lower recent or past riparian forest cover compared to assemblages in streams having a high degree of near-stream forest cover.

  9. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  10. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  11. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  12. Forest resources of the Umatilla National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Paul Dunham; David C. Powell; Bruce. Hiserote

    2007-01-01

    Current resource statistics for the Umatilla National Forest, based on two separate inventories conducted in 1993–96 and in 1997–2002, are presented in this report. Currently on the Umatilla National Forest, 89 percent of the land area is classified as forest land. The predominant forest type is grand fir (26 percent of forested acres) followed by the interior Douglas-...

  13. Potentials of nanotechnology application in forest protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; K. Lian; Q. Wu; Y. Li; M. Danzy; R. Menard; K.L. Chin; D. Collins; F. Oliveria; Kier Klepzig

    2013-01-01

    This joint research project formed by Southern University, Louisiana State University, and the USDA Forest Service focuses on applying nanotechnology in forest health and natural resource management. The targeted nanotechnology is derived from a new generation of renewable composite nano-material called Copper-Carbon Core-Shell Nanoparticles (CCCSNs), which have...

  14. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry O. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic pest plants, diseases, and insects, have had a dramatic impact on the health and composition of the Eastern forests for many decades. Chestnut blight was discovered in the United States in 1904. Since then, it has virtually destroyed the chestnut population, which once occupied 25 percent of the eastern forest. In the 1860's, the gypsy moth was...

  15. Characterizing tropical forests with multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eileen Helmer; Nicholas R. Goodwin; Valery Gond; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Gregory P. Asner

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite imagery, that is, remotely sensed imagery with discrete bands ranging from visible to shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths, is the timeliest and most accessible remotely sensed data for monitoring tropical forests. Given this relevance, we summarize here how multispectral imagery can help characterize tropical forest attributes of widespread...

  16. The impact of forest structure and light utilization on carbon cycling in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Longo, M.; Leitold, V.; Keller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Light competition is a fundamental organizing principle of forest ecosystems, and interactions between forest structure and light availability provide an important constraint on forest productivity. Tropical forests maintain a dense, multi-layered canopy, based in part on abundant diffuse light reaching the forest understory. Climate-driven changes in light availability, such as more direct illumination during drought conditions, therefore alter the potential productivity of forest ecosystems during such events. Here, we used multi-temporal airborne lidar data over a range of Amazon forest conditions to explore the influence of forest structure on gross primary productivity (GPP). Our analysis combined lidar-based observations of canopy illumination and turnover in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED, version 2.2). The ED model was updated to specifically account for regional differences in canopy and understory illumination using lidar-derived measures of canopy light environments. Model simulations considered the influence of forest structure on GPP over seasonal to decadal time scales, including feedbacks from differential productivity between illuminated and shaded canopy trees on mortality rates and forest composition. Finally, we constructed simple scenarios with varying diffuse and direct illumination to evaluate the potential for novel plant-climate interactions under scenarios of climate change. Collectively, the lidar observations and model simulations underscore the need to account for spatial heterogeneity in the vertical structure of tropical forests to constrain estimates of tropical forest productivity under current and future climate conditions.

  17. Standards for large-scale forest inventories. A comparative study for Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison has been made between methodologies for forest inventories in Italy, considering aspects as design, sampling units, attributes, forest definitions, statistical methods, estimation models, information quality. Main differences concern the definition of forest categories and the emphasis given to forest attributes like biodiversity, carbon stock, recreational value, geological instability, forest health, which are all increasingly considered in last generation forest inventories.

  18. Forest thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.

  19. CTFS/ForestGEO: A global network to monitor forest interactions with a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Muller-Landau, H.; McMahon, S.; Davies, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are an influential component of the global carbon cycle and strongly influence Earth's climate. Climate change is altering the dynamics of forests globally, which may result in significant climate feedbacks. Forest responses to climate change entail both short-term ecophysiological responses and longer-term directional shifts in community composition. These short- and long-term responses of forest communities to climate change may be better understood through long-term monitoring of large forest plots globally using standardized methodology. Here, we describe a global network of forest research plots (CTFS/ForestGEO) of utility for understanding forest responses to climate change and consequent feedbacks to the climate system. CTFS/ForestGEO is an international network consisting of 51 sites ranging in size from 2-150 ha (median size: 25 ha) and spanning from 25°S to 52°N latitude. At each site, every individual > 1cm DBH is mapped and identified, and recruitment, growth, and mortality are monitored every 5 years. Additional measurements include aboveground productivity, carbon stocks, soil nutrients, plant functional traits, arthropod and vertebrates monitoring, DNA barcoding, airborne and ground-based LiDAR, micrometeorology, and weather monitoring. Data from this network are useful for understanding how forest ecosystem structure and function respond to spatial and temporal variation in abiotic drivers, parameterizing and evaluating ecosystem and earth system models, aligning airborne and ground-based measurements, and identifying directional changes in forest productivity and composition. For instance, CTFS/ForestGEO data have revealed that solar radiation and night-time temperature are important drivers of aboveground productivity in moist tropical forests; that tropical forests are mixed in terms of productivity and biomass trends over the past couple decades; and that the composition of Panamanian forests has shifted towards more drought

  20. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karen Rasmussen; Jakob Thyrring; Robert Muscarella; Finn Borchsenius

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp...

  1. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  2. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  3. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Rasmussen; Jakob Thyrring; Robert Muscarella; Finn Borchsenius

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). W...

  4. Estimating mapped-plot forest attributes with ratios of means

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Zarnoch; W.A. Bechtold

    2000-01-01

    The mapped-plot design utilized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Inventory and Analysis and the National Forest Health Monitoring Programs is described. Data from 2458 forested mapped plots systematically spread across 25 States reveal that 35 percent straddle multiple conditions. The ratio-of-means estimator is developed as a method to obtain...

  5. Forests in transition: Post-epidemic vegetation conditions [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Hubbard; Michael Battaglia; Chuck Rhoades; Jim Thinnes; Tom Martin; Jeff Underhill; Mark Westfahl

    2014-01-01

    More than 23 million acres of lodgepole pine forests across the western U.S. have experienced overstory mortality following the recent mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic (USDA Forest Service 2013). Unknowns regarding the immediate and long-term consequences of the epidemic challenge the ability of managers to make informed decisions aimed at sustaining forest health...

  6. Proceedings of the 20th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Benjamin O. Knapp; David R. Larsen; Stephen R. Shifley; Henry E. Stelzer

    2017-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2016 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Columbia, MO. The published proceedings include 31 papers pertaining to research conducted on artificial and natural regeneration, biomass and carbon, forest dynamics, forest health, modeling and utilization, prescribed fire, soils and nutrients, and wind disturbance. A correction to Table 2,...

  7. Integrating forest products with ecosystem services: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Rachel. White

    2012-01-01

    Around the world forests provide a broad range of vital ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management and forest products play an important role in global carbon management, but one of the major forestry concerns worldwide is reducing the loss of forestland from development. Currently, deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions....

  8. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  9. The enhanced forest inventory and analysis program of the USDA forest service: historical perspective and announcements of statistical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; William A. Bechtold; Paul L. Patterson; Charles T. Scott; Gregory A. Reams

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service has initiated a transition from regional, periodic inventories to an enhanced national FIA program featuring annual measurement of a proportion of plots in each state, greater national consistency, and integration with the ground sampling component of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program...

  10. Central Appalachians forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Appalachians Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia R. Butler; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Leslie Brandt; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Kent Karriker; Jarel Bartig; Stephanie Connolly; William Dijak; Scott Bearer; Steve Blatt; Andrea Brandon; Elizabeth Byers; Cheryl Coon; Tim Culbreth; Jad Daly; Wade Dorsey; David Ede; Chris Euler; Neil Gillies; David M. Hix; Catherine Johnson; Latasha Lyte; Stephen Matthews; Dawn McCarthy; Dave Minney; Daniel Murphy; Claire O’Dea; Rachel Orwan; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Cotton Randall; Jason Reed; Cynthia Sandeno; Tom Schuler; Lesley Sneddon; Bill Stanley; Al Steele; Susan Stout; Randy Swaty; Jason Teets; Tim Tomon; Jim Vanderhorst; John Whatley; Nicholas. Zegre

    2015-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachians will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest-Coniferous Forest-Meadow and Eastern Broadleaf Forest Provinces of Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland for a range of future...

  11. APPLICATION OF FOREST PATHOLOGY MONITORING SPATIAL DATABASE FOR FOREST CONDITION ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Eydlina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the largest project of monitoring forest condition in the world is the international UN/ECE ICP Forests program involving 41 countries. The program is developed on the basis of The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. In accordance with the Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (CLRTAP UNECE 1985 and 1987 under the terms of the agreement, the monitoring of the ICP Forests program should be undertaken in the following subjects of the Russian Federation: The Republic of Karelia, Leningrad oblast, Murmansk oblast; Novgorod oblast, Pskov Oblast, Kaliningrad oblast. In Russian national center of ICP Forests monitoring it was created the ICP Forests Spatial Database (ICP Forests SDB for the North-Western territory of the Russian Federation. The article discusses the results of the monitoring carried out in accordance with the standards of the program.

  12. An investigation into the health benefits of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for people living with a range of chronic physical illnesses in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jillian; Mapel, Tim

    2011-07-08

    To establish the efficacy of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for people with chronic health problems in managing symptoms and coping with their illness in an Aotearoa/New Zealand context. Twenty-nine participants completed a wait-list control study. Physical and psychological health and well-being were measured before, after and 6 months after the 8-week training programme using a variety of internationally recognised screening tools. Statistically significant improvements were demonstrated in almost all categories measured. MBSR demonstrated health benefits for chronic illness sufferers. An economical and effective adjunctive therapy for decreasing morbidity associated with chronic illness in New Zealand, MBSR provides both clinicians and patients with an additional option for the better management of chronic illness.

  13. Northwest range-plant symbols adapted to automatic data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Garrison; Jon M. Skovlin

    1960-01-01

    Many range technicians, agronomists, foresters, biologists, and botanists of various educational institutions and government agencies in the Northwest have been using a four-letter symbol list or code compiled 12 years ago from records of plants collected by the U.S. Forest Service in Oregon and Washington, This code has served well as a means of entering plant names...

  14. The importance of gene conservation in the USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Mangold

    2017-01-01

    Aldo Leopold once said “to keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering.” The USDA Forest Service has embarked on a long-term effort to do just that. Our gene conservation efforts in forest trees are a modest beginning to this urgent need. In the early 2000s, the Forest Health Protection Program and its partners in the National Forest...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF MANGROVE FOREST DEGRADATION THROUGH CANOPY FRACTIONAL COVER IN KARIMUNJAWA ISLAND, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Karimunjawa Islands mangrove forest has been subjected to various direct and indirect human disturbances in the recent years. If not properly managed, this disturbance will lead to the degradation of mangrove habitat health. Assessing forest canopy fractional cover (fc using remote sensing data is one way of measuring mangrove forest degradation. This study aims to (1 estimate the forest canopy fc using a semi-empirical method, (2 assess the accuracy of the fc estimation and (3 create mangrove forest degradation from the canopy fc results. A sample set of in-situ fc was collected using the hemispherical camera for model development and accuracy assessment purposes. We developed semi-empirical relationship models between pixel values of ALOS AVNIR-2 image (10m pixel size and field fc, using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI as a proxy of the image spectral response. The results show that the EVI provides reasonable estimation accuracy of mangrove canopy fc in Karimunjawa Island with the values ranged from 0.17 to 0.96 (n = 69. The low fc values correspond to vegetation opening and gaps caused by human activities or mangrove dieback. The high fc values correspond to the healthy and dense mangrove stands, especially the Rhizophora sp formation at the seafront. The results of this research justify the use of simple canopy fractional cover model for assessing the mangrove forest degradation status in the study area. Further research is needed to test the applicability of this approach at different sites.

  16. Wisconsin's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...

  17. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  18. Vermont's Forests 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Robert De Geus; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Richard Widmann; Sandy Wilmot; Chris W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Vermont's forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 70 percent of total forest land area. Sixty-three percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 27...

  19. New Hampshire's Forests 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Susan Francher; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Chris W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of New Hampshire's forests reports nearly 4.8 million acres of forest land with an average volume of nearly 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 53 percent of total forest land area. Fifty-seven percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 32...

  20. Effect of Grazing Systems on Range Condition in Pabbi Hills Reserve Forest, Kharian, Punjab, Pakistan Efecto de los Sistemas de Pastoreo en la Condición del Pastizal en la Reserva Forestal Pabbi Hills, Kharian, Punjab, Pakistán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajjad Haider

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing management of rangeland systems has not been well researched in Pakistan; grazing system the most sustainable is not known. In order to evaluate various grazing systems, a study was performed at Pabbi Hills Reserve Forest, Kharian, Punjab. Four simulated grazing treatments, viz. ungrazed control, continuous grazing, seasonal deferred grazing, and rotational deferred grazing, were tested in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Response variables included species composition, fresh herbage yield, dry herbage yield of grasses and forbs, basal cover, and ground cover. Of the three grazing systems, the six-month seasonal deferred grazing system resulted in a marked increase in basal cover, but had no changes in relative species composition. A significant increase in grass cover and herbage production were also observed in this grazing system, suggesting that the 6-mo seasonal deferred grazing system is the most sustainable rangeland system.El manejo del pastoreo de sistemas de praderas no ha sido bien estudiado en Pakistán y no se sabe cuál sistema de pastoreo es más sustentable. Con el fin de evaluar los diferentes sistemas de pastoreo se realizó un estudio en la Reserva Forestal Pabbi Hills, Kharian, Punjab. Se probaron cuatro tratamientos de pastoreo simulado: control sin pastoreo, pastoreo continuo, pastoreo estacional diferido, y rotación de pastoreo diferido, en un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables de respuesta fueron: la composición de especies vegetales, rendimiento de forraje fresco y de forraje seco de gramíneas y herbáceas, rendimiento de forraje basal y la cobertura del suelo. De los tres sistemas de pastoreo, el sistema de pastoreo estacional diferido 6 meses resultó en un marcado aumento en la cobertura basal, pero no cambios en la composición relativa de las especies. Un aumento significativo en la cobertura de pastos y la producción de forraje se

  1. Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Raymond; Ahmad, Abd Hamid; Payne, Junaidi; Williams, Christy; Ambu, Laurentius Nayan; How, Phua Mui; Goossens, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2) in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2) in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

  2. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  3. Techniques of Australian forest planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Forestry Council

    1978-01-01

    Computer modeling has been extensively adopted for Australian forest planning over the last ten years. It has been confined almost entirely to the plantations of fast-growing species for which adequate inventory, growth, and experimental data are available. Stand simulation models have replaced conventional yield tables and enabled a wide range of alternative...

  4. The Association between IQ in Adolescence and a Range of Health Outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    A link between pre-morbid intelligence and all cause mortality is becoming well established, but the aetiology of the association is not understood. Less is known about links with cause specific mortality and with morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine the association between intelligence measured in adolescence and a broad range of health…

  5. Teenage mothers of black and minority ethnic origin want access to a range of mental and physical health support: a participatory research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Kirk, Rosalind; Alfafara, Emily; Jonika, Jennifer; Waddell, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    In high risk, economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, such as those primarily resident by black and minority ethnic groups (BME), teenage pregnancies are relatively more frequent. Such families often have limited access to and/or knowledge of services, including prenatal and post-partum physical and mental health support. To explore preferences held by vulnerable young mothers of BME origin and those close to them about existing and desired perinatal health services. Drawing on a community-based participatory approach, a community steering committee with local knowledge and experience of teenage parenthood shaped and managed an exploratory qualitative study. In collaboration with a local agency and academic research staff, community research assistants conducted two focus groups with 19 members and 21 individual semi-structured interviews with young mothers of BME origin and their friends or relatives. These were coded, thematically analysed, interpreted and subsequently triangulated through facilitator and participant review and discussion. Despite perceptions of a prevalent local culture of mistrust and suspicion, a number of themes and accompanying recommendations emerged. These included a lack of awareness by mothers of BME origin about current perinatal health services, as well as programme inaccessibility and inadequacy. There was a desire to engage with a continuum of comprehensive and well-publicized, family-focused perinatal health services. Participants wanted inclusion of maternal mental health and parenting support that addressed the whole family. It is both ethical and equitable that comprehensive perinatal services are planned and developed following consultation and participation of knowledgeable community members including young mothers of BME origin, family and friends. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  7. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  8. Effect of air and noise pollution on species diversity and population density of forest birds at Lalpahari, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dulal C; Padhy, Pratap K

    2011-11-15

    The Rajmahal-type quality stones for building purposes are found abundantly in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India, where stone mining and crushing have become the main industrial activity. Although crusher dust is injurious to health, demand for crushed stone is ever-increasing as a result of rapid infrastructural growth in the country. Most of the crusher units at Rampurhat are situated along the roadways adjacent to forest under Tumboni Beat of Rampurhat Range of Birbhum Forest Division. Excessive load of air pollution in this area has led to degradation of this forest. The status of the ambient air and noise level was evaluated. The effect of air and noise pollution on abundance and variability of birds in this forest have been compared to an almost non-polluted forest of the same bio-geographic zone. Both species diversity and population density of birds were found to decrease in the polluted forest, especially in the areas adjacent to crushers. For comparing the pollution status of two different forest sites and for establishing whether the density of birds have any correlation between the sites, the Student's t-test and the chi-square test were applied respectively. Most of the results proved to be significant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce......Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution...... will expand in Europe by 27–100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed...

  10. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  11. Assessing bioenergy harvest risks: Geospatially explicit tools for maintaining soil productivity in western US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Kimsey; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Biomass harvesting for energy production and forest health can impact the soil resource by altering inherent chemical, physical and biological properties. These impacts raise concern about damaging sensitive forest soils, even with the prospect of maintaining vigorous forest growth through biomass harvesting operations. Current forest biomass harvesting research...

  12. Bark beetle conditions in western forests and formation of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...

  13. Monitoring for ozone injury in West Coast (Oregon, Washington, California) forests in 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Gretchen Smith; Pat Temple; John Pronos; Regina Rochefort; Chris. Andersen

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, forest vegetation was monitored for ozone injury on permanent plots in two Sierra Nevada national forests in California, at three locations in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington, and at 68 forest health monitoring (FHM) locations throughout Washington, Oregon, and California. This was the first year that extensive monitoring of forest vegetation for...

  14. COMIFAC Forest Conservation Framework: Towards Better Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protected areas in Central Africa are a panacea as several million people are not schooled on the benefits of sustainably managing forests. Of perennial concern is the land tenure system which could provide incentives for forest management and conservation. Within this context, this article examines COMIFAC's forest ...

  15. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  16. Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Pekka E; Ausubel, Jesse H; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S; Sedjo, Roger A; Waggoner, Paul E

    2006-11-14

    Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded 4,600 dollars had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations.

  17. Structure and dynamics of an upland old-growth forest at Redwood National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; John D. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many current redwood forest management targets are based on old-growth conditions, so it is critical that we understand the variability and range of conditions that constitute these forests. Here we present information on the structure and dynamics from six one-hectare forest monitoring plots in an upland old-growth forest at Redwood National Park, California. We...

  18. The Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model: quantifying urban forest structure and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane

    2000-01-01

    The Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) computer model was developed to help managers and researchers quantify urban forest structure and functions. The model quantifies species composition and diversity, diameter distribution, tree density and health, leaf area, leaf biomass, and other structural characteristics; hourly volatile organic compound emissions (emissions that...

  19. Numerical modeling of the airflow around a forest edge using LiDAR-derived forest heigths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Dellwik, Ebba; Bechmann, Andreas

    A 3D methodology to quantify the effect of forests on the mean wind flow field is presented. The methodology is based on the treatment of forest raw data of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) scans, and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (Ra...

  20. Wisconsin State Forests Continuous Forest Inventory: A look at the first year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Teague Prichard; Vern Everson; Jim Westfall; Charles Scott

    2009-01-01

    The demand for timely, consistent, and reliable forest inventory and monitoring information for Wisconsin's state forests has increased significantly. A wide range of publics and partners, including businesses, organizations, and citizens alike are well aware of the benefits of sustainable forestry and are working together to increase knowledge through an annual...

  1. Lessons from 15 years of monitoring sudden oak death and forest dynamics in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Metz; J. Morgan Varner; Ross Meentemeyer; Kerri Frangioso; David Rizzo

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring host composition and disease impacts began 15 years ago in what would become a network of permanent forest monitoring plots throughout the known and predicted range of Phytophthora ramorum in California coastal forests. Stretching ~500 miles from Big Sur to the Oregon border, the network captures variation in interactions among...

  2. Forest community classification of the Porcupine River drainage, interior Alaska, and its application to forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Yarie

    1983-01-01

    The forest vegetation of 3,600,000 hectares in northeast interior Alaska was classified. A total of 365 plots located in a stratified random design were run through the ordination programs SIMORD and TWINSPAN. A total of 40 forest communities were described vegetatively and, to a limited extent, environmentally. The area covered by each community was similar, ranging...

  3. Effect of a single-session meditation training to reduce stress and improve quality of life among health care professionals: a "dose-ranging" feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kavita; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Cha, Stephen S; Sood, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating a single-session meditation-training program into the daily activities of healthy employees of a tertiary-care academic medical center. The study also assessed the most preferred duration of meditation and the effect of the meditation program on perceived stress, anxiety, and overall quality of life (QOL). Seventeen healthy clinic employees were recruited for this study. After an initial group instruction session covering basic information about meditation, Paced Breathing Meditation (PBM) was taught to the participants. Participants were instructed to self-practice meditation with the help of a DVD daily for a total of 4 weeks. The DVD had three different programs of 5, 15, and 30 minutes with a menu option to choose one of the programs. (1) Patient diary, (2) Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), (3) Linear Analogue Self-Assessment (LASA), (4) Smith Anxiety Scale (SAS). Primary outcome measures were compared using the paired t-test. All participants were female; median age was 48 years (range 33-60 y). The 5-minute meditation session was practiced by 14 participants a total of 137 times during the 4-week trial period, the 15-minute session by 16 participants a total of 223 times, and the 30-minute session by 13 participants 71 times. The median number of days practiced was 25 (range 10-28 d); the average total time practiced was 394 minutes (range 55-850 min). After 4 weeks of practice, the scores of the following instruments improved significantly from baseline: PSS (P stress, anxiety, and QOL.

  4. Thinning to improve growth, bole quality, and forest health in an Inonotus hispidus-infected, red oak-sweetgum stand in the Mississippi Delta: 10-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; David Montwé; T. Evan Nebeker

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.- Liquidambar styraciflua) stand on the Delta National Forest in western Mississippi was subjected to a combination of low thinning and improvement cutting in 1997. Special emphasis was placed on removing all red oaks infected with Inonotus hispidus, a canker decay...

  5. Nonnative invasive plants in South Carolina: combining phase-2 with phase-3 vegetation structure and diversity pilot data to enhance our understanding of forest health issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2006-01-01

    Studies suggest that the Southeast is an area of primary concern with regards to the spread of alien plant species (Miller 2003, Stapanian and others 1998). Data collected by Stapanian and others in 1998 showed that Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) occurred over 2 million acres in the Southeast, invading forests and displacing native species. Among the most...

  6. Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) health status on various forest soil ecological series in Silesian Beskids obtained by grid or selective survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Cudlín, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 57-66 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15044; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : spruce decline * survey design * defoliation * forest site ecological series https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0057/

  7. Mapping global forest aboveground biomass with spaceborne LiDAR, optical imagery, and forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Hu, T.; Xue, B. L.; Liu, J.; Zhao, X.; Fang, J.; Guo, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The global forest ecosystem, which acts as a large carbon sink, plays an important role in modelling the global carbon balance. An accurate estimation of the total forest carbon stock in the aboveground biomass (AGB) is therefore necessary for improving our understanding of carbon dynamics, especially against the background of global climate change. However, because of limitations in forest AGB mapping methods and the availability of ground inventory data, there is still a lack in globally wall-to-wall forest AGB map. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technique has been proven that can accurately capture both horizontal and vertical forest structures and therefore increase the forest AGB estimation accuracy. In this study, we collected over 4000 ground inventory records from published literatures, and developed an AGB mapping method using a combination of these ground inventory data, spaceborne LiDAR data, optical imagery, climate surfaces, and topographic data. An uncertainty field model was introduced into the forest AGB mapping procedure to minimize the influence of plot location uncertainty. Our globally wall-to-wall forest AGB map showed that the global forest AGB density was 210.09 Mg/ha on average, with a standard deviation of 109.31 Mg/ha. The wall-to-wall forest AGB map was evaluated at plot level and ecological zone level using independent plot measurements. The results showed that the forest AGB estimates were reliable. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) between our predicted results and the validation plots were 0.56 and 87.53 Mg/ha, and those at the ecological zone level were 0.56 and 101.21 Mg/ha, respectively. A comprehensive comparison was also conducted between our forest AGB map and other published regional AGB products. Overall, our forest AGB map showed good agreements with these regional AGB products, but some of the regional AGB products tended to underestimate forest AGB density.

  8. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  9. Forest farming practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Chamberlain; D. Mitchell; T. Brigham; T. Hobby; L. Zabek; J. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Forest farming in North America is becoming popular as a way for landowners to diversify income opportunities, improve management of forest resources, and increase biological diversity. People have been informally "farming the forests" for generations. However, in recent years, attention has been directed at formalizing forest farming and improving it...

  10. Wisconsin's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...

  11. Restoring Forested Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Forests as natural systems are intrinsically linked to the sustainability of fresh-water systems. Efforts worldwide to restore forest ecosystems seek to counteract centuries of forest conversion to agriculture and other uses. Afforestation, the practice of regenerating forests on land deforested for agriculture or other uses, is occurring at an intense pace in the...

  12. Iowa's forest resources, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.

  13. Estimating the deposition of urban atmospheric NO2 to the urban forest in Portland-Vancouver USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.; Gonzalez Abraham, R.; George, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are hotspots of atmospheric emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a US EPA criteria pollutant that affects both human and environmental health. A fraction of this anthropogenic, atmospheric NO2 is deposited onto the urban forest, potentially mitigating the impact of NO2 on respiratory health within cities. However, the role of the urban forest in removal of atmospheric NO2 through deposition has not been well studied. Here, using an observationally-based statistical model, we first estimate the reduction of NO2 associated with the urban forest in Portland-Vancouver, USA, and the health benefits accruing from this reduction. In order to assess if this statistically observed reduction in NO2 associated with the urban forest is consistent with deposition, we then compare the amount of NO2 removed through deposition to the urban forest as estimated using a 4km CMAQ simulation. We further undertake a sensitivity analysis in CMAQ to estimate the range of NO2removed as a function of bulk stomatal resistance. We find that NO2 deposition estimated by CMAQ accounts for roughly one-third of the reduction in NO2 shown by the observationally-based statistical model (Figure). Our sensitivity analysis shows that a 3-10 fold increase in the bulk stomatal resistance parameter in CMAQ would align CMAQ-estimated deposition with the statistical model. The reduction of NO2 by the urban forest in the Portland-Vancouver area may yield a health benefit of at least $1.5 million USD annually, providing strong motivation to better understand the mechanism through which the urban forest may be removing air pollutants such as NO2and thus helping create healthier urban atmospheres. Figure: Comparing the amount of NO2 deposition as estimated by CMAQ and the observationally-based statistical model (LURF). Each point corresponds to a single 4 x 4km CMAQ grid cell.

  14. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    . In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human...... settlements and remote forest with nearly closed canopies. Supervised classification and adaptive thresholding were applied on a pansharpened QuickBird (QB) image to detect kiln burn marks (KBMs). Supervised classification showed reasonable detection accuracy in the remote forest site only, while adaptive...... resulted in R2s of 0.86–0.88 with cross-validation RMSE ranging from 2.22 to 2.29 Mg charcoal per kiln. This study demonstrates, how locally calibrated remote sensing techniques may be used to identify and delineate charcoal production sites for estimation of charcoal production and associated extraction...

  15. Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, Malcolm S.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Foster, Jane R.; Bradford, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change. To inform such adaptive management, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian state space model in which climate effects on tree growth are allowed to vary over time and in relation to past climate extremes, disturbance events, and forest dynamics. The model is an important step toward integrating disturbance and forest dynamics into predictions of forest growth responses to climate extremes. We apply the model to a dendrochronology data set from forest stands of varying composition, structure, and development stage in northeastern Minnesota that have experienced extreme climate years and forest tent caterpillar defoliation events. Mean forest growth was most sensitive to water balance variables representing climatic water deficit. Forest growth responses to water deficit were partitioned into responses driven by climatic threshold exceedances and interactions with insect defoliation. Forest growth was both resistant and resilient to climate extremes with the majority of forest growth responses occurring after multiple climatic threshold exceedances across seasons and years. Interactions between climate and disturbance were observed in a subset of years with insect defoliation increasing forest growth sensitivity to water availability. Forest growth was particularly

  16. Pennsylvania's Forests, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...

  17. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Moose habitat in Massachusetts: Assessing use at the southern edge of the range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattles, David W.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) have recently re-occupied a portion of their range in the temperate deciduous forest of the northeastern United States after a more than 200 year absence. In southern New England, moose are exposed to a variety of forest types, increasing development, and higher ambient temperatures as compared to other parts of their geographic range. Additionally, large-scale disturbances that shape forest structure and expansive naturally occurring shrub-willow communities used commonly elsewhere are lacking. We used utilization distributions to determine third order habitat selection (selection within the home range) of GPS-collared moose. In central Massachusetts, forests regenerating from logging were the most heavily used cover type in all seasons (48 - 63% of core area use). Habitat use of moose in western Massachusetts varied more seasonally, with regenerating forests used most heavily in summer and fall (57 and 46%, respectively), conifer and mixed forests in winter (47 - 65%), and deciduous forests in spring (41%). This difference in habitat selection reflected the transition from northern forest types to more southern forest types across the state. The intensive use of patches of regenerating forest emphasizes the importance of sustainable forest harvesting to moose. This study provides the first assessment of habitat requirements in this southern portion of moose range and provides insights into re-establishment of moose in unoccupied portions of its historic range in New York and Pennsylvania.

  19. The refugee crisis challenges national health care systems: Countries accepting large numbers of refugees are struggling to meet their health care needs, which range from infectious to chronic diseases to mental illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis is a major challenge for many countries that have to provide adequate health care for those arriving at their borders. This includes dealing with both infectious and chronic diseases and with the severe mental health problems from which many refugees suffer.

  20. Monitoring the effects of air pollution on forest condition in Europe: is crown defoliation an adequate indicator?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson J.; Jacob M

    2010-01-01

    Forest condition in Europe is monitored under the International Co-operative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The focus of the program is to provide an overview of the status of forest ecosystems in Europe with respect to air pollution and contribute to the understanding of the relationship between pollution and forest health. Crown condition parameters, i.e., defoliation and discoloration, are used as the principal indicators of forest c...

  1. Forest Policy Scenario Analysis: Sensitivity of Songbird Community to Changes in Forest Cover Amount and Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Rempel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration can be of significant consequence to wildlife populations. The response of wildlife to forest patterns is of concern to forest managers because it lies at the heart of such competing approaches to forest planning as aggregated vs. dispersed harvest block layouts. In this study, we developed a species assessment framework to evaluate the outcomes of forest management scenarios on biodiversity conservation objectives. Scenarios were assessed in the context of a broad range of forest structures and patterns that would be expected to occur under natural disturbance and succession processes. Spatial habitat models were used to predict the effects of varying degrees of mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration on habitat occupancy for a set of 13 focal songbird species. We used a spatially explicit harvest scheduling program to model forest management options and simulate future forest conditions resulting from alternative forest management scenarios, and used a process-based fire-simulation model to simulate future forest conditions resulting from natural wildfire disturbance. Spatial pattern signatures were derived for both habitat occupancy and forest conditions, and these were placed in the context of the simulated range of natural variation. Strategic policy analyses were set in the context of current Ontario forest management policies. This included use of sequential time-restricted harvest blocks (created for Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus conservation and delayed harvest areas (created for American marten (Martes americana atrata conservation. This approach increased the realism of the analysis, but reduced the generality of interpretations. We found that forest management options that create linear strips of old forest deviate the most from simulated natural patterns, and had the greatest negative effects on habitat occupancy, whereas policy options

  2. Assessment of timber availability from forest restoration within the Blue Mountains of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Rainville; Rachel White; Jamie Barbour

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest management have detrimentally affected the economic health of small communities in the Blue Mountain region of Oregon over the past few decades. A build-up of small trees threatens the ecological health of these forests and increases wildland fire hazard. Hoping to boost their economies and also restore these forests, local leaders are interested in...

  3. CURRENT STATE OF CONSERVATION, FIRST PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AND POPULATION ESTIMATION OF THE COASTAL JAGUAR (Panthera onca centralis AND RECORDS OF COMPANION FAUNA OF MEDIUM-SIZED AND HIGHER MAMMALS IN THE PROTECTED FOREST CERRO BLANCO OF THE CHONGÓN COLONCHE MOUNTAIN RANGE, GUAYAQUIL – ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chongón-Colonche Mountain Range is important for their goods and environmental services, its high biodiversity, and being one of the few coastal regions of Ecuador, which still houses the coastal Jaguar Panthera onca centralis. In the Forest Protector Cerro Blanco (BPCB, last Southeast extension of the mountain chain, it was developed the field research through the data collection with direct and indirect medium-sized and higher mammals’ records. Besides a Cuddeback Digital camera trap was used, by selecting a sampling point within a probable route of the jaguar. Inspections in a nearby quarry were made to observe traces of major feline registries. The same consolidated past sightings or evidence of witnesses which complemented the study for the determination of the status of the species in the BPCB. The study showed indirect and direct records of white-tailed deer, peccaries, raccoons, agoutis, wild rabbits, howler monkeys, Capuchin white or monkeys, agouti, bears Anteaters and Jaguars from the coast for which it is considered that the BPCB is probably a meeting place between two individuals; however, it is important to note that the results presented are preliminary.

  4. FOREST CADASTRE COMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Bıyık

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, forest areas are decreasing every day. On the other hand, being a wood product and the source of countless usage areas, the value of forest increases more and more. Delineation of forest areas, known as forest cadastre, are completed in developed countries. In general, with fprest cadastre the geometrical and legal status of forests are determined and registered in Land Title. Forest cadastre are carried out by Forest Cadastre Comissions according to the Forest Low 6831. Until today, only 60% of forest cadastre have been completed in 58 years from the start of forest cadastre work. The organization of Forest Cadastre Comissions have undergone various changes. Forest Cadastre Comissions have long suffered from many organizational and practical problems. In this study, current problems of Forest Cadastre Comissions are identified and examined. In result,, insufficient number of comissions, lack of theoretical and practical background and low motivation ot working personnal, and political and public pressure on the works of Forest Cadastre Comissions were identified as the main problems.

  5. Archives: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 57 ... Archives: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Journal Home > Archives: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: Editorial Policies. Journal Home > About the Journal > Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: Editorial Policies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: About this journal. Journal Home > Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  9. A Synthesis of Sierran Forest Biomass Management Studies and Potential Effects on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Weisberg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current nutrient pools and the effects of biomass management in watersheds of the basin relative to their potential impacts on nutrient (N, P related discharge water quality. An accumulating forest floor as a result of fire suppression has resulted in the build-up of large nutrient pools that now provide a “natural” source of long term nutrient availability to surface waters. As a consequence, stand and forest floor replacing wildfire may cause a large magnitude nutrient mobilization impact on runoff water quality. Hence, mechanical harvest and controlled burning have become popular management strategies. The most ecologically significant long-term effects of controlled fire appear to be the loss of C and N from the forest floor. Although the application of controlled fire may have some initial impact on overland/litter interflow nutrient loading, controlled burning in conjunction with mechanical harvest has the potential to improve runoff water quality by reducing N and P discharge and improving the overall health of forest ecosystems without the danger of a high intensity wildfire.

  10. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rawson. Clark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  11. Valuation of consumption and sale of forest goods from a Central American rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy; Wilkie; Overman; Cubas; Cubas; Demmer; McSweeney; Brokaw

    2000-07-06

    Researchers recognize that society needs accurate and comprehensive estimates of the economic value of rain forests to assess conservation and management options. Valuation of forests can help us to decide whether to implement policies that reconcile the value different groups attach to forests. Here we have measured the value of the rain forest to local populations by monitoring the foods, construction and craft materials, and medicines consumed or sold from the forest by 32 Indian households in two villages in Honduras over 2.5 years. We have directly measured the detailed, comprehensive consumption patterns of rain forest products by an indigenous population and the value of that consumption in local markets. The combined value of consumption and sale of forest goods ranged from US$17.79 to US$23.72 per hectare per year, at the lower end of previous estimates (between US$49 and US$1,089 (mean US$347) per hectare per year). Although outsiders value the rain forest for its high-use and non-use values, local people receive a small share of the total value. Unless rural people are paid for the non-local values of rain forests, they may be easily persuaded to deforest.

  12. Low tortoise abundances in pine forest plantations in forest-shrubland transition areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto C.; Oedekoven, Cornelia S.; Graciá, Eva; Anadón, José D.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Esteve-Selma, Miguel A.; Martinez, Julia; Giménez, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species’ range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields). Tortoise densities were estimated using a two-stage modeling approach with line transect distance sampling. Densities in dryland crop fields, abandoned crop fields and natural shrubs were higher (>6 individuals/ha) than in pine forests (1.25 individuals/ha). We also found large variation in density in the pine forests. Recent pine plantations showed higher densities than mature pine forests where shrub and herbaceous cover was taller and thicker. We hypothesize that mature pine forest might constrain tortoise activity by acting as partial barriers to movements. This issue is relevant for management purposes given that large areas in the tortoise’s range have recently been converted to pine plantations. PMID:28273135

  13. Mapping spatial distribution of forest age in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yao, Yitong; Wang, Xuhui; Liu, Yongwen; Piao, Shilong

    2017-03-01

    Forest stand age is a meaningful metric, which reflects the past disturbance legacy, provides guidelines for forest management practices, and is an important factor in qualifying forest carbon cycles and carbon sequestration potential. Reliable large-scale forest stand age information with high spatial resolutions, however, is difficult to obtain. In this study, we developed a top-down method to downscale the provincial statistics of national forest inventory data into 1 km stand age map using climate data and light detection and ranging-derived forest height. We find that the distribution of forest stand age in China is highly heterogeneous across the country, with a mean value of 42.6 years old. The relatively young stand age for Chinese forests is mostly due to the large proportion of newly planted forests (0-40 years old), which are more prevailing in south China. Older forests (stand age > 60 years old) are more frequently found in east Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the central mountain areas of west and northeast China, where human activities are less intensive. Among the 15 forest types, forests dominated by species of Taxodiaceae, with the exception of Cunninghamia lanceolata stands, have the oldest mean stand age (136 years), whereas Pinus massoniana forests are the youngest (18 years). We further identified uncertainties associated with our forest age map, which are high in west and northeast China. Our work documents the distribution of forest stand age in China at a high resolution which is useful for carbon cycle modeling and the sustainable use of China's forest resources.

  14. Compatible forest management: background and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Robert A. Monserud; Adelaide C. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Let US begin by defining our area of interest: the moist maritime forests of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Geographically (as shown in Figure 1), this includes western Oregon and Washington (the west side of the Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the Olympic Mountains), coastal British Columbia (Coast Mountains), and island-dominated southeastern Alaska (as far north...

  15. Climate change and ecosystem disruption: the health impacts of the North American Rocky Mountain pine beetle infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, Sally; Remais, Justin V; Hess, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    In the United States and Canada, pine forest ecosystems are being dramatically affected by an unprecedented pine beetle infestation attributed to climate change. Both decreased frequency of extremely cold days and warmer winter temperature averages have led to an enphytotic devastating millions of acres of pine forest. The associated ecosystem disruption has the potential to cause significant health impacts from a range of exposures, including increased runoff and water turbidity, forest fires, and loss of ecosystem services. We review direct and indirect health impacts and possible prevention strategies. The pine beetle infestation highlights the need for public health to adopt an ecological, systems-oriented view to anticipate the full range of potential health impacts from climate change and facilitate effective planned adaptation.

  16. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher P O; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Hernández, Juan Guerra; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João Hn; Paulo, Joana A; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-03-16

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.

  17. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G.; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P.; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Guerra Hernández, Juan; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J.; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João HN; Paulo, Joana A.; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.

  18. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T

    2012-01-01

    Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing

  19. Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher P O; Bathgate, Stephen; Blennow, Kristina; Borges, Jose G; Bugmann, Harald; Delzon, Sylvain; Faias, Sonia P; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Gardiner, Barry; Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon; Gracia, Carlos; Hernández, Juan Guerra; Kellomäki, Seppo; Kramer, Koen; Lexer, Manfred J; Lindner, Marcus; van der Maaten, Ernst; Maroschek, Michael; Muys, Bart; Nicoll, Bruce; Palahi, Marc; Palma, João HN; Paulo, Joana A; Peltola, Heli; Pukkala, Timo; Rammer, Werner; Ray, Duncan; Sabaté, Santiago; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Seidl, Rupert; Temperli, Christian; Tomé, Margarida; Yousefpour, Rasoul; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures. PMID:28855959

  20. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brolly

    Full Text Available Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to