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Sample records for range extension technique

  1. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  2. Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage Thomas Shake MIT Lincoln Laboratory shake@ll.mit.edu Abstract...associated electronics into small aircraft to perform such range extension. In particular, the paper examines trade-offs in network topology design...aircraft, and the topology characteristics of the aerial relay network. The analysis suggests that low-degree air topologies such as rings and strings

  3. Long-Range Persistence Techniques Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, A.; Malamud, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    Many time series in the Earth Sciences exhibit persistence (memory) where large values (small values) `cluster' together. Here we examine long-range persistence, where one value is correlated with all others in the time series. A time series is long-range persistent (a self-affine fractal) if the power spectral density scales with a power law. The scaling exponent beta characterizes the `strength' of persistence. We compare five common analysis techniques for quantifying long-range persistence: (a) Power-spectral analysis, (b) Wavelet variance analysis, (c) Detrended Fluctuation analysis, (d) Semivariogram analysis, and (e) Rescaled-Range (R/S) analysis. To evaluate these methods, we construct 26,000 synthetic fractional noises with lengths between 512 and 4096, different persistence strengths, different distributions (normal, log-normal, levy), and using different construction methods: Fourier filtering, discrete wavelets, random additions, and Mandelbrot `cartoon' Brownian motions. We find: (a) Power-spectral and wavelet analyses are the most robust for measuring long-range persistence across all beta, although `antipersistence' is over-estimated for non- Gaussian time series. (b) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength beta between -0.2 and 2.8 and has very large 95% confidence intervals for non-Gaussian signals. (c) Semivariograms are appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength between 1.0 and 2.8; it has large confidence intervals and systematically underestimates log-normal noises in this range. (d) Rescaled- Range Analysis is only accurate for beta of about 0.7. We conclude some techniques are much better suited than others for quantifying long-range persistence, and the resultant beta (and associated error bars on them) are sensitive to the one point probability distribution, the length of the time series, and the techniques used.

  4. Extension of the preceding birth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A

    1994-01-01

    The Brass-inspired Preceding Birth Technique (PBT), is an indirect estimation technique with low costs of administration. PBT involves asking women at a time close to delivery about the survival of the preceding births. The proportion dead is close to the probability of dying between the birth and the second birthday or an index of early childhood mortality (II or Q). Brass and Macrae have determined that II is an estimate of mortality between birth and an age lower than the birth interval or around 4/5 of the birth interval. Hospital and clinic data are likely to include a concentration of women with lower risks of disease because of higher educational levels and socioeconomic status. A simulation of PBT data from the World Fertility Survey for Mexico and Peru found that the proportions of previously dead children were 0.156 in Peru and 0.092 in Mexican home deliveries. Maternity clinic proportions were 0.088 in Peru and 0.066 in Mexico. Use of clinic and hospital data collection underestimated mortality by 32% in Peru and 15% in Mexico. Another alternative was proposed: interviewing women at some other time than delivery. If the interview was during a child/infant intervention after delivery, the subsample would still be subject to a bias, but this problem could be overcome by computing the weighted average of the actual probability of the older child being dead and the conditional probability of the younger child being dead or both younger and older children being dead. Correction factors could be applied using the general standard of the logit life table system of Brass. Calculation of a simple average of the ages of the younger children could provide enough information to help decide which tables to use. Five surveys were selected for testing the factors of dependence between probabilities of death of successive siblings: Bangladesh, Lesotho, Kenya, Ghana, and Guyana. Higher mortality was related to lower dependency factors between the probabilities of death

  5. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida: models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Langer

    Full Text Available Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1, and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  6. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida): models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Martin R; Weinmann, Anna E; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M; Rödder, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1), and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  7. Two Extension Block Kirschner Wires’ Technique for Bony Mallet Thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Mifune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mallet fingers with an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx or rupture of the terminal tendon of the extensor mechanism is known as a common injury, while mallet thumb is very rare. In this paper, the case of a 19-year-old woman with a sprained left thumb sustained while playing basketball is presented. Plain radiographs and computed tomography revealed an avulsion fracture involving more than half of the articular surface at the base of the distal phalanx. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation were performed using the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique under digital block anesthesia. At 4 months postoperatively, the patient had achieved excellent results according to Crawford’s evaluation criteria and had no difficulties in working or playing basketball. Various conservative and operative treatment strategies have been reported for management of mallet thumb. We chose the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique to minimize invasion of the extensor mechanism and nail bed and to stabilize the large fracture fragment.

  8. Effects on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility, Muscle Activity, and Balance of Different Stretching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance. PMID:24648633

  9. A comparison of some range condition assessment techniques used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques currently used to assess range condition in the grassland biome of Southern Africa are reviewed. These indices were then used to evaluate each method in terms of sensitivity, index interpretation and efficiency, bearing in mind the objectives of each technique. The weighted key species method and ...

  10. Discrete filtering techniques applied to sequential GPS range measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangraas, Frank

    1987-01-01

    The basic navigation solution is described for position and velocity based on range and delta range (Doppler) measurements from NAVSTAR Global Positioning System satellites. The application of discrete filtering techniques is examined to reduce the white noise distortions on the sequential range measurements. A second order (position and velocity states) Kalman filter is implemented to obtain smoothed estimates of range by filtering the dynamics of the signal from each satellite separately. Test results using a simulated GPS receiver show a steady-state noise reduction, the input noise variance divided by the output noise variance, of a factor of four. Recommendations for further noise reduction based on higher order Kalman filters or additional delta range measurements are included.

  11. Maximizing Interconnectedness and Availability in Directional Airborne RangeExtension Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    surveyed advances in directional networking , noting much work in topology management , medium access control algorithms, aircraft-based directional... networks . Other issues, such as topology management and spectrum management , also require further research and development to enable high-quality...Maximizing Interconnectedness and Availability in Directional Airborne Range Extension Networks Thomas Shake, Rahul Amin MIT Lincoln Laboratory

  12. South-western extension of the known range of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilgendorf), were collected in the Gamtoos River in the eastern Cape, representing a southwestern range extension for both. This is the first known record of these species west of Port Elizabeth, and also the first record of an overlap of their ...

  13. A study of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation Jason de Villiersa,b, Fintan Wilsona and Fred Nicollsb aCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; bUniversity of Cape Town, Cape Town, South... and not scintillation and remove it from the list. 6. Interpolate between identified matches to create a complete de-warping mesh for the image. 7. Use de-warping mesh to create stabilised image. 6. RESULTS The resultant depth images in this paper are small in order...

  14. The Yellowstone ‘hot spot’ track results from migrating Basin Range extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Anderson, Don L.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Lustrino, Michele; King, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Whether the volcanism of the Columbia River Plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone (western U.S.) is related to a mantle plume or to plate tectonic processes is a long-standing controversy. There are many geological mismatches with the basic plume model as well as logical flaws, such as citing data postulated to require a deep-mantle origin in support of an “upper-mantle plume” model. USArray has recently yielded abundant new seismological results, but despite this, seismic analyses have still not resolved the disparity of opinion. This suggests that seismology may be unable to resolve the plume question for Yellowstone, and perhaps elsewhere. USArray data have inspired many new models that relate western U.S. volcanism to shallow mantle convection associated with subduction zone processes. Many of these models assume that the principal requirement for surface volcanism is melt in the mantle and that the lithosphere is essentially passive. In this paper we propose a pure plate model in which melt is commonplace in the mantle, and its inherent buoyancy is not what causes surface eruptions. Instead, it is extension of the lithosphere that permits melt to escape to the surface and eruptions to occur—the mere presence of underlying melt is not a sufficient condition. The time-progressive chain of rhyolitic calderas in the eastern Snake River Plain–Yellowstone zone that has formed since basin-range extension began at ca. 17 Ma results from laterally migrating lithospheric extension and thinning that has permitted basaltic magma to rise from the upper mantle and melt the lower crust. We propose that this migration formed part of the systematic eastward migration of the axis of most intense basin-range extension. The bimodal rhyolite-basalt volcanism followed migration of the locus of most rapid extension, not vice versa. This model does not depend on seismology to test it but instead on surface geological observations.

  15. New fabrication techniques for high dynamic range tunneling sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David T.; Stratton, Fred P.; Kubena, Randall L.; Vickers-Kirby, Deborah J.; Joyce, Richard J.; Schimert, Thomas R.; Gooch, Roland W.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed high dynamic range (105-106 g's) tunneling accelerometers1,2 that may be ideal for smart munitions applications by employing both surface and bulk micromachining processing techniques. The highly miniaturized surface-micromachined devices can be manufactured at very low cost and integrated on chip with the control electronics. Bulk-micromachined devices with Si as the cantilever material should have reduced long-term bias drift as well as better stability at higher temperatures. Fully integrated sensors may provide advantages in minimizing microphonics for high-g applications. Previously, we described initial test results using electrostatic forces generated by a self-test electrode located under a Au cantilever3. In this paper, we describe more recent testing of Ni and Au cantilever devices on a shaker table using a novel, low input voltage (5 V) servo controller on both printed wiring board and surface-mount control circuitry. In addition, we report our initial test results for devices packaged using a low-temperature wafer-level vacuum packaging technique for low-cost manufacturing.

  16. Comparison of nonballistic active knee extension in neural slump position and static stretch techniques on hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webright, W G; Randolph, B J; Perrin, D H

    1997-07-01

    Nonballistic, active range of motion exercises have been advocated as more effective than static stretching for increasing range of motion, yet no published data exist to support this claim. This study compared the effect of nonballistic, repetitive active knee extension movements performed in a neural slump sitting position with static stretching technique on hamstring flexibility. Forty healthy, adult volunteer subjects with limited right hamstring flexibility (i.e., minimum of 15 degrees loss of active knee extension measured with femur held at 90 degrees of hip flexion) were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 (static stretch) performed a 30-second stretch twice daily. Group 2 (active stretch) performed 30 repetitions of active knee extension while sitting in a neural slump position twice daily. Group 3 served as a control. Hamstring flexibility was determined by an active knee extension test before and after 6 weeks of stretching. Goniometric measurement of knee joint flexion angle was obtained from videotape recording of the active knee extension test. A 3 (group) x 2 (test) repeated measures analysis of variance and subsequent Tukey post hoc testing revealed no significant difference in knee joint range of motion gains between the static (mean = 8.9 degrees) and active stretch (mean = 10.2 degrees). Both stretch groups' knee joint range of motion improved significantly (p active knee extensions (30 repetitions, twice daily) performed in a neural slump sitting position improves hamstring flexibility in uninjured subjects, but is no different compared with static stretching (30 seconds, twice daily).

  17. Edging along a Warming Coast: A Range Extension for a Common Sandy Beach Crab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Schoeman

    Full Text Available Determining the position of range edges is the first step in developing an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics in play as species' ranges shift in response to climate change. Here, we study the leading (poleward range edge of Ocypode cordimanus, a ghost crab that is common along the central to northern east coast of Australia. Our study establishes the poleward range edge of adults of this species to be at Merimbula (36.90°S, 149.93°E, 270 km (along the coast south of the previous southernmost museum record. We also establish that dispersal of pelagic larvae results in recruitment to beaches 248 km (along the coast; 0.9° of latitude beyond the adult range edge we have documented here. Although we cannot conclusively demonstrate that the leading range edge for this species has moved polewards in response to climate change, this range edge does fall within a "hotspot" of ocean warming, where surface isotherms are moving southwards along the coast at 20-50 km.decade-1; coastal air temperatures in the region are also warming. If these patterns persist, future range extensions could be anticipated. On the basis of their ecology, allied with their occupancy of ocean beaches, which are home to taxa that are particularly amenable to climate-change studies, we propose that ghost crabs like O. cordimanus represent ideal model organisms with which to study ecological and evolutionary processes associated with climate change. The fact that "hotspots" of ocean warming on four other continents correspond with poleward range edges of ghost crab species suggests that results of hypothesis tests could be generalized, yielding excellent opportunities to rapidly progress knowledge in this field.

  18. Close-Range Sensing Techniques in Alpine Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzinger, M.; Höfle, B.; Lindenbergh, R.; Oude Elberink, S.; Pirotti, F.; Sailer, R.; Scaioni, M.; Stötter, J.; Wujanz, D.

    2016-06-01

    Early career researchers such as PhD students are a main driving force of scientific research and are for a large part responsible for research innovation. They work on specialized topics within focused research groups that have a limited number of members, but might also have limited capacity in terms of lab equipment. This poses a serious challenge for educating such students as it is difficult to group a sufficient number of them to enable efficient knowledge transfer. To overcome this problem, the Innsbruck Summer School of Alpine Research 2015 on close-range sensing techniques in Alpine terrain was organized in Obergurgl, Austria, by an international team from several universities and research centres. Of the applicants a group of 40 early career researchers were selected with interest in about ten types of specialized surveying tools, i.e. laser scanners, a remotely piloted aircraft system, a thermal camera, a backpack mobile mapping system and different grade photogrammetric equipment. During the one-week summer school, students were grouped according to their personal preference to work with one such type of equipment under guidance of an expert lecturer. All students were required to capture and process field data on a mountain-related theme like landslides or rock glaciers. The work on the assignments lasted the whole week but was interspersed with lectures on selected topics by invited experts. The final task of the summer school participants was to present and defend their results to their peers, lecturers and other colleagues in a symposium-like setting. Here we present the framework and content of this summer school which brought together scientists from close-range sensing and environmental and geosciences.

  19. Orogenic inheritance in Death Valley region, western US Basin and Range: implications for Neogene crustal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Prior, M. G.; Stockli, D. F.; Kelly, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation and temperature evolution during orogenic stages may influence later fabric development, thus controlling large-scale extensional processes that can occur millions of years later. Here, we describe pressure-temperature and fabric evolution from the Death Valley (DV) region and show how inherited fabrics, formed in late orogenic stages during Late Cretaceous time, influenced later Neogene age Basin and Range (BR) extension. The DV region is one of the most extended and thinned regions in the western US BR province, and the two of the ranges that bound the eastern valley expose basement rocks exhumed during the Neogene extension. In the Funeral range, it has been established that older (Precambrian) basement underwent Mesozoic age syn-deformational metamorphism during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. In contrast, the Black Mountains record widespread tectonic stretching and magmatism of Miocene age on Precambrian basement, and have, overall, been lacking previous evidence of Mesozoic metamorphism and fabric development. In the Funeral Range Late Cretaceous migmatitic fabrics were overprinted by zones of high-strain fabrics formed due to melt-consuming reaction that define an overall P-T cooling path likely during late- to post-orogenesis. These fabrics form interconnected layers of quartz + biotite aggregates, in which individual quartz grains lack evidence of intracrystalline plastic deformation and show consistently random [c]-axis microfabrics. This suggests coupled reaction-diffusion processes that favored diffusion-assisted creep. New geochronometric results of melt products in the Black Mountains show evidence of partial melting of Late Cretaceous age. Contrasting with the neighboring Funeral Range, overprinting by extensional fabrics of Miocene age is widespread, and consists of high-strain, anastomosing foliation composed of retrograde products from preexisting, higher-temperature fabrics. These include interconnected fine-grained chlorite + quartz

  20. Modified Meek Micrografting Technique for Wound Coverage in Extensive Burn Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Abelardo; Riegel, Timothy; Nystad, Deborah; Tredget, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    The modified Meek micrografting technique constitutes a rapid and efficient surgical approach for the skin coverage of extensive full-thickness burn injuries. A total of 10 burn patients (mean 68 ± 9.2% TBSA) admitted to our burn unit required one or more Meek micrografting procedures (mean 2.2 ± 0.5) to cover in average 43.4 ± 11.6% TBSA (range between 10 and 75% TBSA). This goal was achieved using a donor site area ranging between 2.5 and 18% TBSA. All patients developed local infection to Pseudomona aeruginosa (75%), Stenotrophomona maltophilia (25%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (12.5%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (12.5%). Thus, the average of Meek regrafting after graft-take failure was 13.1 ± 6.4% TBSA (median: 9%; range from 0 to 36%). The period to obtain stable definitive wound closure was in average of 67.2 ± 21 days post injury. The modified Meek micrografting provides a reliable and versatile method for the coverage of large burn wounds with limited autograft donor sites and is now routinely used in our institution. Its systematic use improves operating times and overall outcomes reducing the number of surgeries, increasing the percentage of graft take, and decreasing the length of stay.

  1. Ranges of Cervical Intervertebral Disc Deformation During an In Vivo Dynamic Flexion-Extension of the Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Mao, Haiqing; Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Cheng, Liming; Wood, Kirkham B; Li, Guoan; Cha, Thomas D

    2017-06-01

    While abnormal loading is widely believed to cause cervical spine disc diseases, in vivo cervical disc deformation during dynamic neck motion has not been well delineated. This study investigated the range of cervical disc deformation during an in vivo functional flexion-extension of the neck. Ten asymptomatic human subjects were tested using a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based three-dimensional (3D) modeling technique. Overall disc deformation was determined using the changes of the space geometry between upper and lower endplates of each intervertebral segment (C3/4, C4/5, C5/6, and C6/7). Five points (anterior, center, posterior, left, and right) of each disc were analyzed to examine the disc deformation distributions. The data indicated that between the functional maximum flexion and extension of the neck, the anterior points of the discs experienced large changes of distraction/compression deformation and shear deformation. The higher level discs experienced higher ranges of disc deformation. No significant difference was found in deformation ranges at posterior points of all the discs. The data indicated that the range of disc deformation is disc level dependent and the anterior region experienced larger changes of deformation than the center and posterior regions, except for the C6/7 disc. The data obtained from this study could serve as baseline knowledge for the understanding of the cervical spine disc biomechanics and for investigation of the biomechanical etiology of disc diseases. These data could also provide insights for development of motion preservation surgeries for cervical spine.

  2. Reconciling the Isabella Anomaly with Lithosphere Delamination and Basin & Range Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Isabella anomaly is a high-seismic velocity region located below the Sierra Nevada, and its presence has been explained through lithosphere delamination occurring within the past 10-15 Ma and an accreted oceanic micro-plate. Both the lack of consensus on the origin of this high velocity structure and its relation to putative lithospheric delamination and surface uplift requires more careful geodynamic studies. While earlier models of lithosphere delamination neglected the nearby subduction, we attempt to explain this anomaly in the context of delamination related to the subducted slab of the Farallon plate. We design a two-dimensional high-resolution model that extends from the west coast of the United States to the Colorado Plateau, including both the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range regions. The Basin and Range experienced accelerated extension towards the northwest since 15 Ma, resulting in a topographical pattern with alternating subsidence and uplift; the mechanisms for both the deformation and topography of the region are presently debated. Preliminary results from our 2-D slab-lithosphere interaction model indicate that the foundering of an earlier accreted Farallon slab causes the surface to uplift and the overriding plate to extend. The model can potentially reproduce the main tectonic characteristics of the region, offering new insights on the evolution of the lithosphere-mantle system.

  3. Range Surveillance Using Radio Interferometry and TDOA Techniques Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize a small network of remote sensors to perform Radio Interferometry (RI) and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) techniques to...

  4. First record of Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae from Osmanabad District and range extension to southeastern Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes sighting of Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata, near Tuljapur. This is a first record from Osmanabad District and constitutes a range extension to southeastern India. 

  5. Reference ranges for interrupter resistance technique: the Asthma UK Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Stocks, J.; Beydon, N.; Lombardi, E.; Jones, M.; McKenzie, S.A.; Kivastik, J.; Arets, B.G.; Stanojevic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring interrupter resistance (R(int)) is an increasingly popular lung function technique and especially suitable for preschool children because it is simple, quick and requires only passive cooperation. A European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) Task Force recently

  6. Borrelia crocidurae in Ornithodoros ticks from northwestern Morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Yassine; Boudebouch, Najma; Ezikouri, Sayeh; Belghyti, Driss; Trape, Jean-François; Sarih, M'hammed

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by Argasid soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. We investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the Gharb region of northwestern Morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of TBRF in humans. We assessed the Borrelia infection rate by nested PCR and sequencing. All sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the Ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high proportion of burrows (38.4%) were found to be infested. Borrelia infections were observed in 6.8% of the ticks tested. Two Borrelia species were identified by sequencing: B. hispanica and B. crocidurae. The discovery in northwestern Morocco of Ornithodoros ticks infected by B. crocidurae represents a 350 km range extension of this Sahelo-Saharan spirochete in North Africa. The spread of B. crocidurae may be related to the increasing aridity of northwestern Morocco in relation to climate change. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Intra-rater and Inter-instrument Reliability on Range of Movement of Active Knee Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germanna de Medeiros Barbosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of intra-rater and inter-instrument measures during two flexibility programs. Fifty-three active and healthy males, aged between 18 and 28 years old, were randomly included in three groups: control (Cg, n = 18, static stretching (SSg, n = 17, and dynamic stretching (DSg, n = 18. All participants underwent measurements of their active range of knee extension using manual goniometry and computerized photogrammetry, measured in four separated assessments and analyzed using the SPSS, with ((5%. Both methodologies presented very strongintra-raterreliability (ICC: 0.91(0.99; P<0.001 at all four assessments in all the groups, and the instruments showed weak (r: 0.31-0.6 to strong(r: 0.61-0.9 correlation, in the Cg (P<0.05 and strong (r: 0.61-0.9 in the SSg and DSg (P<0.01, although without differences between groups, indicating that the measures are equally reliable, regardless of interventions.

  8. Canal preparation and filling techniques do not influence the fracture resistance of extensively damaged teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Santini,Manuela Favarin; RIPPE,Marília Pivetta; Franciscatto,Gisele Jung; Rosa,Ricardo Abreu da; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; BIER,Carlos Alexandre Souza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the fracture resistance of extensively damaged teeth after two root canal preparation techniques (hand and rotary files) and after two filling techniques (active and passive compaction). Sixty-eight maxillary canines roots with an apical diameter equal to that of a #25 K-file were embedded in acrylic resin and the periodontal ligament was simulated by using a polyether impression material. The roots were randomly distributed into four groups (n=17): han...

  9. Extension of the focusable mass range in distance-of-flight mass spectrometry with multiple detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W; Dennis, Elise A; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Carado, Anthony J; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M

    2012-11-15

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based mass separation technique in which ions are spread across a spatially selective detector according to m/z. In this work, we investigate the practical mass range available for DOFMS with a finite-length detector. A glow-discharge DOFMS instrument has been constructed for the analysis of atomic ions. This instrument was modified to accommodate two spatially selective ion detectors, arranged co-linearly, along the mass-separation axis of the analyzer. With this geometry, each detector covers a different portion of the distance-of-flight spectrum and ions are detected simultaneously at the two detectors. The total flight distance covered by the two detectors is 106 mm and simulates DOF detection across a broad mass range. DOFMS theory predicts that ions of all m/z values are focused at a single flight time, but at m/z-dependent flight distances. Therefore, ions that are detected across a wide portion of the DOF axis should all yield the same peak widths. With a focal-plane camera detector and a micro-channel plate/phosphor-screen detection assembly, we found simultaneous, uniform focus of (40)Ar(2)(+) and of (65)Cu(+) and (63)Cu(+) with the ions spread 82 mm across the DOF axis. This detection length, combined with the current instrument geometry, allows for a simultaneously detectable m/z value of 4:3 (high mass-to-low mass). These results are the first experimental verification that constant-momentum acceleration (CMA)-DOFMS provides energy focus across an extended detection length. Evidence presented demonstrates that DOFMS is amenable to detection with (at least) a 100-mm detector surface. These results indicate that DOFMS is well suited for detection of broader mass ranges. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of gas models of Lennard-Jones type interactions: Extensivity associated with interaction range and external noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadijani, M. Nouri; Abbasi, H.; Nezamipour, S.

    2017-06-01

    Statistics of a two-dimensional gas model interacting through a Lennard-Jones type potential, is considered. The goal is to examine the extensivity of internal energy in respect to the potential range and external white noise through molecular dynamics simulation. Accordingly a molecular dynamics simulation model is designed that provides reasonable evidence, in this respect. It is shown that for the long range potential the internal energy scales according to non-extensive thermodynamics expectation and the criteria is specified. Besides, for the short range case we demonstrate that the external noise drastically modifies the statistics of gas and makes the internal energy non-extensive. The relation between the non-extensive parameter, q, and the relaxation time and the noise intensity is obtained.

  11. Infrared optical element mounting techniques for wide temperature ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2010-01-20

    We describe the optimization of a mounting system for the infrared (IR) optics of a spaceborne interferometer working in the temperature range between -120 degrees C and +150 degrees C. The concept is based on an aluminum alloy frame with designed mechanical compliance, which allows for compensation of the different coefficient of thermal expansion between the optics and the holder; at the same time, the system provides for the high stiffness required to reach natural frequencies above 200 Hz, which are mandatory in most space missions. Thermal adapters with properly chosen thermomechanical characteristics are interposed between the metallic structure and the lens, so as to reduce the interface stresses on the mechanically weak IR material, due to both the thermoelastic and acceleration loads. With the proposed mount, the competitive requirements of stiffness and stress-free mounting can be matched in wide temperature ranges. The case study of the interferometer of a miniaturized Fourier transform IR spectrometer is presented.

  12. Long Range Microimage Transmission Techniques Study for AFMPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    of MIT Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, and EPSCO Laboratories ( now defunct) in Wilton, Connecticut. Their results indicate that the long range... EPSCO Laboratories (now defunrt) in Wilton, Connecticut. The NOSC effort was sponsored by the Bureau of Naval Personnel, the ESL effort was conducted...in support of the Library of Congress and the EPSCO Laboratory effort was sponsored by RADC in support of the Foreign Technology Division at Wright

  13. Automatic out-of-range photo recognition using digital techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardier, Genevieve; Maitre, Henri

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses digital techniques used to identify automatically those color photographs whose optical densities fall outside acceptable norms for a visual system. Targets are of two different kinds indicating the need for different recognition algorithms. First, the investigation focuses on color pictures showing high contrast in optical densities such as pictures taken with flash and pictures taken against the light; it estimates statistical parameters which determine mixture densities. Results of Maximum Likelihood, Moment estimation using Prony's Method, Multiscale Analysis and Marquardt optimization algorithm applied to the histogram recognition problem have been compared in terms of efficiency and speed for both low and more detailed vision. Attention is then focussed on pictures showing an optical density gradient in a given direction. Solutions such as plane fitting, robust Median Based Estimator are compared with a new '4-step Median Based Estimator.'

  14. Xylella fastidiosa: Host Range and Advance in Molecular Identification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Paolo; La Porta, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In the never ending struggle against plant pathogenic bacteria, a major goal is the early identification and classification of infecting microorganisms. Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Xanthmonadaceae, is no exception as this pathogen showed a broad range of vectors and host plants, many of which may carry the pathogen for a long time without showing any symptom. Till the last years, most of the diseases caused by X. fastidiosa have been reported from North and South America, but recently a widespread infection of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), and several cases of X. fastidiosa infection have been reported in other European Countries. At least five different subspecies of X. fastidiosa have been reported and classified: fastidiosa, multiplex, pauca, sandyi, and tashke. A sixth subspecies (morus) has been recently proposed. Therefore, it is vital to develop fast and reliable methods that allow the pathogen detection during the very early stages of infection, in order to prevent further spreading of this dangerous bacterium. To this purpose, the classical immunological methods such as ELISA and immunofluorescence are not always sensitive enough. However, PCR-based methods exploiting specific primers for the amplification of target regions of genomic DNA have been developed and are becoming a powerful tool for the detection and identification of many species of bacteria. The aim of this review is to illustrate the application of the most commonly used PCR approaches to X. fastidiosa study, ranging from classical PCR, to several PCR-based detection methods: random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), nested-PCR (N-PCR), immunocapture PCR (IC-PCR), short sequence repeats (SSRs, also called VNTR), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amplification and sequence analysis of specific

  15. Xylella fastidiosa: Host Range and Advance in Molecular Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Baldi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the never ending struggle against plant pathogenic bacteria, a major goal is the early identification and classification of infecting microorganisms. Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Xanthmonadaceae, is no exception as this pathogen showed a broad range of vectors and host plants, many of which may carry the pathogen for a long time without showing any symptom. Till the last years, most of the diseases caused by X. fastidiosa have been reported from North and South America, but recently a widespread infection of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in Apulia (south-eastern Italy, and several cases of X. fastidiosa infection have been reported in other European Countries. At least five different subspecies of X. fastidiosa have been reported and classified: fastidiosa, multiplex, pauca, sandyi, and tashke. A sixth subspecies (morus has been recently proposed. Therefore, it is vital to develop fast and reliable methods that allow the pathogen detection during the very early stages of infection, in order to prevent further spreading of this dangerous bacterium. To this purpose, the classical immunological methods such as ELISA and immunofluorescence are not always sensitive enough. However, PCR-based methods exploiting specific primers for the amplification of target regions of genomic DNA have been developed and are becoming a powerful tool for the detection and identification of many species of bacteria. The aim of this review is to illustrate the application of the most commonly used PCR approaches to X. fastidiosa study, ranging from classical PCR, to several PCR-based detection methods: random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, nested-PCR (N-PCR, immunocapture PCR (IC-PCR, short sequence repeats (SSRs, also called VNTR, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amplification and sequence analysis of

  16. Xylella fastidiosa: Host Range and Advance in Molecular Identification Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Paolo; La Porta, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In the never ending struggle against plant pathogenic bacteria, a major goal is the early identification and classification of infecting microorganisms. Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Xanthmonadaceae, is no exception as this pathogen showed a broad range of vectors and host plants, many of which may carry the pathogen for a long time without showing any symptom. Till the last years, most of the diseases caused by X. fastidiosa have been reported from North and South America, but recently a widespread infection of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), and several cases of X. fastidiosa infection have been reported in other European Countries. At least five different subspecies of X. fastidiosa have been reported and classified: fastidiosa, multiplex, pauca, sandyi, and tashke. A sixth subspecies (morus) has been recently proposed. Therefore, it is vital to develop fast and reliable methods that allow the pathogen detection during the very early stages of infection, in order to prevent further spreading of this dangerous bacterium. To this purpose, the classical immunological methods such as ELISA and immunofluorescence are not always sensitive enough. However, PCR-based methods exploiting specific primers for the amplification of target regions of genomic DNA have been developed and are becoming a powerful tool for the detection and identification of many species of bacteria. The aim of this review is to illustrate the application of the most commonly used PCR approaches to X. fastidiosa study, ranging from classical PCR, to several PCR-based detection methods: random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), nested-PCR (N-PCR), immunocapture PCR (IC-PCR), short sequence repeats (SSRs, also called VNTR), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amplification and sequence analysis of specific

  17. Lightning-induced extensive charge sheets provide long range electrostatic thunderstorm detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A J; Harrison, R G

    2013-07-26

    By combining electrostatic measurements of lightning-induced electrostatic field changes with radio frequency lightning location, some field changes from exceptionally distant lightning events are apparent which are inconsistent with the usual inverse cube of distance. Furthermore, by using two measurement sites, a transition zone can be identified beyond which the electric field response reverses polarity. For these severe lightning events, we infer a horizontally extensive charge sheet above a thunderstorm, consistent with a mesospheric halo of several hundred kilometers' extent.

  18. Distal Extension of the Anterior Approach to the Hip Using the Femoral Interbundle Technique: Surgical Technique and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghijselings, Stijn G M; Driesen, Ronald; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Corten, Kristoff

    2017-07-01

    The direct anterior approach (DAA) is becoming more popular as the standard surgical approach for primary total hip arthroplasty. However, it has been associated with an increased incidence of intraoperative femoral fractures in particular during the learning curve. Distal extension of the approach may be needed in case of intraoperative complications. The aim of the present study is to describe the distal extension of the DAA using the femoral interbundle technique. A stepwise approach based on a cadaveric study to extend the DAA distally is presented. The interval between the neurovascular bundles running to the vastus lateralis is used to gain access to the femur. Clinical and electromyography results of 5 patients undergoing a revision of the femoral component through an extended anterior approach are reported. In 2 cases, the proximal bundle was exposed whereas in 3 cases the interval between the proximal and distal bundle was developed and cerclage wires were applied around the isthmus of the femur. All fractures had healed at 6 months of follow-up. Four cases had a normal electromyography, and 1 case demonstrated a neuropraxia of a branch to the vastus lateralis. All cases had a 5/5 extension power of the quadriceps muscle clinically. The interbundle technique is an alternative way to gain additional exposure of the femur during the DAA and is based on precise knowledge of the periarticular neurovascular structures. This approach can be helpful to safely deal with intraoperative complications such as fractures requiring proximal femoral cerclage wiring during the anterior approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Yellowstone plume trigger for Basin and Range extension and emplacement of the Nevada-Columbia Basin magmatic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    Widespread extension began across the northern and central Basin and Range Province at 17–16 Ma, contemporaneous with magmatism along the Nevada–Columbia Basin magmatic belt, a linear zone of dikes and volcanic centers that extends for >1000 km, from southern Nevada to the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. This belt was generated above an elongated sublithospheric melt zone associated with arrival of the Yellowstone mantle plume, with a north-south tabular shape attributed to plume ascent through a propagating fracture in the Juan de Fuca slab. Dike orientation along the magmatic belt suggests an extension direction of 245°–250°, but this trend lies oblique to the regional extension direction of 280°–300° during coeval and younger Basin and Range faulting, an ∼45° difference. Field relationships suggest that this magmatic trend was not controlled by regional stress in the upper crust, but rather by magma overpressure from below and forceful dike injection with an orientation inherited from a deeper process in the sublithospheric mantle. The southern half of the elongated zone of mantle upwelling was emplaced beneath a cratonic lithosphere with an elevated surface derived from Late Cretaceous to mid-Tertiary crustal thickening. This high Nevadaplano was primed for collapse with high gravitational potential energy under the influence of regional stress, partly derived from boundary forces due to Pacific–North American plate interaction. Plume arrival at 17–16 Ma resulted in advective thermal weakening of the lithosphere, mantle traction, delamination, and added buoyancy to the northern and central Basin and Range. It was not the sole cause of Basin and Range extension, but rather the catalyst for extension of the Nevadaplano, which was already on the verge of regional collapse.

  20. Diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach for diagrammatic extensions of dynamical mean-field theory -- convergence analysis of the dual fermion technique

    CERN Document Server

    Gukelberger, Jan; Hafermann, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    The dual-fermion approach provides a formally exact prescription for calculating properties of a correlated electron system in terms of a diagrammatic expansion around dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). It can address the full range of interactions, the lowest order theory is asymptotically exact in both the weak- and strong-coupling limits, and the technique naturally incorporates long-range correlations beyond the reach of current cluster extensions to DMFT. Most practical implementations, however, neglect higher-order interaction vertices beyond two-particle scattering in the dual effective action and further truncate the diagrammatic expansion in the two-particle scattering vertex to a leading-order or ladder-type approximation. In this work we compute the dual-fermion expansion for the Hubbard model including all diagram topologies with two-particle interactions to high orders by means of a stochastic diagrammatic Monte Carlo algorithm. We use benchmarking against numerically exact Diagrammatic Determin...

  1. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  2. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.

  3. Experimental study on stabilizing range extension of diamagnetic levitation under modulated magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, T C S; Wong, P L; Liu, K P, E-mail: 50578230@student.cityu.edu.h, E-mail: meplwong@cityu.edu.h, E-mail: mekpliu@cityu.edu.h [Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-01-01

    The real energy-free levitation exists with the help of diamagnetic material. Its ultra-high sensitivity to force is particularly attractive to micro/nano force sensing. A key parameter: Levitation Stabilizing Local Range, LR (allowable moving range of the floater) is critical to the load and self-rotating performance. Besides, larger LR reduces the energy loss due to the eddy current and has greater application potential. Recently, an idea of extending the LR by a modulating coil array has been validated using numerical simulation. This paper takes the next move to carry out an experimental study on the shape effect of stacked coil arrays with different currents on LR.

  4. An alternative altered cast technique for a distal extension removable partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, G C; Landesman, M; Adomian, J G

    1997-05-01

    The use of a removable partial denture to restore the posterior edentulous space continues to be a viable treatment option for patients who are not candidates for cantilevered fixed prostheses or dental implants because of the nature of the remaining teeth and bony support, the anatomy of the residual ridges, or financial constraints. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an alternative technique for the fabrication of a well-fitting distal extension RPD that will take maximum advantage of the dual nature of the support provided by the teeth and the resilient tissues of the residual ridge.

  5. Northward extension of the known range of the Bush Pipit Anthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The Bush Pipit Anthus caffer is a partly nomadic African species whose movements coincide with the onset of rains. Across the continent, the distribution and geographic extent of the five Bush Pipit subspecies are poorly known. In Kenya, the documented range of the Bush Pipit is along the Tanzanian border in ...

  6. Northward extension of the known range of the Bush Pipit Anthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bush Pipit Anthus caffer is a partly nomadic African species whose movements coincide with the onset of rains. Across the continent, the distribution and geographic extent of the five Bush Pipit subspecies are poorly known. In Kenya, the documented range of the Bush Pipit is along the Tanzanian border in the ...

  7. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Baba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro and in vivo. Blonanserin showed the most potent binding affinity for human D3 receptors among the tested atypical antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole. Our GTPγS-binding assay demonstrated that blonanserin acts as a potent full antagonist for human D3 receptors. All test-drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like efficacy in methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats. Treatment with blonanserin at its effective dose blocked the binding of [3H]-(+-PHNO, a D2/D3 receptor radiotracer, both in the D2 receptor-rich region (striatum and the D3 receptor-rich region (cerebellum lobes 9 and 10. On the other hand, the occupancies of other test-drugs for D3 receptors were relatively low. In conclusion, we have shown that blonanserin, but not other tested antipsychotics, extensively occupies D3 receptors in vivo in rats.

  8. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Satoko; Enomoto, Takeshi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ono, Michiko

    2015-03-01

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro and in vivo. Blonanserin showed the most potent binding affinity for human D3 receptors among the tested atypical antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole). Our GTPγS-binding assay demonstrated that blonanserin acts as a potent full antagonist for human D3 receptors. All test-drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like efficacy in methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats. Treatment with blonanserin at its effective dose blocked the binding of [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, a D2/D3 receptor radiotracer, both in the D2 receptor-rich region (striatum) and the D3 receptor-rich region (cerebellum lobes 9 and 10). On the other hand, the occupancies of other test-drugs for D3 receptors were relatively low. In conclusion, we have shown that blonanserin, but not other tested antipsychotics, extensively occupies D3 receptors in vivo in rats. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Record extension for short-gauged water quality parameters using a newly proposed robust version of the Line of Organic Correlation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khalil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In many situations the extension of hydrological or water quality time series at short-gauged stations is required. Ordinary least squares regression (OLS of any hydrological or water quality variable is a traditional and commonly used record extension technique. However, OLS tends to underestimate the variance in the extended records, which leads to underestimation of high percentiles and overestimation of low percentiles, given that the data are normally distributed. The development of the line of organic correlation (LOC technique is aimed at correcting this bias. On the other hand, the Kendall-Theil robust line (KTRL method has been proposed as an analogue of OLS with the advantage of being robust in the presence of outliers. Given that water quality data are characterised by the presence of outliers, positive skewness and non-normal distribution of data, a robust record extension technique is more appropriate. In this paper, four record-extension techniques are described, and their properties are explored. These techniques are OLS, LOC, KTRL and a new technique proposed in this paper, the robust line of organic correlation technique (RLOC. RLOC includes the advantage of the LOC in reducing the bias in estimating the variance, but at the same time it is also robust in the presence of outliers. A Monte Carlo study and empirical experiment were conducted to examine the four techniques for the accuracy and precision of the estimate of statistical moments and over the full range of percentiles. Results of the Monte Carlo study showed that the OLS and KTRL techniques have serious deficiencies as record-extension techniques, while the LOC and RLOC techniques are nearly similar. However, RLOC outperforms OLS, KTRL and LOC when using real water quality records.

  10. Redescription and range extension of the endangered Paiva's blenny Lupinoblennius paivai (Perciformes: Blenniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F S; Carvalho-Filho, A; Giarrizzo, T

    2017-06-01

    The Paiva's blenny Lupinoblennius paivai is redescribed and its range redefined along the Brazilian coast. It differs from its congeners by the presence of three cephalic pores between the dorsal-fin base and lateral line, dorsal-fin elements XII, 12, anal-fin elements II, 16, pectoral-fin rays 14 and 10 + 20 vertebrae. It is here reported from Amazon estuaries (Marajó and Mosqueiro islands, Pará State), increasing its range by c. 3000 km. Lupinoblennius paivai is one of the few blenniid species able to tolerate low salinities. New data about its meristics and morphometrics are presented, as well as a new habitat type. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Range extension of Microgomphus souteri Fraser, 1924 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae to northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Halali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During opportunistic surveys conducted at Collem (Goa, a specimen of male Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 was collected on 14th September 2013. Another male specimen was collected on 28th June 2014. Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 is recorded for the first time in northern Western Ghats and is a new record for Goa. Type specimen was described from Coorg (Karnataka and was later recorded from Kerala. The discovery of this species in Goa has expanded its range to the north of the Western Ghats. With this discovery currently 88 species of Odonata are now known from the state. 

  12. Extension of range of the Marine Puffer Fish Chelonodon patoca (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae to freshwater habitat of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arunachalam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chelonodon patoca is a marine puffer fish common along the Coromandal Coast of India. It has also been reported in the Aghnashini River in Karnataka state, a freshwater habitat. During a recent ichthyological survey five specimens of Chelonodon patoca were collected in another freshwater habitat, the Payaswani River in Kerala state. These specimens document an extension in the distributional range from Karnataka to Kerala state in peninsular India.

  13. Environmental DNA in subterranean biology: range extension and taxonomic implications for Proteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorički, Špela; Stanković, David; Snoj, Aleš; Kuntner, Matjaž; Jeffery, William R.; Trontelj, Peter; Pavićević, Miloš; Grizelj, Zlatko; Năpăruş-Aljančič, Magdalena; Aljančič, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    Europe’s obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander’s exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro. Next, using specific molecular probes to discriminate the rare black morph of Proteus from the closely related white morph, we detected its eDNA at five new sites, thus more than doubling the known number of sites. In one of these we found both black and white Proteus eDNA together. This finding suggests that the two morphs may live in contact with each other in the same body of groundwater and that they may be reproductively isolated species. Our results show that the eDNA approach is suitable and efficient in addressing questions in biogeography, evolution, taxonomy and conservation of the cryptic subterranean fauna.

  14. Two-phase 1D+1D model of a DMFC: development and validation on extensive operating conditions range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R.; Parenti, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    A two-phase 1D+1D model of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is developed, considering overall mass balance, methanol transport in gas phase through anode diffusion layer, methanol and water crossover. The model is quantitatively validated on an extensive range of operating conditions, 24 polarisation curves. The model accurately reproduces DMFC performance in the validation range and, outside this, it is able to predict values under feasible operating conditions. Finally, the estimations of methanol crossover flux are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to experimental measures and the main local quantities' trends are coherent with results obtained with more complex models. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Range Extension and Behavioural Observations of the Recently Described Sheth's Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleus shethi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hending, Daniel; Andrianiaina, Angelo; Rakotomalala, Zafimahery; Cotton, Sam

    2017-11-23

    Sheth's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus shethi, is a small, recently discovered nocturnal primate endemic to northern Madagascar. Unlike many other nocturnal lemurs, C. shethi lives sympatrically with morphologically similar species of its cryptic genus, making it difficult for biologists to determine its population density and distribution. Here, we present new data and observations of this species. During a series of rapid biodiversity assessments in the SAVA region of north-eastern Madagascar, we observed C. shethi in 10 different sites, 9 of which were not previously known to harbour C. shethi populations. More significantly, 2 of these sites, in Analamanara, were situated approximately 20 km south of the previously known southern extremity of this species' distribution. This represents a large increase in the previously limited geographic range of this species. Moreover, our relatively high encounter rates at these sites suggest that C. shethi population densities may be high. We also observed C. shethi in human-altered (e.g., vanilla plantations) and non-forest, savannah environments, suggesting that this species can tolerate disturbed habitats. Our findings therefore provide important additional information on the distribution of C. shethi populations and highlight the necessity of further study for the conservation of this species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The effect of sacro occipital technique category II blocking on spinal ranges of motion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Jerry I

    2005-01-01

    To describe changes in lumbar and cervical range of motion measurements after supine pelvic blocking as used in Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Five subjects with sacroiliac distortion and instability were recruited and selected for SOT. Cervical and lumbar ranges of motion were measured before and after category II blocking procedures used to change pelvic mechanics. Pre- and post-measurements were taken by a blinded assessor using a Zebris ultrasonic motion detector. Changes were found in the lumbar spine only. Increased ranges of lumbar motion occurred in all planes except extension (21%-57%). Supine pelvic blocking as used in SOT affected lumbar ranges of motion in these 5 cases. This may indicate that functional change in the pelvis results in changes in lumbar motion, especially lumbar flexion. Larger data sets are needed for further study.

  17. Extension of the Viscous Collision Limiting Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Technique to Multiple Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Burt, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    There are many flows fields that span a wide range of length scales where regions of both rarefied and continuum flow exist and neither direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) nor computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provide the appropriate solution everywhere. Recently, a new viscous collision limited (VCL) DSMC technique was proposed to incorporate effects of physical diffusion into collision limiter calculations to make the low Knudsen number regime normally limited to CFD more tractable for an all-particle technique. This original work had been derived for a single species gas. The current work extends the VCL-DSMC technique to gases with multiple species. Similar derivations were performed to equate numerical and physical transport coefficients. However, a more rigorous treatment of determining the mixture viscosity is applied. In the original work, consideration was given to internal energy non-equilibrium, and this is also extended in the current work to chemical non-equilibrium.

  18. Obtaining Maximal Stability with a Septal Extension Technique in East Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in Korea, the septal extension graft from the septum or rib has become a common method of correcting a small or short nose. The success rate of this method has led to the blind faith that it provides superior tip projection and definition, and to the failure to notice its weaknesses. Even if there is a sufficient amount of cartilage, improper separation or fixation might waste the cartilage, resulting in an inefficient operation. Appropriate resection and effective fixation are essential factors for economical rhinoplasty. The septal extension graft is a remarkable procedure since it can control the nasal tip bidirectionally and three dimensionally. Nevertheless, it has a serious drawback since resection is responsible for septal weakness. Safe resection and firm reconstruction of the framework should be carried out. Operating on the basis of the principle of "safe harvest" and rebuilding the structures is important. Further, it is important to learn several techniques to manage septal weakness, insufficient cartilage quantity, and failure of the rigid frame during the surgery.

  19. The impact of compressive force magnitude on the in vitro neutral zone range and passive stiffness during a flexion–extension range of motion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Noguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the influence of compressive force magnitude on a functional spinal unit’s (FSU flexion–extension neutral zone measured during pure moment (PM tests. Each porcine cervical FSU received four repeats of a PM test with 10, 300, 900 and 1,800 N of compressive force, in a randomized order. Increasing the magnitude of compression significantly decreased the neutral zone range (p < 0.001, while increasing passive stiffness (p < 0.001. The flexion limit at 10 N was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than the other loading conditions. Reporting the compressive force magnitude is important when posture is a standardized experimental factor considered in the design of in vitro spine biomechanics studies.

  20. Comparison of an indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique and a hot pack for increasing range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Jay; Martorello, Laura; Swanson, Edward; Sego, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the randomized clinical study was to scientifically assess which intervention increases passive range of motion most effectively: the indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique or the application of hot packs for gleno-humeral joint flexion, extension, and abduction. A total of 31 participants from a sample of convenience were randomly assigned to examine whether or not MFR was as effective in increasing range of motion as hot packs. The sample consisted of students at American International College. Students were randomly assigned to two groups: hot pack application (N=13) or MFR technique (N=18). The independent variable was the intervention, either the tri-planar MFR technique or the hot pack application. Group one received the indirect tri-planar MFR technique once for 3min. Group two received one hot pack application for 20min. The dependent variables, passive gleno-humeral shoulder range of motion in shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction, were taken pre- and post-intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed through the use of a two-way factorial design with mixed-factors ANOVA. Prior to conducting the study, inter-rater reliability was established using three testers for goniometric measures. A 2 (type of intervention: hot packs or MFR) by 2 (pre-test or post-test) mixed-factors ANOVA was calculated. Significant increases in range of motion were found for flexion, extension and abduction when comparing pre-test scores to post-test scores. The results of the ANOVA showed that for passive range of motion no differences were found for flexion, extension and abduction between the effectiveness of hot packs and MFR. For each of the dependent variables measured, MFR was shown to be as effective as hot packs in increasing range of motion, supporting the hypothesis. Since there was no significant difference between the types of intervention, both the hot pack application and the MFR technique were found to be

  1. The immediate and short-term effects of a wrist extension orthosis on upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie; Thomas, Julie Jepsen; Rice, Martin S

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion while wearing a wrist extension orthosis compared to the free hand at initial testing and after a week's wear. A convenience sample of healthy women, ages 20-50 years, performed a stacking task and a pouring task, freehanded and splinted, at two times, 1 week apart in this counterbalanced, repeated measures design. A Motion Analysis 3-D system measured quality of movement and range of motion variables. A 2 by 2 analysis of variance (splinted vs. freehanded by time of testing) was used to analyze each variable. In both tasks, participants tended to move more slowly (p = 0.005) with less direct movements (p splinted movements were also less smooth than when free-handed (p splinted both tasks required more shoulder abduction (p wrist extension orthosis interfered with the quality of upper-extremity movement and required more range of shoulder movement compared to the free hand. Future research is needed to determine whether persons with upper-extremity conditions (i.e., arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome) respond similarly to wrist orthoses. Therapists should consider discussing with patients how their wrist splint could affect their hand performance and help patients learn techniques to reduce stress on their proximal joints.

  2. A New Technique to Compute Long-Range Wakefields in Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Raguin, J Y; Wuensch, Walter

    2002-01-01

    A new technique is proposed to compute the coupling impedances and the long-range wakefields based on a scattering-matrix formalism which relies heavily upon post-processed data from the commercial finite-element code HFSS. To illustrate the speed of this technique, the procedures to compute the long-range wakefields of conventional constant-impedance structures and of structures damped with waveguides are presented. The efficiency and accuracy of the technique is achieved because the characteristics of periodic structures can be computed using single-cell data. Damping and synchronism effects are determined from such a computation.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF BACK EXTENSION TRAINING ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yaprak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35 performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38 did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1 segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.

  4. Biomechanical analysis of press-extension technique on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and staggered facet joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-gen Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a new Chinese massage technique named “press-extension” on degenerative lumbar with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation, and provides a biomechanical explanation of this massage technique. Self-developed biomechanical software was used to establish a normal L1–S1 lumbar 3D FE model, which integrated the spine CT and MRI data-based anatomical structure. Then graphic technique is utilized to build a degenerative lumbar FE model with disc herniation and facet joint dislocation. According to the actual press-extension experiments, mechanic parameters are collected to set boundary condition for FE analysis. The result demonstrated that press-extension techniques bring the annuli fibrosi obvious induction effect, making the central nucleus pulposus forward close, increasing the pressure in front part. Study concludes that finite element modelling for lumbar spine is suitable for the analysis of press-extension technique impact on lumbar intervertebral disc biomechanics, to provide the basis for the disease mechanism of intervertebral disc herniation using press-extension technique.

  5. Stent tunnel technique to save thrombosed native hemodialysis fistula with extensive venous aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabellino M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Martin Rabellino,1 Guillermo J Rosa-Diez,2 Sergio A Shinzato,1 Pablo Rodriguez,1 Oscar A Peralta,1 Maria S Crucelegui,2 Rosario Luxardo,2 Agustina Heredia-Martinez,2 Mariela I Bedini-Rocca,2 Ricardo D García-Mónaco1 1Department of Angiography and Endovascular Therapy, 2Department of Nephrology, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Introduction and purpose: The increasing number of patients undergoing hemodialysis and the limited number of access sites have resulted in an increasing number of techniques to maintain vascular access for hemodialysis. Thrombosed arteriovenous (AV fistulas with large venous aneurysms have poor treatment results, with both endovascular and surgical techniques, leading to a high rate of definitive AV access loss. The purpose of this study was to review the feasibility and initial results of this novel endovascular treatment of thrombosed AV fistulas with large venous aneurysms.Materials and methods: A novel endovascular treatment technique of inserting nitinol auto-expandable uncovered stents stretching through the whole puncture site area, thus creating a tunnel inside the thrombus, was retrospectively analyzed and described.Results: A total of 17 stents were placed in 10 hemodialysis fistulas, with a mean venous coverage length of 17.8 cm. In all the cases, 100% technical success was achieved, with complete restoration of blood flow in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. The mean follow-up was 167 days (range 60–420 days, with a primary and assisted patency of 80% and 100%, respectively. No multiple trans-stent struts-related complications were observed. Three stent fractures were diagnosed with plain films at the site of puncture without consequence in the venous access permeability.Conclusion: The “stent tunnel technique” is a feasible, safe and effective alternative to salvage native hemodialysis access, thus extending the function of the venous access with

  6. Constraints on the Timing and Style of Paleogene Extension in the Basin and Range from Apatite and Zircon Double Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, A.; Cassel, E. J.; Stockli, D. F.; Smith, M. E.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    In the Paleogene hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, from eastern Nevada to western Utah, high-elevation intermontane basins record widespread accommodation and early-onset extension within the Basin and Range. Detrital zircon U-Pb-He double dating of siliciclastic sediments deposited across the width of the Cordilleran hinterland shows that early and middle Eocene sediments are predominantly multi-cycle and consistent with gradual erosional exhumation of the hinterland. During the middle Eocene and into the early Oligocene, volcanic glass hydration waters indicate that Copper Basin formed at an elevation of 3 km in northeastern Nevada. The basin contains a 1.5 km-thick sequence of fluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic rocks that accumulated on the footwall of the Copper Creek normal fault and conformably above Paleozoic sediments. Detrital zircon and apatite double dating of Paleogene sediments from Copper Basin enables comparison of sedimentary lag times at various phases of basin evolution. We interpret sedimentary lag times within a chronostratigraphic framework developed from 6 new single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages for Copper Basin tuff beds. Fluvial sedimentology and detrital zircon U-Pb age populations indicate that proximal volcanic sources were the dominate source of detritus to Copper Basin until a Cretaceous back-arc pluton, the Coffeepot Stock, unroofed along the Copper Creek normal fault during the middle Eocene. Laser Ablation Split Stream-ICPMS U-Pb dating of detrital apatite from Copper Basin sediments corroborates derivation from the 109 Ma Coffeepot Stock. Double dating of zircon grains derived from the Coffeepot Stock shows moderate lag times of 25-50 Myr whereas apatite grains imply lag times of cooling along the Copper Creek normal fault, which continued through the early Oligocene, was likely triggered by the onset of proximal 45 Ma volcanism in the Northern Bull Run Caldera of northeastern Nevada. Rapid early-onset extension in this

  7. The immediate and short-term effects of a wrist extension orthosis on upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephanie; Thomas, Julie Jepsen; Rice, Martin S

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion while wearing a wrist extension orthosis compared to the free hand at initial testing and after a week's wear...

  8. Initial Effect of Taping Technique on Wrist Extension and Grip Strength and Pain of Individuals with Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shamsoddini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of this study is to investigate the initial effect of taping technique on wrist extension and grip strength and pain of Individuals with tennis elbow. Methods: fifteen patients (10 men and 5 women with 42.53 years on their dominant arm participated in this study. Outcome measures were wrist extension and grip strength and pain taken before and immediately after application of tape. The unaffected arm served as a control. Used of hand-held dynamometer and jammar dynamometer for evaluated of wrist extension and grip strength. Also, visual analog scale (VAS used for evaluated of pain Results: Among the variables, significant differences were found in wrist extension strength between effected and unaffected arm (P=0.006. Also, changes in grip strength shows statically significant improve in effect arm than unaffected arm (P=0.001. Changes in pain in impaired arm were positive. Discussion: Taping technique, as applied in this study demonstrated an impressive effect on wrist extension and grip strength and pain in individuals with tennis elbow. Therefore, it is recommended that this method may be useful in the management of this condition during exercise and functional rehabilitation.

  9. Evaluation of a satellite laser ranging technique using pseudonoise code modulated laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Carolyn Kay

    1987-12-01

    Several types of Satellite Laser Ranging systems exist, operating with pulsed, high-energy lasers. The distance between a ground point and an orbiting satellite can be determined to within a few centimeters. A new technique substitutes pseudonoise code modulated laser diodes, which are much more compact, reliable and less costly, for the lasers now used. Since laser diode technology is only now achieving sufficiently powerful lasers, the capabilities of the new technique are investigated. Also examined are the effects of using an avalanche photodiode detector instead of a photomultiplier tube. The influence of noise terms (including background radiation, detector dark and thermal noise and speckle) that limit the system range and performance is evaluated.

  10. Three-dimensional near-field MIMO array imaging using range migration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Xiaodong; Yarovoy, Alexander G

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a 3-D near-field imaging algorithm that is formulated for 2-D wideband multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) imaging array topology. The proposed MIMO range migration technique performs the image reconstruction procedure in the frequency-wavenumber domain. The algorithm is able to completely compensate the curvature of the wavefront in the near-field through a specifically defined interpolation process and provides extremely high computational efficiency by the application of the fast Fourier transform. The implementation aspects of the algorithm and the sampling criteria of a MIMO aperture are discussed. The image reconstruction performance and computational efficiency of the algorithm are demonstrated both with numerical simulations and measurements using 2-D MIMO arrays. Real-time 3-D near-field imaging can be achieved with a real-aperture array by applying the proposed MIMO range migration techniques.

  11. Reference ranges for Mexican preschool-aged children using the forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Claire; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Chen, Linping; Gangell, Catherine L; Romieu, Isabelle; Sly, Peter D

    2013-08-01

    Recently, multi-ethnic reference ranges for spirometry have been created for use worldwide. In comparison, forced oscillation technique (FOT) reference values are limited to specific equipment and study populations, with current FOT reference ranges created in a Caucasian population. We aimed to develop FOT reference ranges for preschool-aged Mexican children and to compare these with current FOT reference ranges. Respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) was measured in healthy Mexican children three to five years of age using commercial FOT equipment. The relationship between height and Rrs and Xrs was determined using regression analyses, taking into account age, weight, sex, and exposure to tobacco smoke. Reference equations were calculated for the Mexican children and Z-scores determined for Rrs and Xrs at 6 and 8Hz. A paired t-test assessed the difference in Z-scores between the Australian reference values and those created for the Mexican cohort. FOT was successfully measured in 584 children. Height was a significant predictor of Rrs and Xrs at 6 and 8Hz (Pchildren for both Rrs and Xrs at 6 and 8Hz (Pdevelopment of FOT reference ranges specific to Mexican preschool-aged children will allow for the correct interpretation of FOT measurements. This study also showed that current FOT reference ranges overestimate lung function in Mexican children. Highlighting, the importance of using ethnic appropriate reference ranges for interpreting lung function. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature range extension of an organically crosslinked polymer system and its successful field application for water and gas shutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry; Dalrymple, Dwyann [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Excessive water production from hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most serious problems in the oil industry. Water production greatly affects the economic life of producing wells and brings along secondary problems such as sand production, corrosion, and tubular scale. Remediation techniques for controlling water production, generally referred to as conformance control, include the use of polymer systems to reduce or plug permeability to water. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of an organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) system used as a sealant for water control problems in hydrocarbon wells. Originally, the OCP system had a limited working temperature range (140 deg to 260 deg F). Recently, an alternative base polymer (for low temperatures) and a retarder (for high temperatures) have been introduced to expand the temperature range of applicability of the OCP system from 70 deg F to 350 deg F without compromising its effectiveness or thermal stability. More than 400 jobs have been performed with the OCP system around the world to address conformance problems such as water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and casing leak repairs. This paper presents an overview of case histories that used the OCP system in various regions of the world for a wide variety of applications. (author)

  13. An Examination of the Feasibility of Integrating Motivational Interviewing Techniques into FCS Cooperative Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunovich, Heidi Liss; Ellis, Sarah; Spangler, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Demonstrating program impact through behavior change is critical for the continued success of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Cooperative Extension programming. However, the literature suggests that simply providing information to participants does not necessarily lead to behavior change. This study pilot tested the integration of Motivational…

  14. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  15. Extensive Characterisation of Copper-clad Plates, Bonded by the Explosive Technique, for ITER Electrical Joints

    CERN Document Server

    Langeslag, S A E; Libeyre, P; Gung, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors will be extensively implemented in the large superconducting magnet coils foreseen to confine the plasma in the ITER experiment. The design of the various magnet systems imposes the use of electrical joints to connect unit lengths of superconducting coils by inter-pancake coupling. These twin-box lap type joints, produced by compacting each cable end in into a copper - stainless steel bimetallic box, are required to be highly performing in terms of electrical and mechanical prop- erties. To ascertain the suitability of the first copper-clad plates, recently produced, the performance of several plates is studied. Validation of the bonded interface is carried out by determining microstructural, tensile and shear characteristics. These measure- ments confirm the suitability of explosion bonded copper-clad plates for an overall joint application. Additionally, an extensive study is conducted on the suitability of certain copper purity grades for the various joint types.

  16. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. K.; Julai, N.; Jusoh, M.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Anuar, M. S.; Talib, M. F.; Zamhari, Nurdiani; Sahari, S. k.; Tamrin, K. F.; Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Zaidel, D. N. A.; Mohtadzar, N. A. A.; Sharip, M. R. M.; Samat, Y. S.

    2017-11-01

    Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm) to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a) beam wander, (b) beam spreading and (c) scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit `1' and bit `0' and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr) and bit error rate (ber) where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  17. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A.K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a beam wander, (b beam spreading and (c scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit ‘1’ and bit ‘0’ and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr and bit error rate (ber where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  18. Evaluation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Luminance Mapping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inanici, Mehlika; Galvin, Jim

    2004-12-30

    The potential, limitations, and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique is evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes are taken with a Nikon 5400 digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function is computationally derived using the Photosphere software, and is used to fuse the multiple photographs into HDR images. The vignetting effect and point spread function of the camera and lens system is determined. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  19. Measured Response of Local, Mid-range and Far-range Discontinuities of Large Metal Groundplanes using Time Domain Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method to detect and to quantify any local or mid-range discontinuity on extended flat metal planes. Often these planes are used for antenna calibration (open area test site - OATS or the plane could be the ground of a semi-anechoic chamber used in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC testing. The measurement uncertainty of antenna calibration or EMC testing depends on the groundplane's quality, which can be accessed using this method. A vector network analyzer with time-domain option is used to determine the complex-valued input scattering parameter S11,F of an aperture antenna in a monostatic setup. S11,F contains the information desired about the discontinuities and is measured in the frequency domain with high dynamic range. But only after a linear filtering utilizing the Chirp-Z-Transform the obtained time-domain signal S11,T evidence of local and mid-range discontinuities.

  20. Effects of a Novel Neurodynamic Tension Technique on Muscle Extensibility and Stretch Tolerance: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, M; Vollaard, N B J

    2016-12-19

    Neurodynamic tension affects hamstring extensibility and stretch tolerance, and is considered important in hamstring injury management. Neurodynamic tension was postulated to affect segmental muscle extensibility and stretch tolerance, and potentially also demonstrate extra-segmental and contralateral effects. Assess the effects of a novel sciatic-tibial neurodynamic tension technique, the modified long sit slump (MLSS), on segmental, extra-segmental and contralateral muscle extensibility and stretch tolerance. Counterbalanced cross-over study. University research laboratory. Thirteen healthy and active subjects (mean ± SD age 24 ± 8y, BMI 23.1 ± 2.8 kg·m-2). MLSS application (5 seconds, 5 repetitions, 3 sets) on two occasions with a three-week washout period,and either stance or skill leg treated in a counterbalanced manner. Segmental and extra-segmental muscle extensibility were measured utilising passive straight leg raise (PSLR) and prone knee bend (PKB) at pre-, immediately post- and one hour post-intervention. Stretch intensity ratings were measured utilising a simple numerical rating scale (SNRS). MLSS significantly increased PSLR and PKB bilaterally (p < 0.001). The effect for PSLR was greater in the ipsilateral leg compared to the contralateral leg (baseline to one hour post: +9 ± 6° and +5 ± 5° respectively, p < 0.001), but not for PKB (baseline to one hour post: ipsilateral leg +5 ± 5°, contralateral leg +5 ± 4°). For both PSLR and PKB the effect of the first session was retained at the start of the second session 3 weeks later. SNRS data were consistent with increased stretch tolerance. Application of a novel sciatic-tibial neurodynamic tension technique, the MLSS, increases muscle extensibility and stretch tolerance segmentally, extra-segmentally and contra-laterally.

  1. A comparative analysis of dynamic range compression techniques in IR images for maritime applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Acito, Nicola; Diani, Marco; Luison, Cristian; Olivieri, Monica; Barani, Gianni

    2013-05-01

    Modern thermal cameras acquire IR images with a high dynamic range because they have to sense with high thermal resolution the great temperature changes of monitored scenarios in specific surveillance applications. Initially developed for visible light images and recently extended for display of IR images, high dynamic range compression (HDRC) techniques aim at furnishing plain images to human operators for a first intuitive comprehension of the sensed scenario without altering the features of IR images. In this context, the maritime scenario represents a challenging case to test and develop HDRC strategies since images collected for surveillance at sea are typically characterized by high thermal gradients among the background scene and classes of objects at different temperatures. In the development of a new IRST system, Selex ES assembled a demonstrator equipped with modern thermal cameras and planned a measurement campaign on a maritime scenario so as to collect IR sequences in different operating conditions. This has led to build up a case record of situations suitable to test HDRC techniques. In this work, a survey of HDRC approaches is introduced pointing out advantages and drawbacks with focus on strategies specifically designed to display IR images. A detailed analysis of the performance is discussed in order to address the task of visualization with reference to typical issues of IR maritime images, such as robustness to the horizon effect and displaying of very warm objects and flat areas.

  2. On the errors of spectral shallow-water limited-area model simulations using an extension technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmel, M.; Harlander, U. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie (LIM)

    1999-08-01

    Although the spectral technique is frequently used for the horizontal discretization in global atmospheric models, it is not common in limited area models (LAMs) because of the nonperiodic boundary conditions. We apply the Haugen-Machenhauer extension technique to a regional three-layer shallow-water model based on double Fourier series. The method extends the time-dependent boundary fields into a zone outside the integration area in a way that periodic fields are obtained. The boundary fields necessary for the regional model simulations are calculated in advance by a global simulation performed. In contrast to other studies, we use exactly the same numerical model for the global and the regional simulation, respectively. The only difference between these simulations is the model domain. Therefore, a relatively objective measure for errors associated with the extension technique can be obtained. First, we compare an analytic stationary nonlinear and nonperiodic solution of the governing model equations with the spectral LAM solution. Secondly, we compare the time evolution of pressure and flow structures during a westerly flow across an asymmetric large-scale topography in the global and regional model domains. Both simulations show a good agreement between the regional and the global solutions. The rms-errors amount to about 2 m for the layer heights and 0.2 m s{sup -1} for the velocity components in the mountain flow case after a 48 h integration period. Finally, we repeat this simulation with models based on 2nd and 4th order finite differences, respectively, and compare the errors of the spectral model version with the errors of the grid point versions. We demonstrate that the high accuracy of global spectral methods can also be realized in the regional model by using the Haugen-Machenhauer extension technique. (orig.) 21 refs.

  3. Extension of vibrational power flow techniques to two-dimensional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, Joseph M.

    1988-01-01

    In the analysis of the vibration response and structure-borne vibration transmission between elements of a complex structure, statistical energy analysis (SEA) or finite element analysis (FEA) are generally used. However, an alternative method is using vibrational power flow techniques which can be especially useful in the mid frequencies between the optimum frequency regimes for SEA and FEA. Power flow analysis has in general been used on 1-D beam-like structures or between structures with point joints. In this paper, the power flow technique is extended to 2-D plate-like structures joined along a common edge without frequency or spatial averaging the results, such that the resonant response of the structure is determined. The power flow results are compared to results obtained using FEA results at low frequencies and SEA at high frequencies. The agreement with FEA results is good but the power flow technique has an improved computational efficiency. Compared to the SEA results the power flow results show a closer representation of the actual response of the structure.

  4. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Thomas James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  5. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian de Ponte Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  6. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-31

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  7. Adapting range migration techniques for imaging with metasurface antennas: analysis and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Mancera, Laura; Fromenteze, Thomas; Sleasman, Timothy; Boyarsky, Michael; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Reynolds, Matthew S.; Smith, David R.

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic metasurface antennas are planar structures that exhibit remarkable capabilities in controlling electromagnetic wave-fronts, advantages which are particularly attractive for microwave imaging. These antennas exhibit strong frequency dispersion and produce diverse radiation patterns. Such behavior presents unique challenges for integration with conventional imaging algorithms. We analyze an adapted version of the range migration algorithm (RMA) for use with dynamic metasurfaces in image reconstruction. Focusing on the the proposed pre-processing step, that ultimately allows a fast processing of the backscattered signal in the spatial frequency domain from which the fast Fourier transform can efficiently reconstruct the scene. Numerical studies illustrate imaging performance using both conventional methods and the adapted RMA, demonstrating that the RMA can reconstruct images with comparable quality in a fraction of the time. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of the algorithm as a fast reconstruction tool, and we analyze the limitations of the presented technique in terms of image quality.

  8. New Diagnostic, Launch and Model Control Techniques in the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents new diagnostic, launch and model control techniques used in the NASA Ames HFFAF ballistic range. High speed movies were used to view the sabot separation process and the passage of the model through the model splap paper. Cavities in the rear of the sabot, to catch the muzzle blast of the gun, were used to control sabot finger separation angles and distances. Inserts were installed in the powder chamber to greatly reduce the ullage volume (empty space) in the chamber. This resulted in much more complete and repeatable combustion of the powder and hence, in much more repeatable muzzle velocities. Sheets of paper or cardstock, impacting one half of the model, were used to control the amplitudes of the model pitch oscillations.

  9. Flexibility in food extraction techniques in urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Mangalam

    Full Text Available Non-human primate populations, other than responding appropriately to naturally occurring challenges, also need to cope with anthropogenic factors such as environmental pollution, resource depletion, and habitat destruction. Populations and individuals are likely to show considerable variations in food extraction abilities, with some populations and individuals more efficient than others at exploiting a set of resources. In this study, we examined among urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata (a local differences in food extraction abilities, (b between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in problem-solving success and the underlying problem-solving characteristics, and (c behavioral patterns associated with higher efficiency in food extraction. When presented with novel food extraction tasks, the urban macaques having more frequent exposure to novel physical objects in their surroundings, extracted food material from PET bottles and also solved another food extraction task (i.e., extracting an orange from a wire mesh box, more often than those living under more natural conditions. Adults solved the tasks more frequently than juveniles, and females more frequently than males. Both solution-technique and problem-solving characteristics varied across individuals but remained consistent within each individual across the successive presentations of PET bottles. The macaques that solved the tasks showed lesser within-individual variation in their food extraction behavior as compared to those that failed to solve the tasks. A few macaques appropriately modified their problem-solving behavior in accordance with the task requirements and solved the modified versions of the tasks without trial-and-error learning. These observations are ecologically relevant - they demonstrate considerable local differences in food extraction abilities, between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in food extraction

  10. Literature searching for social science systematic reviews: consideration of a range of search techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Diana; Sutton, Anthea; Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Wong, Ruth

    2010-06-01

    Literature for a systematic review on the student experience of e-learning is located across a range of subject areas including health, education, social science, library and information science. To assess the merits and shortcomings of using different search techniques in retrieval of evidence in the social science literature. A conventional subject search was undertaken as the principal method of identifying the literature for the review. Four supplementary search methods were used including citation searching, reference list checking, contact with experts and pearl growing. The conventional subject search identified 30 of 41 included references; retrieved from 10 different databases. References were missed by this method and a further 11 references were identified via citation searching, reference list checking and contact with experts. Pearl growing was suspended as the nominated pearls were dispersed across numerous databases, with no single database indexing more than four pearls. Searching within the social sciences literature requires careful consideration. Conventional subject searching identified the majority of references, but additional search techniques were essential and located further high quality references.

  11. Takayasu's arteritis: Anesthetic significance and management of a patient for cesarean section using the epidural volume extension technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar; Tomar, Gaurav Singh; Chadha, Madhur; Kapoor, Mukul C

    2011-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a rare, chronic progressive pan-endarteritis involving the aorta and its main branches. Anesthesia for patients with TA is complicated by severe uncontrolled hypertension, end-organ dysfunction, stenosis of major blood vessels, and difficulties in monitoring arterial blood pressure. We present the successful anesthetic management of a 23-year-old woman having TA with bilateral subclavian and renal artery stenosis posted for emergency cesarean section by using the epidural volume extension technique, which offers the combined advantage of both spinal and epidural anesthesia and, at the same time, also avoids the need of sophisticated neurological monitors like EEG and transcranial Doppler.

  12. Experimental integrative muscular movement technique enhances cervical range of motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Benjamin G; Carter, Ronald; Thompson, William R; Duncan, Randall L; Cooper, Carlton R

    2015-04-01

    Neck pain presents a tremendous physical and financial burden. This study compared the efficacy of the complementary and alternative medical treatments of integrative muscular movement technique (IMMT) and Swedish massage on neck pain in women of occupation age, the largest demographic group with neck pain. A total of 38 women were assigned to IMMT (n=28) or Swedish massage (n=10) in a blinded manner. Both groups received eight 30-minute treatments over 4 weeks. Cervical range of motion (ROM) in flexion, extension, sidebending, and rotation was measured before and after treatment. Each patient's pain was assessed by using an analogue pain scale of 0-10. Compared with the Swedish massage group, patients receiving IMMT experienced a significant increase in ROM in cervical flexion (ppain for IMMT was -1.75 units compared with -0.3 units for Swedish massage (pneck pain may lead to decreased pain and increased cervical ROM. These positive effects of the IMMT intervention may have a role in enhancing functional outcomes in patients with neck pain.

  13. Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Paul J.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.

    2011-07-01

    Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

  14. Parallel Comparison of N-Linked Glycopeptide Enrichment Techniques Reveals Extensive Glycoproteomic Analysis of Plasma Enabled by SAX-ERLIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sarah M; Feasley, Christa L; Bermudez, Abel; Pitteri, Sharon J

    2017-03-03

    Protein glycosylation is of increasing interest due to its important roles in protein function and aberrant expression with disease. Characterizing protein glycosylation remains analytically challenging due to its low abundance, ion suppression issues, and microheterogeneity at glycosylation sites, especially in complex samples such as human plasma. In this study, the utility of three common N-linked glycopeptide enrichment techniques is compared using human plasma. By analysis on an LTQ-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer, electrostatic repulsion hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using strong anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SAX-ERLIC) provided the most extensive N-linked glycopeptide enrichment when compared with multilectin affinity chromatography (M-LAC) and Sepharose-HILIC enrichments. SAX-ERLIC enrichment yielded 191 unique glycoforms across 72 glycosylation sites from 48 glycoproteins, which is more than double that detected using other enrichment techniques. The greatest glycoform diversity was observed in SAX-ERLIC enrichment, with no apparent bias toward specific glycan types. SAX-ERLIC enrichments were additionally analyzed by an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer to maximize glycopeptide identifications for a more comprehensive assessment of protein glycosylation. In these experiments, 829 unique glycoforms were identified across 208 glycosylation sites from 95 plasma glycoproteins, a significant improvement from the initial method comparison and one of the most extensive site-specific glycosylation analysis in immunodepleted human plasma to date. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005655.

  15. Effect of task specific training and wrist-fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Mohamed E; Ameer, Mariam A; Fayed, Eman E

    2017-01-01

    Most stroke patients experience hand impairments that can result in persistent limitations in daily activities. This study aimed at estimating the immediate and retention effects of task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke. Twenty-four right handed patients with first ever stroke represented the sample of the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The study group received task specific exercises five times a week for an hour concurrently with wrist/fingers extension splint which was used two hours for each three hours (day and night) excluding exercises and sleeping hours for 16 weeks. The control group received traditional passive stretch and range of motion exercises. Manual dexterity and upper limb function were assessed by nine holes peg test and Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand. Goniometry was used for measuring wrist, metacarpophalangeal, thumb carpometacarpal joints active range of motion. Significant improvements were observed in nine holes peg test, Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand scores and ranges of motion at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention at P≤0.05. The results of this study provide an evidence that task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint are effective in improving fingers dexterity, upper extremity function and wrist/hand range of motion.

  16. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Xiang, Liangzhong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-1101 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10{sup 6} per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton

  17. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Moiz; Xiang, Liangzhong; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1-10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. The calculated noise in the transducer was 12-28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70-380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3-30 × 10(6) per pulse, with 30-800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic range verification may be feasible with approximately 5

  18. What do fault patterns reveal about the latest phase of extension within the Northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Riley, Paul; Lerback, Jory

    2016-08-01

    The Northern Snake Range is a classic example of a metamorphic core complex, Basin-and-Range province, United States. It is composed of a plastically deformed footwall and a brittlely deformed hanging wall, separated by the Northern Snake Range low-angle detachment (NSRD). Brittle deformation, however, is not confined to the hanging wall. This paper focuses on exposures in Cove Canyon, located on the SE flank of the Northern Snake Range, where penetrative, homogeneous faults are well exposed throughout the hanging wall, footwall and NSRD, and overprint early plastic deformation. These late-stage fault sets assisted Eocene-Miocene extension. Detailed analysis of the faults reveals the following: (1) The shortening direction defined by faults is similar to the shortening direction defined by the stretching lineation in the footwall mylonites, indicating that the extensional kinematic history remained unchanged as the rocks were uplifted into the elastico-frictional regime. (2) After ∼17 Ma, extension may have continued entirely within elastic-frictional regime via cataclastic flow. (3) This latest deformation phase may have been accommodated by a single, continuous event. (3) Faults within NSRD boudins indicate that deformation within the detachment zone was non-coaxial during the latest phase of extension.

  19. Range extension in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using femtosecond-nanosecond dual-beam laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei; Zeng, Bin; Li, Ziting; Yao, Jinping; Xie, Hongqiang; Li, Guihua; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2017-06-01

    We extend the detection range of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by combining high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with high-energy nanosecond CO2 laser pulses. The femtosecond laser pulses ionize the molecules and generate filament in air. The free electrons generated in the self-confined plasma channel by the femtosecond laser serve as the seed electrons which cause efficient avalanche ionization in the nanosecond CO2 laser field. We show that the detection distance has been extended by three times with the assistance of femtosecond laser filamentation.

  20. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension Technique for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-16

    1766, December 2002. 3 [29] Q. Trindade , A.-J. Dang, and van der Veen, "Signal Processing Model for a Transmit-reference UWB Wireless Communication...Process- ing (ICASSP󈧉), vol. 4, 2005. [73] D. Liu, S. Vasudevan, J. Krolik, G. Bal, and L. Carin, "Electromagnetic Time Source Localization in Changing...Zhang is work- ing with one R&D engineer Dr. N. Guo and another MS student Amanpreet Singh Saini. A pair of SAW filters shown in Fig. 5.10 are

  1. Time-Reversal Based Range Extension technique for Ultra-wideband (UWB) Sensors and Applications in Tactical Communications and Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    and Xnf(f) = hnf(f) Pnf (f) (4.60) N Xf(f) = 52hnf(f) Pnf (f) (4.61) n=l where xnf (/), hnf (/) and pnf (/) are the frequency domain...E/ hnf(f) Pnf (f) i J — oo df n=l N 11 / /*oo /*00 < E\\// Kf(f)\\2df \\ Pnf (f)\\2df „=i V "’-oo •/-°° < ^ /»oo...oo XE/ Kf(f)\\ 2dfxY, \\ Pnf (f)\\ 2df \

  2. Extension of the geographic range of Ateles chamek (Primates, Atelidae): evidence of river-barrier crossing by an amazonian primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Rafael Magalhães; Silva, Felipe Ennes; Vieira, Tatiana; Ferreira-Ferreira, Jefferson; Paim, Fernanda Pozzan; Dutra, Wallace; de Souza e Silva Júnior, José; Valsecchi, João

    2014-04-01

    The black-faced black spider monkey (Ateles chamek) is endangered because of hunting and habitat loss. There are many gaps in our understanding of its geographic distribution. The Ucayali-Solimões-Amazon fluvial complex is currently recognized as the northern boundary of the species' range, although published reports have indicated that it occurs north of the Rio Solimões. In this study we investigate published records, generate new field records, and assess the current information concerning the northern boundary of this species' range. We conducted the study at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve in the central Brazilian Amazon, an area of 1,124,000 ha that consists entirely of Amazonian flooded forest (várzea). We collected data on the occurrence of the species from museum specimens and through field surveys, including interviews with local residents, direct observations, and the collection of new museum specimens. We confirmed the presence of A. chamek at 17 locations in the reserve, one of which was an island formed by a river bend cut-off that would have effectively taken any resident spider to the (new) north bank of the Solimões. We therefore conclude that fluvial dynamics were involved in creating the conditions for the dispersal and colonization of the species on the northern bank of the Rio Solimões. The data we present extends the known distribution of the species and increases its representation in protected areas.

  3. GNSS single frequency ionospheric range delay corrections: NeQuick data ingestion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, O. A.; Schüler, Torben

    2012-11-01

    A study of the performance of the NeQuick model and the Klobuchar model for GNSS single frequency range delay correction on a global scale was done using data for moderate solar activity. In this study NeQuick was used in the way intended for Galileo. This study is to assess the performance of the two models at each ionospheric geographic region during moderate solar activity as previously published studies were concentrated only on high solar activity. The results obtained showed that NeQuick outperformed Klobuchar for the whole year at the three geographical regions of the ionosphere. In terms of monthly root mean square of mismodeling, NeQuick outperformed Klobuchar by 15 TECU or more at low-latitudes, 5 TEC or more at mid-latitudes, and 1 TECU or more at high-latitudes. Also, a study on how the data ingestion technique already developed for NeQuick could be expanded in order to reduce the deviation of NeQuick TEC prediction from observation for a particular day based on the information from the previous day was done. Instead of obtaining a regularly spaced Az grid from monitoring stations spread across the region of interest, we obtained hourly Az coefficients from hourly Az from designated monitoring stations. The obtained hourly Az coefficients were then used to drive NeQuick for the next day at the test stations. The results obtained, in terms of daily RMS of mismodeling, showed a daily maximum improvement of 26.0% at low-latitudes, 54.9% at mid-latitudes, and 41.3% at high-latitudes.

  4. Orders of Magnitude Extension of the Effective Dynamic Range of TDC-Based TOFMS Data Through Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, Andreas; Ebbels, Timothy M. D.

    2014-10-01

    In a recent article, we derived a probability distribution that was shown to closely approximate that of the data produced by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) instruments employing time-to-digital converters (TDCs) as part of their detection system. The approach of formulating detailed and highly accurate mathematical models of LC/MS data via probability distributions that are parameterized by quantities of analytical interest does not appear to have been fully explored before. However, we believe it could lead to a statistically rigorous framework for addressing many of the data analytical problems that arise in LC/MS studies. In this article, we present new procedures for correcting for TDC saturation using such an approach and demonstrate that there is potential for significant improvements in the effective dynamic range of TDC-based mass spectrometers, which could make them much more competitive with the alternative analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The degree of improvement depends on our ability to generate mass and chromatographic peaks that conform to known mathematical functions and our ability to accurately describe the state of the detector dead time—tasks that may be best addressed through engineering efforts.

  5. Hybridization during altitudinal range shifts: nuclear introgression leads to extensive cyto-nuclear discordance in the fire salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Buckley, David

    2016-04-01

    Ecological models predict that, in the face of climate change, taxa occupying steep altitudinal gradients will shift their distributions, leading to the contraction or extinction of the high-elevation (cold-adapted) taxa. However, hybridization between ecomorphologically divergent taxa commonly occurs in nature and may lead to alternative evolutionary outcomes, such as genetic merger or gene flow at specific genes. We evaluate this hypothesis by studying patterns of divergence and gene flow across three replicate contact zones between high- and low-elevation ecomorphs of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) that have experienced altitudinal range shifts over the current postglacial period. Strong population structure with high genetic divergence in mitochondrial DNA suggests that vicariant evolution has occurred over several glacial-interglacial cycles and that it has led to cryptic differentiation within ecomorphs. In current parapatric boundaries, we do not find evidence for local extinction and replacement upon postglacial expansion. Instead, parapatric taxa recurrently show discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear markers, suggesting nuclear-mediated gene flow across contact zones. Isolation with migration models support this hypothesis by showing significant gene flow across all five parapatric boundaries. Together, our results suggest that, while some genomic regions, such as the mitochondria, may follow morphologic species traits and retreat to isolated mountain tops, other genomic regions, such as nuclear markers, may flow across parapatric boundaries, sometimes leading to a complete genetic merger. We show that despite high ecologic and morphologic divergence over prolonged periods of time, hybridization allows for evolutionary outcomes alternative to extinction and replacement of taxa in response to climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of tissue heterogeneity on an in vivo range verification technique for proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassane Bentefour, El; Shikui, Tang; Prieels, Damien; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2012-09-01

    It was proposed recently that time-resolved dose measurements during proton therapy treatment by passively scattered beams may be used for in vivo range verification. The method was shown to work accurately in a water tank. In this paper, we further evaluated the potential of the method for more clinically relevant situations where proton beams must pass through regions with significant tissue heterogeneities. Specifically, we considered prostate treatment where the use of anterior or anterior- oblique fields was recently proposed in order to reduce rectal dose by taking advantage of the sharp distal fall-off of the Bragg peak. These beam portals pass through various parts of pubic bone and potential air cavities in the bladder and bowels. Using blocks of materials with densities equivalent to bone, air, etc, arranged in the water tank in relevant configurations, we tested the robustness of the method against range shifting and range mixing. In the former, the beam range is changed uniformly by changes in tissue density in the beam path, while in the latter, variations in tissue heterogeneities across the beam cross section causes the mixing of beam energies downstream, as often occurs when the beam travels along the interface of materials with significantly different densities. We demonstrated that in the region of interest, the method can measure water-equivalent path length with accuracy better than ±0.5 mm for pure range shifting and still reasonable accuracy for range mixing between close beam energies. In situations with range mixing between significantly different beam energies, the dose rate profiles may be simulated for verifying the beam range. We also found that the above performances can be obtained with very small amount of dose (diodes are used as detectors. This makes the method suitable for in vivo range verification prior to each treatment delivery.

  7. Application of lidar techniques to time-of-flight range imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Refael; Streeter, Lee; Cree, Michael J; Dorrington, Adrian A

    2015-11-20

    Amplitude-modulated continuous wave (AMCW) time-of-flight (ToF) range imaging cameras measure distance by illuminating the scene with amplitude-modulated light and measuring the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected modulation envelope. This method of optical range measurement suffers from errors caused by multiple propagation paths, motion, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation. In this paper a ToF camera is modified to operate in modes analogous to continuous wave (CW) and stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) lidar. In CW operation the velocity of objects can be measured. CW measurement of velocity was linear with true velocity (R2=0.9969). Qualitative analysis of a complex scene confirms that range measured by SFCW is resilient to errors caused by multiple propagation paths, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation which plague AMCW operation. In viewing a complicated scene through a translucent sheet, quantitative comparison of AMCW with SFCW demonstrated a reduction in the median error from -1.3  m to -0.06  m with interquartile range of error reduced from 4.0 m to 0.18 m.

  8. Distance based range profile classification techniques for aircraft recognition by radar - a comparison on real radar data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Groen, F.C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft identification is essential in any air-defence scenario. Without a robust classification capability no effective threat evaluation can be performed. A prominent aircraft recognition technique is based on the exploitation of a one-dimensional image of a target, a range profile. In this

  9. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.

  10. Range and mission scheduling automation using combined AI and operations research techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mansur; Pfeifer, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based systems for Satellite Command, Control, and Communications (C3) operations require a method for planning, scheduling and assigning the range resources such as: antenna systems scattered around the world, communications systems, and personnel. The method must accommodate user priorities, last minute changes, maintenance requirements, and exceptions from nominal requirements. Described are computer programs which solve 24 hour scheduling problems, using heuristic algorithms and a real time interactive scheduling process.

  11. Data transmission techniques for short-range optical fiber and wireless communication links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang

    The research work described in this thesis is devoted to experimental investigation of techniques for cost-effective high-speed optical communications supporting both wired and wireless services. The main contributions of this thesis have expanded the state-of-the-art in two main areas: high......-speed optical/wireless integration and advanced modulation formats for intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. Regarding optical/wireless integration, this thesis focuses on integration of broadband ultra-wide band (UWB) and 60-GHz band wireless systems into optical fiber access......)-compliant gigabit UWB signals and integrate them into baseband wavelength division multiplexingpassive optical networks (WDM-PONs). Performance of UWB signals and other wired/wireless signals in different scenarios including heterogeneous wired and wireless access networks, converged communication and sensing...

  12. Wide-range dynamic strain measurements based on K-BOTDA and frequency-agile technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dengwang; Dong, Yongkang; Wang, Benzhang; Zhang, Hongying; Lu, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel fast Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system using the coefficient K spectrum which is defined as the ratio of phase-shift and gain of Brillouin amplification, where K features linear response, immune to the variation of pump power and a wide measure range. For a 30ns-square pump pulse, the frequency span of K spectrum can reach up to 200MHz. In dynamic strain experiment, a multi-slope assisted K-BOTDA with the measured strain of 5358.3μɛ and the vibration frequency of 6.01Hz and 12.05Hz are demonstrated.

  13. Onset and maximum values of electromyographic amplitude during prone hip extension after neurodynamic technique in patients with lumbosciatic pain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horment-Lara, Giselle; Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; Núñez-Cortés, Rodrigo; Letelier-Horta, Pablo; Henriquez-Fuentes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the effects of neurodynamic techniques are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a starting point for future research on explaining why neurodynamic techniques affect muscular activities in patients with sciatic pain. A double-blind trial was conducted in 12 patients with lumbosciatica. Surface electromyography activity was assessed for different muscles during prone hip extension. Pre- and post-intervention values for muscle activity onset and maximal amplitude signals were determined. There was a significant reduction in the surface electromyography activity of maximal amplitude in the erector spinae and contralateral erector spinae (p neurodynamic sliding techniques modify muscular activity and onset during prone hip extension, possibly reducing unnecessary adaptations for protecting injured components. Future work will analyze the effects of self-neurodynamic sliding techniques during other physical tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative analysis between active and passive techniques for underwater 3D reconstruction of close-range objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-08-20

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms.

  15. A Comparative Analysis between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3D Reconstruction of Close-Range Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Muzzupappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms.

  16. Effects of Low-Impact Dance on Blood Biochemistry, Bone Mineral Density, the Joint Range of Motion of Lower Extremities, Knee Extension Torque, and Fall in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ying; Tu, Jui Hung; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low-impact dance on blood metabolites, the joint range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities, knee extension torque, bone mass density (BMD), the number of falls, and the confidence to perform daily activities (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale [MFES]) was examined in older sedentary women (age: 59 ± 4 years) before and after a 16-week intervention. Results showed that the average score for the MFES, some parameters of blood chemistry, and joint ROM were significantly improved after low-impact intervention. In addition to improvements in blood lipids and body fat percentages, the increases shown in the parameters regarding the lower extremities may contribute to confidence in performing common daily activities in older women, although the number of falls did not significantly differ between the two groups during the 16-week period.

  17. Application of ranging technique of radar level meter for draft survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Yijun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to solve the problems of the high subjectivity and low accuracy and efficiency of draft surveying relying on human visual inspection.[Methods] Radar-level oil and liquid measurement technology products are widely used in the petrochemical industry. A device is developed that uses radar to survey the draft of a boat, designed with data series optimization formulae to ensure that the data results are true and correct. At the same time, a test is designed to prove the accuracy of the results.[Results] According to the conditions of the ship,the device is composed of a radar sensor, triangular bracket and display,and is put to use in the test.[Conclusions] With 15 vessels as the research objects,the comparison experiment shows a difference in range between 0.001-0.022 meters, with an average difference rate of 0.028%, which meets the requirements for ship draft survey accuracy.

  18. Novel technique for evaluation of knee function continuously through the range of flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kevin M; Arilla, Fabio V; Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Fu, Freddie H; Musahl, Volker; Debski, Richard E

    2015-10-15

    Previous research has utilized robots to examine joint kinematics and in situ forces in response to loads applied at discrete flexion angles (static method). Recently, studies have applied loads continuously throughout flexion (continuous flexion method). However, the joint kinematics resulting from each of these methods have not been directly compared. Therefore, the objective of this study was to utilize a robotic testing system to compare kinematics and in situ forces of porcine knees in response to 89 N of anterior tibial load and 4 Nm of internal tibial torque between the static method (loads applied at 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° of flexion) and the continuous flexion method (measured continuously from 30-75° of flexion) for both the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) intact and ACL deficient (ACLD) knees. When anterior tibial load was applied the average differences in anterior tibial translation between the two methods for the intact state was 0.5±0.0 mm and for the ACLD state was 0.3±0.2 mm. The difference in the in situ forces in the ACL was 1.6±0.9 N. When internal tibial torque was applied the average differences in the resultant internal tibial rotation for the intact state was 0.9±0.4° and for the ACLD state was 1.0±0.5°. The difference in the in situ forces in the ACL was 3.3±2.0 N. Both methods are equally efficient in detecting significant differences (p<0.05) between intact and ACL deficient knee states. The continuous flexion method was also shown to be more efficient than the static method and provides continuous data on knee function throughout the range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Diggles, Ben K; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed.

  20. Climate envelope modeling and dispersal simulations show little risk of range extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L., in the Baltic sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Appelqvist

    Full Text Available The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future.

  1. The effect of deviated center of rotation on flexion-extension range of motion after single-level cervical arthroplasty: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Gong, Quan; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying; Lou, Jigang; Wu, Wenjie; Meng, Yang; Chen, Hua; Song, Yueming

    2014-12-15

    A retrospective study. To report the clinical outcomes and sagittal kinematics after cervical total disc replacement (TDR). To evaluate the in vivo effect of deviated center of rotation (COR) on flexion-extension range of motion (ROM) at the instrumented level. A few studies showed that the location of COR after cervical TDR deviated from its preoperative location or inherent location in healthy subjects. However, little is known about the effect of deviated COR on ROM at the instrumented level. A total of 24 patients who underwent C5-C6 single-level TDR with Prestige LP (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) were retrospectively included. Japanese Orthopedic Association score and visual analogue scale were used to assess the clinical outcomes. ROM and COR were measured for radiographical analysis. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the change of ROM for further evaluation. Group 1, characterized by decreased postoperative ROM, consisted of 16 patients; group 2, characterized by increased postoperative ROM, consisted of 8 patients. Ten males and 14 females comprised the study cohort. The mean age was 45.05 years, and the mean follow-up time was 15.5 months. The Japanese Orthopedic Association score increased significantly and the neck and arm visual analogue scale decreased significantly after cervical TDR. On average, ROM was preserved after cervical TDR. The postoperative COR had a significant cranial shift from its preoperative location. The COR shift in anterior-posterior direction was larger in group 2 than that in group 1. No difference was observed in the COR shift in cranial-caudal direction between the 2 groups. Single-level cervical TDR with Prestige LP obtained satisfactory clinical outcomes and partially restored the natural cervical kinematics. At instrumented level, the deviated COR had a negative correlation with the flexion-extension ROM.

  2. More than one way to stretch: a tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Thompson, George A.; Smith, Richard P.

    1998-04-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ˜16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  3. New species of Geissorhiza (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the southern African winter rainfall zone, range extensions, taxonomic changes, and notes on pollen morphology and floral ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Field work during the past 15 years has resulted in the discovery of 12 new species of the western southern African genus Geissorhiza Ker Gawl. and range extensions for several more. Following a survey of pollen morphology in the genus, we describe new pollen types in one section each of the two subgenera: five species of section  Ciliatae Goldblatt and two of  section Weihea Eckl. ex Baker have more complex apertures than the plesiomorphic single aperture with a 2-banded oper­culum found in other species. In addition, populations currently referred to the typical white (cream-flowered  G. inflexa (D.Delaroche Goldblatt with larger, pink, red or purple flowers, have a third pollen type and are recognized as  G. erosa (Salisb. R.C.Foster. The new species are G. altimontana from the high Langeberg near Grootvadersbos; G. helmei from the Piketberg; G. lupidosa from the Du Toits Kloof Mtns; G. monticola from the Swartberg; G. platystigma from Darling, north of Cape Town; G. sufflava from the Piketberg; G. tricolor from Riversdale (all subgenus Weihea (Eckl. ex Baker Goldblatt; and G. cantharophila from the Klein Roggeveld; G. demissa from the Kamiesberg. Gitberg and Cold Bokkeveld; G. exilis from the Waaihoek Mtns in the Worcester District;  G. reclinata from the Swartberg: and G. saxicola from the northern Cedarberg-Pakhuis Mountain complex (all subgenus Geissorhiza. We also report range extensions and provide morphological notes for several species, including  G. monanthos Eckl.. new collections o f w hich show that the inclusion of G. leuisiae R.C.Foster in that species was incorrect and we resurrect the species. The addition of 12 new species and recognition of G. erosa and G. lewisiae bring to 99 the number of species in the genus. New identification keys for Geissorhiza are provided that include all new species. We have also accumulated observations of floral ecology in the genus and integrate them with what is known about this aspect

  4. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    For the deep space asteroid mission, Bering, the main goal is the detection and tracking of near Earth objects (NEOs) and asteroids. One of the key science instruments is the 0.3-m telescope used for imaging and tracking of the detected asteroidal objects. For efficient use of the observation tim...

  5. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Dynamic Range Enhanced Readout Technique with a Two-Step TDC for High Speed Linear CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic range (DR enhanced readout technique with a two-step time-to-digital converter (TDC for high speed linear CMOS image sensors. A multi-capacitor and self-regulated capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA structure is employed to extend the dynamic range. The gain of the CTIA is auto adjusted by switching different capacitors to the integration node asynchronously according to the output voltage. A column-parallel ADC based on a two-step TDC is utilized to improve the conversion rate. The conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase. An error calibration scheme is also proposed to correct quantization errors caused by propagation delay skew within −Tclk~+Tclk. A linear CMOS image sensor pixel array is designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process to verify this DR-enhanced high speed readout technique. The post simulation results indicate that the dynamic range of readout circuit is 99.02 dB and the ADC achieves 60.22 dB SNDR and 9.71 bit ENOB at a conversion rate of 2 MS/s after calibration, with 14.04 dB and 2.4 bit improvement, compared with SNDR and ENOB of that without calibration.

  7. Extension and application of a scaling technique for duplication of in-flight aerodynamic heat flux in ground test facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraar, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    To enable direct experimental duplication of the inflight heat flux distribution on supersonic and hypersonic vehicles, an aerodynamic heating scaling technique has been developed. The scaling technique is based on the analytical equations for convective heat transfer for laminar and turbulent

  8. Northernmost record of the pantropical portunid crab Cronius ruber in the eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands: natural range extension or human-mediated introduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The pantropical crab Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818 (Brachyura: Portunidae is recorded for the first time from the Canary Islands. Previously known from off Cape Verde Islands and Senegal, this is the northernmost record of the species in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Crabs have been caught by means of a collecting small trap for sampling in shallow waters, and then identified by both morphological characters and DNA barcoding (16S. Cytochrome c oxidase I partial sequence has been obtained for this species for the first time. This relatively large and very aggressive crab species seems to be rapidly occupying both hard substrates (sublittoral caves and soft substrates (sand with seagrass meadow adjacent to shallow rocky bottoms, at depths between 2 and 10 m, in the warm southern waters of Gran Canaria Island. The reasons for this species’ occurrence are discussed herein. Among them, natural range extension may be a consequence of tropicalization in the eastern Atlantic. Also, a human-mediated introduction could be based on the heavy traffic of ships (ballast waters or oil platforms arriving at the Canary Islands from African countries and from Brazil in the last decade.

  9. Depth profiling of residual activity of ^{237}U fragments as a range verification technique for ^{238}U primary ion beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and simulation data concerning fragmentation of ^{238}U ion beam in aluminum, copper, and stainless-steel targets with the initial energy 500 and 950  MeV/u are collected in the paper. A range-verification technique based on depth profiling of residual activity is presented. The irradiated targets were constructed in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. One of the purposes of these experiments was depth profiling of residual activity of induced nuclides and projectile fragments. Among the projectile fragments, special attention is paid to the ^{237}U isotope that has a range very close to the range of the primary ^{238}U ions. Therefore, the depth profiling of the ^{237}U isotope can be utilized for experimental verification of the ^{238}U primary-beam range, which is demonstrated and discussed in the paper. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations by FLUKA, SRIM, and ATIMA, as well as with complementary experiments.

  10. Depth profiling of residual activity of U237 fragments as a range verification technique for U238 primary ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Chetvertkova, V.; Mustafin, E.; Pavlovič, M.; Belousov, A.

    2012-07-01

    Experimental and simulation data concerning fragmentation of U238 ion beam in aluminum, copper, and stainless-steel targets with the initial energy 500 and 950MeV/u are collected in the paper. A range-verification technique based on depth profiling of residual activity is presented. The irradiated targets were constructed in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. One of the purposes of these experiments was depth profiling of residual activity of induced nuclides and projectile fragments. Among the projectile fragments, special attention is paid to the U237 isotope that has a range very close to the range of the primary U238 ions. Therefore, the depth profiling of the U237 isotope can be utilized for experimental verification of the U238 primary-beam range, which is demonstrated and discussed in the paper. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations by FLUKA, SRIM, and ATIMA, as well as with complementary experiments.

  11. Quantitative estimation of climatic parameters from vegetation data in North America by the mutual climatic range technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katherine H.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Strickland, Laura E.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Thompson, Robert S.; Shafer, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The mutual climatic range (MCR) technique is perhaps the most widely used method for estimating past climatic parameters from fossil assemblages, largely because it can be conducted on a simple list of the taxa present in an assemblage. When applied to plant macrofossil data, this unweighted approach (MCRun) will frequently identify a large range for a given climatic parameter where the species in an assemblage can theoretically live together. To narrow this range, we devised a new weighted approach (MCRwt) that employs information from the modern relations between climatic parameters and plant distributions to lessen the influence of the "tails" of the distributions of the climatic data associated with the taxa in an assemblage. To assess the performance of the MCR approaches, we applied them to a set of modern climatic data and plant distributions on a 25-km grid for North America, and compared observed and estimated climatic values for each grid point. In general, MCRwt was superior to MCRun in providing smaller anomalies, less bias, and better correlations between observed and estimated values. However, by the same measures, the results of Modern Analog Technique (MAT) approaches were superior to MCRwt. Although this might be reason to favor MAT approaches, they are based on assumptions that may not be valid for paleoclimatic reconstructions, including that: 1) the absence of a taxon from a fossil sample is meaningful, 2) plant associations were largely unaffected by past changes in either levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide or in the seasonal distributions of solar radiation, and 3) plant associations of the past are adequately represented on the modern landscape. To illustrate the application of these MCR and MAT approaches to paleoclimatic reconstructions, we applied them to a Pleistocene paleobotanical assemblage from the western United States. From our examinations of the estimates of modern and past climates from vegetation assemblages, we conclude that

  12. Long-range compaction and flexibility of interphase chromatin in budding yeast analyzed by high-resolution imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystricky, Kerstin; Heun, Patrick; Gehlen, Lutz; Langowski, Jörg; Gasser, Susan M.

    2004-11-01

    Little is known about how chromatin folds in its native state. Using optimized in situ hybridization and live imaging techniques have determined compaction ratios and fiber flexibility for interphase chromatin in budding yeast. Unlike previous studies, ours examines nonrepetitive chromatin at intervals short enough to be meaningful for yeast chromosomes and functional domains in higher eukaryotes. We reconcile high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization data from intervals of 14-100 kb along single chromatids with measurements of whole chromosome arms (122-623 kb in length), monitored in intact cells through the targeted binding of bacterial repressors fused to GFP derivatives. The results are interpreted with a flexible polymer model and suggest that interphase chromatin exists in a compact higher-order conformation with a persistence length of 170-220 nm and a mass density of 110-150 bp/nm. These values are equivalent to 7-10 nucleosomes per 11-nm turn within a 30-nm-like fiber structure. Comparison of long and short chromatid arm measurements demonstrates that chromatin fiber extension is also influenced by nuclear geometry. The observation of this surprisingly compact chromatin structure for transcriptionally competent chromatin in living yeast cells suggests that the passage of RNA polymerase II requires a very transient unfolding of higher-order chromatin structure. higher-order structure | 30-nm fiber | nucleosomes

  13. Moraea intermedia and M. vuvuzela (Iridaceae-Iridoideae, two new species from western South Africa, and some nomenclatural changes and range extensions in the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species in the largely sub-Saharan genus Moraea Mill. (± 205 spp. from its centre of diversity in the winter rainfall region of southern Africa. Moraea intermedia, from north-central Namaqualand near Springbok, is a member of the small section Tubiflorae (now eight species, remarkable in its growth habit with a long basal intemode. leaves clustered at the first aerial node, and Moraea-type stamens and style branches but subequal tepals with very short claws that clasp only the base of the filament column. Moraea vuvuzela. a member of series Galaxia of the Galaxia group of the genus (now 17 species, has deeply fringed stigma lobes, filaments free in the upper 1 mm, ± prostrate, lanceolate leaves and. remarkable for the series, dark brown to purple markings near the base of the tepal limbs. In the unusually variable M.fugax, currently with two subspecies, new collections of subsp. fugax co-occurring but on different soils with subsp.  filicaulis, cast doubt on their current treatment as members of the same species. We now favour recognition of the diminutive subsp.filicaulis as a separate species, M. filicaulis. In the M iripetala group we recommend recognition of the early blooming M. punctata, described in 1892 and later subsumed in M. iripetala but readily distinguished by the long inner  tepals broader in the midline and short, relatively broad, plane rather than channelled leaves. We also report small but significant range extensions for M. barkerae, M. macrocarpa and M. tricolor.

  14. Three new species of Gladiolus (Iridaceae from South Africa, a major range extension for G. rubellus and taxonomic notes for the genus in southern and tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Gladiolus L. are described from South Africa.  G. dolichosiphon is the second known member of series Blandus from the mountains of the Little Karoo in Western Cape, and is distinguished from other members of the long tubed, pink-flowered G. carneus complex by its 5 or 6 linear leaves, creamy pink to salmon flowers with a tube 30-50 mm long and longer than the dorsal tepal, and its late summer flowering. G. karooicus from the Klein Roggeveld and the northern foothills of the Witteberg, is a spring-flowering species allied to G. permeabilis but has bright, canary-yellow flowers with the lower part of the lower tepals involute and conspicuously auriculate.  G. reginae is an edaphic endemic of the Sekhuk- huneland Centre of Floristic Endemism in Mpumalanga, and flowers in autumn. It is evidently a glabrous member of section Densiflorus series Scabridus, distinguished by its long-tubed flowers, streaked with red on the lower tepals and blotched with red in the throat. Anomalously, however, it has the tubular inner bracts and large capsules diagnostic of section Ophiolyza series Oppositiflorus. A re-examination of the morphology suggests that series Scabridus is better placed in section Ophiolyza and a slightly revised classification of Gladiolus in southern Africa is proposed. We also propose the replacement name G. sulculatus for the Tanzanian species, G. sulcatus Goldblatt, a later homonym of G. sulcatus Lam. Finally, a recent sighting of what appears to be G. rubellus from northern Namibia constitutes the first record of this species in the country and a major range extension from its previous known occurrence in southeastern Botswana.

  15. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  16. Shoulder 3D range of motion and humerus rotation in two volleyball spike techniques: injury prevention and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Marzari, Alessandra; Vacondio, Oreste; Minetti, Alberto E

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive stresses and movements on the shoulder in the volleyball spike expose this joint to overuse injuries, bringing athletes to a career threatening injury. Assuming that specific spike techniques play an important role in injury risk, we compared the kinematic of the traditional (TT) and the alternative (AT) techniques in 21 elite athletes, evaluating their safety with respect to performance. Glenohumeral joint was set as the centre of an imaginary sphere, intersected by the distal end of the humerus at different angles. Shoulder range of motion and angular velocities were calculated and compared to the joint limits. Ball speed and jump height were also assessed. Results indicated the trajectory of the humerus to be different for the TT, with maximal flexion of the shoulder reduced by 10 degrees, and horizontal abduction 15 degrees higher. No difference was found for external rotation angles, while axial rotation velocities were significantly higher in AT, with a 5% higher ball speed. Results suggest AT as a potential preventive solution to shoulder chronic pathologies, reducing shoulder flexion during spiking. The proposed method allows visualisation of risks associated with different overhead manoeuvres, by depicting humerus angles and velocities with respect to joint limits in the same 3D space.

  17. Suppression of extension of the photo-sensitive area for a planar-type front-illuminated InGaAs detector by the LBIC technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yongfu; Tang Hengjing; Li Tao; Zhu Yaoming; Jiang Peilu; Qiao Hui; Li Xue; Gong Haimei, E-mail: yfLi@mail.sdu.edu.c [State Key Laboratories of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2010-01-15

    To suppress the extension of the photo-sensitive area of a planar-type InGaAs detector, the structure of the detector was modified, and the small-diffusion-area diffusion method, circle-type covering contact and guard-ring were introduced. The laser-beam-induced-current (LBIC) technique was used to study the photo responsive characteristics of the photo-sensitive area of different detector structures. It was indicated that, by modifying the size of the diffusion area, the width of the circle-type covering contact, the distance between the guard-ring and the photo-sensitive area and the working status of the guard-ring, extension of the photo-sensitive area could be effectively suppressed, and the detector photo-sensitive area could be exactly defined. (semiconductor materials)

  18. Highly Sensitive and Wide-Dynamic-Range Multichannel Optical-Fiber pH Sensor Based on PWM Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we propose a highly sensitive multichannel pH sensor that is based on an optical-fiber pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. According to the optical-fiber PWM method, the received sensing signal's pulse width changes when the optical-fiber pH sensing-element of the array comes into contact with pH buffer solutions. The proposed optical-fiber PWM pH-sensing system offers a linear sensing response over a wide range of pH values from 2 to 12, with a high pH-sensing ability. The sensitivity of the proposed pH sensor is 0.46 µs/pH, and the correlation coefficient R² is approximately 0.997. Additional advantages of the proposed optical-fiber PWM pH sensor include a short/fast response-time of about 8 s, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 0.019, easy fabrication, low cost, small size, reusability of the optical-fiber sensing-element, and the capability of remote sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed PWM pH sensor was compared with that of potentiometric, optical-fiber modal interferometer, and optical-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer pH sensors with respect to dynamic range width, linearity as well as response and recovery times. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing abilities than the above-mentioned pH sensors.

  19. More than one way to stretch: a tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsons, Tom; Thompson, George A; Smith, Richard P

    1998-01-01

    .... The plain represents the 100‐km‐wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ∼16–17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows...

  20. Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles: Novel synthesis by exploding wire technique and extensive characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Anshuman [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Goswami, Navendu, E-mail: navendugoswami@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Kaushik, S.D. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research Mumbai Centre, R5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Shilpa [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore, M.P. (India)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: The salient features of this research article are following: • Mixed phase synthesis of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles prepared by Exploding Wire Technique (EWT). • Predominant Cu/Cu{sub 2}O phases along with minor CuO phase revealed through XRD, TEM, Raman, FTIR, UV–Visible and PL analyses. • XPS analysis provided direct evidences of Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} along with O deficiency for prepared nanoparticles. • Room temperature weak ferromagnetic behaviour was demonstrated for Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this article, we explore potential of Exploding Wire Technique (EWT) to synthesize the copper nanoparticles using the copper metal in a plate and wire geometry. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared material indicates presence of mixed phases of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O). Agglomerates of copper and copper oxide comprised of ∼20 nm average size nanoparticles observed through high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-Raman (μR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies of prepared nanoparticles reveal existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD and TEM analysis. μR investigations vividly reveal cubic Cu{sub 2}O and monoclinic CuO phases based on the difference of space group symmetries. In good agreement with μRaman analysis, FTIR stretching modes corresponding to Cu{sub 2}-O and Cu-O were also distinguished. Investigations of μR and FTIR vibrational modes are in accordance and affirm concurrence of CuO phases besides predominant Cu and Cu{sub 2}O phase. Quantum confinement effects along with increase of band gaps for direct and indirect optical transitions of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles are reflected through UV–vis (UV–vis) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy spots the electronic levels of each phase and optical transitions processes

  1. An Attempt at the Northward Extension of the Breeding Range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle by Egg Transplant Progress Report #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The object of this study is to attempt to extend the breeding range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle northward to some of its reported previous range along the...

  2. An Attempt at the Northward Extension of the Breeding Range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle by Egg Transplant Progress Report #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The object of this study is to attempt to extend the breeding range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle northward to some of its reported previous range along the...

  3. Extensive characterization of human tear fluid collected using different techniques unravels the presence of novel lipid amphiphiles1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sin Man; Tong, Louis; Duan, Xinrui; Petznick, Andrea; Wenk, Markus R.; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-01-01

    The tear film covers the anterior eye and the precise balance of its various constituting components is critical for maintaining ocular health. The composition of the tear film amphiphilic lipid sublayer, in particular, has largely remained a matter of contention due to the limiting concentrations of these lipid amphiphiles in tears that render their detection and accurate quantitation tedious. Using systematic and sensitive lipidomic approaches, we validated different tear collection techniques and report the most comprehensive human tear lipidome to date; comprising more than 600 lipid species from 17 major lipid classes. Our study confers novel insights to the compositional details of the existent tear film model, in particular the disputable amphiphilic lipid sublayer constituents, by demonstrating the presence of cholesteryl sulfate, O-acyl-ω-hydroxyfatty acids, and various sphingolipids and phospholipids in tears. The discovery and quantitation of the relative abundance of various tear lipid amphiphiles reported herein are expected to have a profound impact on the current understanding of the existent human tear film model. PMID:24287120

  4. Extensions of the lost letter technique to divisive issues of creationism, darwinism, sex education, and gay and lesbian affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Anzalone, Debra A; Ryan, Stuart W; Anzalone, Fanancy L

    2002-04-01

    Two field studies using 1,004 "lost letters" were designed to test the hypotheses that returned responses would be greater in small towns than from a city, that addressees' affiliation with a group either (1) opposed to physical education in schools, (2) supporting gay and lesbian teachers, or (3) advocating Creationism or Darwinism would reduce the return rate. Of 504 letters "lost" in Study A, 163 (32.3%) were returned in the mail from residents of southeast Louisiana and indicated across 3 addressees and 2 sizes of community, addressees' affiLiations were not associated with returned responses. Community size and addressees' affiliations were associated with significantly different rates of return in the city. Return rates from sites within a city were lower when letters were addressed to an organization which opposed (teaching) health education in the schools than to one supporting daily health education. Of 500 letters "lost" in Study B, 95 (19.0%) were returned from residents of northwest Florida and indicated across 5 addressees and 2 sizes of community, addressees' affiliations were significantly associated with returned responses overall (5 addressees) and in small towns (control, Creationism, Darwinism addressees), but not with community size. Community size and addressees' affiliations were associated with significantly different rates of return in small towns, with returns greater than or equal to those in the city (except for the addressee advocating teaching Darwinism in public schools). The present findings appear to show that applications of the lost letter technique to other divisive social issues are useful in assessing public opinion.

  5. Cu/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles: Novel synthesis by exploding wire technique and extensive characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Anshuman; Goswami, Navendu; Kaushik, S. D.; Tripathi, Shilpa

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we explore potential of Exploding Wire Technique (EWT) to synthesize the copper nanoparticles using the copper metal in a plate and wire geometry. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared material indicates presence of mixed phases of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (Cu2O). Agglomerates of copper and copper oxide comprised of ∼20 nm average size nanoparticles observed through high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-Raman (μR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies of prepared nanoparticles reveal existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD and TEM analysis. μR investigations vividly reveal cubic Cu2O and monoclinic CuO phases based on the difference of space group symmetries. In good agreement with μRaman analysis, FTIR stretching modes corresponding to Cu2-O and Cu-O were also distinguished. Investigations of μR and FTIR vibrational modes are in accordance and affirm concurrence of CuO phases besides predominant Cu and Cu2O phase. Quantum confinement effects along with increase of band gaps for direct and indirect optical transitions of Cu/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles are reflected through UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy spots the electronic levels of each phase and optical transitions processes occurring therein. Iterative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) fitting of core level spectra of Cu (2p3/2) and O (1s), divulges presence of Cu2+ and Cu+ in the lattice with an interesting evidence of O deficiency in the lattice structure and surface adsorption. Magnetic analysis illustrates that the prepared nanomaterial demonstrates ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature.

  6. Two new subspecies of Dietes (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, Dietes iridioides subsp. angolensis from Angola and Dietes bicolor subsp. armeniaca from eastern South Africa, with notes and range extensions for Dietes butcheriana and Dietes iridioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goldblatt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent collections of Dietes have extended the known geographical range and morphological variation in several species.Objectives: To describe additional taxa in Dietes to reflect the morphological and geographical variation in the species more accurately and to record significant range extensions. Method: Recent collections were compared with existing herbarium material and published literature.Results: Two new subspecies in Dietes are described, viz. Dietes iridioides subsp. angolensis from Angola, constituting the first record of the species from that country, and Dietes bicolor subsp. armeniaca from eastern South Africa, which represents a range extension into southern KwaZulu-Natal. We also document a range extension for the local endemic Dietes butcheriana from KwaZulu-Natal into the Eastern Cape and discuss an anomalous population of D. iridioides, with long-lived flowers, from near Hankey in the Eastern Cape.Conclusions: The range extensions and new infraspecific taxa increase our understanding of the diversity of Dietes in southern and south tropical Africa.

  7. Diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach for diagrammatic extensions of dynamical mean-field theory: Convergence analysis of the dual fermion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukelberger, Jan; Kozik, Evgeny; Hafermann, Hartmut

    2017-07-01

    The dual fermion approach provides a formally exact prescription for calculating properties of a correlated electron system in terms of a diagrammatic expansion around dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). Most practical implementations, however, neglect higher-order interaction vertices beyond two-particle scattering in the dual effective action and further truncate the diagrammatic expansion in the two-particle scattering vertex to a leading-order or ladder-type approximation. In this work, we compute the dual fermion expansion for the two-dimensional Hubbard model including all diagram topologies with two-particle interactions to high orders by means of a stochastic diagrammatic Monte Carlo algorithm. We benchmark the obtained self-energy against numerically exact diagrammatic determinant Monte Carlo simulations to systematically assess convergence of the dual fermion series and the validity of these approximations. We observe that, from high temperatures down to the vicinity of the DMFT Néel transition, the dual fermion series converges very quickly to the exact solution in the whole range of Hubbard interactions considered (4 ≤U /t ≤12 ), implying that contributions from higher-order vertices are small. As the temperature is lowered further, we observe slower series convergence, convergence to incorrect solutions, and ultimately divergence. This happens in a regime where magnetic correlations become significant. We find, however, that the self-consistent particle-hole ladder approximation yields reasonable and often even highly accurate results in this regime.

  8. Experimental techniques for characterising water in wood covering the range from dry to fully water-saturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund; Kymäläinen, Maija; Rautkari, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    Water plays a central role in wood research, since it affects all material properties relevant to the performance of wood materials. Therefore, experimental techniques for characterising water within wood are an essential part of nearly all scientific investigations of wood materials. This review...... focuses on selected experimental techniques that can give deeper insights into various aspects of water in wood in the entire moisture domain from dry to fully water-saturated. These techniques fall into three broad categories: (1) gravimetric techniques that determine how much water is absorbed, (2......) fibre saturation techniques that determine the amount of water within cell walls, and (3) spectroscopic techniques that provide insights into chemical wood–water interactions as well as yield information on water distribution in the macro-void wood structure. For all techniques, the general measurement...

  9. Effects of cervical high-velocity low-amplitude techniques on range of motion, strength performance, and cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galindez-Ibarbengoetxea, Xabier; Setuain, Igor; Andersen, Lars L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation technique is among the oldest and most frequently used chiropractic manual therapy, but the physiologic and biomechanics effects were not completely clear. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to describe the effects of cervical HVLA man...... to develop a stronger evidence-based foundation for HVLA manipulation techniques as a treatment for cervical conditions....

  10. Improving self-report measures of medication non-adherence using a cheating detection extension of the randomised-response-technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapczuk, Martin; Musch, Jochen; Moshagen, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Medication non-adherence is a serious problem for medical research and clinical practice. Self-reports are only moderately valid, and objective methods are cumbersome and expensive to administer. We sought to improve self-reports of medication non-adherence using a cheating detection extension of the randomised-response-technique (RRT). This RRT variant encourages more honest responses by offering interviewees a higher degree of anonymity while simultaneously allowing us to estimate the proportion of respondents disobeying the RRT instructions. The 597 patients were asked to report their lifetime prevalence of medication non-adherence under one of two different questioning procedures, direct questioning or randomised-response. When questioned directly, only 20.9% of patients admitted to intentional medication non-adherent behaviour, as opposed to 32.7% of patients under RRT conditions. Additionally, the cheating detection extension revealed a significant proportion of patients (47.1%) disobeying the instructions in the RRT condition. Assuming that either none or all of them were non-adherent, a lower and upper bound of 32.7% and 79.8%, respectively, could be estimated for the lifetime prevalence of non-adherent behaviour. The results demonstrate that self-report measures as well as traditional variants of the RRT, which do not take cheating into account, may provide considerably distorted estimates of the prevalence of medication non-adherence.

  11. Extension of the Kendrick Mass Defect Analysis of Homopolymers to Low Resolution and High Mass Range Mass Spectra Using Fractional Base Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-03-07

    Beyond the high resolution/low mass range data traditionally used, a Kendrick mass defect analysis (KMD) using the new concept of fractional base units has been successfully conducted on low resolution/low mass range and high resolution/high mass range data for the first time. Relying on a mathematical framework to rationalize the effect of the fractional base units, the electrospray ionization single stage and multistage mass spectra of a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) recorded from a low resolution ion trap analyzer were turned into information-rich KMD plots using vinylpyrrolidone/112 and pyrrolidone/86 as base units. The distributions detected in the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization spiralTOF mass spectra of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(caprolactone) were conveniently discriminated in KMD plots using (ethylene oxide)/45 and caprolactone/113 as base units with an unprecedented resolution at such a mass range. The high resolution KMD analysis using fractional base units opens new perspectives for the acquisition, visualization, and presentation of mass spectra of polymers with less restrictions in terms of required resolution and molecular weights.

  12. Extension of an Itô-based general approximation technique for random vibration of a BBW general hysteris model part II: Non-Gaussian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, H.; Noori, M.

    1990-07-01

    The work presented in this paper constitutes the second phase of on-going research aimed at developing mathematical models for representing general hysteretic behavior of structures and approximation techniques for the computation and analysis of the response of hysteretic systems to random excitations. In this second part, the technique previously developed by the authors for the Gaussian response analysis of non-linear systems with general hysteretic behavior is extended for the non-Gaussian analysis of these systems. This approximation technique is based on the approach proposed independently by Ibrahim and Wu-Lin. In this work up to fourth order moments of the response co-ordinates are obtained for the Bouc-Baber-Wen smooth hysteresis model. These higher order statistics previously have not been made available for general hysteresis models by using existing approximation methods. Second order moments obtained for the model by this non-Gaussian closure scheme are compared with equivalent linearization and Gaussian closure results via Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Higher order moments are compared with the simulation results. The study performed for a wide range of degradation parameters and input power spectral density ( PSD) levels shows that the non-Gaussian responses obtained by this approach are in better agreement with the MCS results than the linearized and Gaussian ones. This approximation technique can provide information on higher order moments for general hysteretic systems. This information is valuable in random vibration and the reliability analysis of hysteretically yielding structures.

  13. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Farías-Curtidor

    Full Text Available The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W during two separate efforts: (a a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010, and (b three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014. Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA and Cytochrome b (Cytb. Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.. However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock.

  14. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías-Curtidor, Nohelia; Barragán-Barrera, Dalia C; Chávez-Carreño, Paula Alejandra; Jiménez-Pinedo, Cristina; Palacios, Daniel M; Caicedo, Dalila; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014). Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA) and Cytochrome b (Cytb). Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.). However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock.

  15. Extension and applications of switching model: Range theory, multiple scattering model of Goudsmit-Saunderson, and lateral spread treatment of Marwick-Sigmund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Seiji

    2017-09-01

    The switching model (PSM) developed in the previous paper is extended to obtain an ;extended switching model (ESM). In the ESM, the mixt electronic-and-nuclear energy-loss region, in addition to the electronic and nuclear energy-loss regions in PSM, is taken into account analytically and appropriately. This model is combined with a small-angle multiple scattering range theory considering both nuclear and electronic stopping effects developed by Marwick-Sigmund and Valdes-Arista to formulate a improved range theory. The ESM is also combined with the multiple scattering theory with non-small angle approximation by Goudsmit-Saunderson. Furthermore, we applied ESM to lateral spread model of Marwick-Sigmund. Numerical calculations of the entire distribution functions including one of the mixt region are roughly and approximately possible. However, exact numerical calculation may be impossible. Consequently, several preliminary numerical calculations of the electronic, mixt, and nuclear regions are performed to examine their underlying behavior with respect to the incident energy, the scattering angle, the outgoing projectile intensity, and the target thickness. We show the numerical results not only of PSM and but also of ESM. Both numerical results are shown in the present paper for the first time. Since the theoretical relations are constructed using reduced variables, the calculations are made only on the case of C colliding on C.

  16. Flexion and extension laxity after medial, mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a comparison between a spacer- and a tension-guided technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Ham, A M; Heesterbeek, P J C; van der Schaaf, D B; Jacobs, W C H; Wymenga, A B

    2013-11-01

    In a mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), stability is of utmost importance to promote knee function and to prevent dislocation of the insert. Gap balancing can be guided by the use of spacers or a tensioner. The goal of this study is to compare laxity of a tension-guided implantation technique versus a spacer-guided technique for medial UKA with a mobile bearing. Also clinical function was compared between the groups. The tension-guided UKA system (BalanSys™, Mathys Ltd, Bettlach, Switzerland) was compared with a retrospective group with a spacer-guided system (Oxford, Biomet Ltd, Bridgend, UK). A total of 30 tension-guided medial UKAs were implanted and compared with 35 spacer-guided medial prostheses. In both groups, valgus laxity was measured at least 4 months postoperatively in extension and 70° flexion using stress radiographs. Knee Society Scores (KSS) were obtained at the 6-month follow-up. Valgus laxity in flexion was significantly higher in the tension-guided group compared with the spacer-guided group: 3.9° (SD 1.8°) versus 2.4° (SD 1.2°), respectively, P tension-guided group compared with 2.7° (SD 0.9°) in the spacer-guided group (P tension-guided system resulted in less valgus laxity than the spacer-guided system. Clinically, there were no differences between the groups. The valgus laxity found with the spacer-guided system better approximates the valgus laxity values of the healthy elderly.

  17. Measurements of the capture cross sections of natural silver in the resonance range with the time of flight technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šalamon L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture cross section measurements have been performed at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the EC-JRC-Geel. Prompt gamma rays, originating from a natural silver sample, were detected by a pair of C6D6 liquid scintillation detectors. The total energy detection principle in combination with the pulse height weighting technique has been used. In this contribution the experimental details together with the data reduction process are described. In addition, first results of calculations with REFIT are presented to verify the quality of recommended cross section data in the resolved resonance region.

  18. Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, M; Fieberg, S; Waasem, N; Kühnemann, F; Buse, K; Breunig, I

    2015-08-24

    We employ three highly sensitive spectrometers: a photoacoustic spectrometer, a photothermal common-path interferometer and a whispering-gallery-resonator-based absorption spectrometer, for a comparative study of measuring the absorption coefficient of nominally transparent undoped, congruently grown lithium niobate for ordinarily and extraordinarily polarized light in the wavelength range from 390 to 3800 nm. The absorption coefficient ranges from below 10(-4) cm(-1) up to 2 cm(-1). Furthermore, we measure the absorption at the Urbach tail as well as the multiphonon edge of the material by a standard grating spectrometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, providing for the first time an absorption spectrum of the whole transparency window of lithium niobate. The absorption coefficients obtained by the three highly sensitive and independent methods show good agreement.

  19. Temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity of GaAs in the 100-305 K range measured by the pulsed photothermal displacement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanolkotabi, M.; Bennis, G. L.; Gupta, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the variation of the value of the thermal diffusivity of semi-insulating GaAs in the 100-305 K range. The method used is the pulsed photothermal displacement technique. This is a noncontact technique, and the value of the thermal diffusivity is derived from the temporal evolution of the signal rather than its amplitude. This makes the technique less susceptible to uncertainties. We find that the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of semi-insulating GaAs follows a power law as T-1.62, in disagreement with results obtained previously. Possible reasons for the deviation within this very important intermediate temperature range are discussed.

  20. Uticaj povećanja dometa na dinamičku stabilnost artiljerijskih raketa sa olučastim krilima / Influence of range extension on dynamic stability for artillery rockets with wrap around fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ćuk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani efekti povećanja dometa artiljerijske rakete sa olučastim krilima na njenu dinamičku stabilnost. Totalni impuls raketnog motora, uvećan za 50% i let rakete kroz slojeve atmosfere sa malom gustinom vazduha povećavaju domet rakete za više od 75% od nominalnog dometa. Međutim, let rakete kroz razređeni vazduh proizvodi teškoće koje se odnose na dinamičku stabilnost. Male promene bočnog momenta indukovanog napadnim uglom i Magnusovog momenta mogu proizvesti nestabilnost kretanja i nedozvoljeni rast napadnog ugla. Određene su tolerancije bočnog momenta za osnovnu i poboljšanu varijantu rakete radi sprečavanja nestabilnog leta. Analiziran je, takođe uticaj povećanja dometa na verovatna odstupanja rakete po dometu i pravcu. / This paper presents the effects of the range extension of an artillery rocket with wrap around fins on its dynamic stability. The increased total impulse of the rocket engine for 50% and flight through the atmosphere layers with low air density extend the range for more than 75% of the nominal range. However, the flight of the unguided rocket through the rarefied air produces difficulties related to the dynamic stability. The small changes in the side moment which is induced by the angle of attack and Magnus moment of the improved rocket can produce instabilities in flight and increasement the angle of attack. The tolerances of the side moment were determined for both basic and improved type of the rocket in order to prevent instable flight. The influence of the range extension on the probable errors in range and cross-range was analyzed as well.

  1. Actual extension of sinkholes: Considerations about geophysical, geomorphological, and field inspection techniques in urban planning projects in the Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Pocoví Juan, A.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Ansón-López, D.; Gil-Garbi, H.

    2013-05-01

    Aerial photographs, historical cartographies, and field inspection are useful tools in urban planning design on mantled karst because they permit a wide time interval to be analyzed. In the case of Zaragoza city, several works have confirmed the interest of these approaches in configuring the urban planning code and therefore represent a promising technique. Nevertheless, some caveats should be taken into account when using this kind of information. A detailed analysis is presented comparing (in a case study from the surroundings of Zaragoza) geomorphological, historical analysis, and field inspection with geophysical data. Field inspection in a noncultivated area permits the constraint of the presence of karst indicators below the geomorphological resolution of aerial photographs and shows results consistent with geophysical surveys. The studied case shows an inner zone coinciding with the sinkhole mapped from aerial photographs that correlates with changes in the position of the substratum and changes in thickness of alluvial sediments. The integrated analysis permits us to define an external subsidence ring around the geomorphological sinkhole whose surface is twice the size of the inner zone. This outer ring is indicated by geometrical changes in GPR profiles, increases of thickness of the conductive shallower unit toward the collapse, and small collapses on marginal cracks. These results support the higher extension of karst hazards linked to sinkholes with respect to their geomorphological expression and the needed detailed analysis to constrain the real sinkhole size or the use of security radii surrounding this surficial evidence when geomorphological data is used for the hazard analyses or the urban planning at karstic zones.

  2. A note on using a laser-based technique for recording of behaviour and location of free-ranging animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehmi, J S.; Laca, E A.

    2001-03-29

    We developed a precise, remote (up to 300m) observation system to record animal location and behaviour that requires no animal handling or disruption of the normal environment. Our system, combining a survey laser and a laptop, also allows recording of observed animal behaviour from seconds to hours, with accuracy of 1m or better. Up to one individual per second can be located, which supports data collection of large numbers of animals not possible with other methods. The laser system was used to track a halter-broken heifer led in an arc beginning and ending about 50m from the laser with a maximum distance of about 150m. We recorded the location of the heifer at 35 points along the arc using the laser, a global positioning system (GPS), and a nylon tape. There was an average linear difference of 1.16m (S.D. 0.63) between the laser data and the GPS data. The laser was potentially more accurate than GPS for this application because the laser averaged only 0.21m (S.D. 0.24) linear difference from the tape. Tests of the laser to relocate points in the field to within 0.20m and 0.1 degrees, averaged 0.42m (S.D. 0.29) from the original points. Our technique allows precise location of behaviour and navigation to grazed sites, potentially revealing how animals interact with the resources they exploit and showing the effect of landscape spatial heterogeneity on foraging and habitat use patterns.

  3. The long-range transport of aerosols from northern China to Hong Kong - a multi-technique study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; Chim, K. S.; Kot, S. C.

    The results of the inorganic and organic analyses of aerosol samples collected on the east and west sides of Hong Kong during a dust episode (9-10 May 1996) are reported. The origin of the dust was traced to Northern China. The dust reached Hong Kong by way of the East China Sea. The characteristics of the inorganic elements and organic compounds were quite different from the non-episodic samples collected on 1-2 April 1996, EPD (Environmental Protection Department, Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China) results for April-May 1994, and our early studies (Zheng et al., 1997. Atmospheric Environment 31(2), 227-237.). Results from X-ray spectrometry showed pronounced increase in the relative abundance of Al, Fe, Ca, S and Cl in the dust samples compared to the non-episodic samples. The high abundance of Cl in the dust samples suggested the aerosols experienced long-range transport by way of the sea. ICP-MS analysis revealed higher concentrations of Fe, Ca, S and Pb in the episodic samples relative to the values measured during April-May 1994 by EPD. The high Ca content in the soil samples is a characteristic of northern Chinese crustal material (Liu et al., 1985). Hong Kong aerosols are characterized by high octadecenoic acid concentration due to heavy urbanization and Chinese-style stir-fry cooking. A much lower C 18:1/C 18:0 ratio was found in the episodic samples, however, suggesting the aerosols were transported from a long distance. The high ratio of ⩾C 20/Asian Dust. This is the first scientific report of Asian Dust in Hong Kong.

  4. Marketing Extension Needs for Sustainable Extension Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the marketing extension needs of cassava farmers in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and five respondents from the list of contact farmers obtained from the state Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Interview ...

  5. An Approach to 3d Digital Modeling of Surfaces with Poor Texture by Range Imaging Techniques. `SHAPE from Stereo' VS. `SHAPE from Silhouette' in Digitizing Jorge Oteiza's Sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, J.; Álvaro Tordesillas, A.; Barba, S.

    2015-02-01

    Despite eminent development of digital range imaging techniques, difficulties persist in the virtualization of objects with poor radiometric information, in other words, objects consisting of homogeneous colours (totally white, black, etc.), repetitive patterns, translucence, or materials with specular reflection. This is the case for much of the Jorge Oteiza's works, particularly in the sculpture collection of the Museo Fundación Jorge Oteiza (Navarra, Spain). The present study intend to analyse and asses the performance of two digital 3D-modeling methods based on imaging techniques, facing cultural heritage in singular cases, determined by radiometric characteristics as mentioned: Shape from Silhouette and Shape from Stereo. On the other hand, the text proposes the definition of a documentation workflow and presents the results of its application in the collection of sculptures created by Oteiza.

  6. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of at...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  7. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing, E-mail: yqwang@nju.edu.cn; Li, Fenfang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  8. Immediate Effects of Mobilization With Movement vs Sham Technique on Range of Motion, Strength, and Function in Patients With Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, João Flávio; Salvini, Tania Fátima; Siqueira, Aristides Leite; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of mobilization with movement (MWM) with sham technique on range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, and function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. A randomized clinical study was performed. Participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 31 ± 8 years; 56% women) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 14), which received the MWM technique in the first 4 sessions and the sham technique in the last 4 sessions; and group 2 (n = 13), which was treated with the opposite order of treatment conditions described for group 1. Shoulder ROM, isometric peak force assessed with a handheld dynamometer, and function as determined through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaires were collected at preintervention, interchange, and postintervention moments. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant group-by-time interaction for any outcome but did reveal a main time effect for shoulder external rotation (P = .04) and abduction (P = .01) ROM, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (P shoulder ROM during external rotation and abduction, pain, and function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. THE COMBINED EFFECTIVENESS OF GLENOHUMERAL END-RANGE MOBILIZATION AND CONTRACT-RELAX TECHNIQUE FOR GLENOHUMERAL INTERNAL ROTATORS IN SUBJECTS WITH ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Kalita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frozen shoulder is an insidious condition that begins with pain and gradual restriction of movement in the shoulder region. There are various methods of treating frozen shoulder (both surgical and non-surgical.Among the non-surgical methods there is no specific method accepted universally. Purpose of this study is to determine the combined effectiveness of Glenohumeral End-Range Mobilization and Contract-Relax technique for glenohumeral internal rotators in patients with adhesive capsulitis. Methods: 60 frozen shoulder patients randomized 30 subjects into each experimental and control group. Group A (experimental group received Glenohumeral End-Range Mobilization, Contract-Relax Technique for glenohumeral internal rotators and Shoulder Pendular Exercises 2 times a week for a period of 4 weeks (8 sessions.Group B (control group received Shoulder Pendular exercises 2 times a week for a period of 4 weeks (8 sessions. Outcome measures included are VAS, SPADI and goniometry for assessing pain, functional ability and ROM for the shoulder joint. Results: The average improvement of VAS for Group A and Group B were 4.5 and 3 respectively using median. The U-value was 176, which is statistically highly significant (p value = 0.000.The average improvement of Shoulder Pain and Disability Index for Group A and group B were 56.9333 and 10.3667 respectively using mean and Standard Deviation. The t-value was 35.91181, which is statistically highly significant (p value = 0.000. Conclusion: The results indicated that both Group A and Group B had significant improvement in the scores of VAS, SPADI and GONIOMETRY scores at the 4th week when compared to base line values, but when comparing the end results of group A and group B it has been found out that group A intervention is more effective then Group B in treating the internal rotators of patients with adhesive capsulitis

  10. On-Line Hydrogen-Isotope Measurements of Organic Samples Using Elemental Chromium : An Extension for High Temperature Elemental-Analyzer Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by

  11. Optical properties measurement of laser coagulated tissues with double integrating sphere and inverse Monte Carlo technique in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Norihiro; Nanjo, Takuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2012-03-01

    In laser medicine, the accurate knowledge about the optical properties (absorption coefficient; μa, scattering coefficient; μs, anisotropy factor; g) of laser irradiated tissues is important for the prediction of light propagation in tissues, since the efficacy of laser treatment depends on the photon propagation within the irradiated tissues. Thus, it is likely that the optical properties of tissues at near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths will be more important due to more biomedical applications of lasers will be developed. For improvement of the laser induced thermotherapy, the optical property change during laser treatment should be considered in the wide wavelength range. For estimation of the optical properties of the biological tissues, the optical properties measurement system with a double integrating sphere setup and an inverse Monte Carlo technique was developed. The optical properties of chicken muscle tissue were measured in the native state and after laser coagulation using the optical properties measurement system in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm. A CO2 laser was used for laser coagulation. After laser coagulation, the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue increased. And, the optical penetration depth decreased. For improvement of the treatment depth during laser coagulation, a quantitative procedure using the treated tissue optical properties for determination of the irradiation power density following light penetration decrease might be important in clinic.

  12. EFFICACY OF KALTENBORN GRADE III MOBILIZATIONS, MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUES AND THEIR COMBINATION TO IMPROVE RANGE AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN ADULTS WITH MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Anwar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy is an essentialtreatment in the management of Mechanical Neck ache, still there was lack of literature seen supporting the effectiveness of Physiotherapy interventions with their doses targeting specific group of population. The focus of study was to see the effectiveness of Kaltenborn Grade III mobilization, Muscle Energy Techniques and their combination to improve range and functional ability in patients with Mechanical Neck ache. Methods: 72 patients with Mechanical Neck achewere randomly categorized in 3 groups (Mobilization, METs and Combination group. NDI scale and goniometry was used as an assessment tool to measure the outcome before and after treatment (follow up 1 week. Results: According to the results there was significant improvement seen in Combination group (Mobilization and METs in terms of pain, which decreased from 7.70±0.69 to 1.25±1.93 (p=0.00, gain in ROM e.g. Cervical Flexion (27.29±2.38 to 37.54±3.14. Whereas, marked significance (p=0.00 was seen in the NDI score and percentage of Combination group. ANOVA tells us that difference was significant in all three groups in categories of pain (VAS, gain in cervical ranges and NDI score and percentage as p=0.00. Combination group had significant difference within the groups then METs and Mobilization group in all categories of VAS, Cervical ranges, NDI score and percentage. Conclusion: Combination of (Grade III Kaltenborn and METs was seen more effective in terms of improving Mechanical Neck Pain, in smaller treatment session (7 days only.

  13. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, L.M.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  14. Measuring Relative Motions Across a Fault Using Seafloor Transponders Installed at Close Range to each Other Based on Differential GPS/Acoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Ashi, J.; Tsuji, T.; Tomita, F.

    2016-12-01

    Seafloor geodesy based on acoustic ranging technique is getting popular means to reveal crustal deformation beneath the ocean. GPS/acoustic technique can be applied to monitoring regional deformation or absolute position, while direct-path acoustic ranging can be applied to detecting localized strain or relative motion in a short distance ( 1-10 km). However the latter observation sometimes fails to keep the clearance of an acoustic path between the seafloor transponders because of topographic obstacle or of downward bending nature of the path due to vertical gradient of sound speed in deep-ocean. Especially at steep fault scarp, it is almost impossible to keep direct path between the top and bottom of the fault scarp. Even in such a situation, acoustic path to the sea surface might be always clear. Then we propose a new approach to monitor the relative motion of across a fault scarp using "differential" GPS/acoustic measurement, which account only for traveltime differences among the transponders. The advantages of this method are that: (1) uncertainty in sound speed in shallow water is almost canceled; (2) possible GPS error is also canceled; (3) picking error in traveltime detection is almost canceled; (4) only a pair of transponders can fully describe relative 3-dimensional motion. On the other hand the disadvantages are that: (5) data is not continuous but only campaign; (6) most advantages are only effective only for very short baseline (< 100-300 m). Our target being applied this method is a steep fault scarp near the Japan trench, which is expected as a surface expression of back thrust, in where time scale of fault activity is still controversial especially after the Tohoku earthquake. We have carefully installed three transponders across this scarp using a NSS system, which can remotely navigate instrument near the seafloor from a mother vessel based on video camera image. Baseline lengths among the transponders are 200-300 m at 3500 m depth. Initial

  15. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  16. Extension of the graphical technique for estimation of particle size distribution parameters for the consistent intercomparison of diverse sets of multiwavelength lidar derived optical coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin R; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Samir

    2005-10-20

    In applying the graphical technique to the estimation of the particle size distribution (PSD) parameters, determination of proper bounds surrounding the solution space for a particular confidence level is essential to the consistent intercomparison of diverse multiwavelength lidar optical data sets. The graphical technique utilizes ratios of backscatter and/or extinction coefficients, and it is shown that if the correlation between ratios is not taken into account in calculating the error bounds, the solution space will be overestimated, resulting in relatively larger discrepancies for a larger number of optical coefficients. A method for correcting the bounds, to account for the correlation is developed for various numbers of wavelengths. These improved bounds are then applied, for the case of a monomodal lognormal PSD, with an assumed refractive index, to assess the role additional Raman extinction channels play in improving retrieval capability of a typical three-channel backscatter lidar (1064, 532, and 355 nm) under varying noise levels. Applying the same formalism to underlying bimodal distributions of coarse and fine particles can result in false monomodal solutions. However, when both Raman optical extinction channels are available, no solution is obtained. This can potentially serve as a quick and simple method, prior to a more complex regularization analysis, to differentiate between cases in which the fine mode is dominant versus the cases in which the contribution from the coarse mode is significant.

  17. Evaluating synergy effects of combined close-range and remote sensing techniques for the monitoring of a deep-seated landslide (Schmirn, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas; Pfeiffer, Jan; Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    In the recent past, studies on the monitoring of deep-seated landslides included a multitude of measuring techniques. Direct and indirect methods are applied for displacement measurements at points, along lines or area-wide. In particular close-range and remote sensing has proven to be feasible for the detection of displacements featuring a high accuracy (range of cm to dm) while covering the whole area of interest. However, a combination of supplementing methods is preferable to confirm the observations and to overcome their individual drawbacks and limitations. In the present study, displacements of a deep-seated landslide situated in the Schmirn valley (Tyrol, Austria) are assessed by (i) image correlation of existing orthophoto series, (ii) multi-temporal data acquisitions using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and (iii) repeated measurements with the help of a differential global positioning system (DGPS). The study focusses on evaluating the synergy effects of the tested methods in quantifying the landslide's movement. Limitations concerning their spatial resolution and accuracy are addressed in specific detail. The landslide's activity is likely controlled by hillslope hydrology and its seasonality. Phases of enhanced movement are expected in the course of snowmelt and after exceptional rainfall events. Preliminary results of the image correlation reveal mean annual horizontal displacement rates of 0.75 m (±0.45 m; one standard deviation), which is confirmed by the DGPS measurements. The first results also suggest constant annual displacement rates for the period of 2004 to 2015. Further comparisons with the multi-temporal TLS data will reveal detailed spatial patterns of displacement rates and deepen the understanding of the landslide's kinematics. This research is conducted within the project LEMONADE (http://lemonade.mountainresearch.at) funded by the Euregio Science Fund.

  18. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  19. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  20. Multivariate Analysis, Mass Balance Techniques, and Statistical Tests as Tools in Igneous Petrology: Application to the Sierra de las Cruces Volcanic Range (Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Velasco-Tapia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt. In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward’s linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures.

  1. Highly Conformal Craniospinal Radiotherapy Techniques Can Underdose the Cranial Clinical Target Volume if Leptomeningeal Extension through Skull Base Exit Foramina is not Contoured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, D J; Ajithkumar, T; Lambert, J; Gleeson, I; Williams, M V; Jefferies, S J

    2017-07-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) remains a crucial treatment for patients with medulloblastoma. There is uncertainty about how to manage meningeal surfaces and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that follows cranial nerves exiting skull base foramina. The purpose of this study was to assess plan quality and dose coverage of posterior cranial fossa foramina with both photon and proton therapy. We analysed the radiotherapy plans of seven patients treated with CSI for medulloblastoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours and three with ependymoma (total n = 10). Four had been treated with a field-based technique and six with TomoTherapy™. The internal acoustic meatus (IAM), jugular foramen (JF) and hypoglossal canal (HC) were contoured and added to the original treatment clinical target volume (Plan_CTV) to create a Test_CTV. This was grown to a test planning target volume (Test_PTV) for comparison with a Plan_PTV. Using Plan_CTV and Plan_PTV, proton plans were generated for all 10 cases. The following dosimetry data were recorded: conformity (dice similarity coefficient) and homogeneity index (D2 - D98/D50) as well as median and maximum dose (D2%) to Plan_PTV, V95% and minimum dose (D99.9%) to Plan_CTV and Test_CTV and Plan_PTV and Test_PTV, V95% and minimum dose (D98%) to foramina PTVs. Proton and TomoTherapy™ plans were more conformal (0.87, 0.86) and homogeneous (0.07, 0.04) than field-photon plans (0.79, 0.17). However, field-photon plans covered the IAM, JF and HC PTVs better than proton plans (P = 0.002, 0.004, 0.003, respectively). TomoTherapy™ plans covered the IAM and JF better than proton plans (P = 0.000, 0.002, respectively) but the result for the HC was not significant. Adding foramen CTVs/PTVs made no difference for field plans. The mean Dmin dropped 3.4% from Plan_PTV to Test_PTV for TomoTherapy™ (not significant) and 14.8% for protons (P = 0.001). Highly conformal CSI techniques may underdose meninges and CSF in the dural reflections of

  2. The immediate effects of two manual therapy techniques on ankle musculoarticular stiffness and dorsiflexion range of motion in people with chronic ankle rigidity: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Benjamin; Hall, Toby; Berwart, Mathilde; Biernaux, Elinor; Detrembleur, Christine

    2017-12-29

    Ankle rigidity is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting the talocrural joint, which can impair weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion (WBADF) and daily-life in people with or without history of ankle injuries. Our objective was to compare the immediate effects of efficacy of Mulligan Mobilization with Movement (MWM) and Osteopathic Mobilization (OM) for improving ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) in people with chronic ankle dorsiflexion rigidity. A randomized clinical trial with two arms. Patients were recruited by word of mouth and via social network as well as posters, and analyzed in the neuro musculoskeletal laboratory of the "Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve", Brussels, Belgium. 67 men (aged 18-40 years) presenting with potential chronic non-specific and unilateral ankle mobility deficit during WBDF were assessed for eligibility and finally 40 men were included and randomly allocated to single session of either MWM or OM. Two modalities of manual therapy indicated for hypothetic immediate effects in chronic ankle dorsiflexion stiffness, i.e. MWM and OM, were applied during a single session on included patients. Comprised blinding measures of MAS with a specific electromechanical device (namely: Lehmann's device) producing passive oscillatory ankle joint dorsiflexion and with clinical measures of WBADF-ROM as well. A two-way ANOVA revealed a non-significant interaction between both techniques and time for all outcome measures. For measures of MAS: elastic-stiffness (p= 0.37), viscous-stiffness (p= 0.83), total-stiffness (p= 0.58). For WBADF-ROM: toe-wall distance (p= 0.58) and angular ROM (p= 0.68). Small effect sizes between groups were determined with Cohen's d ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. One-way ANOVA demonstrated non-significant difference and small to moderate effects sizes (d= 0.003-0.58) on all outcome measures before and after interventions within both groups. A second two-way ANOVA analyzed the

  3. Myofascial techniques: What are their effects on joint range of motion and pain? - A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tamsyn R; Rajendran, Dévan

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review aimed to determine the evidence for the effect of a single manually applied myofascial technique (MFT) on joint range of motion (JROM) and pain in non-pathological symptomatic subjects. Authors independently searched the following databases: PEDro; Cochrane Library; NLM PubMed; EMBASE; Academic Search Premier; MEDLINE; Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection; PsycINFO; SPORTSDiscus; CINAHL Plus from 2003 to 2015. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that used JROM as an outcome measure were identified. RCT quality was independently evaluated using PEDro and Cochrane Risk of Bias tools and all reported outcome data were independently abstracted and presented. If post-intervention central tendencies and variance were reported, these were assessed for heterogeneity with a view to performing a meta-analysis. Nine RCTs (n = 534) were systematically reviewed and outcome data presented; all trials concluded that MFT increased JROM and reduced pain levels in symptomatic patients. Two RCTs (n = 161) were judged 'moderately' heterogeneous (I(2) = 47.2%; Cochran's Q = 5.69; p = 0.128, df = 3) and meta-analysis using a fixed effects model suggested a 'moderate' effect size of MFTs on jaw opening (ES = 0.578; 95%CI 0.302 to 0.853). Although results reported by each RCT indicate that MFT increases JROM and reduces pain scores, there are a number of threats that challenge the statistical inferences underpinning these findings. Only two trials could be meta-analysed, the results of which suggest that applying MFTs to symptomatic patients diagnosed with latent trigger-points in masseter muscle can increase jaw JROM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Journal of Agricultural Extension submitted to Agricultural Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    followed by lack of contact with extension agents (71.7%) and gender ... As women typically confront narrower range of labour markets than men, and lower wage ..... gap in accessibility to productive resources between male and female heads ...

  5. Two mass-spectrometric techniques for quantifying serine enantiomers and glycine in cerebrospinal fluid : potential confounders and age-dependent ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Sabine A; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; de Barse, Martina M J; Roeleveld, Martin W; Hendriks, Margriet; Dorland, Lambertus; Klomp, Leo W J; Berger, Ruud; de Koning, Tom J

    BACKGROUND: The recent discovery and specific functions of D-amino acids in humans are bound to lead to the revelation of D-amino acid abnormalities in human disorders. Therefore, high-throughput analysis techniques are warranted to determine D-amino acids in biological fluids in a routine

  6. Telluric and D.C. Resistivity Techniques Applied to the Geophysical Investigation of Basin and Range Geothermal Systems, Part III: The Analysis of Data From Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1977-06-01

    This paper contains a detailed interpretation of E-field ratio telluric, bipole-dipole resistivity mapping, and dipole-dipole resistivity data obtained in the course of geophysical exploration of the Leach Hot Springs area of Grass Valley, Nevada. Several areas are singled out as being worthy of further investigation of their geothermal potential. Comparison of the three electrical exploration techniques indicates that: the bipole-dipole resistivity mapping method is the least useful; the dipole-dipole resistivity method can be very useful, but is, for practical purposes, exceptionally expensive and difficult to interpret; the E-field ratio telluric method can be a highly successful reconnaissance technique for delineating structures and relating the resistivities of different regions within the survey area.

  7. Telluric and D. C. resistivity techniques applied to the geophysical investigation of basin and range geothermal systems. Part III. The analysis of data from Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J.H.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed interpretation is presented of E-field ratio telluric, bipole-dipole resistivity mapping, and dipole-dipole resistivity data obtained in the course of geophysical exploration of the Leach Hot Springs area of Grass Valley, Nevada. Several areas are singled out as being worthy of further investigation of their geothermal potential. Comparison of the three electrical exploration techniques indicates that: the bipole-dipole resistivity mapping method is the least useful; the dipole-dipole resistivity method can be very useful, but is, for practical purposes, exceptionally expensive and difficult to interpret; the E-field ratio telluric method can be a highly successful reconnaissance technique for delineating structures and relating the resistivities of different regions within the survey area.

  8. LONG-TERM CONSERVATION OF PROTOCORMS OF Brassavola nodosa (L) LIND. (ORCHIDACEAE): EFFECT OF ABA AND A RANGE OF CRYOCONSERVATION TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Rosas, M; Lastre-Puertos, E

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Brassavola nodosa have been severely affected by habitat destruction and illegal collecting, and as with the majority of orchid species, it is critical to take action to guarantee their continued survival. The present study aimed to establish protocols for the long-term conservation of protocorms of species. Four different cryogenic techniques were compared: encapsulation-dehydration (ED), encapsulation-vitrification (EV), encapsulation-dehydration-vitrification (EDV) and vitrification. Preculture of protocorms with ABA was a critical factor in obtaining high percentages of regrowth. With vitrification, 100% regrowth was achieved in five treatments, mainly when protocorms were dehydrated with PVS2 for 120 min. 100% regrowth was also obtained with EDV, where the protocorms were precultured with ABA 5 mg/l for 3 days and incubated with PVS2 for 60 min. With the ED, regrowth of 72% was achieved with the preculture of protocorms with ABA 5 mg/l for the three times of incubation used (3, 6 and 9 days). In the case of EV, 92% regrowth, was recorded when protocorms were precultured for 9 days with ABA 3 mg/l and incubated with PVS2 for 90 min. Although regrowth of protocorms was obtained with all the techniques used, the vitrification technique is preferred since it requires less labour and is less costly.

  9. Feasibility of gamma irradiation as a stabilisation technique in the preparation of tissue reference materials for a range of shellfish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Kotterman, Michiel; de Boer, Jacob; Rehmann, Nils; Hess, Philipp

    2007-04-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on concentrations of hydrophilic and lipophilic phycotoxins has been investigated by use of HPLC-UV and LC-MS. Pure toxins in organic solvents and toxins in mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissues were irradiated at three different doses. In solution all toxin concentrations were reduced to some extent. Most severe decreases were observed for domoic acid and yessotoxin, for which the smallest dose of irradiation led to almost complete destruction. For pectenotoxin-2 the decrease in concentration was less severe but still continuous with increasing dose. Azaspiracid-1 and okadaic acid were the least affected in solution. In shellfish tissue the decrease in toxin concentrations was much reduced compared with the effect in solution. After irradiation at the highest dose reductions in concentrations were between ca. 5 and 20% for the lipophilic toxins and there was no statistical difference between control and irradiated samples for azaspiracids in tissue. Irradiation of shellfish tissues contaminated with domoic acid led to a more continuous decrease in the amount of the toxin with increasing dose. The effect of irradiation on the viability of microbial activity in shellfish tissues was assessed by using total viable counting techniques. Microbial activity depended on the type of shellfish and on the pretreatment of the shellfish tissues (with or without heat treatment). As far as we are aware this is the first investigation of the effectiveness of irradiation as a technique for stabilising tissue reference materials for determination of phycotoxins. Our results suggest that this technique is not effective for materials containing domoic acid. It does, however, merit further investigation as a stabilisation procedure for preparation of shellfish tissue materials for some lipophilic toxins, in particular azaspiracids. Chemical structures of the toxins investigated in the study.

  10. Note: Vectorial-magneto optical Kerr effect technique combined with variable temperature and full angular range all in a single setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuñado, Jose Luis F.; Pedrosa, Javier; Ajejas, Fernando; Bollero, Alberto; Perna, Paolo; Teran, Francisco J.; Miranda, Rodolfo; Camarero, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report on a versatile full angular resolved/broad temperature range/vectorial magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometer, named TRISTAN. Its versatility relies on its capacity to probe temperature and angular dependencies of magnetization reversal processes without the need to do any intervention on the apparatus during measurements. The setup is a combination of a vectorial MOKE bench and a cryostat with optical access. The cryostat has a motorized rotatable sample holder with azimuthal correction. It allows for simultaneous and quantitative acquisition of the two in-plane magnetization components during the hysteresis loop at different temperatures from 4 K up to 500 K and in the whole angular range, without neither changing magnet orientation nor opening the cryostat. Measurements performed in a model system with competing collinear biaxial and uniaxial contributions are presented to illustrate its capabilities.

  11. Note: Vectorial-magneto optical Kerr effect technique combined with variable temperature and full angular range all in a single setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuñado, Jose Luis F; Pedrosa, Javier; Ajejas, Fernando; Bollero, Alberto; Perna, Paolo; Teran, Francisco J; Miranda, Rodolfo; Camarero, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report on a versatile full angular resolved/broad temperature range/vectorial magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometer, named TRISTAN. Its versatility relies on its capacity to probe temperature and angular dependencies of magnetization reversal processes without the need to do any intervention on the apparatus during measurements. The setup is a combination of a vectorial MOKE bench and a cryostat with optical access. The cryostat has a motorized rotatable sample holder with azimuthal correction. It allows for simultaneous and quantitative acquisition of the two in-plane magnetization components during the hysteresis loop at different temperatures from 4 K up to 500 K and in the whole angular range, without neither changing magnet orientation nor opening the cryostat. Measurements performed in a model system with competing collinear biaxial and uniaxial contributions are presented to illustrate its capabilities.

  12. Seeded free-electron and inverse free-electron laser techniques for radiation amplification and electron microbunching in the terahertz range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sung

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis is presented that describes amplification of a seed THz pulse in a single-pass free-electron laser (FEL driven by a photoinjector. The dynamics of the radiation pulse and the modulated electron beam are modeled using the time-dependent FEL code, GENESIS 1.3. A 10-ps (FWHM electron beam with a peak current of 50–100 A allows amplification of a ∼1  kW seed pulse in the frequency range 0.5–3 THz up to 10–100 MW power in a relatively compact 2-m long planar undulator. The electron beam driving the FEL is strongly modulated, with some inhomogeneity due to the slippage effect. It is shown that THz microbunching of the electron beam is homogeneous over the entire electron pulse when saturated FEL amplification is utilized at the very entrance of an undulator. This requires seeding of a 30-cm long undulator buncher with a 1–3 MW of pump power with radiation at the resonant frequency. A narrow-band seed pulse in the THz range needed for these experiments can be generated by frequency mixing of CO_{2} laser lines in a GaAs nonlinear crystal. Two schemes for producing MW power pulses in seeded FELs are considered in some detail for the beam parameters achievable at the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA: the first uses a waveguide to transport radiation in the 0.5–3 THz range through a 2-m long FEL amplifier and the second employs high-gain third harmonic generation using the FEL process at 3–9 THz.

  13. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  14. Exact tensor hypercontraction: a universal technique for the resolution of matrix elements of local finite-range N-body potentials in many-body quantum problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Robert M; Hohenstein, Edward G; Schunck, Nicolas F; Sherrill, C David; Martínez, Todd J

    2013-09-27

    Configuration-space matrix elements of N-body potentials arise naturally and ubiquitously in the Ritz-Galerkin solution of many-body quantum problems. For the common specialization of local, finite-range potentials, we develop the exact tensor hypercontraction method, which provides a quantized renormalization of the coordinate-space form of the N-body potential, allowing for a highly separable tensor factorization of the configuration-space matrix elements. This representation allows for substantial computational savings in chemical, atomic, and nuclear physics simulations, particularly with respect to difficult "exchangelike" contractions.

  15. Automated dual-exposure technique to extend the dynamic range of flat-panel detectors used in small-animal cone-beam micro-CT

    OpenAIRE

    Sisniega, Alejandro; Vaquero, Juan José; Abella García, Mónica; Vidal-Migallón, I.; Lage, Eduardo; Desco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Proceeding: 2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (NSS/MIC), Orlando, Florida, 25-31 October 2009 This work presents an approach to extend the dynamic range of X ray flat panel detectors for cone beam micro CT by using two different acquisitions of the same sample, taken at two different X ray photon fluxes with the same X ray beam peak energy and filtration. Photon flux for the first scan is chosen as the maximum possible value not saturating the detector in the low att...

  16. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC where conditions are suitable for its development.Después de varios viajes de exploración a los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas en la sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, se registró la presencia del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas y Bright, 1970 en 2 localidades en el Municipio de Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Estos nuevos registros amplían el área de distribución del descortezador 250 km hacia el sur de la SMOC, a partir del punto más sureño registrado en el estado de Durango. Asimismo, estos registros indican que esta especie puede estar presente en prácticamente cualquier área de la SMOC que reúna las condiciones adecuadas para su desarrollo.

  18. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds agricultural extension theory and contributes to the practice of extension worldwide. Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the ...

  19. Proposal and verification numerical simulation for a microwave forward scattering technique at upper hybrid resonance for the measurement of electron gyroscale density fluctuations in the electron cyclotron frequency range in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, E.; Igami, H.

    2017-11-01

    A diagnostic technique for detecting the wave numbers of electron density fluctuations at electron gyro-scales in an electron cyclotron frequency range is proposed, and the validity of the idea is checked by means of a particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulation. The technique is a modified version of the scattering technique invented by Novik et al. [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, 357-381 (1994)] and Gusakov et al., [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, 899-912 (1999)]. The novel method adopts forward scattering of injected extraordinary probe waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer instead of the backward-scattering adopted by the original method, enabling the measurement of the wave-numbers of the fine scale density fluctuations in the electron-cyclotron frequency band by means of phase measurement of the scattered waves. The verification numerical simulation with the PIC method shows that the technique has a potential to be applicable to the detection of electron gyro-scale fluctuations in laboratory plasmas if the upper-hybrid resonance layer is accessible to the probe wave. The technique is a suitable means to detect electron Bernstein waves excited via linear mode conversion from electromagnetic waves in torus plasma experiments. Through the numerical simulations, some problems that remain to be resolved are revealed, which include the influence of nonlinear processes such as the parametric decay instability of the probe wave in the scattering process, and so on.

  20. Extension of the analytical window for characterizing aromatic compounds in oils using a comprehensive suite of high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques and double bond equivalence versus carbon number plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Birdwell, Justin E.; Hur, Manhoi; Lee, Joonhee; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) were used to study the aromatic fractions of crude oil and oil shale pyrolysates (shale oils). The collected data were compared and combined in the double bond equivalence (DBE) versus carbon number plot to obtain a more complete understanding of the composition of the oil fractions. The numbers of peaks observed by each technique followed the order 2D GC–MS carbon number distributions of the 2D GC–MS and Orbitrap MS data were similar for crude oil aromatics. The FT-ICR MS plots of DBE and carbon number showed an extended range of higher values relative to the other methods. For the aromatic fraction of an oil shale pyrolysate generated by the Fischer assay, only a few nitrogen-containing compounds were observed by 2D GC–MS but a large number of these compounds were detected by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS. This comparison clearly shows that the data obtained from these three techniques can be combined to more completely characterize oil composition. The data obtained by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS agreed well with one another, and the combined DBE versus carbon number plot provided more complete coverage of compounds present in the fractions. In addition, the chemical structure information provided by 2D GC–MS could be matched with the chemical formulas in the DBE versus carbon number plots, providing information not available in ultrahigh-resolution MS results. It was therefore concluded that the combination of 2D GC–MS, Orbitrap MS, and FT-ICR MS in the DBE versus carbon number space facilitates structural assignment of heavy oil components.

  1. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  2. Birds of Somalia: new records, range extensions and observations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange River Francolin Scleroptila levaillantoides lorti. These rare francolins were recorded on two consecutive days (22–23 May) near Daalo. (13a). This taxon is confined to Somaliland and adjacent northeast Ethiopia (Ash &. Atkins 2009). Yellow-necked Spurfowl Pternistis leucoscepus. A few were seen in the Qorulugad ...

  3. Range extension of Pardosa lapidicina emerton (Araneida: Lycosidae) to Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabholz, J.V.; Reynolds, L.J.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Collections of the spider, Pardosa lapidicina, were made at four granite or gneiss rock outcrops in north-central Georgia. The absence of this spider in the adjacent woodland demonstrated a strong preference for the rock outcrop habitat by this species. Measurement of population density was difficult because of the behavior of this species. They can withstand the heat of the sun for a short time only and frequently get under stones for shade. (HLW)

  4. Notes on Angolan birds: new country records, range extensions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mis-identified species, or species for which Angolan records are doubtful, are listed together with reasons why each of the species is unlikely to occur in the country. Several taxonomic issues around some of the Angolan near-endemic bird species are highlighted, together with some discussion on potential species splits.

  5. Maximum Interconnectedness and Availability for Directional Airborne Range Extension Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    affecting the design and management of the network topology [2][3]. In particular, such blockages can cause significant periods of unavailability of the...a standard definition in graph theoretic and networking literature that is related to, but different from, the metric we consider. August 29, 2016...of their flightpaths are assumed to be small compared to the distance between the aircraft. A representative node layout is illustrated in Fig. 5

  6. Range extension of Halophila stipulacea (Hydrocharitaceae) in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Halophila stipulacea (Forsk.) Aschers. is a sea-grass which is widely distributed along the coasts of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. In 1895 Fritsch (Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 45, 1895, p. 104) recorded the species from the Island of Rhodos in the Aegean Sea. This was the first record of

  7. Extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Boyer, J.C.; Corlier, M. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The CLIO FEL has been designed to lase between 2 and 20 {mu}m. The electrons are produced by a 32/50 MeV RF linear accelerator. The injector is a 100 keV thermoionic gun, followed by a subharmonic prebuncher at 0.5 GHz and a buncher at 3 GHz. The electron beam is then accelerated in a 4.5 m long travelling wave accelerating section, to the nominal energy. The undulator consisted of 48 periods of 40 mm and the optical cavity is 4.8 m long which corresponds to a 1.2 m Rayleigh length. The peak power extracted by a ZnSe Brewster plate is 10 MW at 10 {mu}. But, beyond 11{mu}m, the laser power decreases rapidely and no laser oscillation appears above 17 {mu}m. In order to lase at farther wavelengths, few changes have been made: First of all, the power limit is due to the diffraction losses of the undulator vaccuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Numerical calculations have been made and show that cavity losses reach 55 % at 15 {mu}m whereas the measured gain is 60 %. Consequently, the undulator vaccuum chamber have been replaced by a approximately twice bigger one. Then, the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter K is reduced by a factor 2: laser tunability is greatly reduced. This why a new undulator has been built. The main characteristics are summarized.

  8. Range extension of the White-headed Buffalo Weaver Dinemellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    40°49'E; elevation 625 m) at a site dominated by dry bush habitats, and fairly heav- ily grazed by livestock. Five birds, all in adult plumage, were seen well and photo- graphed at 16:00 on 20 January 2015. They were feeding on the ground and perching briefly; no breeding-related behaviours were noted, and the birds were ...

  9. Confirmed range extension of the White-billed Buffalo Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tirely black with few white patches (males) or brownish (females) plumage, the Red- ... searching for food near the visitor centre at Naabi Hill Gate (02°49'56” S, 34°59'54” E,. 1729 m; Plate 1). ... Field guide of the birds of East Africa. Kenya ...

  10. Confirmed range extension of the White-billed Buffalo Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ern Africa from southern Ethiopia to central Tanzania (race intermedius), and from western Angola to southwest Mozambique ... or vagrant records. This is referred to as the first record for Tanzania, obtained exactly in the same location on. 2 March 2005. At the time it was considered an odd record of a bird well outside its ...

  11. Range extension of Myotis midastactus​ (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) to Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idárraga, Liu; Wilson, Don Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis midastactus Moratelli and Wilson, 2014 (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was described from the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 complex based on collections from the Bolivian Savannah. New information Four vouchers previously assigned to M. simus from the Alto Chaco in Paraguay (West of the Paraguay River) are reassigned here to M. midastactus. These specimens extend the geographic distribution of M. midastactus 1200 km southward, and constitute the first evidence of the species in the country. Based on other material from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado, Central Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina, we also discuss the identity of simus-like populations south of the Amazon Basin. The status of these populations is still unclear, but the little evidence we have at hand indicates that these populations may represent another taxon—M. guaycuru Proença, 1943; whereas M. simus seems to be restricted to the Amazon basin. This hypothesis is still very speculative and requires further investigation. With the assignment of material from Alto Chaco to M. midastactus, seven species of Myotis are confirmed for Paraguay: M. albescens, M. lavali, M. levis, M. midastactus, M. nigricans, M. riparius, and M. ruber. PMID:26379462

  12. Range extension of the White-headed Buffalo Weaver Dinemellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    browner (rather than deep black) tones in the mantle feathers and more substantial white margins to the scapulars, tertials and greater coverts (del Hoyo et al. ... eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. (Accessed: 11 March ...

  13. Job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation dissemination to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 44 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 6 personal characteristics, 23 management ...

  14. Validation of multiple diagnostic techniques to detect Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in free-ranging western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and observations on the prevalence of these protozoan infections in two populations in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijll Langhout, Martine; Reed, Patricia; Fox, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Anthropozoonotic diseases threaten the survival of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Use of accurate diagnostic techniques in gorilla health monitoring contributes to the conservation of gorillas by providing robust information for appropriate management decisions. To identify suitable protozoa diagnostic techniques for wild gorillas, 95 fecal specimens were collected in Lopé National Park and east of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park in Gabon, areas with high and low levels of human activity, respectively. The samples were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. by using the following diagnostic techniques: a commercially available immunofluorescent antibody test kit, Merifluor, and a rapid immune-assay, ImmunoCard STAT!, to detect Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp., and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain to detect Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The results obtained from the Merifluor test, considered the "gold standard" in human studies, were used to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in Lopé National Park (19.0% and 22.6%, respectively) and east of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (0% and 9.1%, respectively). The difference in prevalence in both areas may be associated with differing levels of anthropogenic disturbance. The sensitivity and specificity of the latter two diagnostic techniques were calculated by using the Merifluor test as a control. The ImmunoCard STAT! was found suitable for Giardia sp. antigen detection (specific but not sensitive) and inappropriate for Cryptosporidium sp. antigen detection (not specific or sensitive). The modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain was found to be highly specific but not sensitive in the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. These results underline the necessity of using ancillary tests and concentration methods to correctly identify positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in free-ranging western lowland gorillas

  15. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  16. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) with respect to initial clinical findings, methods of surgery, and perioperative treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective follow-up study. Setting: All hospitals in Jutland. Sample: 163 women diagnosed with AGCT. Methods: Follo...... with similar survival compared to extensive surgery, but with advancing age conservative surgery increased the risk of relapse and death....

  17. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  18. Priorities for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  19. University Extension Before 1915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Lowell R.

    1976-01-01

    The author traces university extension from its elite English roots to evolving forces toward democratization of educational opportunities and the simultaneous emergence of similar American programs such as library-related night schools, the Lyceum movement, Chataqua, the Philadelphia Society for Extension of University Teaching, and the…

  20. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) Derived Deformation from the MW 6.0 24 August, 2014 South Napa Earthquake Estimated by Two and Three Dimensional Point Cloud Change Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyda, A. W.; Zhang, X.; Glennie, C. L.; Hudnut, K.; Brooks, B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing via LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) has proven extremely useful in both Earth science and hazard related studies. Surveys taken before and after an earthquake for example, can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of land deformation that offer better spatial coverage of the near field rupture zone than other geodetic methods (e.g., InSAR, GNSS, or alignment array). In this study, we compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from different pre and post-event airborne laser scanning (ALS) data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection algorithms, Iterative Control Point (ICP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The ICP algorithm is a closest point based registration algorithm that can iteratively acquire three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. By employing a newly proposed partition scheme, "moving window," to handle the large spatial scale point cloud over the earthquake rupture area, the ICP process applies a rigid registration of data sets within an overlapped window to enhance the change detection results of the local, spatially varying surface deformation near-fault. The other algorithm, PIV, is a well-established, two dimensional image co-registration and correlation technique developed in fluid mechanics research and later applied to geotechnical studies. Adapted here for an earthquake with little vertical movement, the 3D point cloud is interpolated into a 2D DTM image and horizontal deformation is determined by assessing the cross-correlation of interrogation areas within the images to find the most likely deformation between two areas. Both the PIV process and the ICP algorithm are further benefited by a presented, novel use of urban geodetic markers. Analogous to the persistent scatterer technique employed with differential radar observations, this new LiDAR application exploits a classified point cloud dataset to assist the change detection algorithms. Ground

  1. AIRBORNE LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LIDAR DERIVED DEFORMATION FROM THE MW 6.0 24 AUGUST, 2014 SOUTH NAPA EARTHQUAKE ESTIMATED BY TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD CHANGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Lyda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing via LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging has proven extremely useful in both Earth science and hazard related studies. Surveys taken before and after an earthquake for example, can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of land deformation that offer better spatial coverage of the near field rupture zone than other geodetic methods (e.g., InSAR, GNSS, or alignment array. In this study, we compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from different pre and post-event airborne laser scanning (ALS data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection algorithms, Iterative Control Point (ICP and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The ICP algorithm is a closest point based registration algorithm that can iteratively acquire three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. By employing a newly proposed partition scheme, “moving window,” to handle the large spatial scale point cloud over the earthquake rupture area, the ICP process applies a rigid registration of data sets within an overlapped window to enhance the change detection results of the local, spatially varying surface deformation near-fault. The other algorithm, PIV, is a well-established, two dimensional image co-registration and correlation technique developed in fluid mechanics research and later applied to geotechnical studies. Adapted here for an earthquake with little vertical movement, the 3D point cloud is interpolated into a 2D DTM image and horizontal deformation is determined by assessing the cross-correlation of interrogation areas within the images to find the most likely deformation between two areas. Both the PIV process and the ICP algorithm are further benefited by a presented, novel use of urban geodetic markers. Analogous to the persistent scatterer technique employed with differential radar observations, this new LiDAR application exploits a classified point cloud dataset to assist the change detection

  2. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  3. Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari

    2009-01-01

    This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...

  4. Timed Extensions for SDL

    OpenAIRE

    Bozga, Marius; Graf, Susanne; Mounier, Laurent; Ober, Iulian; Roux, Jean-Luc; Vincent, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose some extensions necessary to enable the specification and description language SDL to become an appropriate formalism for the design of real-time and embedded systems. The extensions we envisage concern both roles of SDL: First, in order to make SDL a real-time specification language, allowing to correctly simulate and verify real-time specifications, we propose a set of annotations to express in a flexible way assumptions and assertions on tim...

  5. Gamut extension for cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, Syed Waqas,; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of dis...

  6. Confiabilidade intra-avaliador da medida de amplitude de movimento da flexão e extensão do joelho pelo método de fotogrametria Intra-rater reliability of knee flexion and extension range of motion measurement through the photogrammetry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Peixoto César

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de existirem diversos métodos para a determinação da amplitude de movimento (ADM, a baixa confiabilidade, a pouca sensibilidade, a subjetividade ou a ausência de valores do erro típico da medida (ETM de alguns desses métodos comprometem a interpretação adequada dos resultados. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a confiabilidade intra-avaliador da medida e do método de fotogrametria para a ADM de extensão ativa e flexão passiva do joelho (FPJ, realizada no mesmo dia (consistência interna e em dias diferentes (estabilidade. Participaram 18 sujeitos do sexo masculino (24,5±3,7 anos, 79,3±10,1 kg e 174,8±4,2 cm. Após a marcação dos pontos anatômicos de referência, a angulação dos movimentos foi registrada em fotografia, por meio da ferramenta de dimensão angular no software CorelDRAW®. A confiabilidade da medida e do instrumento foi estabelecida pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI e pelo cálculo do ETM. A distribuição dos erros dos dados foi verificada pela representação gráfica de Bland e Altman. O método apresentou confiabilidade perfeita (ETM=0,01 e CCI=1,0 para ambos os movimentos. Para a confiabilidade da medida, foram encontrados os valores 0,97 e 0,93 para consistência interna e 0,96 e 0,83 para estabilidade (ETM=2,9 e 4,0%; pAlthough there are several methods for determining the range of motion (ROM, low reliability, low sensitivity, subjectivity or lack of information related to the typical error of measurement (TEM may compromise interpretation of testing results. The aim of this study was to test the intra-rater reliability of the ROM measurement and the photogrammetry method for same day (internal consistency and between days (stability for knee active extension and passive flexion. Eighteen active male volunteers (24.5±3.7 years, 79.3±10.1 kg and 174.8±4.2 cm were selected to participate in the study. After identification of anatomical landmarks used for reference, knee passive

  7. Farmers and Extension Personnel View of Constraints to Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined farmers' and extension personnel's View of constraints to effectiveness of agricultural extension services in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 farmers and 20 extension personnel. Data subjected to descriptive and correlation analyses were collected using ...

  8. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  9. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  10. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  11. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  12. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  13. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  14. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  15. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  16. Stress: Professional Development Needs of Extension Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nick T.; Jacob, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 314 of 422 extension faculty showed a variety of levels of job stress, primarily from time pressures and overcommitment. Those who used formal planning and time management techniques had lower stress scores. Time with family was a common coping mechanism. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  17. Measuring Florida Extension Faculty's Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The demand for sustainable agriculture has increased, and many institutions, including the University of Florida, have adopted agricultural sustainability as a major goal. Extension has been identified as a critical information source, important in disseminating sustainable agricultural growing techniques. However, research has demonstrated that…

  18. FISHERIES EXTENSION SERVICES IN OGUN STATE | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts to assess the current trends, impact and constraints of fisheries extension services to artisanal fishers in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State. The survey approach was used to generate the needed data using 120 structured questionnaires. Simple statistical techniques such as means ...

  19. Gamut Extension for Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Syed Waqas; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmio, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma, and saturation. User studies performed using a digital cinema projector under cinematic (low ambient light, large screen) conditions show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state of the art, producing gamut extended images that are perceptually more faithful to the wide-gamut ground truth, as well as free of color artifacts and hue shifts. We also show how currently available image quality metrics, when applied to the GE problem, provide results that do not correlate with users' choices.

  20. Bandwidth extension of speech using perceptual criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Berisha, Visar; Liss, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth extension of speech is used in the International Telecommunication Union G.729.1 standard in which the narrowband bitstream is combined with quantized high-band parameters. Although this system produces high-quality wideband speech, the additional bits used to represent the high band can be further reduced. In addition to the algorithm used in the G.729.1 standard, bandwidth extension methods based on spectrum prediction have also been proposed. Although these algorithms do not require additional bits, they perform poorly when the correlation between the low and the high band is weak. In this book, two wideband speech coding algorithms that rely on bandwidth extension are developed. The algorithms operate as wrappers around existing narrowband compression schemes. More specifically, in these algorithms, the low band is encoded using an existing toll-quality narrowband system, whereas the high band is generated using the proposed extension techniques. The first method relies only on transmitted high-...

  1. attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISAAC E. ILEVBAOJE. ABSTRACT. This study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of extension workers to the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is on course in Nigeria. Results obtained indicate that about 10. 8, 65.8 and 23.3% of the extension ...

  2. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  3. Open Extension Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Бабич

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results which describe the properties of such general topological construction as open extension topology. In particular, we prove that this topology is not transitive. We find the base of the least cardinality for the topology and local one for the neighborhood system of every point. We calculate the interior, the closure, and the sets of isolated and limit points of any set. Also we prove that this space is path connected and is not metrizable, and investigate its cardinal invariants and separation axioms.

  4. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  5. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor and free range rearing systems. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study involves the analysis of the chemical composition of white meat (breast muscles) and dark meat (leg muscles) of broilers in extensive indoor and free range systems.

  6. Axial Extension (Posture Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this helps: It lengthens your spine, which improves posture, and increases comfort, mobility and range of motion. Many of us have a forward head posture. We get this from the type of recreation ...

  7. Rural Development And Agricultural Extension Administration In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed the wide range of policies and approaches formulated and implemented to effect agricultural and rural development in Nigeria. The paper reveals that the common feature of all the strategies is the use of institutionalized agricultural extension service, devoted principally to augment smallholder ...

  8. Caractérisation de quelques stabilisants naturels de l'émulsion d'eau dans le pétrole brut, grace à l'extension de la technique de "moussage" au système liquide-liquide eau-huile Characterising Several Natural Stabilizants of Water Emulsion in Crude Oil by Extending the "Foaming" Technique to Oil/Water Liquid-Liquid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste J. -F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'extension de la technique, de " moussage "au système liquide-liquide eau-pétrole brut a permis d'augmenter la concentration d'une fraction du pétrole en acides naphténiques, amines, asphaltènes et porphyrines, grâce à l'accroissement de l'aire de l'interface entre les deux phases non miscibles. Ces espèces chimiques présentes à l'interface favorisent la formation des films entre les gouttelettes de phase aqueuse dispersée. Elles sont à l'origine de la stabilité de I'émulsion d'eau dans le pétrole. The " foaming " technique was extended to a water/crude-oil liquid-liquid system so as to increase the concentration of naphthenic acids, amines, asphaltenes and porphyrins in an oil fraction by enlarging the interface orea between the two immiscible phases. The presence of these chemical species at the interface promotes the formation of films between the dispersed aqueuss-phase droplets. They are at the origin of the stability of a water in oil emulsion.

  9. Attitude Of Extension Personnel To Training And Visit Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to make the attitudes of extension workers more affirmative, the paper recommended, inter alia, staff motivation, minimizing political and administrative interference in staff work and a reasonable reduction in the work load of extension staff. Key words: attitude, extension personnel, training and visit. Journal of ...

  10. [Laryngeal registers as shown in the voice range profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubeau, Bernard; Castellengo, Michèle; Bodin, Patricia; Ragot, Maryse

    2004-01-01

    Voice range profile (VRP) is a well-known vocal test. Usually, it consists of a single diagram based on the whole voice range. When practised separately in each individual laryngeal mechanism, VRP may offer much information on both the relative development of the different mechanisms used by the subject and the extension of the common area between two consecutive mechanisms. We present the results obtained from 42 subjects of both sexes who have different singing technique levels: professional singers, student and amateur singers, as well as subjects without any experience in singing. For each mechanism, the global VRP area and the dynamic range were computed. Results are discussed in relation to sex category and vocal training of subjects. Exploring systematically VRP for each mechanism gives new and valuable information on register managing in singing practice.

  11. Electrical power transmission and distribution aging and life extension techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Bella H

    2012-01-01

    ""The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ...

  12. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  13. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  14. Gender analysis of use of participatory tools among extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 120 extension workers out of 227 ... discussion, venn diagram, seasonal calendar, SWOT analysis, semistructured interview, ...

  15. [THE EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF THE KINESIOLOGY TAPING TECHNIQUE FOR MUSCLE RANGE OF MOTION OF THE LUMBAR SPINE, AND THE SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTION OF PAIN INTENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH BACK PAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczyński, Wojciech; Lubkowska, Anna; Dobek, Aleksandra; Andryszczyk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In an era of ubiquitous computing, a considerable part of the population, regardless of age group, spend more time in a sitting position. Long-term, static loading of the spine increases muscle tension, leading to the occurrence of pain. Physiotherapy is recommended as primary and secondary prevention of spinal pain symptoms. The Kinesiology Taping Method is one of the many special methods of physiotherapy which is used during the episodes of back pain in the lumbosacral region. This method consists in sticking on a special tape, which is made of stretch cotton similar to human skin, using a variety of techniques for patch application. The present study evaluated the effect of the application of the Kinesiology Taping technique for muscle mobility in the lumbar spine and the subjective perception of pain intensity. The study group consisted of 100 patients (89 women and 11 men) who experienced pain in the lumbar spine. To assess the mobility of the lumbar spine the Schober test was used. The subjective sensation of pain was assessed using the VAS (visual analogue scale). Measurements were taken four times: before gluing applications, immediately after taping, 7 days after application of the patch, and immediately after its removal. In response to the use of therapy, an increase of mobility of the lumbar spine in flexion front and back, and reduced pain was shown. Application of the muscle kinesiology taping technique is an effective method in reducing pain and increasing mobility of the lumbar spine.

  16. Trends and Challenges in Nigerian Extension Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombe, Sani Yakubu; Bin Suandi, Turiman; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Omar, Zohara

    2016-01-01

    Research in extension education is a serious and challenging task facing Nigeria today because of new trends that keeps on emerging continuously. This paper seeks to examine some of the common research techniques used in extension education and describe their applicability and workability in helping people to help themselves. Most of the…

  17. Assessment of veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...

  18. Motivational needs assessment of extension agents of Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the motivational needs of extension agents of Abia Agricultural Development Project. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select a total of 128 extension agents (EAs) from the State. Data on the effects of various needs/motivational theories (as Maslows' needs hierarchy theory, ...

  19. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  20. TEMPORAL PATTERN OF KINESIOLOGY TAPE EFFICACY ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, a potential modifiable risk factor for injury, over time. The epidemiology and etiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility over a five day period. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 20.0 ± 1.55 years; height 179.3 ± 4.94 cm; mass 76.9 ± 7.57 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1min, + 30mins, + 3days and +5days days after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. Hamstring ROM with KT application at +3days was significantly greater than baseline (129.18 ± 15.46%, p = 0.01), SS (106.99 ± 9.84%, p = 0.03) and PNF (107.42 ± 136.13%, p = 0.03) interventions. The temporal pattern of changes in ROM for SS and PNF were best modelled by a negative linear function, although the strength of the correlation was weak in each case. In contrast, the KT data was optimised using a quadratic polynomial function (r(2) = 0.60), which yielded an optimum time of 2.76 days, eliciting a predicted ROM of 129.6% relative to baseline. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. SS was best suited to immediate improvements, and PNF to +30 minutes in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a longer duration, peaking at 2.76 days. These findings have implications for the

  1. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB

    1996-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  2. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  3. On the validity range of piston theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available as the analytical validity range for linear piston theory as based in potential flows. The range of validity of single-term nonlinear extensions to the linear potential equation into the transonic and hypersonic regions is treated. A brief review of the development...

  4. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  5. attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is ... at 5 percent level of probability, the mean score for the project headquarters staff (106.25) was highest while ... which offered them the opportunity to use their knowledge and skills. Asiabiaka (1991) studied women ...

  6. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  7. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  8. Steady-State Equilibrium Phase Inversion Recovery ON-resonant Water Suppression (IRON) Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Conjunction with Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles. A Robust Technique for Imaging within a Wide Range of Contrast Agent Dosages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Stuber, Matthias; Arend, Ingolf; Thomas, Moritz; Yu, Jing; Hilbel, Thomas; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the ability of inversion recovery ON-resonant water suppression (IRON) in conjunction with P904 (superparamagnetic nanoparticles which consisting of a maghemite core coated with a low-molecular-weight amino-alcohol derivative of glucose) to perform steady-state equilibrium phase magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) over a wide dose range. Materials and Methods Experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. Rabbits (n=12) were imaged at baseline and serially after the administration of 10 incremental dosages of 0.57–5.7 mgFe/Kg P904. Conventional T1-weighted and IRON MRA were obtained on a clinical 1.5-T scanner to image the thoracic and abdominal aorta, and peripheral vessels. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and vessel sharpness were quantified. Results Using IRON MRA, CNR and vessel sharpness progressively increased with incremental dosages of the contrast agent P904, exhibiting constantly higher contrast values than T1-weighted MRA over a very wide range of contrast agent doses (CNR of 18.8±5.6 for IRON versus 11.1±2.8 for T1-weighted MRA at 1.71 mgFe/kg, p=0.02 and 19.8±5.9 for IRON versus −0.8±1.4 for T1-weighted MRA at 3.99 mgFe/kg, p=0.0002). Similar results were obtained for vessel sharpness in peripheral vessels, (Vessel sharpness of 46.76±6.48% for IRON versus 33.20±3.53% for T1-weighted MRA at 1.71 mgFe/Kg, p=0.002, and of 48.66±5.50% for IRON versus 19.00±7.41% for T1-weighted MRA at 3.99 mgFe/Kg, p=0.003). Conclusion Our study suggests that quantitative CNR and vessel sharpness after the injection of P904 are consistently higher for IRON MRA when compared to conventional T1-weighted MRA. These findings apply for a wide range of contrast agent dosages. PMID:23418107

  9. University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…

  10. Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

  11. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  12. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  13. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  14. Fuzzy extended preferences: fuzzified extension

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with decision-making problems where a fuzzy preference relation with no unfuzzy nondominated alternatives has been defined. While in the first part randomized extension was considered in order to get a solution, in this second part an aggregative approach to fuzzified extension will be developed.

  15. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  16. Research-extension-farmer linkages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    charged with the role of articulating the most appropriate research and extension systems for Uganda. Following the recommendations of these working groups, national agricultural research and extension strategies and plans were adopted ..... meetings at institutes have been taking place regularly since 1994. These take ...

  17. Homomorphisms between C∗ -algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -algebra extensions. CHANGGUO WEI. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266071, ... into the other in general, so we have to consider properties of extension homomorphisms before studying the ..... Theory (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, N.S., 1973) Lecture Notes in Math. (Berlin: Springer).

  18. EXTENSION WORKERS' OPINIONS REGARDING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine extension worker's opinions regarding the influence of the National Maize Competition (NAMCOM) on the farmers' agricultural practices and experiences in the Manzini region. A census population of front-line extension workers in charge of the participating areas in ...

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. Ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty—Medial stabilizing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Matsuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ligament balancing is one of the most important surgical techniques for successful total knee arthroplasty. It has traditionally been recommended that medial and lateral as well as flexion and extension gaps are equal. This article reviews the relevant literature and discusses the clinical importance of the aforementioned gaps. Current evidence indicates that achieving medial stability throughout the range of motion should be a high priority in ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty. Finally, the medial stabilising surgical technique, which aims to achieve good medial stability in posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, is introduced.

  1. Extensions of the Poincare group

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Savvidy, George

    2011-01-01

    We construct an extension of the Poincare group which involves a mixture of internal and space-time supersymmetries. The resulting group is an extension of the superPoincare group with infinitely many generators which carry internal and space-time indices. It is a closed algebra since all Jacobi identities are satisfied and it has therefore explicit matrix representations. We investigate the massless case and construct the irreducible representations of the extended symmetry. They are divided into two sets, longitudinal and transversal representations. The transversal representations involve an infinite series of integer and half-integer helicities. Finally we suggest an extension of the conformal group along the same line.

  2. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  3. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments & Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments & Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ( ...

  6. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  7. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2017-10-09

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2) angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy-five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size: +0.67, time to operation: +0.60). When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint, the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is -3.67° and +4.54° (DIP joint fixation angles of angle (30°, 30°-40°, >40

  8. Temporal efficacy of kinesiology tape vs. Traditional stretching methods on hamstring extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and aetiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, with potential implications for injury prevention. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 21.0 ± 0.1 years; height 180 ± 6 cm; mass 79.4 ± 6.9 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions of equal time duration were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1, +10 and +30 mins after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension (AKE) was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. With baseline scores not statistically different between groups, and baseline AKE set at 100%, PNF showed a significant improvement immediately post-intervention (PNF+1 = 107.7 ± 8.2%, p = .01). Thereafter, only KT showed significant improvements in active knee extension (KT+10 = 106.0 ± 7.1%, p = .05; KT+30 = 106.9 ± 5.0%, p = .02). The temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension after intervention was best modelled as a positive quadratic for KT, with a predicted peak of 108.8% baseline score achieved at 24.2 mins. SS was best modelled as a negative linear function, and PNF as a negative logarithmic function, reflecting a rapid decrease in active knee extension after an immediate positive effect. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. PNF was best suited to affect immediate improvements in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a

  9. Horizontal Brand Extension and Customer perception

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khalid; Janthimapornkij, Rattanawilai

    2011-01-01

    Company use different method for extended their business to different market and to different segment. They use different method; brand extension is one of popular strategy for extension of business. Brand extension does not become successful for every brand, it is very risky. The purpose of this thesis is to study horizontal brand extension and customer perception. We will discuss horizontal brand extension and its two main types franchise brand extension and line extension. Brand extension ...

  10. Range imaging results from polar mesosphere summer echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Marius; Hoffmann, Peter; Rapp, Markus; Chen, Jenn-Shyong

    The range resolution of pulsed radars is usually limited by the transmitting pulse length and the sampling time. The so-called range imaging (RIM) has been developed to reduce these lim-itations. To apply this method the radar operates alternately over a set of distinct frequencies. Then the phase differences of the receiving signals can be used for optimization methods to generate high-resolution maps of reflections as function of range insight the pulse length. The technique has been implemented on the ALWIN VHF radar in Andenes (69) and the OSWIN VHF radar in Kühlungsborn (54N). Here we present results of the RIM method from measurements in polar mesosphere summer echoes -PMSE. These strong radar echoes are linked to ice particle clouds in the mesopause region. The dynamic of the PMSE can be reflected very well by RIM. The movement of PMSE and the edges of the extension can be tracked with a high altitude resolution. Comparisons between simultaneous measurements by RIM and by standard radar techniques demonstrate the advan-tages of RIM. Wave structures can be identified with RIM whereas they are not detectable with the lesser resolution of the standard measurements. Gravity wave parameter associated with these variations are estimated using the simultaneous measured velocity field.

  11. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  12. Frames and extension problems II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems.......This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems....

  13. Pilot Signal Design and Direct Ranging Methods for Radio Localization Using OFDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Lishuai

    Having accurate localization capability is becoming important for existing and future terrestrial wireless communication systems, in particular for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, such as WiMAX, wireless local area network, long-term evolution (LTE) and its extension LTE......-Advanced. To obtain accurate position estimates, not only advanced estimation algorithms are needed but also the transmitted signals should be scrutinized. In this dissertation, we investigate how to design OFDM pilot signals and propose and evaluate high accuracy ranging techniques with tractable computational....... For scenarios where the number of path components is unknown and these components are not necessary separable, we propose a direct ranging technique using the received frequency-domain OFDM pilot signals. Compared to conventional (two-step) ranging methods, which estimate intermediate parameters...

  14. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  15. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  16. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  17. Clinical impact of extensive molecular profiling in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Sophie; Grellety, Thomas; Toulmonde, Maud; Auzanneau, Céline; Khalifa, Emmanuel; Laizet, Yec'han; Tran, Kevin; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Floquet, Anne; Garbay, Delphine; Robert, Jacques; Hostein, Isabelle; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-02-08

    Previous precision medicine studies have investigated conventional molecular techniques and/or limited sets of gene alterations. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the next-generation sequencing of the largest panel of genes used to date in tumour tissue and blood in the context of institutional molecular screening programmes. DNA analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 426 cancer-related genes and by comparative genomic hybridization from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tumour samples when available or from fresh tumour samples. Five hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The median number of prior lines of treatment was 2 (range 0-9). The most common primary tumour types were lung (16.9%), colorectal (14.4%), breast (10.6%), ovarian (10.2%) and sarcoma (10.2%). The median patient age was 63 years (range 19-88). A total of 292 patients (51.4%) presented with at least one actionable genetic alteration. The 20 genes most frequently altered were TP53, CDKN2A, KRAS, PTEN, PI3KCA, RB1, APC, ERBB2, MYC, EGFR, CDKN2B, ARID1A, SMAD4, FGFR1, MDM2, BRAF, ATM, CCNE1, FGFR3 and FRS2. One hundred fifty-nine patients (28%) were included in early phase trials. The treatment was matched with a tumour profile in 86 cases (15%). The two main reasons for non-inclusion were non-progressive disease (31.5%) and general status deterioration (25%). Twenty-eight percent of patients presented with a growth modulation index (time to progression under the early phase trial treatment/time to progression of the previous line of treatment) >1.3.Extensive molecular profiling using high-throughput techniques allows for the identification of actionable mutations in the majority of cases and is associated with substantial clinical benefit in up to one in four patients.

  18. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  19. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  20. Range Surveillance Using Radio Interferometry and TDOA Techniques Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize a small network of remote sensors (Figure 2.1) to perform Radio Interferometry (RI) and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA)...

  1. Close-range sensing techniques in alpine terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutzinger, Martin; Hoefle, Bernhard; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Oude Elberink, Sander; Pirotti, Francesco; Sailer, Rudolf; Scaioni, Marco; Stoetter, J.; Wujanz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Early career researchers such as PhD students are a main driving force of scientific research and are for a large part responsible for research innovation. They work on specialized topics within focused research groups that have a limited number of members, but might also have limited capacity in

  2. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  3. Farmer's market, demonstration gardens, and research projects expand outreach of Extension Master Gardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Bennett; Ellen M. Bauske; Alison Stoven O' Connor; Jean Reeder; Carol Busch; Heidi A. Kratsch; Elizabeth Leger; Angela O' Callaghan; Peter J. Nitzche; Jim Downer

    2013-01-01

    Extension Master Gardener (EMG) volunteers are central to expanding the outreach and engagement of extension staff. A workshop format was used at the Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science on 31 July 2012 in Miami, FL to identify successful management techniques and projects that expand EMG volunteer outreach, leading to increased extension...

  4. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  5. Extensive characterization of anisotropic conductors in the Montgomery geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraze, B.; Ribault, M.

    1994-04-01

    In very anisotropic materials the transport properties of a single crystal may be equivalent to those of a long thin bar. In this geometry we show that an extension of the Montgomery method [1] allows a detailed discussion of the experimental results. It is then possible to establish the correct value of the anisotropy of the resistivity tensor. The method is used to show that in La2CuO{4+0.018}, the conductivity is activated in the Cu-O planes while it results from variable range hopping process perpendicular to the planes as previously established. Dans le cas de matériaux très anisotropes, les propriétés de transport d'un monocristal peuvent être équivalentes à celle d'une longue barre de section quasi carrée. Dans cette géométrie, nous avons analysé en détail les erreurs introduites par l'emploi de la technique de Montgomery [1]. Nous proposons une extension de cette méthode. Dans ces conditions, nous montrons qu'une analyse complète peut aisément permettre de choisir une géométrie de test conduisant à la détermination de l'anisotropie réelle du matériau et de sa variation thermique. La méthode est utilisée pour montrer que, dans le composé La2CuO{4+0.018}, la conductivité est activée dans les plans Cu-O alors que, perpendiculairement aux plans, nous avons montré précédemment qu'elle résulte d'un processus de sauts.

  6. Using Speed Reading and Extensive Reading Activities to Improve Students’ Reading Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines the implementation of Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities to improve students’ reading fluency of students. Using a Classroom Action Research, Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities was applied in 2 cycles with 2 x 45 minutes per week. Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities were taught using three phase techniques: Pre-Reading, Whilst-Reading, and Post-Reading. Speed Reading was implemented through some techniques including scanning, sk...

  7. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  8. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  9. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2016-01-01

    The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...

  10. Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duce poverty include education, credit, durable assets, living in the forest belt and in the south of the country. .... underscores the importance of education and extension services in the technology adoption/diffusion process. Poverty is a ...... Detwerminantes de la Pobreza de los hogares, México. Revista Mexicana de ...

  11. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  12. Symmetrical Extensions of Dirichlet Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Us, A G

    1997-01-01

    There is constructed and considered the extension of classical Diriclet operator corresponding to uniformly log-concave measure in the space of symmetric differential forms. Sufficient conditions for its essential self-adjointness in one-dimensional case as well as for the same of its "sypersymmetric" part in general situations are given.

  13. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  14. Objective assessment with establishment of normal values for lumbar spinal range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, G K; Wynveen, K J; Rheault, W; Rothschild, B

    1983-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an assessment method, in conjunction with age-related normal values, for lumbar spinal range of motion. Lumbar flexion, lumbar extension, and right and left lateral flexion were measured on 172 subjects by a combination of goniometry and spinal distraction techniques. Normal values are given for six age groups; each group had a range of 10 years. The results demonstrate that a significant decrease in lumbar spinal range of motion is expected with increasing age. The interobserver reliability based on 17 subjects was substantial for the four measurements taken; coefficients ranged from +.76 to +1.0. The information may prove useful to the clinician as an improved method for assessing the lumbar spine.

  15. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  16. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  17. Nuclear modification factor using Tsallis non-extensive statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Garg, Prakhar; Kumar, Prateek; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Simrol (India); Bhattacharyya, Trambak; Cleymans, Jean [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2016-09-15

    The nuclear modification factor is derived using Tsallis non-extensive statistics in relaxation time approximation. The variation of the nuclear modification factor with transverse momentum for different values of the non-extensive parameter, q, is also observed. The experimental data from RHIC and LHC are analysed in the framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistics in a relaxation time approximation. It is shown that the proposed approach explains the R{sub AA} of all particles over a wide range of transverse momentum but does not seem to describe the rise in R{sub AA} at very high transverse momenta. (orig.)

  18. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    to the shed in free-range flocks. This study suggests that hens in the outer range engaged more in walking and foraging activities and showed signs of better welfare than those closer to the shed. Abstract In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower

  19. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  20. Poincare Algebra Extension with Tensor Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Soroka, Dmitrij V.; Soroka, Vyacheslav A.

    2005-01-01

    A tensor extension of the Poincar\\'e algebra is proposed for the arbitrary dimensions. Casimir operators of the extension are constructed. A possible supersymmetric generalization of this extension is also found in the dimensions $D=2,3,4$.

  1. Tensor extension of the Poincare algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroka, Dmitrij V. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: dsoroka@kipt.kharkov.ua; Soroka, Vyacheslav A. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: vsoroka@kipt.kharkov.ua

    2005-02-10

    A tensor extension of the Poincare algebra is proposed for the arbitrary dimensions. Casimir operators of the extension are constructed. A possible supersymmetric generalization of this extension is also found in the dimensions D=2,3,4.

  2. Ampliación del ámbito geográfico-altitudinal y uso de hábitats suburbanos por la mascarita pico grueso (Geothlypis poliocephala Geographic-altitudinal range extension and suburban habitat use of the Grey-crowned Yellowthroat (Geothlypis poliocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian MacGregor-Fors

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el primer registro de la mascarita pico grueso (Geothlypis poliocephala para la región del Eje Neovolcánico Transversal, México. Los sitios donde registramos/capturamos esta especie se encuentran en los suburbios de la ciudad de Morelia, 427 m arriba del ámbito altitudinal descrito para la especie. Esto puede deberse a 2 factores: 1 la urbanización que genera hábitats propicios para la especie en su periferia, y 2 el incremento de la temperatura en la región en la que se encuentra la ciudad de Morelia. Ambos factores facilitan que esta especie de tierras bajas pueda habitar en áreas de mayor altitud. Así, nuestros registros sugieren que la mascarita pico grueso puede catalogarse como especie potencial a utilizar hábitats suburbanos cuando éstos son similares a los hábitats en los que se distribuye de manera natural.The first record of the Grey-crowned Yellowthroat (Geothlypis poliocephala in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt biogeographic region (Mexico, within the Morelia city suburbs is presented. Sites were this parulid was sighted / captured were located 427 m higher than its described altitudinal range. This could be due to 2 factors: 1 urbanization generates suitable habitats for this species in periurban areas, and 2 temperature values have increased in the region where the city of Morelia is located. These factors allow that a lowland bird species can inhabit in more elevated areas. Thus, our records suggest that the Grey-crowned Yellowthroat can be catalogued as potential to use suburban environments when these are similar to those used by the species on its natural distribution area.

  3. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  4. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  5. Use of internet for innovation management by extension agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined extension agents' perception of the use of the Internet for sourcing and disseminating agricultural innovation in Oyo state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 80 respondents. Data collected with a questionnaire were subjected to descriptive and Pearson product moment correlation ...

  6. Assessment of Farmer-Oriented Agricultural Extension Intervention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Latif; Sadighi, Hassan; Abbasi, Enayat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of farmer-oriented policies as regards the Iranian agricultural extension system. Methodology: To fulfill this objective, a Delphi technique was utilized. The study used a series of three steps, engaging a panel of experts on farmer-oriented policies of agricultural…

  7. Mobile Phone as an extension tool among female agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the use of mobile telephone for extension among female agricultural practitioners in Lagos State. The study adopted purposive selection of Epe and Ikorodu Local Government Areas (LGA), while simple random sampling technique was used to select 60 female farmers and 5 female EAs in each of the ...

  8. Agricultural extension needs of farmers in Telfairia production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed agricultural extension needs of farmers in Telfairia production and marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 160 Telfairia farmers for the study. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Data was analysed by use of descriptive statistics and factor ...

  9. Solving Fuzzy Fractional Differential Equations Using Zadeh's Extension Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. Z.; Hasan, M. K.; Abbasbandy, S.

    2013-01-01

    We study a fuzzy fractional differential equation (FFDE) and present its solution using Zadeh's extension principle. The proposed study extends the case of fuzzy differential equations of integer order. We also propose a numerical method to approximate the solution of FFDEs. To solve nonlinear problems, the proposed numerical method is then incorporated into an unconstrained optimisation technique. Several numerical examples are provided. PMID:24082853

  10. Impact of agricultural extension services on adoption of root crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was found to be due to financial gain from the technologies. The study shows low adoption of agronomy practices associated with adopted varieties. The extension was the major source of information for the majority of the respondents, with farmers' field day and small plot adoption technique were the most preferred ...

  11. Repair of Extensive Composite Alar Defects with Single Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extensive and total (through and through) loss of ala or lobule of the nose as seen in severe traumas and neglected tumours should be replaced by the three anatomical layers of skin, cartilage and vestibular lining. A technique of nasolabial turnover flap transfer covered by a two layered auricular chondrocutaneous graft is ...

  12. Capability of Poultry Farmers Association for Extension Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dr funmi owolade

    information on poultry management techniques and marketing during in-house training (34.7%), farm visits (44.9%) and workshop (55.1%) sponsored by PAN. It concluded that the Poultry Association of Nigeria (PAN) Oyo state, chapter has the optimum human and material resources for extension services delivery to its.

  13. Perception of Agricultural Extension as a Career among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated perception of agricultural extension as a career among postgraduateagricultural students in selected universities in south-west, Nigeria. Multi-stage sapling technique was used to select 171 respondents across three universities. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics ...

  14. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  15. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...

  16. New data structures for orthogonal range searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis

    2000-01-01

    We present new general techniques for static orthogonal range searching problems in two and higher dimensions. For the general range reporting problem in R3, we achieve query time O(log n+k) using space O(n log1+ε n), where n denotes the number of stored points and k the number of points to be re...

  17. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  18. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  19. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  20. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  1. Continuous transition from the extensive to the non-extensive statistics in an agent-based herding model

    CERN Document Server

    Kononovicius, Aleksejus

    2014-01-01

    Systems with long-range interactions often exhibit power-law distributions and can by described by the non-extensive statistical mechanics framework proposed by Tsallis. In this contribution we consider a simple model reproducing continuous transition from the extensive to the non-extensive statistics. The considered model is composed of agents interacting among themselves on a certain network topology. To generate the underlying network we propose a new network formation algorithm, in which the mean degree scales sub-linearly with a number of nodes in the network (the scaling depends on a single parameter). By changing this parameter we are able to continuously transition from short-range to long-range interactions in the agent-based model. Our numerical results are backed by the analytical mean-fi?eld description of the model.

  2. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  3. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  4. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  5. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  6. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramirez Suarez, Oscar Leonardo; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Pad\\'e expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Thir...

  7. 15 CFR 291.3 - Environmental tools and techniques projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental tools and techniques... MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP; ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS § 291.3 Environmental tools and techniques projects... initial development and implementation of tools or techniques which will aide manufacturing extension...

  8. [TKA revision of semiconstraint components using the 3-step technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hube, R; Matziolis, G; Kalteis, T; Mayr, H O

    2011-02-01

    The surgical goal is to achieve a pain free and stable knee joint after revision total knee arthroplasty in three steps. An important component of the technique is the reproducible restoration of the joint line. Revision total knee arthroplasty. Complete bone loss at the knee joint (epicondyles and tibia plateau), persistent joint infection, loss of the extension apparatus, and neurological disease with progressive ligament instability. Implantation of revision components is performed in three steps. The first step is the positioning of the tibia component at the correct height and rotation. As the position of the tibial articular surface is independent of the knee position, the tibia serves as a reference both in extension and in flexion. The second step consists of balancing the knee joint in flexion and, thereby, definition of the flexion gap and the rotation of the femoral component. In the third step, the reconstruction and balancing of the knee joint in extension is performed. Mobilization with weight bearing and range of motion as tolerated depending on osseous and soft tissue condition at surgery. The surgical technique does not influence the further treatment. In a prospective study, 168 consecutive knee revisions operated by the first author were examined clinically and radiologically preoperatively and at a mean follow-up of 38 months (range 22-61 months). There were 96 knees from women and 72 were from men with an average age of 74.6 years (range 51-92 years). Clinical results were based on the American Knee Society score. The score showed 47.6 (range 32-63) preoperatively and 81.5 (range 62-95) at follow-up. Radiologically, 92.7% of the knees showed a malposition <3°. The joint line was correctly reconstructed in 86.3% based on the preoperative plan; 89% of the patella showed correct tracking in the patella tangential view.

  9. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF. This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth.

  10. Dating Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absolute dating technique (such as stylistic affiliation, association with datable deposits, amino acid study of protein in pigments, and direct radiocarbon dating of the organic fraction of pigments or desert varnish).

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  13. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  14. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  15. EXTENSION OPERATOR AND NEURON NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    LUIZ CARLOS C PEDROZA

    1997-01-01

    Na tese se desenvolve a teoria do Operador de extensão (OPEX) e utiliza-se desta para compreender melhor algumas questões relativas a teoria de Redes Neurais(RN). A abordagem de Redes Neurais pela ótica do Operador de Extensão possibilita também um melhoramento no algoritmo de retropropagação de erro usado no treinamento supervisionado das Redes Neurais. In this thesis, theory of Extension Operator is developed and used to understand some questions related to ...

  16. Sampling approaches for extensive surveys in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, J C; Ferris, H

    1992-12-01

    Extensive surveys of the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes over large geographic areas provide useful data of unknown reliability. Time, cost, and logistical constraints may limit the sampling intensity that can be invested at any survey site. We developed a computer program to evaluate the probability of detection and the reliability of population estimates obtained by different strategies for collecting one sample of 10 cores from a field. We used data from two fields that had been sampled systematically and extensively as the basis for our analyses. Our analyses indicate that, at least for those two fields, it is possible to have a high probability of detecting the presence of nematode species and to reliably estimate abundance, with a single 10-core soil sample from a field. When species were rare or not uniformly distributed in a field, the probability of detection and reliability of the population estimate were correlated with the distance between core removal sites. Increasing the prescribed distance between cores resulted in the composite sample representing a wider range of microenvironments in the field.

  17. Improved Extension Neural Network and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension neural network (ENN is a new neural network that is a combination of extension theory and artificial neural network (ANN. The learning algorithm of ENN is based on supervised learning algorithm. One of important issues in the field of classification and recognition of ENN is how to achieve the best possible classifier with a small number of labeled training data. Training data selection is an effective approach to solve this issue. In this work, in order to improve the supervised learning performance and expand the engineering application range of ENN, we use a novel data selection method based on shadowed sets to refine the training data set of ENN. Firstly, we use clustering algorithm to label the data and induce shadowed sets. Then, in the framework of shadowed sets, the samples located around each cluster centers (core data and the borders between clusters (boundary data are selected as training data. Lastly, we use selected data to train ENN. Compared with traditional ENN, the proposed improved ENN (IENN has a better performance. Moreover, IENN is independent of the supervised learning algorithms and initial labeled data. Experimental results verify the effectiveness and applicability of our proposed work.

  18. Construct validity of lumbar extension measures in McKenzie's derangement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Helen A; Adams, Roger; Maher, Christopher G

    2007-11-01

    The McKenzie treatment model advocates extension-based treatments for sub-groups of low back pain (LBP) patients and an improvement in extension range is seen as a positive outcome. The treatment model states that patients who fit the McKenzie derangement classification respond faster than other patients. The validity of this treatment model and of the clinical measures of extension has not yet been established. Fifty patients with LBP were classified as derangement (n=40) or non-derangement (n=10) based on a McKenzie assessment and then treated with extension procedures. Lumbar extension was measured in two positions, standing and prone, with three methods, inclinometer, Schober and finger tip to floor, on Day 1 and Day 5 of treatment. Patients completed a global perceived effect (GPE) scale on Day 5. Construct validity was tested, by comparing extension improvement and the GPE scores between the two groups. Responsiveness of the six extension measures was calculated. All patients gained extension range however the derangement group had significantly higher GPE scores and greater improvement in extension range. The modified Schober method in standing was the most responsive method for measuring lumbar extension. The results of this study support the measurement of lumbar extension, for patients, treated with extension procedures and provides evidence for the construct validity of one aspect of the McKenzie treatment model. The modified Schober method is the preferred protocol for a clinical setting.

  19. Unstable dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations treated with extension-block pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, David M; Weichbrodt, Matthew T; Huang, Chris; Hagberg, William C; Balk, Marshall L

    2015-03-01

    Unstable proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture-dislocations, which can cause significant disability, can be treated with multiple techniques. Extension-block pinning (EBP) allows for early motion and is less technically demanding than alternative surgical treatments. In the study reported here, 12 patients with unstable dorsal PIP fracture-dislocations were treated with closed reduction of the PIP joint followed by percutaneous insertion of a Kirschner wire (K-wire) into the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx. For these patients, extent of articular surface involvement averaged 43% (range, 25%-75%). Active motion was initiated early after surgery, and the K-wire was removed a mean of 25 days after pinning. Radiographic reduction of joint dislocation was achieved and maintained for 11 of the 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 35.5 months. At follow-up, mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 0.64 (scale, 0-10). Mean score on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire was 5.7, suggesting minimal functional impairment. Mean PIP active motion was 84° (range, 50°-110°). Grip strength was equal between operative and contralateral hands. Patient satisfaction most closely correlated with low VAS and QuickDASH scores. One patient developed a malunion, which was treated with corrective osteotomy. EBP is a simple, safe, and reproducible technique for unstable PIP fracture-dislocations. This technique yields outcomes similar to those reported for more complex surgical procedures.

  20. A comparison of acute effects between Kinesio tape and electrical muscle elongation in hamstring extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Antúnez, L; López-Miñarro, P A; Garrido-Ardila, E M; Castillo-Lozano, R; Domínguez-Vera, P; Maya-Martín, J; Albornoz-Cabello, M

    2015-01-01

    To improve hamstring extensibility some methods have been analyzed and compared for determining their acute and chronic effectiveness. To compare the immediate effect of electrical muscle elongation (EME) versus Kinesio tape (KT) in hamstring muscle extensibility. One hundred and twenty adult amateur athletes with hamstring shortness (straight leg raise test angle Kinesio tape are effective techniques in the short-term in amateur athletes with decreased hamstring extensibility. The higher increase of hamstring extensibility, with a better clinical effect was achieved with the application of electrical muscle elongation. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the effectiveness of both techniques.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for thick concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Dwight A.

    2017-04-01

    The use of concrete structures has made its long-term performance crucial for the safe operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), especially with license period extensions to sixty years and possibly beyond. Unlike most metallic materials, reinforced concrete used in NPPs is a heterogeneous material, a composite with a low-density matrix, a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate and water, and a high-density reinforcement, made up of steel rebar or tendons. This structural complexity makes nondestructive evaluation (NDE) a challenging task. While the standard Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) is adequate for many defects with shallow concrete cover, some defects that are located under deep concrete cover are not easily identified using the standard SAFT techniques. For many degradation mechanisms, particularly defects under deep cover, the use of advanced signal processing techniques is required. A variety of test specimens were evaluated using several advanced signal processing techniques ranging from a large specimen representative of a NPP containment wall (2.134 m x 2.134 m x 1.016 m) with twenty embedded defects, to specimens with accelerated alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and specimens with freeze-thaw damage. The first technique examined in this paper generates frequency banded SAFT reconstructions using wavelet packet decomposition and reconstruction. While the frequency banded SAFT reconstructions show a vast improvement over the standard SAFT for defects under deep cover, a second technique, Model Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR), has been initiated to address the limitations of the frequency banded SAFT (such as multiple reflections for a single defect).

  2. Combined Dietotherapy after Extensive Hepatectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kiselev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the time course of nutritional changes in relation to the components of nutritive support in the early postoperative period after extensive hepatectomies.Subjects and methods. Beginning with the 1st postoperative day, 12 patients had parenteral feeding comprising 20% glucose, fat emulsions, and specialized amino acid solutions (Group 1. Beginning with the same day, 14 patients were given the parenteral formula Oliclinomel (Group 2. Starting from the 2nd postoperative day, both groups additionally received a balanced feeding formula by sipping.Results. Postoperatively, first-to-second degree encephalopathy was recorded in both groups. Positive changes as consciousness recovery were found in both Group 1 in which the patients used branched-chain amino acid-enriched solutions and Group 2 (parenteral Oliclinomel feeding. The patients under examination were not given albumin solutions and fresh frozen plasma in the postoperative period. Moreover, by postoperative day 7, there were significant increases in the levels of albumin and total protein in Groups 1 and 2, in those of cholinesterase and the absolute count of lymphocytes, and a reduction in the concentration of C-reactive protein.Conclusion. Combined parenteral and enteral feedings are effective in patients after extensive hepatectomies. The parenteral feeding formula Oliclinomel may be used in this group of patients. 

  3. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  4. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  5. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  6. Host range extension of Cydia pomonella granulovirus: adaptation to Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta

    OpenAIRE

    Graillot, Benoit; Blachere, Christine; Besse, Samantha; Siegwart, Myriam; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Among various Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates, the Mexican isolate (CpGV-M) has demonstrated a significant ability to reduce damage induced by the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (=Cydia molesta) in peach crops. To obtain a more efficient virus for G. molesta control, an experimental virus population was constructed by mixing various CpGV isolates. This mixture was then selected for replication in a G. molesta laboratory colony. After 12 successive passages on thi...

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Report. Volume IIB. Gila Bend Group and White Sands Missile Range Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-07

    taken to be the San Andreas, Sand Hills, and Algodones faults. Recorded seismicity within the zone adjacent the study area includes many earthquakes of...earthquakes with 8+ magnitudes. Therefore, the San Andreas, Sand Bills, and Algodones faults have been considered capable of producing an earthquake of

  8. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Satoko; Enomoto, Takeshi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ono, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro an...

  9. Shortening start-up and an extension of the power unit load range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A power plant with additional water pressure tanks was proposed. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters was determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated to the nominal temperature in low-pressure regenerative heaters is directed from the feed water tank to pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Pressure accumulators are proposed to be used for the rapid start-up of the boiler from a cold state. The evaporator of the boiler is filled at the beginning of start-up with hot water from the accumulators. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. The tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit that is operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control (in Polish: ARCM.

  10. Pickfordiateuthis pulchella [Cephalopoda: Myopsida]; range extension to Bonaire (N.A.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, Robert G.

    1984-01-01

    On August 3, 1982 a small squid was collected opposite “Trans World Radio” at Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles). It was kept in a tank for several hours before it died. The species was identified as Pickfordiateuthis pulchella Voss, 1953, hitherto only known from the Florida Keys, U.S.A. According to

  11. Tropical Range Extension for the Temperate, Endemic South-Eastern Australian Nudibranch Goniobranchus splendidus (Angas, 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerida G. Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many tropical animals expanding southwards on the Australian coast concomitant with climate change, here we report a temperate endemic newly found in the tropics. Chromodorid nudibranchs are bright, colourful animals that rarely go unnoticed by divers and underwater photographers. The discovery of a new population, with divergent colouration is therefore significant. DNA sequencing confirms that despite departures from the known phenotypic variation, the specimen represents northern Goniobranchus splendidus and not an unknown close relative. Goniobranchus tinctorius represents the sister taxa to G. splendidus. With regard to secondary defences, the oxygenated terpenes found previously in this specimen are partially unique but also overlap with other G. splendidus from southern Queensland (QLD and New South Wales (NSW. The tropical specimen from Mackay contains extracapsular yolk like other G. splendidus. This previously unknown tropical population may contribute selectively advantageous genes to cold-water species threatened by climate change. Competitive exclusion may explain why G. splendidus does not strongly overlap with its widespread sister taxon.

  12. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the coast before the southern edge of the Santa Cruz Mountains which marks the southern boundary of... to San Francisco Bay is a valid tool for assessing population structure and developing population... asserted that the coho bones found there were from fish that were of marine origin, rather than from a...

  13. Canonical extensions of the Johnson homomorphisms to the Torelli groupoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bene, Alex; Kawazumi, Nariya; Penner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We prove that every trivalent marked bordered fatgraph comes equipped with a canonical generalized Magnus expansion in the sense of Kawazumi. This Magnus expansion is used to give canonical extensions of the higher Johnson homomorphisms τm , for m 1 , to the Torelli groupoid, and we provide...... a recursive combinatorial formula for tensor representatives of these extensions. In particular, we give an explicit 1-cocycle in the dual fatgraph complex which extends τ2 and thus answer affirmatively a question of Morita and Penner. To illustrate our techniques for calculating higher Johnson homomorphisms...

  14. Semirigid Cantilever Extension System for Splinting Implants: A Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Micaella Marcello Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mandibular edentulous patients, treatment based on immediate loading with rigid splinting in the mandible is well accepted; however, it is cost and time dependent, which sometimes limits this type of rehabilitation. To overcome these problems, the technique of immediate loading using a semirigid splinting extension system has been developed. Its advantages include low cost, technical feasibility, and reduced clinic time. This clinical report presents the applicability and the predictability of semirigid splinting of implants in the mandibular arch of an edentulous patient using a distal extension bar prosthesis system.

  15. Accuracy and reliability of three different techniques for manual goniometry for wrist motion: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy I; Pansy, Brian; Wolff, Aviva L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Backus, Sherry I; Lenhoff, Mark; Wolfe, Scott W

    2009-10-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of manual goniometry in measuring objective outcomes of hand surgery and therapy, there are limited data concerning its accuracy or repeatability for wrist motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability (both inter- and intra-rater) in measuring wrist flexion and extension using 3 manual goniometric alignment techniques (ulnar, radial, and dorsal-volar) in cadaveric upper extremities, using fluoroscopic verification of posture as a gold standard. In addition, we sought to assess the accuracy and reliability of the dorsal-volar technique for measurement of radioulnar deviation. External fixators were applied to 10 cadaveric wrists with intramedullary cannulated rods in the radius and third metacarpal for gold-standard fluoroscopic verification of posture. Manual goniometric measurements with each technique were captured by 2 raters (a hand surgeon and a hand therapist) for reliability measurements and by a single rater for accuracy. Wrists were positioned at angles of maximum flexion, extension, and radial and ulnar deviation for reliability testing and at preselected angles across the range of motion for accuracy testing. At each position, wrist angle was measured with a 1 degrees increment goniometer, and fluoroscopic angles were measured digitally. Intraclass correlation coefficients and root mean square values were calculated for all combinations, and analysis of variance was used to test differences between techniques. No technique was statistically less accurate than any other (6 degrees to 7 degrees ). Each method was found to have high intra-rater reliability. For measurement of wrist flexion and extension, the dorsal-volar technique demonstrated the greatest inter-rater reliability, as compared to ulnar and radial, respectively. Although each measurement technique demonstrated a similar degree of accuracy and intra-rater reliability, the dorsal-volar technique demonstrates the greatest level of

  16. Agricultural Extension Systems in West Africa: Adoptable Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National agricultural extension and advisory systems have undergone major changes during the past two decades. These changes have been attributed to the success of the. Green Revolution, commercialisation of agriculture and trade liberalization. In addition, transnational corporations develop a wide range of new ...

  17. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  18. Miscellaneous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

  19. An Expressive Extension of TLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jesper Gulmann

    2002-01-01

    A temporal logic of causality (TLC) was introduced by Alur, Penczek and Peled in [1]. It is basically a linear time temporal logic interpreted over Mazurkiewicz traces which allows quantification over causal chains. Through this device one can directly formulate causality properties of distributed...... systems. In this paper we consider an extension of TLC by strengthening the chain quantification operators. We show that our logic TLC* adds to the expressive power of TLC. We do so by defining an Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game to capture the expressive power of TLC. We then exhibit a property and by means...... of this game prove that the chosen property is not definable in TLC. We then show that the same property is definable in TLC*. We prove in fact the stronger result that TLC* is expressively stronger than TLC exactly when the dependency relation associated with the underlying trace alphabet is not transitive....

  20. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  1. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  2. Extended range interferometry based on wavefront shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczupak, M. L.; Salbut, L.

    2007-09-01

    There are many cases when absolute measurements of objects with large height differences or height discontinuity is needed. These measurements can not be covered by classical interferometry since the range of non-ambiguity is limited to half the optical wavelength. Several techniques have been already developed for extending of non-ambiguity range. However most of them is based on multi-wavelength methods which demands expensive light sources and special environment conditions. In this work the new interferometric technique for absolute measurements of large steps discontinuities is proposed. Variable wavefront of the illuminating beam and special procedure for calibration of the measurement volume are used for extending of the measurement range without using multispectral sources. Additionally, calibration of the measurement area simplifies fringe processing and quicken measures. Theoretical analysis of this technique, its numerical simulations and experimental verification are presented and discussed.

  3. Clinical impact of extensive molecular profiling in advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cousin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous precision medicine studies have investigated conventional molecular techniques and/or limited sets of gene alterations. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the next-generation sequencing of the largest panel of genes used to date in tumour tissue and blood in the context of institutional molecular screening programmes. DNA analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 426 cancer-related genes and by comparative genomic hybridization from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tumour samples when available or from fresh tumour samples. Five hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The median number of prior lines of treatment was 2 (range 0–9. The most common primary tumour types were lung (16.9%, colorectal (14.4%, breast (10.6%, ovarian (10.2% and sarcoma (10.2%. The median patient age was 63 years (range 19–88. A total of 292 patients (51.4% presented with at least one actionable genetic alteration. The 20 genes most frequently altered were TP53, CDKN2A, KRAS, PTEN, PI3KCA, RB1, APC, ERBB2, MYC, EGFR, CDKN2B, ARID1A, SMAD4, FGFR1, MDM2, BRAF, ATM, CCNE1, FGFR3 and FRS2. One hundred fifty-nine patients (28% were included in early phase trials. The treatment was matched with a tumour profile in 86 cases (15%. The two main reasons for non-inclusion were non-progressive disease (31.5% and general status deterioration (25%. Twenty-eight percent of patients presented with a growth modulation index (time to progression under the early phase trial treatment/time to progression of the previous line of treatment >1.3. Extensive molecular profiling using high-throughput techniques allows for the identification of actionable mutations in the majority of cases and is associated with substantial clinical benefit in up to one in four patients.

  4. The MST Radar Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  5. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  6. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  7. Extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Songqing; Hu, Lu; Chen, Ketao; Gao, Haixiang, E-mail: hxgao@cau.edu.cn

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • An extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction was developed. • A fully automatic SPE workstation with a modified operation program was used. • Ionic liquid-based in situ DLLME was used as model method. • SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene fiber was used for phase separation. • The approach was applied to the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in water. - Abstract: In this study, a convenient and extensible automated ionic liquid-based in situ dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (automated IL-based in situ DLLME) was developed. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide ([C{sub 8}MIM]NTf{sub 2}) is formed through the reaction between [C{sub 8}MIM]Cl and lithium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide (LiNTf{sub 2}) to extract the analytes. Using a fully automatic SPE workstation, special SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene (NWPP) fiber, and a modified operation program, the procedures of the IL-based in situ DLLME, including the collection of a water sample, injection of an ion exchange solvent, phase separation of the emulsified solution, elution of the retained extraction phase, and collection of the eluent into vials, can be performed automatically. The developed approach, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD), was successfully applied to the detection and concentration determination of benzoylurea (BU) insecticides in water samples. Parameters affecting the extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method achieved extraction recoveries of 80% to 89% for water samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were in the range of 0.16–0.45 ng mL{sup −1}. The intra-column and inter-column relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <8.6%. Good linearity (r > 0.9986) was obtained over the calibration range from 2 to 500 ng mL{sup −1}. The proposed

  8. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  9. Extension contact and professional competencies needed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension contact and professional competencies needed by extension agents in the Central Region of Ghana for effective transfer of fish-processing technologies to small-scale women in fish processing - Provisional Communication.

  10. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable... Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter... INFORMATION: The Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension for the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Winter Range...

  11. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  12. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon....

  13. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  14. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES ON KNEE EXTENSION FATIGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Estêvão Rios; Neto, Victor Gonçalves Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Foam rolling (FR) is a common intervention utilized for the purpose of acutely increasing range-of-motion without subsequent decreases in performance. FR is characterized as an active technique which subject performs upon themselves. Thus, it is believed that the accumulated fatigue can influence whether the task can be continued. To analyze the effect of different foam rolling volumes on fatigue of the knee extensors. Twenty-five recreationally active females (age 27.7 ± 3.56 y, height 168.4 ± 7.1 cm, weight 69.1 ± 10.2 kg) were recruited for the study. The experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre-determined 10 repetition maximum load to concentric failure. Then, subjects performed the control (CONT) and foam rolling (FR) conditions. FR conditions consisted of different anterior thigh rolling volumes (60-, 90-, and 120-seconds) which were performed during the inter-set rest period. After that, the fatigue index was calculated and compared between each experimental condition. Fatigue index indicates how much (%) resistance the subjects experienced, calculated by the equation: (thidset/firstset) x 100. Fatigue index was statistically significantly greater (greater fatigue resistance) for CONT compared to FR90 (p = 0.001) and FR120 (p = 0.001). Similarly, higher fatigue resistance was observed for FR60 when compared to FR120 (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences between the other conditions (p > 0.005). The finding of foam rolling fatigue index decline (less fatigue resistance) as compared to control conditions may have implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. For the purposes of maximum repetition performance, foam rolling should not be applied to the agonist muscle group between sets of knee extensions. Moreover, it seems that volumes greater than 90-seconds are detrimental to the ability to continually produce force. 2b.

  15. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    , this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security......Analysing real-world systems for vulnerabilities with respect to security and safety threats is a difficult undertaking, not least due to a lack of availability of formalisations for those systems. While both formalisations and analyses can be found for artificial systems such as software...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  17. Improving the Extension Facilities in C+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P F; Scott, B A

    1999-09-24

    CXX is a facility for extending Python using C++. Recently, the authors have substantially revised and improved the way in which you create extension objects and extension modules in C++. The method is now much more natural and has much less overhead, both in the code generated and in the effort needed to create the objects and extensions.

  18. Effectiveness Of Communication Outreach Strategies Of Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication is a major component of agricultural extension and extension agents utilize various methods to deliver messages to their clienteles. The paper focused on the effectiveness of communication outreach strategies of extension agents in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of ...

  19. Agricultural Extension training needs of the Nongovernment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension practitioners from the private sector are highly trained in the Natural Science. Some shortfalls in their Extension Science training have been identified. Perceived training needs in the Extension Science within this sector have been privatised. A number of possible training inputs and options are suggested. Options ...

  20. Extensive Reading and the Effect of Shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Ueda, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of extensive reading (ER) and shadowing on performance on reading comprehension tests. This study addressed the following research questions: (a) Can extensive reading improve students' reading comprehension? and (b) can shadowing enhance the effects of extensive reading? The participants in the…

  1. Rural Extension Services. Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jock R.; Feder, Gershon

    This paper analyzes the considerations that lead policy makers to undertake extension investments as a key public responsibility, as well as the complex set of factors and intra-agency incentives that explain variations in performance between different extension systems. The goals of extension include transferring knowledge from researchers to…

  2. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  4. [Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, C; Grobusch, M P; Wagner, D

    2008-02-01

    Recently an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (MTB) strains have been described worldwide. The term XDR- (extensively drug-resistant) tuberculosis (TB) has been introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to characterize multi-drug-resistant MTB strains that are in vitro resistant against fluorochinolones and one of the injectible substances amikacin, capreomycin or kanamycin in addition to isoniazid and rifampin. Strains of XDR-MTB are currently increasingly seen in HIV-seropositive individuals with tuberculosis in southern Africa, where these strains are passed by person-to person contact. XDR-TB has become a serious problem for the health administrations in this region. In contrast, cases of XDR-TB are only rarely seen in Germany so far, mainly among the population of pre-treated migrants from eastern Europe. The development of rapid diagnostic tests for resistance testing and new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis has lacked support for several decades. The sudden emergence of XDR-MTB strains now warrants immediate action for the development of such tests and new classes of antibiotics to give all patients with TB a chance for a successful treatment.

  5. XPL the Extensible Presentation Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santangelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a growing interest in the development of web interfaces enabling both multiple ways to access contents and, at the same time, fruition by multiple modalities of interaction (point-and-click, contents reading, voice commands, gestures, etc.. In this paper we describe a framework aimed at streamlining the design process of multi-channel, multimodal interfaces enabling full reuse of software components. This framework is called the eXtensible Presentation architecture and Language (XPL, a presentation language based on design pattern paradigm that keeps separated the presentation layer from the underlying programming logic. The language supplies a methodology to expedite multimodal interface development and to reduce the effort to implement interfaces for multiple access devices, by means of using the same code. This paper describes a methodology approach based on Visual Design Pattern (ViDP and Verbal Design Pattern (VeDP, offering examples of multimodal and multichannel interfaces created with the XPL Editor.

  6. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  7. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  8. C*-algebras associated with reversible extensions of logistic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaśniewski, Bartosz K.

    2012-10-01

    The construction of reversible extensions of dynamical systems presented in a previous paper by the author and A.V. Lebedev is enhanced, so that it applies to arbitrary mappings (not necessarily with open range). It is based on calculating the maximal ideal space of C*-algebras that extends endomorphisms to partial automorphisms via partial isometric representations, and involves a new set of 'parameters' (the role of parameters is played by chosen sets or ideals). As model examples, we give a thorough description of reversible extensions of logistic maps and a classification of systems associated with compression of unitaries generating homeomorphisms of the circle. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  9. Future Extensive Air Shower arrays: From Gamma-Ray Astronomy to Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciascio Giuseppe Di

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite large progresses in building new detectors and in the analysis techniques, the key questions concerning the origin, acceleration and propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays are still open. A number of new EAS arrays is in progress. The most ambitious and sensitive project between them is LHAASO, a new generation multi-component experiment to be installed at very high altitude in China (Daocheng, Sichuan province, 4400 m a.s.l.. The experiment will face the open problems through a combined study of photon- and charged particle-induced extensive air showers in the wide energy range 1011 – 1018 eV. In this paper the status of the experiment will be summarized, the science program presented and the outlook discussed in comparison with leading new projects.

  10. [Review of effervescent technique in pharmaceutics research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jian; Xin, Hong-Liang; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Li-Li; Sun, Ting-Ting; Guo, Qi-Li

    2008-04-01

    Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.

  11. Techniques of Australian forest planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Forestry Council

    1978-01-01

    Computer modeling has been extensively adopted for Australian forest planning over the last ten years. It has been confined almost entirely to the plantations of fast-growing species for which adequate inventory, growth, and experimental data are available. Stand simulation models have replaced conventional yield tables and enabled a wide range of alternative...

  12. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scarpelini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thromboelastography (TEG® provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG® parameters analyzed were R, K, α, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer’s normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, α: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity. Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer’s normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer’s recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG®, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG®.

  13. Impacts of extension access and cooperative membership on technology adoption and household welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Alene, Arega; Haile, Mekbib G; Feleke, Shiferaw; Olanrewaju, Adetunji; Manyong, Victor

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the impacts of access to extension services and cooperative membership on technology adoption, asset ownership and poverty using household-level data from rural Nigeria. Using different matching techniques and endogenous switching regression approach, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have a positive and statistically significant effect on technology adoption and household welfare. Moreover, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have heterogeneous impacts. In particular, we find evidence of a positive selection as the average treatment effects of extension access and cooperative membership are higher for farmers with the highest propensity to access extension and cooperative services. The impact of extension services on poverty reduction and of cooperatives on technology adoption is significantly stronger for smallholders with access to formal credit than for those without access. This implies that expanding rural financial markets can maximize the potential positive impacts of extension and cooperative services on farmers' productivity and welfare.

  14. University Extension of Elderly Health and Potency for Medical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerle Dayana Tavares de Lucena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the potential of university extension for medical training, based on the perception of extension workers. Method: This is an exploratory descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, carried out with medical students, former students of the university extension project of the elderly health. Wheels of conversations were made to base empirical production on a semi-structured interview script. The analysis was performed using Fiorin's speech analysis technique. Results: It was possible to verify, in this research, the power of the university extension in the medical training, the impact generated in the accompanied elderly people and the importance of the production of bond. It was also verified the importance of providing students with more projects that can give a return to society and foster in students the need not to stop only the pathology, but mainly to awaken the motivation for a humanized and integral care. Conclusion: The university extension provides an approximation with the community, through the bond and accountability between the academic and the elderly. In addition, it allows to contribute to improve and implant the sense of citizenship in the life of individuals. Key words: Health of the institutionalized elderly, Medicine, Collective Health.

  15. Extension of platelet concentrate storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T L; Nelson, E J; Carmen, R; Murphy, S

    1983-01-01

    Extension of the storage time of platelet concentrates in a satellite bag which is part of a new blood bag system was studied by reinfusing autologous 51Cr-labeled platelets into normal volunteers, and measuring postinfusion platelet counts and bleeding times in patients requiring platelet transfusions. This satellite bag, made of polyvinylchloride plasticized with a new agent, was found to protect platelet concentrates against fall of pH better than other containers studied. This protection was felt to be due to the greater gas permeability of the new plastic. Mean in vivo recovery and half-life (greater than 31% and 3.3 days, respectively) of autologous reinfused platelets were satisfactory following 5 days of storage. Following 7 days of storage, mean recovery was 41 percent and half-life was 2.8 days. Peripheral platelet count increments in patients following platelet transfusions with concentrates stored 4 to 7 days in the new plastic were comparable to increments following transfusion of platelets stored 2 to 3 days in the other plastics studied. Bleeding times shortened in three of four patients receiving platelet concentrates stored from 4 to 6 days in the new plastic. Platelet concentrates stored in the new bag at 20 to 24 degrees C with flat-bed or elliptical agitation could be transfused for up to 5 days following phlebotomy with acceptable clinical results. The new plastic container is promising for storage of platelet concentrates for up to 7 days. Due to the higher pH of 50-ml platelet concentrates stored in bags made with the new plastic, the concentrates were superior at any storage interval to those stored in bags made of the other plastics studied.

  16. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald

    2012-01-01

    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  17. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ

    1992-07-01

    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  18. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    ) into production processes represents an important limitation of this approach. Surface sampling techniques provide a measure of workplace chemical contamination. Wipe sampling has been used extensively, but is susceptible to high variability. Surface sampling requires definition of dermal transfer coefficients for specific work activities. A preliminary dermal exposure sampling strategy which addresses such issues as sampling method, representativeness and sample duration is proposed. Despite the limitations of current assessment techniques, it appears feasible to consider developing dermal occupational exposure limits (DOELs) for selected workplaces and chemical agents. Initial development of DOELs would be most practical where dermal exposure is from surface contact primarily, and where the work closely follows a routine. Improvement in the techniques of dermal exposure assessment is an important goal for occupational hygiene research, and is likely to lead to better health for worker populations.

  19. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  20. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  1. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  2. Site characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Geoelectrical methods have been used since the 1920's to search for metallic ore deposits. During the last decade, traditional mining geophysical techniques have been adapted for environmental site characterization. Geoelectrical geophysics is now a well developed engineering specialty, with different methods to focus both on a range of targets and on depths below the surface. Most methods have also been adapted to borehole measurements.

  3. Advanced experimental and numerical techniques for cavitation erosion prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Chahine, Georges; Franc, Jean-Pierre; Karimi, Ayat

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the cavitation erosion phenomenon and state-of-the-art research in the field. It is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of seven chapters, offering a wide range of computational and experimental approaches to cavitation erosion. It includes a general introduction to cavitation and cavitation erosion, a detailed description of facilities and measurement techniques commonly used in cavitation erosion studies, an extensive presentation of various stages of cavitation damage (including incubation and mass loss), and insights into the contribution of computational methods to the analysis of both fluid and material behavior. The proposed approach is based on a detailed description of impact loads generated by collapsing cavitation bubbles and a physical analysis of the material response to these loads. Part 2 is devoted to a selection of nine papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Experimental and Numerical Techniques for Cavitation Erosion (Gr...

  4. Effectiveness of passive stretching versus hold relax technique in flexibility of hamstring muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of passive stretching and hold relax technique in the flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: A total of 80 normal healthy female subjects between age group 20-30 years referred to the department of physiotherapy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, sampling method being convenient sampling. The subjects were randomly divided in two groups i.e. passive stretching group (n=40 and PNF group (n=40 and given passive stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique respectively. Active knee extension range was measured before and after the intervention by goniometer. Results: t test showed a highly significant (p=0.000 increase in range of motion in PNF group. Conclusion: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique is more effective in increasing hamstring flexibility than the passive stretching.

  5. Extension systems in Southern African countries: A review | Oladele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... programmes to improve rural areas, extensive grassroots coverage, use of ICT, high involvement of farmers in extension planning, potential for effective programme implementation, and effective setting of extension administration units.

  6. Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change. PMID:17422768

  7. Separation of crack extension modes in composite delamination problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1994-01-01

    This work concerns fracture mechanics modeling of composite delamination problems. In order to predict delamination resistance, an applied stress intensity factor, K, or energy release rate, G, must be compared to a mode-dependent critical value of K or G from experiment. In the interfacial fracture analysis of most applications and some tests, the mode of crack extension is not uniquely defined. It is instead a function of distance from the crack tip due to the oscillating singularity existing at the tip. In this work, a consistent method is presented of extracting crack extension modes in such cases. In particular, use of the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) to extract modes of crack extension is studied for cases of a crack along the interface between two in-plane orthotropic materials. Modes of crack extension extracted from oscillatory analyses using VCCT are a function of the virtual crack extension length, delta. Most existing efforts to obtain delta-independent modes of crack extension involve changing the analysis in order to eliminate its oscillatory nature. One such method involves changing one or more properties of the layers to make the oscillatory exponent parameter, epsilon, equal zero. Standardized application of this method would require consistent criteria for identifying which properties can be altered without changing the physical aspects of the problem. Another method involves inserting a thin homogeneous layer (typically referred to as a resin interlayer) along the interface and placing the crack within it. The drawbacks of this method are that it requires increased modeling effort and introduces the thickness of the interlayer as an additional length parameter. The approach presented here does not attempt to alter the interfacial fracture analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, the argument is made that the oscillatory behavior is non-physical and that if its effects were separated from VCCT quantities, then consistent

  8. Extension of Mittag-Leffler function

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, G.; K.S. Nisar; Mubeen, S; Arshad, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of Mittag-Leffler function by using the extension of beta functions (\\"{O}zergin et al. in J. Comput. Appl. Math. 235 (2011), 4601-4610) and obtain some integral representation of this newly defined function. Also, we present the Mellin transform of this function in terms of Wright hypergeometric function. Furthermore, we show that the extended fractional derivative of the usual Mittag-Leffler function gives the extension of Mittag-Leffler function.

  9. SURFACE TENSION TECHNIQUES FOR MOLTEN SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some 200 surface tension determinations were made on 107 single-salt melts using eight experimental techniques. From a consideration of the... surface tension range of applicability and temperature limitation for these techniques are briefly considered.

  10. Longest Common Extensions via Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Kristensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    query time, no extra space and no preprocessing achieves significantly better average case performance. We show a new algorithm, Fingerprint k , which for a parameter k, 1 ≤ k ≤ [log n], on a string of length n and alphabet size σ, gives O(k n1/k) query time using O(k n) space and O(k n + sort......(n,σ)) preprocessing time, where sort(n,σ) is the time it takes to sort n numbers from σ. Though this solution is asymptotically strictly worse than the asymptotically best previously known algorithms, it outperforms them in practice in average case and is almost as fast as the simple linear time algorithm. On worst....... The LCE problem can be solved in linear space with constant query time and a preprocessing of sorting complexity. There are two known approaches achieving these bounds, which use nearest common ancestors and range minimum queries, respectively. However, in practice a much simpler approach with linear...

  11. Extensive augmentation of the alveolar ridge using autogenous calvarial split bone grafts for dental rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Tateyuki; Smolka, Wenko; Hallermann, Wock; Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2004-10-01

    Free autogenous iliac bone is the most commonly used graft material for an extensive alveolar ridge reconstruction. The application of iliac bone, however, is associated with problems, such as transplant loss resulting from postoperative infection and late bone resorption. A bone-graft material more suitable than iliac bone is therefore still needed. This paper describes a concept for alveolar-ridge reconstruction using calvarial split bone, and the related surgical techniques. Clinical and radiological follow-up examinations were undertaken to evaluate the potential benefit of calvarial split bone in alveolar-ridge reconstruction. Between 1999 and 2002, 13 patients with a mean age of 54 years (range 31-70 years) underwent surgery, seven patients in the maxilla and six in the mandible. In four cases, wound dehiscence occurred postoperatively. In one of these cases, the dehiscence was associated with a local infection. However, no bone transplants were lost. After a mean follow-up time of 19.6 months, bone resorption, measured radiologically, was minimal. Endosseous dental implants were successfully installed and maintained. Satisfactory prosthetic rehabilitation was achieved in all patients. Our preliminary experience suggests that calvarial split bone may be regarded as a promising alternative to autogenous iliac bone in connection with extensive augmentation of the alveolar ridge.

  12. The acute effect of kinesio taping on hamstring extensibility in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERINO-MARBAN R.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim and rationale of our study was to determine the acute effect of kinesio taping on theextensibility of the hamstring muscle among university students.Design: An intra-subject experimental design was used to evaluate the possible acute effects of KT using the Xshapedtaping technique in order to affect hamstring muscle extensibility.Method: Forty-three healthy university students (age 21.98 ± 4.68 years, body mass 71.50 ± 13.49 kg, height172.35 ± 8.17 cm were assessed for hamstring flexibility. All participants had both legs tested under threedifferent randomly ordered conditions (kinesio tape, sham tape and control using the Passive Straight Leg RaiseTest. All measurements were made during the same testing session. Participants performed three sets of tests,each set measured twice, to determine hamstring extensibility in both legs. There was a 12 minute rest periodbetween each set and a one minute break between each repetition.Results: An analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measurements showed no statistically significantdifferences either in the right (p=0.503 or the left leg (p=0.948 between the three study conditions.Conclusions: The application of kinesio taping does not seem to acutely increase hip flexion range of motion inhealthy subjects.

  13. Comparison of range migration correction algorithms for range-Doppler processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Faruk

    2017-07-01

    The next generation digital radars are able to provide high-range resolution by the advancement of radar hardware technologies. These systems take advantage of coherent integration and Doppler processing technique to increase the target's signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the high-range resolution (small range cells) and fast target motion, a target migrates through multiple range cells within a coherent processing interval. Range cell migration (also known as range walk) occurs and degrades the coherent integration gain. There are many approaches in the literature to correct these unavoidable effects and focus the target in the range-Doppler domain. We demonstrate some of these methods on an operational frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and point out practical issues in the application.

  14. In the Mind's Ear: The Semantic Extensions of Perception Verbs in Australian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas; Wilkins, David

    2000-01-01

    Tests earlier claims about the universality of patterns of polysemy and semantic extension in the domain of perception verbs. Utilizing data from a broad range of Australian languages, two hypothesized universals are addressed: Viberg's (1994) proposed unidirectional pattern of extension from higher to lower sensory modalities and Sweeter's (1990)…

  15. A biomechanical comparison of the Rogers interspinous and the Lovely-Carl tension band wiring techniques for fixation of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, A V; Coehlo, D G; Filho, T E; Braga, F M

    2000-07-01

    The authors conducted a biomechanical study in which they compared the uses of the Rogers interspinous and the Lovely-Carl tension band wiring techniques for internal fixation of the cervical spine. An extensive biomechanical evaluation (stiffness in positive and negative rotations around the x, y, and z axes; range of motion in flexion-extension, bilateral axial rotation, and bilateral bending; and neutral zone in flexion-extension, bilateral axial rotation, and lateral bending to the right and to the left) was performed in two groups of intact calf cervical spines. After these initial tests, all specimens were subjected to a distractive flexion Stage 3 ligamentous lesion. Group 1 specimens then underwent surgical fixation by the Rogers technique, and Group 2 specimens underwent surgery by using the Lovely-Carl technique. After fixation, specimens were again submitted to the same biomechanical evaluation. The percentage increase or decrease between the pre- and postoperative parameters was calculated. These values were considered quantitative indicators of the efficacy of the techniques, and the efficacy of the two techniques was compared. Analysis of the findings demonstrated that in the spines treated with the Lovely-Carl technique less restriction of movement was produced without affecting stiffness, compared with those treated with the Rogers technique, thus making the Lovely-Carl technique clinically less useful.

  16. Fast Range Covariance Estimation using CONRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Habert, B.; Noguere, G.; Archier, P.; Litaize, O.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13 - St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    One of the initial goals of the CONRAD code development was to properly take into account various uncertainties propagations. First developments were performed to treat adequately nuisance parameters (such as experimental parameters), in the resolved and unresolved resonance region by using a marginalization technique. A generalization of these methodologies to higher energy range is presented in this paper. We will first present in detail the mathematics involved in this technique. The interface of CONRAD with ECIS will be presented, especially, the way optical model were parameterized in CONRAD from the classical RIPL database. Then, some applications of CONRAD (wrapping ECIS) will be presented. (authors)

  17. Treatment of Congenital Vertical Talus: Comparison of Minimally Invasive and Extensive Soft-Tissue Release Procedures at Minimum Five-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Justin S; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2015-08-19

    The most common historical treatment method for congenital vertical talus is extensive soft-tissue release surgery. A minimally invasive treatment approach that relies primarily on serial cast correction was introduced almost ten years ago, with promising early results. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of patients with congenital vertical talus managed with the minimally invasive technique and compare them with a cohort treated with extensive soft-tissue release surgery. The records of twenty-seven consecutive patients with vertical talus (forty-two feet) were retrospectively reviewed at a mean of seven years (range, five to 11.3 years) after initial correction was achieved. The minimally invasive method was used to treat sixteen patients (twenty-four feet), and extensive soft-tissue release surgery was used to treat eleven patients (eighteen feet). Patient demographics, ankle range of motion, the PODCI (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument) questionnaire, and radiographic measurements were analyzed. At the latest follow-up, the mean range of motion of patients treated with the minimally invasive method was 42.4° compared with 12.7° for patients treated with extensive surgery (p invasive treatment group compared with the extensive soft-tissue release group. Greater correction of hindfoot valgus (anteroposterior talar axis-first metatarsal base angle) was achieved in the minimally invasive treatment group compared with the extensive surgery group (40.1° versus 27.9°, p = 0.03), although all other radiographic values were similar between the two groups (p > 0.1 for all). Subgroup analysis of patients with isolated vertical talus also showed superior range of motion and PODCI normative global function scores in the minimally invasive group. The minimally invasive treatment method for vertical talus resulted in better long-term ankle range of motion and pain scores compared with extensive soft-tissue release surgery. Longer

  18. Dynamic range compression and detail enhancement algorithm for infrared image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2014-09-10

    For infrared imaging systems with high sampling width applying to the traditional display device or real-time processing system with 8-bit data width, this paper presents a new high dynamic range compression and detail enhancement (DRCDDE) algorithm for infrared images. First, a bilateral filter is adopted to separate the original image into two parts: the base component that contains large-scale signal variations, and the detail component that contains high-frequency information. Then, the operator model for DRC with local-contrast preservation is established, along with a new proposed nonlinear intensity transfer function (ITF) to implement adaptive DRC of the base component. For the detail component, depending on the local statistical characteristics, we set up suitable intensity level extension criteria to enhance the low-contrast details and suppress noise. Finally, the results of the two components are recombined with a weighted coefficient. Experiment results by real infrared data, and quantitative comparison with other well-established methods, show the better performance of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the technique could effectively project a dim target while suppressing noise, which is beneficial to image display and target detection.

  19. Biomechanical comparison between pins and polymethylmethacrylate and the SOP locking plate system to stabilize canine lumbosacral fracture-luxation in flexion and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Johannes J; Kat, Cor-Jacques; Coetzee, Gert L; van Staden, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    To determine the stability of a simulated complete L7-S1 fracture-luxation immobilized with SOP locking plate system, compared to pins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaver specimens of 18 skeletally mature large-breed dogs. Specimens were randomly stabilized with one of the two fixation techniques. Lumbosacral spine specimens (L5-S3) were subjected to a bending moment applied to the caudal and cranial ends of the specimen. The biomechanical parameters (ie, range of motion [ROM], neutral zone [NZ], and elastic zone stiffness [EZS]) were compared between fixation techniques. No difference was found between the means of the NZ in flexion (P = .3458), extension (P = .1255), and total value (P = .3458) of L7-S1 stabilized with the two fixation techniques. Mean ROM in flexion (P = .2386), extension (P = .1255), and mean of EZS in extension (P = .4094) did not differ between fixations. The only significant differences were in the means of total ROM and means of the EZS in flexion, with the means being smaller with SOP fixation. The stability of the two fixation techniques in flexion and in extension was similar for the L7-S1 and adjacent L5-L6 junctions, while the mean of ROM of L6-L7 in flexion was smaller with SOP fixation. Stability of the resulting construct should be considered when selecting an implant. Our results provide evidence that fixation via pin-PMMA or SOP provide similar stability for L7-S1 fracture-luxation. In this context, other factors become more important in selecting the fixation method. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  1. Verification testing of the compression performance of the HEVC screen content coding extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Baroncini, Vittorio A.; Yu, Haoping; Joshi, Rajan L.; Liu, Shan; Xiu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jizheng

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on verification testing of the coding performance of the screen content coding (SCC) extensions of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard (Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 MPEG-H Part 2). The coding performance of HEVC screen content model (SCM) reference software is compared with that of the HEVC test model (HM) without the SCC extensions, as well as with the Advanced Video Coding (AVC) joint model (JM) reference software, for both lossy and mathematically lossless compression using All-Intra (AI), Random Access (RA), and Lowdelay B (LB) encoding structures and using similar encoding techniques. Video test sequences in 1920×1080 RGB 4:4:4, YCbCr 4:4:4, and YCbCr 4:2:0 colour sampling formats with 8 bits per sample are tested in two categories: "text and graphics with motion" (TGM) and "mixed" content. For lossless coding, the encodings are evaluated in terms of relative bit-rate savings. For lossy compression, subjective testing was conducted at 4 quality levels for each coding case, and the test results are presented through mean opinion score (MOS) curves. The relative coding performance is also evaluated in terms of Bjøntegaard-delta (BD) bit-rate savings for equal PSNR quality. The perceptual tests and objective metric measurements show a very substantial benefit in coding efficiency for the SCC extensions, and provided consistent results with a high degree of confidence. For TGM video, the estimated bit-rate savings ranged from 60-90% relative to the JM and 40-80% relative to the HM, depending on the AI/RA/LB configuration category and colour sampling format.

  2. Orthogonal Range Searching on the RAM, Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Larsen, Kasper Green; Patrascu, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    We present a number of new results on one of the most extensively studied topics in computational geometry, orthogonal range searching. All our results are in the standard word RAM model: We present two data structures for 2-d orthogonal range emptiness. The first achieves O(n lg lg n) space and O...... the output size. This resolves two open problems (both appeared in Preparata and Shamos' seminal book): given a set of n axis-aligned rectangles in the plane, we can report all k enclosure pairs (i.e., pairs (r1,r2) where rectangle r1 completely encloses rectangle r2) in O(n lg n + k) expected time; given...

  3. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  4. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  5. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  6. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  7. Sound Type-Dependent Syntactic Language Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzen, Florian; Erdweg, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    Syntactic language extensions can introduce new facilities into a programming language while requiring little implementation effort and modest changes to the compiler. It is typical to desugar language extensions in a distinguished compiler phase after parsing or type checking, not affecting any of

  8. Implementing socially responsive forestry extension programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a literature review which pays particular attention to southern African references, a socially responsive forestry extension model is outlined. It is contended that the initial establishment of sustainable extension programmes rest upon the nature of the relations between the central-level office, the extensionist and ...

  9. Agricultural extension officers' perceptions of integrated pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extension officers further believed that IPM has the potential to contribute effectively in pest management by the majority of small scale farmers in Kenya. The extension officers viewed crop rotation, a cultural practice, to be of priority use in pest management. Most of the other IPM practices were considered practical in ...

  10. Communication for Strengthening Agricultural Extension and Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chrischisoni

    communication theories, methods, technologies and strategies. Yet they feel inadequately trained in these areas. Extension workers' views on decentralization. The government's policies on decentralization and pluralistic and demand-driven extension were introduced in 2000. This study was conducted almost a decade ...

  11. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  12. Subintegrality, invertible modules and Laurent polynomial extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let ⊆ be a commutative ring extension. Let I(, ) be the multiplicative group of invertible -submodules of . In this article, we extend a result of Sadhu and Singh by finding a necessary and sufficient condition on an integral birational extension ⊆ of integral domains with dim ≤ 1, so that the natural map I(, ...

  13. Perception of Commercialization of Agricultural Extension Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public extension service delivery system has been unable to satisfactorily respond to the challenges of agricultural development, poverty eradication and rural transformation in Nigeria, resulting in continued calls for alternative systems, including commercialization of extension service. Because of their strategically ...

  14. Agricultural extension, research, and development for increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the data collected revealed that the improvement of agricultural production, with the goal of sustainable food security, in South Africa, might not be achieved without an effective agricultural extension service that is strongly linked to research. It was also found that public sector extension work is a necessity for the ...

  15. Extension Learners' Use of Electronic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Swan, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Extension clientele use electronic technology for entertainment, communication, and business. Educational programs that use electronic technology can enhance learning. To learn more about use of electronic technology among Extension clientele, we surveyed 80 university students and 135 potato farmers. We found that the farmers were likely to use…

  16. Livestock extension practice and competency among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of meeting the ever-increasing demand for animal products in Nigeria has become keen over the years. A major factor is low technology input by the bulk of animal producers. Because Extension has a crucial role to play, the purpose of this study was to investigate livestock extension (LE) activities and ...

  17. Job satisfaction amongst agricultural extension personnel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job satisfaction broadly is considered to be as attitude of a person reflecting the degree to which his/her important needs are satisfied by this job. To study the job satisfaction level and factors associated with job satisfaction of Extension personnel, a sample of 74 extension personnel from Kurdistan province of Iran were ...

  18. Declarative language extensions for Prolog courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumerkel, U.; Triska, M.; Wielemaker, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present several extensions to support a more declarative view of programming in Prolog. These extensions enable introductory Prolog courses to concentrate on the pure parts of Prolog for longer periods than without. Even quite complex programs can now be written free of any

  19. Extensive Reading in Enhancing Lexical Chunks Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Nilsa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…

  20. Extensive Reading Materials Produced by Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates that students and teachers create some of their own extensive reading materials. Learning communities act as a means of motivating and sustaining student and teacher production of extensive reading materials. The article begins by explaining learning communities. The bulk of the article has two parts. The first part focuses…

  1. Extensive Reading: Students' Performance and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Morgado, Nelly

    2009-01-01

    Reading is thought to be a crucial skill in the EFL learning process, and Extensive Reading a very useful strategy. However, very few teachers implement it on a regular basis. The process of introducing Extensive Reading (ER) is considered far too expensive, complicated, and time-consuming. One way to encourage its use would be to more deeply…

  2. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  3. 77 FR 16022 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Better Buildings, Better Plants... and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Room 10102... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of...

  4. User contributions and public extension delivery modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined a number of extension communication channels through which farmers received farm management services/information from the public extension agent. The idea was, first, to find out the dominant channel(s) through which information/services were received and, second, to assess the willingness of ...

  5. Bilateral Wilms Tumor With Ureteral Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gina; Ferrer, Fernando; Makari, John

    2017-04-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common renal tumor in children. However, tumor extension into the ureter is exceedingly rare. We present a case of bilateral Wilms tumor with unilateral ureteral extension into the bladder. This case illustrates the importance of thoughtful diagnostic evaluation and surgical planning to obtain a good oncologic outcome while preserving renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. assessment of extension agents' communication methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State ...

  7. Revitalizing Agricultural Extension Curriculum for Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors argue that African agricultural universities and colleges must strengthen their capacities to develop and deliver responsive extension training programs in order to train extension staff to become critical thinkers and reflective practitioners. A framework is proposed to guide universities and colleges interested in ...

  8. Extension Service Delivery Of Agricultural Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the extension service delivery within the Agricultural Development Programmes of Southwest Nigeria after the cessation of the World Bank funding between 1996 and 2013. Primary data were collected from 201 extension agents across 50% of the states in the area of study using ...

  9. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter

    2014-01-01

    challenging kind of system to design for independent extension. This thesis presents two new software technologies that improve the extensibility of control systems: First, the concept of dynamic links is introduced and Decouplink – an implementation of dynamic links for Java - is presented. Dynamic links......While the extensibility of many software systems has been greatly improved during the past two decades, nontrivial control systems remain to be a category of software systems that are remarkably difficult for independent parties to extend. Support for independent extension is the ability...... is introduced, and an implementation is presented. The extensible controller is a component framework designed to automatically resolve conflicts among mutually unaware components in a control system. The solution is based on the idea that independent components implement different kinds of control concerns...

  11. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  12. Anaesthetic management of a case of schwannoma with intraoral extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Bhardwaj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma is a benign nerve sheath tumour. This benign lesion frequently occurs in the soft tissues of head and neck region and has various complicated growth patterns. These patients can present a challenge to the anaesthesiologist due to intraoral extension, leading to difficult mask ventilation and intubation. We report a 16 year old male with mandibular nerve schwannoma with intraoral extension. Intraoral examination revealed a diffuse swelling in the left side of soft palate with deviation of uvula to right side. He was advised gargles with 4 ml of 2% xylocaine viscous and 2–3 puffs of 10% xylocaine spray done in oral cavity and oropharynx. Check laryngoscopy revealed Cormack and Lehane grade 1 view. Patient was intubated using standard induction technique and successfully managed

  13. Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Salido-Monzú

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved.

  14. Patent term extension systems differentiate Japanese and US drug lifecycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takayuki; Kano, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Drug lifecycle management (LCM) contributes to maximizing drug discovery investment returns. After initial drug approval, additional approvals can be sought for novel indications and formulations to extend product marketability. Patents provide additional barriers to entry and patent term extension systems facilitate extension of these. Several aspects of the US and Japanese patent term extension systems differ. Therefore, we compared both systems using a drug LCM case study to highlight the differences. Our findings indicate that the extension of multiple drug patents on multiple occasions in Japan produces a more complicated range of extended patent protections, compared with the US system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Agricultural work safety efforts by Wisconsin extension agricultural agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Skjolaas, C A; Wilkinson, T L

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the agricultural work-related safety and health programming of county-level cooperative extension agents who work through land grant universities to provide a range of educational programs to agricultural producers. A questionnaire was designed and administered to all 89 Wisconsin agriculture and agribusiness extension county faculty. The questionnaire obtained valid responses from 98.9 percent of the agents. Ninety percent of all agents conducted some occupational safety and health promotion programming in the last year. These activities occupied an average of 4.8 days per agent per year. Most of the reported activities were group programs for the agricultural labor force that involved other extension agents and included the use of videotapes. The greatest barrier to more programming was lack of time on the part of both the agricultural work force and the agents. Most extension agents placed greater emphasis on training in how to work safely around hazards than on how to recognize and permanently correct hazards. For future programs agents requested more short format materials to use in programming, such as fact sheets, videotapes, and farm hazard inspection checklists. Agents are important training delivery resources for controlling farm-related injury and disease. Agents could be more effective with more time, better materials, and with more emphasis on hazard correction in workplace safety programs.

  16. Reticle level compensation for long range effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Browning, Clyde; Thornton, Martin J.; Vannufel, Cyril; Schiavone, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Proximity Effects in electron beam lithography impact feature dimensions, pattern fidelity and uniformity. Electron scattering effects are commonly addressed using a mathematical model representing the radial exposure intensity distribution induced by a point electron source, commonly named Point Spread Function (PSF). PSF models are usually employed for correcting "short-range" and "long-range" backscattering effects up to 10μm to 15μm. It is well known that there are also some process related phenomena impacting pattern uniformity that have a wider range (fogging, chemical mechanical polishing -CMP- effects, etc.) which impacts up to a few millimeters or more. There are a number of commercial strategies for mitigating such long range effects based on data density. However, those traditional ones are usually performed within a single chip on a reticle field and ignore the presence of adjacent fields, neglecting their influence. Full field reticles can contain several different designs or arrayed chips in a multitude of layout placements. Reticle level jobdeck placing each design at specific sites, independent of each other can be used to account for the density of each pattern that has a relative impact on its neighbors, even if they are several millimeters away from offending data. Therefore, full field density analysis accounting for scribe frames and all neighboring patterns is required for reaching fidelity control requirements such as critical dimension (CD) and line end shortening (LES) on the full plate. This paper describes a technique to compensate long range effects going across chip boundaries to the full reticle exposure field. The extreme long range effects are also represented with a model that is calibrated according to the characteristics of the user's process. Data correction can be based on dose and geometry modulation. Uniform pattern dimensional control matching the user's specific process long range variability can be achieved with the

  17. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  18. Extension Approach for an Effective Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Service in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, M.; Vimala, D. Deboral; Chandrasekaran, V. S.; Alagappan, M.; Raja, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Public-funded fisheries extension services have been blamed as poor and responsible for the slow pace of aquaculture development in India. The present investigation aimed to find concrete interventions to streamline the extension service by understanding the research-extension-farmer linkage indirectly in terms of information sources of…

  19. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W

    2015-11-01

    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Engineering Biosensors with Dual Programmable Dynamic Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benmei; Zhang, Juntao; Ou, Xiaowen; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2018-01-10

    Although extensively used in all fields of chemistry, molecular recognition still suffers from a significant limitation: host-guest binding displays a fixed, hyperbolic dose-response curve, which limits its usefulness in many applications. Here we take advantage of the high programmability of DNA chemistry and propose a universal strategy to engineer biorecognition-based sensors with dual programmable dynamic ranges. Using DNA aptamers as our model recognition element and electrochemistry as our readout signal, we first designed a dual signaling "signal-on" and "signal-off" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor composed of a ferrocene-labeled ATP aptamer in complex to a complementary, electrode-bound, methylene-blue labeled DNA. Using this simple "dimeric" sensor, we show that we can easily (1) tune the dynamic range of this dual-signaling sensor through base mutations on the electrode-bound DNA, (2) extend the dynamic range of this sensor by 2 orders of magnitude by using a combination of electrode-bound strands with varying affinity for the aptamers, (3) create an ultrasensitive dual signaling sensor by employing a sequestration strategy in which a nonsignaling, high affinity "depletant" DNA aptamer is added to the sensor surface, and (4) engineer a sensor that simultaneously provides extended and ultrasensitive readouts. These strategies, applicable to a wide range of biosensors and chemical systems, should broaden the application of molecular recognition in various fields of chemistry.

  1. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  2. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its front end is built using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... overview of how to use abc to implement an extension. We illustrate the extension mechanisms of abc through a number of small, but nontrivial, examples. We then proceed to contrast the design goals of abc with those of the original AspectJ compiler, and how these different goals have led to different...

  3. Generalized extensions and blocking factors for FITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Harten, R. H.; Greisen, E. W.; Wells, D. C.

    1988-06-01

    A general design for extending the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) tape format is proposed. The present design is shown to preserve compatibility with existing FITS tapes and software (including the 'random groups'), while being general enough to permit a wide variety of new extension files to be designed in the future. Rules are given for the blocking of FITS logical records. The rules for the generalized extension of FITS ensure that extensions can be located and decoded by standard routines without interfering with each other.

  4. Extensions of the Theory of Computational Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John Ries, III

    Computational mechanics is a theory that attempts to describe dynamical systems in a universal language. The central coordinating role in this theory is played by the epsilon-machine---the minimal unifilar representation that is an optimal predictor of the dynamical system. Properties of the dynamical system are then simply properties of the epsilon-machine. The oldest of these is the entropy rate, or information generation rate, hmu. A second measure, the first real mark of computational mechanics, is the statistical complexity, or information storage--- Cmu. A third is the amount of information transmitted from the infinite past to the infinite future, the excess entropy--- E. The fundamental quantities, hmu and Cmu, are calculated in closed form directly from the epsilon-machine. Despite being straightforward to define, and having simple geometric relationships to common quantities, excess entropy has resisted a closed form calculation. This has made estimation of E, in some cases, quite problematic. This thesis describes a novel technique for deriving E directly from an epsilon-machine. In addition to providing an exact quantification of E, it allows for the calculation of E as a function of parameterized classes of epsilon-machines. As a theoretical by-product of this technique, several natural quantifiers of stochastic processes have emerged, along with their calculation method. These include: new quantifiers of information storage---reverse and bidirectional statistical complexity; information overhead---directional and bidirectional crypticity; and causal irreversibility. Of these quantities, the crypticity is treated in most detail. In particular, a new correlation length scale---the cryptic order---is introduced as a natural analog to Markov order. The cryptic order describes the range over which the crypticity exists just as the Markov order describes the time extent of predictive information. The approaches contained in this thesis are part of a unified

  5. Frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral Cagigal, Beatriz; Barrientos Lezcano, Javier; Floriano Blanco, Raúl; García Cantera, José Miguel; Sánchez Cuéllar, Luis Antonio; Verrier Hernández, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    Frontal sinus mucoceles can present with a multitude of different symptoms including ophthalmic disturbances. Even benign, they have a tendency to expand by eroding the surrounding bony walls that displaces and destroys structures by pressure and bony resorption. A 32-year-old man with diplopia, proptosis of the right eye and headache was presented. The diagnosis was frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension. Possible clinical manifestations of mucoceles, diagnostic imaging techniques and treatment used are discussed. Frontal mucoceles are benign and curable, early recognition and management of them is of paramount importance, because they can cause local, orbital or intracranial complications.

  6. Extensive intestinal necrosis associated with volvulus. Deferred treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Camacho David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal malrotation with volvulus and extensive necrosisis is the deadliest emergency faced by the pediatric surgeon. Treatment consists in surgical repair using the technique described by William Ladd in 1936. In some cases where viability is in questionable a sec- ond look laparotomy upon placement of drains has been described. We report the case of a one month old infant with cloacal extrophy who had an intestinal volvulus. During the surgical procedure necro- sis of more than 90% of the vowel was seen. Surgical drains were placed and second look laparotomy six weeks later was performed with intestinal recovery of 70%.

  7. Management and outcomes of carotid artery extension of aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Adriana; Drucker, Charles B; Harris, Donald G; Flohr, Tanya; Toursavadkohi, Shahab; Sarkar, Rajabrata; Taylor, Bradley; Crawford, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is the most common aortic catastrophe. Carotid artery dissection due to extension of AD (CAEAD) is one severe complication of this condition. Despite years of refinement in the techniques for repair of AD, the optimal management strategy for CAEAD remains yet to be described. We hypothesized that CAEAD eventually resolves on antiplatelet therapy with a low but not insignificant risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This was a single-institution retrospective review of patients admitted with nontraumatic coincident aortic and carotid dissection between 2001 and 2013. CAEAD was present in 38 patients (24 men [53%]). The median age was 59.5 years (range, 25-85 years). A Stanford type A AD was diagnosed in 36 patients (95%). CVA or transient ischemic attack was identified in 11 patients (29%). Eight were potentially attributable to the carotid lesion. Two of these eight strokes resulted in death. Of the 11 CVAs and transient ischemic attacks, 8 were evident at presentation, 2 were diagnosed postoperatively during hospitalization, and 1 was diagnosed during early follow-up. Only one of these three postadmission strokes was attributable to the carotid lesion. Nonoperative management of aortic and carotid dissections was pursued in 9 patients (24%), 26 (68%) underwent open repair, and 4 (11%) had endovascular management of AD (2 thoracic endovascular aortic repair, 2 endovascular fenestrations), including 1 patient with a staged hybrid procedure (frozen elephant trunk). There were eight inpatient deaths (21%) and nine deaths in the follow-up period. Of the 30 patients who survived to discharge, 24 (80%) were managed with antiplatelet therapy. At a median follow-up of 14.5 months in 22 patients with follow-up computed tomography scans available, a minority of lesions had resolved, and only one CVA was reported. This study found that CAEAD was associated almost exclusively with type A AD, was typically unilateral, most often on the left, and

  8. 77 FR 58364 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Energy Information Administration... sent to Colleen Blessing, EI-40, Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy, 1000.... Both quantitative and qualitative studies are developed by EIA. Quantitative studies classify and count...

  9. Veld management: a challenge to agricultural extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Adaptive research; Agricultural extension; agriculture; communication; Farmers; Knowledge diffusion; Knowledge generation; management; National Grazing Strategy; On-farm adaptive research; research; south africa; strategies; technology; Veld management. Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa.

  10. Youth Development Agents' Needs: Challenges for Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the areas of competencies. Regular training was therefore recommended for youth development agents to enable them update, improve and learn new strategies in the application of their competencies for extension service delivery. Keywords: Youth, Development, Agents' needs, Volunteer management, Competencies.

  11. Offshore extension of Gomati river, Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Naik, D.K.; Ganesan, P.; Moraes, C.

    information. Attempts have been made to identify the submerged extension of Gomati River by diving inspection and based on the results obtained such as findings like stone and iron anchors, circular bastions, etc. While many features reported earlier...

  12. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LUPSE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  13. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  14. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... energy resource reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information...

  15. 77 FR 46750 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... information collection, EIA-882T, ``Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Testing, Evaluation, and Research...: Generic Clearance for Questionnaire Testing, Evaluation, and Research; (3) Type of Request: Extension... questionnaires and validate EIA survey forms data quality, including conducting pretest ] surveys, pilot surveys...

  16. [Predictable tip suture techniques in rhinoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papel, I D

    2010-09-01

    Recontouring the nasal tip in rhinoplastic procedures has generated a wide range of surgical techniques. These range from aggressive cartilage resection, division, grafting, or suture methods. Each of these categories contains many variations described in hundreds of publications. The goal of this communication is to describe a predictable, reproducible technique that can be used in a wide variety of rhinoplasty operations. Based on pre-existing anatomy variations of this technique can be adopted. The author described the basic technique in 2004 [1].The cornerstone of the technique is a predictable method of narrowing the interdomal space utilizing a suture technique. This procedure employs a pair of permanent sutures designed to minimize distortion, valve impingement and overcorrection. It can be performed through intranasal or external approaches. This paper will define the wide interdomal space, describe the technique, and demonstrate the efficacy of the technique in 250 rhinoplasty procedures. In addition, variations of the technique for specific goals will be shown.

  17. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF VELOCITY OVERSHOOT MOVEMENT ARTIFACT ON ISOKINETIC KNEE EXTENSION TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Peruzzo Schwartz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise on an isokinetic device involves three distinct movement phases: acceleration, constant velocity, and deceleration. Inherent in these phases are unique occurrences that may confound test data and, thereby, test interpretation. Standard methods of data reduction like windowing and other techniques consist of removing the acceleration and deceleration phases in order to assure analysis under constant velocity conditions. However, none of these techniques adequately quantify the velocity overshoot (VO movement artifact which is a result of the devices resistance imposed to the limb. This study tested the influence of VO on isokinetic data interpretation. A computational algorithm was developed to accurately identify each movement phase and to delineate the VO segment. Therefore, the VO was then treated as a fourth and independent phase. A total of sixteen healthy men (26.8 ± 4.7 yrs, 1.76 ± 0.05 m, and 79.2 ± 9.4 kg performed two sets of ten maximal concentric extension repetitions of their dominant knee (at 60º·s-1 and 180º·s-1, on separate days and in a counterbalanced order, on a Biodex System 3 Pro dynamometer. All the phases of the isokinetic exercise were measured in terms of their biomechanical descriptors and according to the developed algorithm, the windowing method, and a data reduction technique that eliminates the first and last 10º of the total range of motion. Results showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between the constant velocity phases found by each method: the largest segment was obtained with the windowing method; the second one, with the algorithm; and the smallest, with data reduction technique. The point of peak torque was not affected by none of the techniques, but significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between the data including and not including the VO phase, concerning total work, time interval, and average length of load range: VO represents more than 10% of the amount calculated in constant

  19. Generalized module extension Banach algebras: Derivations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let A and X be Banach algebras and let X be an algebraic Banach A-module. Then the ℓ-1direct sum A x X equipped with the multiplication (a; x)(b; y) = (ab; ay + xb + xy) (a; b ∈ A; x; y ∈ X) is a Banach algebra, denoted by A ⋈ X, which will be called "a generalized module extension Banach algebra". Module extension ...

  20. Cooperative Extension as a Framework for Health Extension: The Michigan State University Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jeffrey W; Contreras, Dawn; Eschbach, Cheryl L; Tiret, Holly; Newkirk, Cathy; Carter, Erin; Cronk, Linda

    2017-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities. The Michigan State University (MSU) Model of Health Extension offers another means of developing a National Primary Care Extension Program that is replicable in part because of the presence of the CES throughout the United States. A partnership between the MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension formed in 2014, emphasizing the promotion and support of human health research. The MSU Model of Health Extension includes the following strategies: building partnerships, preparing MSU Extension educators for participation in research, increasing primary care patient referrals and enrollment in health programs, and exploring innovative funding. Since the formation of the MSU Model of Health Extension, researchers and extension professionals have made 200+ connections, and grants have afforded savings in salary costs. The MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension partnership can serve as a model to promote health partnerships nationwide between CES services within land-grant universities and academic health centers or community-based medical schools.